bq2000

www.ti.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009

Programmable Multi-Chemistry Fast-Charge Management IC
Check for Samples: bq2000
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FEATURES
Safe Management of Fast Charge for NiCd, NiMH, or Li-Ion Battery Packs High-Frequency Switching Controller for Efficient and Simple Charger Design Pre-Charge Qualification for Detecting Shorted, Damaged, or Overheated Cells Fast-Charge Termination by Peak Voltage (PVD) for Nickel chemistries, Minimum Current for Li-Ion chemistries, Maximum Temperature, and Maximum Charge Time Selectable Top-Off Mode for Achieving Maximum Capacity in NiMH Batteries Programmable Trickle-Charge Mode for Reviving Deeply Discharged Batteries and for Postcharge Maintenance Built-in Battery Removal and Insertion Detection Sleep Mode for Low Power Consumption

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The bq2000 is a programmable, monolithic IC for fast-charge management of nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), or lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries in single- or multi-chemistry applications. The bq2000 chooses the proper battery chemistry (either nickel or lithium) and proceeds with the optimal charging and termination algorithms. This process eliminates undesirable, undercharged, or overcharged conditions, and allows accurate and safe termination of fast charge Depending on the chemistry, the bq2000 provides a number of charge termination criteria: • Peak voltage, PVD (for NiCd and NiMH) • Minimum charge current (for Li-Ion) • Maximum temperature • Maximum charge time For safety, the bq2000 inhibits fast charge until the battery voltage and temperature are within user-defined limits. If the battery voltage is below the low-voltage threshold, the bq2000 uses trickle-charge to condition the battery. For NiMH batteries, the bq2000 provides an optional top-off charge to maximize the battery capacity. The integrated high-speed comparator allows the bq2000 to be the basis for a complete, high-efficiency battery charger circuit for both nickel-based and lithium-based chemistries.

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APPLICATIONS
• • • Multi-Chemistry Charger Nickel Charger High-Power, Multi-Cell Charger

8-Pin DIP or Narrow SOIC or TSSOP
SNS VSS LED BAT
1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5

spacer between para and illustration Pin Names SNS Current-sense input System ground Charge-status output Battery-voltage input Temperature-sense input Timer-program input Supply-voltage input Modulation-control output VSS LED BAT TS RC VCC MOD

MOD VCC RC TS

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Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters.

Copyright © 2008–2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated

bq2000
SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.ti.com

These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.

PIN DESCRIPTIONS
SNS Current-sense input Enables the bq2000 to sense the battery current via the voltage developed on this pin by an external sense-resistor connected in series with the battery pack VSS LED System Ground Connect to the battery’s negative terminal Charge-status output Open-drain output that indicates the charging status by turning on, turning off, or flashing an external LED, driven through a resistor. BAT Battery-voltage input Battery-voltage sense input. A simple resistive divider, across the battery terminals, generates this input. TS Temperature-sense input Input for an external battery-temperature monitoring circuit. An external resistive divider network with a negative temperature-coefficient thermistor sets the lower and upper temperature thresholds. RC Timer-program input Used to program the maximum fast charge-time, maximum top-off charge-time, hold-off period, trickle charge rate, and to disable or enable top-off charge. A capcitor from VCC and a resistor to ground connect to this pin. VCC MOD Supply-voltage input Recommended bypassing is 10µF + 0.1µF to 0.22µF of decoupling capacitance near the pin. Modulation-control output Push-pull output that controls the charging current to the battery. MOD switches high to enable charging current to flow and low to inhibit charging-current flow.

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Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000

Copyright © 2008–2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated

multi-chemistry battery charge control device.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The bq2000 is a versatile. TS Voltage Reference Voltage Comparators 3x BAT ADC PVD ALU OSC Clock Phase Generator Timer Charge Control LED RC Internal OSC Voltage Comparators MOD SNS VCC VSS Figure 1. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 3 .bq2000 www. See Figure 1 for a functional block diagram and Figure 2 for a state diagram.ti. Functional Block Diagram Copyright © 2008–2009.

PVD checked at rate of MTO/128.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.0 V < VCC < 6.com VCC Reset or Battery Replacement at any time 4. Figure 2.0 V Charge Initialization VBAT < VSLP Sleep Mode VSLP < VBAT < VCC VBAT < VMCV VTS > VHTF Charge Suspended VTS < VHTF Battery Temperature (Temperature at TS pin checked continuously) Battery Voltage (Voltage at BAT pin checked continuously. Texas Instruments Incorporated . State Diagram 4 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. or Time = 2 x MTO or VTS < VTCO VTS > VHTF Top-Off VBAT ≥ VMCV Done VTS < VHTF VTS < VHTF VBAT ≥ VMCV Charge Suspended (See Note) VTS > VHTF and Time < MTO VCC Reset or Battery Replacement or Capacity Depletion (Li-lon) NOTE: If VTS < VTCO at any time. may only return to Trickle Maintenance Charge state and not to Top-Off.ti. or VTS < VTCO or Time = MTO Time < MTO and VBAT reaches VMCV Trickle Maintenance Charge VTS > VLTF VTS < VLTF and Time < MTO Time = MTO NO Top-Off Selected? YES VTS > VLTF Voltage Regulation Current Taper (IBAT < Imin).) VMCV < VBAT < VSLP Charge Qualification State VTS < VHTF VBAT < VLBAT or VTS > VLTF VTS > VLTF VLBAT < VBAT < VMCV and VHTF < VTS < VLTF Fast Charge State Battery Conditioning VLBAT < VBAT and VHTF < VTS < VLTF Current Regulation PVD (after hold-off period).

