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Wood and Fiber, 9 ( 1), 1977, pp.

73-85
(i? 1958 by the Socirty of Wood Sciencr and Technology

MEASUREMENTS OF FIRE LOADS AND CALCULATIONS


OF FIRE SEVERITY1
D. Gross
Fire Safety Engineering Division, Center for Fire Research,
U.S. Dept. of Conlinerce, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D C 20231
(Received 29 July 1977)

ABSTRACT
Types of furnishings, interior finish, and occupancy trends have changed considerably
over the last several decades, so new fire load surveys for various occupancies are being
conducted in various countries, using modern surveying techniques. These new data can
be used to calculate fire growth curves, considering modern lightweight methods of con-
struction using large window areas and mechanical ventilation. Computer models are
designed to evaluate fire growth as a dynamic process, using such factors as heats of
combustion, changing teniperature levels, coinbustion enthalpy per unit mass of air, therrnal
conductivities and radiation, furniture arrangements and collapse during fires, etc. As
these con~putationalmethods become more refined, changes in fire endurance testing can
I)e made to procluce more realistic results, which may represent fire exposures and potential
fire severities different than those we are fanliliar with.
Keywords: Fire load, fuel load, fire growth, heat release, conlbustion, co~nputermorlels,
fire severity, firr endurancr.

INTRODUCTION data in predicting fire growth and fire


severity.
Fire load is the starting point for estimat-
ing the potential size and severity of a fire,
FIRE LOADS
and thus, the endurance required of walls,
floor-ceiling assemblies, columns, doors, Fire load, or more accurately fire load
and other parts of the enclosing compart- density, is defined as the weight of com-
ment. This applies also to loadbearing bustible contents per unit floor area. It is
beams and columns, doors, and windows, commonly divided into two categories: ( 1)
and in fact, all situations where containment movable contents fire load consisting of
of a l~uildinrr
u
fire is both desirable and nec- combustible furniture, equipment, goods,
essary. Earlier publications have summa- and supplies brought in for the use of the
rized the relationship between fire load, re- occupant; and ( 2 ) interior finish fire load
sultant fire severitv.,, and use of standard consisting of exposed combustible materials
furnace tests to measure the ability of permanently affixed to walls, ceilings, or
structural components to withstand effects floors plus doors, trim, and built-in fixtures.
of severe fire (Robertson and Gross 1970; Fire load is sometimes called fuel load.
Sup. Doc. 194%). T h e paper is intended to Typically, all weights are converted to
provide two types of information: an up- equivalent weights of combustibles having
date on the measurement of fire loads, par- a calorific value of 4,700 Kcal/kg (8,000
ticularly in office and residential occupan- BTU/lb ) .
cies, and a brief survey of thc application During the period 1928 to 1940, surveys
of computer solutions for heat balances in were conducted of fire loads in residences,
compartments in order to utilize fire load offices, schools, medical buildings, and a
few mercantile buildings (Sup. Doc. 1942).
In 1947, an enlarged survey was made of
' Prtsented at the Society of Wood Science and the coml~ustiblecontents of mercantile and
Technology Sy~nposium,Trends in Fire Protection,
S r s s i o ~ 11-Technology
~ and Research, Madison, rnanufacturii~g buildings (Ingberg et al.
WI, 20 April 1977. 1957). These surveys involved the actual
\\'OOL> ANII FIBER 72 SPRING lL177, V. Y ( 1 )
FIRE LOADS AND FIRE SEVERITY 73

.I'A~)LE1. weight^ o f cornbtl~tihlecontents [based on survey data reported in B M S 92 and BMS 149
(from Robertson and Gross)]
... -
.- . . . -. .- ----- -- -- -- .. . - -- ----- -- .- - .-..-. . - - -.
- ..--. -

Type o f Occupancy Combustible Contents


- --.
-..- - -- -- - --

Range o f
Maximum
Values
f o r Single
Floor Occupied Maximum
Number Area Average Room f o r Any Area
Surveyed sq ft psf psf Ps f
. - -- - . - - -- -- ---.
-. ....- -- -... .

Residence 13 8 165 8.8 8 t o 14 49 ( l i n e n c l o s e t )

Hospital 1 143 78U 2.8 3 t o 22 19 ( s e r v i c e s t o r e )


23 (laundry, clothes storagel

School b 72 385 15.7 7 t o 39 228 ( t e x t b o o k s t o r e r o o m )

M e r c a n t i l e (department s t o r e ) 2 1 105 U32 10.3 ... 47 ( p a i n t d e p a r t m e n t )

: ;I
Furniture
Factory 2 549 7114

Mattress 117 (veneer storage)


Factory 2 155 791 ... 104 ( p a i n t shop1
Manufacturing 167 (paper storage)
Clothing
Factory 2 9 1 701 1U.7

Printing
Plant 2 191 755 34.0

General 4 518 193 Z5.U


Warehouse ... 256
Printing 1 1.35 055 174.4

Office 82 89 075 18.4 7to43 86(heavyfilesl


(10.6 excluding
heavy f i l e s )
. ...-.---.-----p------.. ... . ~ .. - - - --

weighing of all movable combustible con- 1970; Witteveen 1966; Forsberg and Thor
tents of the buildings studied. In cases 1971; Magnusson and Pettersson 1972).
where furnishings were fixed in place, esti- Many of these surveys have been summa-
mates of weight were made 011 the basis of rized by Babrauskas (1976). Improvements
din~ensions.In addition, weights were esti- in weighing and in surveying techniques
mated for combustible flooring and exposed have also been made (Bryson and Gross
woodwork other than flooring. These fixed, 1975).
interior finish items were reported sep- Probably the most extensive single survey
;Irately as well as combined with movable involved over 2,200 office rooms in 23 build-
fire load to show the total fire load present. ingsiin various regions of the United States
Results of these surveys are sun~n~arized in (Culver 1976; Culver and Kushner 1975)
Table 1 and have been used (Sup. Doc. (also see Table 2 ) . This recent survey in-
1942) as a basis of defining fire endurance volved an inventory system usng classifica-
perfornlance requirements for fire-resistive tion of furnishings and visual measurements
l~uildingsin building codes. recorded on a computer-sorted survey sheet
Kecognizing that types of furnishings, rather than actual weighing of contents.
interior finish, and occupancy trends have The conversion from size to weight was
changed over the last several decades, new made from frequency distribution curves
fire load surveys have been conducted in and transfer functions for as large a range of
various countries and occupancies (Nilsson classified furnishings as could be obtained
1970; Bonetti et al. 1975; CECM 1974; from manufacturer's catalogs and sales and
13aldwi11et al. 1970; Rerggren and Erikson shipping information (Fig. 1) . AIthough
74 D. GROSS

this visual survey based on populatioll dis- TABLE2 . O f f i c e htcilding characteristics (from
tributions by type is not as accurate as Clilzjer 1976)
direct weighing, this procedure permitted
;I nluch larger sampling to be accomplished Location Height
B l d g . Occupancy (No. o f Age
on a limited budget. No. Type Region State Stories) (Years)
Principal results of the above survey are
Private PA 5 13
as follows: North- NY 7 58
East PA 21 68
There did not appear to be any sig- PA 25 23

~lificantdifference between loads in 1A 5 16


North- IL 5 2
government and private officc, build- Central WI 20 10
ings (Fig. 2). IL 23 16

hleasurement error associated with South


OK
LA
2
1U
8
73
the inventory technique was esti- GA 10 5
OK 22 25
mated to be approximately 10%.
WA 9 11
Variability in loads from room to West AZ 17 13
room was significantly greater. WA
CA
49
5
5
63
Magnitude of loads in office build- Government North- PA 3 47
ings was not significantly affected by East NY 44 7
geographic location, building height, North-
or I~uildingage. Central IL 2 7