5 ±0. IOH = 10 mA MOD.5 × VCC 2.3 to VCC –20 to 70 –40 to 125 260 UNIT V V °C °C °C Permanent device damage may occur if Absolute Maximum Ratings are exceeded.9 1 TYP MAX 5% 1. VCC = 5V ±20% (unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER VTCO VHTF VLTF VMCV VLBAT PVD VSNSHI VSNSLO VSLP VRCH Temperature cutoff High-temperature fault Low-temperature fault Maximum cell voltage Minimum cell voltage BAT input change for PVD detection High threshold at SNS Low threshold at SNS Sleep-mode input threshold Recharge threshold TEST CONDITIONS Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the SNS pin Voltage at the SNS pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin TYPICAL 0. IOL = 10 mA LED MOD. DC THRESHOLDS (1) TA = TOPR.02 UNIT V V V V mV mV mV mV V V (1) All voltages are relative to VSS except as noted.) –0.5 MAX 6 1 5 VCC UNIT V mA µA V V V µA mA kΩ µF IMPEDANCE PARAMETER RBAT RTS RSNS Battery input impedance TS input impedance SNS input impedance MIN 10 10 10 TYP MAX UNIT MΩ MΩ MΩ TIMING TA = TOPR.bq2000 www. LED 2 0. Exposure to conditions beyond the operational limits for extended periods of time may affect device reliability.225 × VCC 0.2 5 20 250 1 MIN 4 TYP 5 0.4 0. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 5 .8 50 –50 VCC–1 VMCV–0. LED.1 Hz UNIT Copyright © 2008–2009. Functional operation should be limited to the Recommended DC Operating Conditions detailed in this data sheet.00 950 3.25 × VCC 0.1 TOLERANCE ±5% ±5% ±5% ±0.001 0. relative to VSS Operating ambient temperature Storage temperature Soldering temperature (10 s max. VCC = 5 V ±20% (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER dMTO fTRKL MTO time-base variation Pulse-trickle frequency MIN –5% 0.75% ±5% ±20% ±10 ±10 ±0. RECOMMENDED DC OPERATING CONDITIONS over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) TEST CONDITIONS VCC ICC ICCS VTS VOH VOL IOZ Isnk RMTO CMTO Supply voltage Supply current Sleep current Thermistor input Output high input Output low input High-impedance leakage current Sink current Charge timer resistor Charge timer capacitor Exclusive of external loads VBAT = VSLPM VTS < 0.3 to 7 –0.5 VCC–0.5 V prohibited MOD.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (1) VALUE VCC VT TOPR TSTG TSOLDER (1) VCC relative to VSS DC voltage applied on any pin.ti.

During the fast-charge period. the bq2000 fast-charges NiCd or NiMH batteries using a current-limited algorithm. temperature.0s. If the voltage on the BAT pin rises to the internal VMCV reference. In an attempt to revive a fully depleted pack. While in the fast charge state. NiCd and NiMH Batteries Following charge qualification (which includes trickle charge. Following fast charge.com Initiation and Charge Qualification The bq2000 initiates a charge cycle when it detects • Application of power to VCC • Battery replacement • Exit from sleep mode • Capacity depletion (Li-Ion only) Immediately following initiation." the trickle pulse-width is user-selectable and is set by the value of the resistance connected between the RC pin and VSS. the LED pin is pulled low (the LED is on). The charging cycle ends with a trickle maintenance-charge that continues as long as the voltage on the BAT pin remains below VMCV. it monitors charge time. the LED pin blinks at a 1Hz rate. the bq2000 completes the fast charge with the appropriate charge algorithm (Table 1). The BQ2000 will stay in the battery conditioning state indefinitely and will not progress to fast charge until the voltage on the BAT pin is above VLBAT and the temperature is within the VLTF and VHTF range. 6 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. if the battery temperature is within the VLTF to VHTF range. Otherwise. No timer is implemented during battery conditioning. indicating the pending status of the charger. the bq2000 enters the battery conditioning state. As explained in the section "Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge.ti. A low-pass filter then smooths out this voltage to present a clean signal to the BAT pin. if required ). BAT+ 2 VSS bq2000 4 BAT RB2 RB1 Figure 3. Battery Chemistry The bq2000 detects the battery chemistry by monitoring the battery-voltage profile during the initial stage of the fast charge. VLBAT. the IC enters a charge-qualification mode. the bq2000 enables the MOD pin to trickle-charge at a rate of once every 1. The bq2000 charge qualification is based on battery voltage and temperature. Once battery conditioning (trickle charge) has raised the voltage on the BAT pin above VLBAT. a resistor voltage-divider between the battery pack's positive terminal and VSS scales the battery voltage. This monitoring is further explained in later sections. if top-off is selected.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. as discussed in later sections. the IC enters fast charge. and voltage for adherence to the termination criteria. As shown in Figure 3. a common voltage-divider is used as long as the maximum charge voltage of the nickel-based pack is below that of the Li-Ion pack. the IC assumes a Li-Ion battery. If the voltage on the BAT pin is less than the internal threshold. Texas Instruments Incorporated . the bq2000 assumes a NiCd/NiMH chemistry. This condition indicates the possibility of a defective or shorted battery pack. different scaling is required. In a mixed-chemistry design. the battery is topped off. During charge qualification. Battery Voltage Divider and Filter Once the chemistry is determined. Otherwise. The user can customize the algorithm by programming the device using an external resistor and a capacitor connected to the RC pin.