Variation of load with occupancy South MU


GA
12
4
11
6
duration was not clearly established
West CO 2 3
and requires further study. CA 18 6
Magnitude of room fire loads and
live loads was related to the use of
the room. Libraries, file rooms, and
storage rooms were the most heavily Cumulative freclucncy distributions of
loaded. total fire load from this survey are shown
In general, mean room load de- in Fig. 3. Approximate cumulative fre-
creased as area of the room in- quency distributions based on fire load sur-
creased, although room use and veys in various countries are approximately
room area may be correlated. Further as given in Table 3. Several European in-
study is required to establish the in- vestigators have suggested that the 80%
fluence of area on load magnitude. cumulative frequency fire load level is suit-
There was a definite tendency for able for design (Witteveen 1966; Forsberg
loads in offices to bc concentrated and Thor 1971) .
around the perimeter of the room. A similar tJpe of inventory survey was
The majority of furniture items were recently conducted by the National Bureau
within 2 feet of the walls. of Standards (NBS) on single family resi-
In the majority of offices surveyed, dences in the Washington, D.C. areki. Data
are currently being key-punched, sorted,
betwecn 20 and 40% of the floor
and analyzed by computer. However, a
area was occupied by furniture and partial, manual survey was made of fire
equipment. loads in basement recreation rooms of pri-
Overall mean total fire load was 36 vate homes. Transfer functions for typical
kg/m2 (7.3 psf), consisting of 28 furnishings were again used to convert
kg/m" 5.7 psf ) movable contents visual estimates into average weights. Of a
and 8 kg/mg ( 1.6 psf ) interior finish. total 270 residences surveyed, a partial
Paper and books accounted for ap- sampling of 70 residences with basements
proximately 40q of the total fire yielded 39 basement recreation rooms. The
load. fire load, consisting of both com1)ustiblc
FIRE LOADS AND FIRE SEVERITY

DESKS - METAL, SINGLE PEDESTAL

9.6-12 F T ~
NO. OBS = 66

V ) V ) V ) V ) V ) V ) V ) V )
" D C " , " = ~ Z ~ ~ -------
V ) V ) V ) V ) V ) V ) ~
~ C V C C ) e ~ r D -

WEIGHT, LBS WEIGHT, LBS

WEIGHT, LBS WEIGHT, LBS


I 1 Catalog frtquency tlistril~ntions of metal desks (from Culver ant1 Kushner 1975).

c o ~ ~ t c n tand
s combustible interior finish, tion is considerably below the average 26
ranged froin ij to 54 kg/m2 ( 1 to 11 psf). kg/m"5.4 psf) previously assigned to entire
The: overall median value of fire load residences based on 12.7 kg/ni" 2.6 psf )
(weight of combustibles per unit floor arcba) of wooden floor and 13.7 kg/m"2.8 psf)
was 27 kg/m2 ( 5.5 psf ) . Combustible con- of other exposed woodwork. The results
tents accounted for 80% of the total and the represent only a partial hand-computed
walls and ceiling 20%. sampling, and hopefully, complete analyzed
I'hns, inovahle combustible contents in data will he available in report form later
thrlse recreation rooms represent about 22 this year.
kg, 111" 4.4 psf) and interior finish about 5
kg/ ni2 ( 1.1 psf). The movable contents FIRE GROWTH CALCULATIONS
portion nlay be compared with the results
of a survey conducted 40 years ago in which To calculate fire history, a computer pro-
moval~lecontents averaged 17 kg/in"3.4 gram is a practical necessity. Input quan-
psf ) for 13 entire apartme~ltsand residences tities typically include fuel burning rate,
ant1 24 kg/m"5.0 psf) for bedrooms and ventilation conditions, and thermal proper-
closets. I lowever, thr interior finish por- ties of enclosing surfaces. From basic mass
GOVERNMENT
= 419
-
= 625
Mean = 7.0 Mean = 7.5 psf
Std. Dev. = 4.6 Std. Dev. = 4.3 psf

-
- -
I 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 10 2 0
-

TOTAL FIRE LOAD [PSF] TOTAL FIRE LOAD [PSF]


F I ~ 2. . Frequency distril~utions of roo111 fire loads (from Culver 1976).

1.0 -
0 . 9 9 - GOVERNMENT
0
z
w

GENERAL AND CLERICAL OFFICES

---- Private

0 10 20 30 40
TOTAL FIRE LOAD [PSF]
Frc. 3. C1111111lativetrecluency di\tribution for room fire load (from Culver 1976).
FIRE LOADS AND FIRE SEVERITY 77

T A H L E3 . C ~ i n ~ ~ ~ lfrsqtrency
ati~s (probability) of fire 1oad.s ( f r o m B a b r a t ~ s k a ~1976)

Cun~ulative FIRE LOAD


P r o b a b i l it y
Percent ( i n k g wood e q u i v a l e n t / m 2 f l o o r a r e a l

U.S.A. W. Germany Sweden Holland England


( C u l v e r 197b) (CECM 1974) (Llerggren & E r i k s o n 1976) ( W i t t e v e e n 19661 ( B a l d w i n e t a l . 1970)

RESILIENCES OTHERS (SWEDEN)

Sweden Schools Hotels Hospitdls


( N i l s s o n 197Ul ( F o r s b e r g 8 Thor 13711 ( F o r s b e r g 8 Thor 19711 (Magnusson 8 P e t t e r s s o n 191U)

and heat balances, rate of comblistion and UTU/lb). The net or effective heat release
composition and temperature of conlbustion from burning contents currently remains an
products may be computed as a function of important research subject.
time. In 1963, Odeen ~ublisheda thesis which
One of the earliest analyses of the burn- provided a means for performing heat bal-
ing process in rooms was provided by the ance calculations where heat release rate
Japanese rescarcher Kawagoe in 1958. He was an independent variable, unrelated to
provided an enthalpy balance of a room window opening. More recent contribu-
fully involved in fire based on: ( a ) the tions have been made by Magnusson and
combustion of ~vood, ( b ) buoyancy-in- Thelandersson ( 1970), Tsuchiya and Sunli
duc-ed ventilation, and ( c ) heat losses to (1971), Babrauskas and Williamson (1975),
cmclosing walls and ceiling. In succeeding and Babrauskas ( 1976). Typical curves
reports, he added improvements and estab- shown in Fig. 4. For fire-resistance design
lished a workable computational tool for of buildings, Lie in 1974 sought to establish
fire growth (Kawagoe and Sekine 1963; a temperature-time curve whose effect, with
Kawagoe 1967). The importance of ventila- reasonable probability, will not be exceeded
tion in terms of the height, h, and area, A,,., during the use of the building. Since venti-
of the window in controlling burning rate lation~controlledfires are " crenerallv more
was a substantially simplifying approach severe and have a substantial ~robabilitvof
and subsequently was used by others. occurrence, Lie computed characteristic
Under these conditions, details on the fire curves for several levels of fire load
geometrical nature of the fire load could ventilation and thermal properties.
I)e ignored. Kawagoe established the mass Obviously, many assumptions are made
flow rate of air as m;,i,.= 1880 A,,. Jkkg/hr in such analytical models regarding chem-
based on air at 20 C and an assumed dis- ical reactions, air flow and entrainment,
completeness of combustion, temperature
charge coefficient of 0.7. The mass burning
gradients, and heat loss relationships. In
rut(, of (wood) fuel was rinf,,,, = 330 A , Jh some cases, simple assumptions are reason-
kg/hr (5.5 A , Jhkglmin) . To account for able and proper, and errors introduced are
i~~complete burning and loss of pyrolysis slight; in other cases, results depend very
products, Kawagoe took the effective heat strongly on one or more factors that are
of combustion A H, as 2575 Kcal/kg (4640 not sufficiently known. For example, one
D. GROSS

OPENING FACTOR 0.0285 ~ ' 2


FUEL WOOD 10 CM CUBES
L

-TEMPERATURE OF WALL

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160


TIME, MINUTES
Fic. 4. Behavior of fire (from Tsuchiya and Sunli 1971).