There is no post-charge maintenance mode for Li-Ion batteries. Charge termination (minimum current. The values of the external resistor and capacitor connected to the RC pin set the initial hold-off period. Trickle charge 1. Fast charge (constant voltage) 5. Fast charge (constant current) 4. the bq2000 regulates constant current until VBAT rises to VMCV. the bq2000 monitors charge time. it monitors the charge current as a termination criterion. Top-off (optional) 6. and changes the termination method from PVD to minimum current. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 7 . Once VBAT = VMCV. During the final constant-voltage stage. Charge termination (peak voltage. Copyright © 2008–2009. A new charge cycle is started if the cell voltage falls below the VRCH threshold. Trickle charge. maximum charge time = 1 MTO) 5. In phase one.bq2000 www. the bq2000 avoids early termination due to an initial peak in the battery voltage by disabling the peak voltage-detection (PVD) feature. Table 1 summarizes the charging process for both Nickel and Li-Ion batteries.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 Lithium-Ion Batteries The bq2000 uses a two-phase fast-charge algorithm for Li-Ion batteries (Figure 4). The bq2000 then moves to phase two. VMCV Charge Qualification IMAX Voltage Current Fast Phase 1 Charge Phase 2 VLBAT Trickle Current IMIN Voltage Time Figure 4. Charge qualification 2. Lithium-Ion Charge Algorithm During the current-regulation phase. This period is fixed at the programmed value of the maximum charge time (MTO) divided by 32. Table 1. the device identifies the cell as a Li-ion. Charge qualification 2. if required Li-Ion (VBAT ≤ VMCV ) 3. if required NiCd or NiMH (VBAT < VMCV always) 3.ti. Charge Algorithm BATTERY CHEMISTRY 1. and terminates when the charging current falls below the IMIN threshold or the timer expires (whichever happens first). in addition to the charge time and temperature. Trickle charge. battery temperature. and battery voltage for adherence to the termination criteria. During this period. regulates the battery with constant voltage of VMCV. maximum charge time = 2 MTO) CHARGE ALGORITHM FAST CHARGE TERMINATION Initial Hold-OFF Period The bq2000 incorporates a user programmable hold-off period to avoid premature fast charge termination that can occur with brand new cells at the very beginning of fast charge. Fast charge (constant current) 4.

Once VTS<VLTF. may be used as a temperature-sensing device. Typical Connection for the RC Input The following equation shows the relationship between the RMTO and CMTO values and the maximum charge time (MTO) for the bq2000: MTO = RMTO ´ CMTO ´ 35. and CMTO in farads. With the proper selection of external resistor and capacitor values. the bq2000 adds an additional MTO of time to whatever time was left over from the constant current fast charge timer.988 (2) MTO is measured in minutes. VTS > VLTF. when the battery reaches the constant-voltage phase of fast charge. the LED flashes at the 1 Hz rate. (Note: RMTO and CMTO values also determine other features of the device. For Nickel cells.ti. various time-out values may be achieved. fast charge restarts and the timer resumes from where it left off with no change in total fast charge time. NiMH. See Table 4 and Table 5 for details. For Li-Ion cells. the bq2000 assumes a Nickel chemistry and proceeds to top-off charge (if top-off is enabled) or trickle maintenance charge. Li-Ion) A negative-coefficient thermistor. the timer is reset on the completion of fast charge before beginning top-off charge. Texas Instruments Incorporated . If the timer expires while still in constant-current charging. Since the IC is in the battery conditioning state. RMTO in ohms. NiMH.com hold-off period = MTO 32 (1) Maximum Charge Time (NiCD. during fast charge. the pack could spend longer than 1 MTO in constant-voltage fast charge. Thus. Maximum Temperature (NiCd. then the timer is paused and the IC enters battery conditioning charge until VTS < VLTF. 2 7 VSS bq2000 VCC CMTO RC 6 RMTO Figure 5. referenced to VSS and placed in thermal contact with the battery. If.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. Figure 6 shows a typical temperature-sensing circuit. Figure 5 shows a typical connection. but is always limited to 1 MTO in constant-current fast charge. 8 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. This feature provides the additional charge time required for Li-Ion cells. and Li-Ion) The bq2000 sets the maximum charge-time through the RC pin. if top-off is enabled.

In preparation for sampling the BAT pin voltage.7V and 2V.8mV (PVD). the bq2000 terminates fast charge. to ensure that it never exceeds VMCV (maximum cell voltage).ti. as described in the previous section. Otherwise. When the voltage at the TS pin is lower than VTCO. Copyright © 2008–2009. VTCO. While the monitoring of the BAT pin voltage is continuous. As shown in Figure 3. For Li-Ion battery packs. A NiCd or NiMH battery pack consisting of N series cells may benefit by the selection of the RB1 value to be N–1 times larger than the RB2 value. representing the battery voltage. Peak Voltage (NiCd. When VTS rises above VHTF. a common voltage-divider is used as long as the maximum charge voltage of the nickel-based pack is below that of the Li-Ion pack. and turns off the LED. the bq2000 compares the battery temperature to an internal high-temperature cutoff threshold. at a rate of MTO/128. the pack is assumed to be Li-Ion and the BAT pin voltage sampling is disabled. In fast charge (either constant current or constant voltage fast charge). different scaling is required. NiMH) The bq2000 uses a peak-voltage detection (PVD) scheme to terminate fast charge for NiCd and NiMH batteries. Temperature Monitoring Configuration During fast charge. thus allowing proper termination by PVD. the bq2000 will resume charging in the trickle maintenance charge state. Typical VCELL for a nickle pack is between 1. See Figure 7 for an example. The bq2000 continuously monitors the voltage on the BAT pin. when the voltage on the TS pin is higher than VLTF. It is critical that VCELL be set high enough that the nickle pack not reach voltage regulation. noise-free measurement. In addition. per Figure 2. and a low-temperature threshold. VLTF. If the cell voltage reaches VMCV. During fast charge only. the sampling of the BAT pin voltage with the internal ADC only occurs during the constant current regulation phase of fast charge. the charger enters the battery conditioning state. the voltage on the BAT pin and triggers the peak detection feature if this value falls below the maximum sampled value by as much as 3. the VHTF fault comparator is disabled. moves to the charge suspended state. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 9 .bq2000 www. This sets the per cell regulation voltage (VCELL) equal to VMCV. it also samples. Fast charge is resumed when VTS is less than VLTF.1 VMCV ø è (3) where N is the number of cells in series and VCELL is the manufacturer-specified charging voltage.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 VCC 2 VSS bq2000 VCC 7 RT1 TS 5 RT2 N Battery T Pack C Figure 6. as PVD is not a termination criterion for Lithium cells. the resistor values RB1 and RB2 are calculated by the following equation: RB1 RB2 æ ö V = ç N ´ CELL ÷ . In a mixed-chemistry design. the bq2000 briefly turns off most circuits (the MOD and RC pins will both go low) in order to get the cleanest possible. RB1 + RB2 should be at least 200kΩ and no more than 1MΩ. a resistor voltage-divider between the battery pack's positive terminal and VSS scales the battery voltage measured at the BAT pin.

1K DCNOTES: 1. or there is a temperature fault.13µF. Once constant-current fast charge has ended. The tolerance of the capacitor needs to be taken into account in component selection. Top-off may be desirable on batteries that have a tendency to terminate charge before reaching full capacity. Texas Instruments Incorporated .05 W Figure 7.81 KW CHEMISTRY 221 KW BATR7 200 KW R13 1. To enable this option.1 MOD VCC RC TS 100 KW 8 7 6 5 R5 20 KW R9 THERM C1 0. Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge An optional top-off charge is available for NiCd or NiMH batteries. L1: 3L Global P/N PKSMD-1005-470K-1A R3 0. Single-Cell Li-Ion. The fixed pulse width allows an average current of 1/16 of the fast charge current to be delivered to the battery every second.ti. 3-Cell NiCd/NiMH 1A Charger Minimum Current (Li-Ion Only) The bq2000 monitors the charging current during the voltage-regulation phase of Li-Ion batteries.07µF. Charge current: 1A 4.1 bq2000 R8 6.com D4 DC+ D3 MMSD914LT S1A C6 47 mF Q1 FMMT718 Q2 MMBT3904LT1 L1 47 mH D2 ZHCS1000 BAT+ D5 MMSD914LT C9 R10 1 KW VCC 1000 PF R12 120 OHMS Q3 MMBT3904LT1 R11 220 W R6 210 KW C5 10 mF D6 BZT52-C5V1 R2 2 KW C3 10 mF C7 4. VMCV is reached. the timer is reset and top-off proceeds until the timer expires.33 mF D1 RED U1 1 SNS 2 VSS 3 LED 4 BAT C2 0.4K C8 0. Once top-off is started. To disable top-off. 10 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. the capacitance value should be less than 0. the CHEMISTRY is tied to BAT2. the CHEMISTRY is left floating.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.0022 mF R1 R4 12. current is delivered to the battery in pulses that occur each second. the capacitance value of CMTO connected between the RC pin and VCC (Figure 5) should be greater than 0. For NiCd/NiMH. During top-off.7 PF C4 0. and the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 250kΩ. Fast charge is terminated when the current is tapered off to 14% of the maximum charging current. The LED is always off during top-off and trickle maintenance charge. the bq2000 either measures the value of the CMTO capacitor (in the case of Nickel batteries) and then proceeds to either top-off or trickle maintenance charge or simply completes the constant-voltage stage of fast charge (in the case of a Li-Ion cell). DC input voltage: 9–16V 3. For Li-Ion.