sirnplificatio~ithat may be rnade is based valuable for sensitivity studies, such as


on the fact that the combustion enthalpy examining effects of major variables on heat
per tinit mass of air is nearly the same for balance within a compartment containing
many fuels, even though their calorific burning combustibles. In general, on the
values per unit mass vary considerably. basis of analytical and experimental con-
To calculate the highest or most consis- siderations, the overall effect of scale has
tent temperature in some computer pro- been considered to be slight. However,
grams, comparisons are made either be- larger compartments can generate higher
tween computed and assunled fuel burning temperatures, increased radiation, and
rates or between alternately calculated tem- higher burning rates; and quantitative gen-
peratures in the ventilation and fuel-con- eralizatioils from small scale models should
trolled modes. Computer calculations can be made with caution.
be made to agree fairly well with experi- The effects of different thermal conduc-
mental data, although large-scale compart- tivities of enclosing walls on gas tempera-
ment experiments normally have consider- ture are significant (Fig. 6 ) . During the
able scatter. A comparison of calculations early stages where radiation is dominant,
by 13abrauskas ( 1976) and experimental thermal inertia, kpc, is most important,
data for wood cribs burning in compart- while in the later stages
" where heat con-
ments are shown in Fig. 5. In this case, duction losses predominate, thermal con-
measured weight loss data was used, so this ductivity is most imvortant.
A

is not a complete predictive calculation. The discussion on computer calculation


Computer calculations are particularly has so far ignored factors that determine
FIIIE LOADS AND FIRE; SEVERITY

"C "C
FM 72
1000 -
800 - ,He\,

/ \

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
MINUTES MINUTES
"C "C

0 2 4 6 8 10 1 2 1 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
MINUTES MINUTES
MEASURED CALCULATED - - -- -
FIG.5. Conlp;~risonsof measl~redand colnpllted ten~peratr~rcs
(from Babral~skas1976).

the early or pre-flashover stages of fire In general, these next generation com-
growth. This is considerably more complex puter models attempt to solve the basic
and as previously stated can be largely dis- mass, energy, and momentum equations
regarded if ventilation-controlled burning is either on a strictly mathematical basis or
asslimed. In models of early fire growth, alternately in terms of simplified modules,
however, important parameters incllide the in which- the energy transfer phenomena
amount, surface area, and arrangement of are considered individually. The former
combustible contents; the collapse and re- approach, which is more exact and difficult,
arrangen~e~lt of furniture during a fire; the may take years to formulate and solve.
forlnation of openings in walls, ceilings or The latter is capable of solution now and is
doors; and local zones of hot gases. There being actively pursued by a number of re-
is 11ow a movement in the direction of searchers.
models that consider the progressive de- The IITRI model of Pape and Waterman,
velopment of a fire in space as well as in for example, incorporates a volatilization
time. rate with an assigned probability for a
80 D. GROSS

burning itell1 of furniture (Pape et al.


1976). It is possible to perform repetitive
con~putationswith different room geome-
tries, ignition locations, and volatilization
rates for the major burning item, and to
develop a series of curves of probability of
occurrence.
Other computer programs have been or
are being developed to account for special
factors and situations, such as an aircraft
cabin (Reeves and MacArthur 1976), a
multi-room building ( Emmons 1977), and
a complete industrial building ( Rockett
1969). In general, these models incorporate
layers or 2-zone discontinuities to providc
more accurate representatioils of heat
0 0 buildup in the upper part of the room,
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 which is particularly important for measur-
TIME [Minutes] ing early fire growth. They may also in-
FIG 6. Effect of themla1 contluctivity of wall clude the effects of plumes, radiation inter-
( froni Babrauskas 1976 ) . change, the formation and reaction of

-
/3
1. Experimental data
2. RFIRES code with detailed
- weight loss relation
3. RFIRES code with simple
exponential weight loss relation
-
circles indicate time
of second item ignition
-

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TlME [minutes)
FIG. 7. Hot gas layer temperature (from Pape et al. 1976).
FIRE LOADS AND FIRE SEVERITY

n n
I\ I I I\
b I
-+------+---
---
I
- - - -+- - - - - -
4 1 I I I \
%
1 I I KITCHEN I #

I LIVING ROOM 1 * I I
n
I
I
't-----
L

I I DINING ROOM I
I I
I

\1

FIG.8. Plan of building and thern~ocoupleplacen~ent(from Rodak and Ingberg 1967).