top-off is resumed. If the RC pin is at some DC value (usually around 1-2V).0 second. When VTS > VHTF. If there is not time left. the RC pin will be counting and will have a sawtooth waveform on it. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 11 . there is no timer and the RC pin will be at a DC value.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 During top-off. Relationship Between Trickle Pulse-Width and Value of RMTO Note that with an RMTO value around 150 kΩ. If VTS > VLTF. The best way to tell if the bq2000 is in top-off or trickle charge is to look at the RC pin when the temperature is between the LTF and HTF. all charging stops.” Lastly. RC Pin Status bq2000 CHARGE STATE Battery absent Sleep mode Charge qualification (including battery conditioning (trickle charge) and charge suspended) Fast charge (current and voltage regulation) TS PIN STATE N/A N/A N/A VTS < VLTF VTS > VLTF (in battery conditioning state) RC PIN BEHAVIOR 1-2V DC level Ground (Vss) 1-2V DC level Active 1-2V DC level (timer is paused and will resume when VTS < VLTF) Copyright © 2008–2009. With RMTO values near 150 kΩ. there are three different temperature faults that can occur. In trickle charge. and trickle charge is started. The trickle pulse-width is user-selectable and is set by the value of the resistor RMTO. connected between the RC pin and VSS. This will sometimes make the usual sawtooth waveform look like a triangle waveform on an oscilloscope (the rise time is lengthened). the bq2000 trickle-charges the battery by enabling the MOD pin to charge at a rate of once every 1. trickle maintenance charge is entered. since it always operates in one of three modes. If the RC pin is low (around VSS potential). In top-off. then the timer is running and the RC pin is considered “active. the timer is paused.5 ms (1/16 of a second). Table 2. If VTS < VHTF. the RC pin can be loaded by too large of a C or too small of an R.ms Shows Tolerance 50 100 RMTO . the IC is in sleep mode.ti.kW 150 200 250 Figure 8. Only trickle maintenance charge may resume after VTS > VHTF. When VTS falls below VLTF. 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8 10 Pulsewidth . the trickle charge pulse width is nearly identical to the top-off pulse width of 62. top-off is suspended. or the RC signal could have the appearance of being clipped (flat top or bottom).bq2000 www. top-off is resumed. The RC pin contains valuable information in determining what state the bq2000 is in. If the RC pin is a sawtooth waveform (similar to Figure 15). Table 2 summarizes the different states of the RC pin. (If the RC pin is low for brief instants during fast charge. The timer will be unreliable under these conditions and the bq2000 should not be operated in this manner. the bq2000 is sampling the BAT pin for PVD). The typical tolerance of the pulsewidth below 150kΩ is ±10%. but the timer keeps counting. then the IC has paused the timer or the timer is inactive. If VTS < VTCO. Figure 8 shows the relationship between the trickle pulse-width and the value of RMTO. if there is still time remaining on the timer. Following top-off. it can be difficult to tell which state the IC is in (top-off or trickle charge). all charging stops.

ti. the switching frequency of the bq2000 is determined by the values of several of the external circuit components. Rf and Cf have the most impact on the switching frequency and are also the components that are easiest to change to adjust the frequency. Typical hysteresis values are between 5 and 25 mV. It resumes when VTS > VHTF. of course. The components that affect the switching frequency are: input voltage. In general. The bq2000 modulates the MOD pin to regulate the current and voltage of the pack. CHYS Hysteresis (V) = VCC ´ (C HYS + Cf ) (5) Being a hysteretic controller. Rf 1 SNS Cf 2 RSNS BAT- VSS bq2000 Power Supply ground bq2000 ground and BAT- Figure 9. When the SNS voltage is less than VSNSLO or greater than VSNSHI.com Table 2. charging is suspended if VTS < VHTF. RSNS value. outer control loop reduces the average current delivered to the pack in order to clamp the voltage at the BAT pin to a maximum of VMCV. the bq2000 switches the MOD output low to shut off charging current to the battery. hysteresis capacitor value (CHYS). increasing the input 12 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. Charge Current Control The bq2000 implements a hysteretic control loop that regulates the current being delivered to the battery pack to a user programmable value that is set by the value of the RSNS resistor.05 IMAX = RSNS (4) If the voltage at the SNS pin is greater than VSNSLO or less than VSNSHI. Texas Instruments Incorporated . the bq2000 switches the MOD output high to pass charge current to the battery. The bq2000 is designed to remain in trickle maintenance charge forever (excluding the two faults just mentioned) in order to keep a Nickel pack full. Current-Sensing Circuit RSNS is sized to provide the desired fast-charge current (IMAX). See Figure 9 for a typical current-sensing circuit. even though charging is suspended) 1-2V DC level Active Both top-off and trickle maintenance charge are terminated and the pack never receives any more charge (until a charge initialization occurs) if the voltage on the BAT pin reaches VMCV. A second. RC Pin Status (continued) bq2000 CHARGE STATE TS PIN STATE VTS > VLTF (in trickle maintenance charge state) Top-off charge VLTF > VTS > VHTF VHTF > VTS > VTCO Trickle maintenance charge (after fast charge) Charge complete N/A N/A RC PIN BEHAVIOR 1-2V DC level (timer is paused and will resume when VTS < VLTF) Active Active (timer is still counting. RSNS. A hysteresis capacitor (CHYS) is required between the CMOD pin and the SNS pin to add a healthy amount of hysteresis to the current sense signal.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. 0. as they do not affect anything else in the circuit (besides. the cleanliness and quality of the current sense signal being fed to the bq2000). During trickle maintenance charge. in series with the battery pack. The amount of hysteresis can be calculated by examining the capacitive divider formed by CHYS and Cf. The bq2000 monitors charge current at the SNS input by sensing the voltage drop across a sense-resistor. inductor value. and the value of the filter on the current sense signal (Rf and Cf values).

kHz 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 220 720 1220 1720 2220 2720 3220 3720 4220 Cf . Switching Frequency vs Resistance Copyright © 2008–2009.Switching Frequency .W Figure 11. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 13 .ti. RSNS value of 50 mΩ.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 voltage and/or inductor value or decreasing CHYS and/or the Rf × Cf filter corner frequency will increase the switching frequency.bq2000 www. though it is possible to achieve switching frequencies in excess of 300kHz.kHz Cf = 1000pF 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Rf . 180 160 Rf = 748W fs .pF Figure 10. inductor value of 220 µH. This data was taken with an input voltage of 12V. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show empirical data on the variation in switching frequency based on adjusting Rf and Cf. and CHYS value of 4.Switching Frequency . Switching Frequency vs Capacitance 210 190 fs . Typical switching frequencies for the bq2000 are between 100 and 200 kHz.7 pF.

pauses timer. These thresholds are the following: • High-temperature cutoff voltage: VTCO = 0. stops charging VTS > VLTF Cold battery – checked at all times Table 4. During fast charge.ti.com TEMPERATURE MONITORING The bq2000 measures the temperature by the voltage at the TS pin.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. HTF faults are disabled to allow for a normal increase in pack temperature. Table 3 summarizes these various conditions. Temperature-Monitoring Conditions and Actions TEMPERATURE CONDITION ACTION During charge qualification. except during fast charge During fast charge. terminates top-off and stops charging During trickle maintenance charge.988 0. stops charging During trickle maintenance charge. • Low-temperature fault voltage: VLTF = 0.5 × VCC. fast charge or top-off resumes from the point where suspended. If VTS > VLTF. Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009.25 × VCC 0. no effect During top-off.5 × VCC RMTO × CMTO × 35. Summary of NiCd or NiMH Charging Characteristics PARAMETER Maximum cell voltage (VMCV) Minimum pre-charge qualification voltage (VLBAT) High-temperature cutoff voltage (VTCO) High-temperature fault voltage (VHTF) Low-temperature fault voltage (VLTF) bq2000 fast-charge maximum time out (MTO) Fast-charge charging current (IMAX) Hold-off period Top-off charging current (optional) Top-off period (optional) Trickle-charge frequency Trickle-charge pulse-width (1) 14 See the DC Thresholds Specification for details.225 × VCC 0. the bq2000 suspends either fast charge or top-off and begins a trickle charge. This voltage is typically generated by a negative-temperature-coefficient thermistor. If the voltage on the TS pin rises above VLTF.05/RSNS MTO/32 IMAX/16 MTO 1Hz See Figure 8 . terminates fast charge and stops charging. • High-temperature fault voltage: VHTF = 0. stops charging VTS < VTCO Battery exceeding maximum allowable temperature – checked at all times During fast charge. This voltage corresponds to the minimum temperature (LTF) at which fast charging or top-off is allowed. The bq2000 compares this voltage against its internal threshold voltages to determine if charging is safe.25 × VCC. This voltage corresponds to a maximum allowed pack temperature (HTF) in all states except for fast charge. no effect VHTF < VTS < VLTF Optimal charging range Allows all stages of charging During charge qualification. the charger will always be in trickle charge. Table 3. stops charging VTS < VHTF Hot battery – checked at all times. turns off LED During top-off.225 × VCC. and flashes LED During top-off. The bq2000 terminates charging if the voltage on the TS pin falls below VTCO. This voltage corresponds to the maximum temperature (TCO) at which any charging is allowed. stops charging During charge qualification. suspends top-off and moves into trickle maintenance charge and pauses timer During trickle maintenance charge. When the voltage falls back below VLTF. Texas Instruments Incorporated VALUE (1) 2V 950 mV 0. no effect During fast charge. suspends fast charge and moves into charge qualification.

drives the LED output to high-impedance state.bq2000 www. the output voltage will decay to VMCV at which point the bq2000 turns on and pulses the MOD pin several times. the bq2000 shuts down all unnecessary internal circuits. VBAT would be greater than VSLP.25 × VCC 0.05/RSNS MTO/32 IMAX/7 1Hz See Figure 8 Charge Status Display The charge status is indicated by open-drain output LED. During sleep mode. With no battery connected. In addition. Copyright © 2008–2009. VIN needs to be high enough such that when VIN is present on the output.988 (See Maximum Charge Time section for full explanation) 0. Normally. Table 6. VSLP. VALUE (1) 2V 950 mV 0. This mode is enabled when the voltage at the BAT pin is above the low-power-mode threshold. During sleep mode. A temperature fault or timer expiring changes the charge state immediately (according to Figure 2) and will thus change the LED status immediately and accordingly.5 × VCC 2 × RMTO × CMTO × 35. Restoring BAT below the VMCV threshold initiates the IC and starts a fast-charge cycle. In sleep mode. and drives the MOD pin low. Charge Status Display bq2000 CHARGE STATE Charge qualification (including battery conditioning and charge suspended) Fast charge (current and voltage regulation) Top-off charge Trickle maintenance charge (after fast charge) Charge complete Battery absent Sleep mode High impedance 1 Hz flash Low LED STATUS Sleep Mode The bq2000 features a sleep mode for low power consumption. A typical sleep mode waveform is shown in Figure 18.225 × VCC 0.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 Table 5. the RC pin will be at VSS potential. the bq2000 only enters sleep mode when there is no battery connected on the output and the charger is idling with nothing to charge. the output will rise to near VIN at which point the bq2000 re-enters sleep mode.ti. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 15 . Table 6 summarizes the display output of the bq2000. Summary of Li-Ion Charging Characteristics PARAMETER Maximum cell voltage (VMCV) Minimum pre-charge qualification voltage (VLBAT) High-temperature cutoff voltage (VTCO) High-temperature fault voltage (VHTF) Low-temperature fault voltage (VLTF) bq2000 fast-charge maximum time out (MTO) Fast-charge charging current (IMAX) Hold-off period Minimum current (for fast-charge termination) Trickle-charge frequency (before fast charge only) Trickle-charge pulse-width (before fast charge only) (1) See the DC Thresholds Specification for details.

Battery Removal During Fast Charge Figure 15. 5V/div 1 1 Voltage .0. 5V/div 1 2 CH1 = RC pin. 5V/div CH2 = RC pin.0. 5V/div 3 4 CH4 = LED pin.0.0.ti. Texas Instruments Incorporated .5ms/div Figure 14.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.5s/div Time . 1V/div Voltage .V Voltage .2s/div Figure 12.V CH2 = BAT pin.com TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS CH1 = RC pin.2s/div Time . bq2000 in Fast Charge 16 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009.V CH3 = MOD pin. 5V/div 3 4 Time . bq2000 Start-up on Battery Insertion Figure 13. 2V/div CH2 = MOD pin. 1V/div CH1 = VO. 5V/div CH3 = VO. 5V/div 2 3 2 CH3 = MOD pin. 5V/div Voltage . 5V/div CH4 = LED pin. 5V/div 3 CH4 = LED pin. 1V/div 4 Time . bq2000 Start-up on Vin CH1 = VO. 2V/div 1 2 CH2 = MOD pin.V CH3 = VI.

V CH3 = MOD pin.ti. 1V/div 1 1 CH1 = SNS pin. 10V/div 1 Voltage .10ms/div Time . Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 17 . bq2000 in Fast Charge Figure 17.2ms/div Figure 16.1s/div Figure 18. bq2000 in Sleep Mode Copyright © 2008–2009. 5V/div CH4 = LED pin.V CH2 = BAT pin. 20mV/div Voltage . bq2000 Fast Charge SNS and MOD Waveforms CH1 = VO. 2V/div 2 3 4 CH4 = MOD pin. 5V/div Time . 5V/div 2 3 Voltage . 1V/div 4 2 Time . 5V/div CH2 = RC pin.bq2000 www. 1V/div CH3 = RC pin.V CH2 = MOD pin.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) CH1 = VO.

..............................................................................VBLAT value ...........................................Battery Voltage Divider and Filter .................................................................................... 5 Changed Figure 7 ....................................................... ................................................... CMTO Values ................................................................................................................................................. 1 Added Figure 2 State Diagram ................................................... VOH ........................Single-Cell Li-Ion..........................Battery voltage detail From: (checked at all times) To: Voltage regulation checked constantly............................bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www................ VOH ...........750 times per second) ................................................. VHTF.........0..............com REVISION HISTORY Changes from Revision September 1998 (*) to Revision 1 • • • • • • Page Changed the device status From: Preliminary To: Final ................................................VBLAT value .......................................... 11 Changes from Revision 1 (January 1999) to Revision 2 • • Page Changed Table 4 .................... In revision D.......................... 5 Added Figure 3 .................................................................................. PVD checked at rate of MTO/64.................................................................................. and a re-write of the data sheet was implemented .........................VTCO.... 5 Changed Figure 8 .................................. VHTF.......................................................................................................................................... 5 Changed Rec DC Operating Conditions........................................................... The data sheet was originally from Benchmark Products................... 10 Changes from Revision 6 (January 2008) to Revision D • Page Changed the data sheet format.............................. the data sheet was converted to the TI format....... 10 Changes from Revision 3 (May 1999) to Revision 4 • • • Page Changed Rec DC Operating Conditions...............Battery temperature detail From: (checked at all times) To.................................................................................................................. 1 18 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009......4 at IOH = 10mA .......................................................From: IOH = 20mA To: IOH = 10mA ................................................. 5 Changed the RECOMMENDED DC OPERATING CONDITIONS ........................................................................................................................................ Texas Instruments Incorporated .976 ......... 14 Changed Table 5 ................................................................. 3-Cell NiCd/NiMH 1A Charger ......................VTCO............................First paragraph From: the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 15kΩ To: the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 250kΩ ................... VLTF Tolerance .... 8 Added Figure 8 ........Updated tolerance on the curve ...................................................Updated requirement for enabling top-off .................................. 4 Changes from Revision 5 (February 2001) to Revision 6 • Page Changed the Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge section ............. 4 Changed Figure 2 State Diagram . VLTF Tolerance ..............: (checked 1..........From: MIN = VCC ..... 6 Changed MTO equation From: MTO = R x C x 71...............................0.......................RMTO......................................ti..................... 4 Changed the DC THRESHOLDS .. 15 Page Changes from Revision 2 (March 1999) to Revision 3 • • • • • Added the TSSOP Package option .................................. 11 Changes from Revision 4 (February 2000) to Revision 5 • • Page Changed Figure 2 State Diagram ........................................... 10 Changed the Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge section ................... 1 Changed the DC THRESHOLDS .......................2 at IOH = 20mA To: MIN = VCC .............................

ti. including the requirement that lead not exceed 0. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. and peak solder temperature. and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www. Device is in production to support existing customers.The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications.ti. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details. and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. Samples may or may not be available. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Peak Temp.1% by weight in homogeneous material) (3) MSL.The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS). Addendum-Page 1 . Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued.com 12-Jun-2010 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device BQ2000PN-B5 BQ2000PW BQ2000PWG4 BQ2000PWR BQ2000PWRG4 BQ2000SN-B5 BQ2000SN-B5G4 BQ2000SN-B5TR BQ2000SN-B5TRG4 Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing PDIP TSSOP TSSOP TSSOP TSSOP SOIC SOIC SOIC SOIC P PW PW PW PW D D D D Pins 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Package Qty 50 150 150 2000 2000 75 75 2500 2500 Eco Plan (2) Lead/ Ball Finish MSL Peak Temp (3) Samples (Requires Login) Request Free Samples Request Free Samples Request Free Samples Purchase Samples Purchase Samples Request Free Samples Request Free Samples Purchase Samples Purchase Samples ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE Pb-Free (RoHS) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type CU NIPDAU Level-2-260C-1 YEAR CU NIPDAU Level-2-260C-1 YEAR CU NIPDAU Level-2-260C-1 YEAR CU NIPDAU Level-2-260C-1 YEAR CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. -. TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances.please check http://www. (2) Eco Plan . PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design. or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) . Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt). Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible). The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.

ti. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties.com 12-Jun-2010 Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis. Addendum-Page 2 . and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. TI has taken and continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.

0 W Pin1 (mm) Quadrant 12.1 P1 (mm) 8.4 B0 (mm) 3.4 7.com 12-Nov-2009 TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Package Pins Type Drawing TSSOP SOIC PW D 8 8 SPQ Reel Reel A0 Diameter Width (mm) (mm) W1 (mm) 330.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.ti.0 Q1 Q1 BQ2000PWR BQ2000SN-B5TR 2000 2500 Pack Materials-Page 1 .0 12.6 2.4 12.0 330.0 8.0 6.2 K0 (mm) 1.0 12.6 5.

0 Height (mm) 29.0 29.com 12-Nov-2009 *All dimensions are nominal Device BQ2000PWR BQ2000SN-B5TR Package Type TSSOP SOIC Package Drawing PW D Pins 8 8 SPQ 2000 2500 Length (mm) 346.ti.0 346.0 Width (mm) 346.0 346.0 Pack Materials-Page 2 .PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.

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15.05 0.60 4040064/F 01/97 NOTES: A.40 7. TEXAS 75265 . Body dimensions do not include mold flash or protrusion not to exceed 0.15 NOM 4.MECHANICAL DATA MTSS001C – JANUARY 1995 – REVISED FEBRUARY 1999 PW (R-PDSO-G**) 14 PINS SHOWN PLASTIC SMALL-OUTLINE PACKAGE 0.65 14 8 0.50 4.90 6.60 7.10 5.30 6.19 0.10 5. B.10 PINS ** DIM A MAX 8 14 16 20 24 28 3.15 0.90 9.90 4.25 1 A 7 0°– 8° 0. All linear dimensions are in millimeters.20 MAX 0.20 Gage Plane 0.10 M 0.70 9. C.30 0.90 4. D. This drawing is subject to change without notice.75 0.60 6.50 Seating Plane 1.10 6. Falls within JEDEC MO-153 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS.80 A MIN 2.

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