gaseous combustion or pyrolysis products, comparison between the analytical predic-


the formation of char, and the presence of tion and a full-scale fire test (Croce 1975)
smoke. (Fig. 7 ) . As these computer models be-
The model developed by IITRI (Pape et come more sophisticated, they will be able
a1. 1976) has been exercised to provide a to examine more, but probably never all,
of the complex chemical, fluid mechanical,
and heat transfer factors i~lvolved in an
TAE~LE 4. S t ~ n l ~ f ~of
u r t(?~t~-residential
v bttrnout uncontrolled fire.
f1,sts of 1939 (frotn Rodak and lngberg 1967) There have been a number of experi-
---- ~ - ~. - . mental investigations involving instru-
Equivalent F i r e
Duration
mented full-scale test rooms and buildings.
For example, in 1939, a series of 5 full-scale
Finish ire^ 150 C 300 C fire tests were performed to measure fire
Test Occupancy Floor Load Base Base
development in a building arranged to
--
l bp
.- .~.. ..-..A.--.----p /-
f .t 2 ~nin min represent a three-room residential occu-
A Residential Concrete 5.2 NOT TABULATED pancy ( Rodak and Ingberg 1967) (Fig. 8 ) .
Information was obtained on the duration
U Resldentlal Loncrete 5.3 LY LO and intensity of fires from burning a similar
114- oooks) furniture arrangement, but with the addi-
tion of paper, books, and foodstuffs to pro-
C Residential Concrete 1.9 33 L2
(38, D O O ~ S ) vide total fire loadings ranging from 25 to
59 kg/m"5.2 to 12 psf) (Table 4 ) . Just
U Residential Wooa 8.1
( 1 6 6 books)
45 34 as in 1939, orientation of combustible con-
tents with respect to fire origin are iin-
E Furniture portant. In general, average spatial tem-
Storage Concrete 1L 54 12
--- -. .
. .. ~ ----
peratures in individual rooms were lower
c o m b u s t i b l e w e i g h t d i v l d e d by t o t a l f l o o r a r e a
than the standard ASTM E 119 time-tem-
perature curve. However, for total fire
82 D. GROSS

TlME IMIN.1

TlME (MIN.1 FIG. 10. Test E, for all roonx tested (frotlx
Hodak and Ingberg 1967).
'I(:. 9. Test B, for all rooms tested (from
HotlaL and Inglwrg 1967).
iiisulators and how much thermal energy is
exhausted outside the burning room. -
The most common method of applying
Ioatls of 42 to 59 kg/ni2 (8.5 and 12 psf),
average spatial temperatures of the living the concept of fire severity involves use of
room, dining room, a i ~ dceiling exceeded the area under the fire exposure tempera-
tlie standard curve for periods up to 22 ture-time curve above ail arbitrary level
~liinute\( Figs. 9 and l o ) . (Ingberg 1928). In proposing this ap-
proach, Ingberg recognized that high tem-
FIHE SEVERITY peratures for short durations and low
temperatures for long durations were techni-
Fi1.c severity is dcfined as the intensity cally not equivalent. Whcii origiilally pro-
and duration of a fire. To some extent, posed, it applied fairly well to heavy
fire severity also expresses the concept of masonry buildings with small windows and
the potential for a fire to damage a struc- fire durations up to at least 4 hours. In the
t11re or its coi~tents. 111 conliiioii practice, current context of lightweight and com-
fire severity is considered in terms of the bustible constructioii.large window areas
u
equi~ralentduration test. The actual assess- and mechaiiical ventilation, the equal area
ment of severity in any specific building severity concept is open to considerable
fire situation is largely a subjective matter cruestion.
and to a certain extent depends upon the The major application of this concept
physical and thermal properties of the en- has been in comparing experimental burn-
closil~gstructure itself and the degree of out fires with laboratory fire endurance
ventilation involved. Thus, temperatures tests according to ASTM Standard E 119.
reacliecl and the duration of burning in a -
The original test data were summarized
cornpartmerit depend upon whether the by Ingberg in terins of areas above two
walls and ceiling are good conductors or refereilce temperatures: 150 C , represent-
FIHE LOADS AND FIRE SEVEHITY 83

FlRE LOAD, kg/rn2 Law (1971) used a simplified approach


in analyzing the severity of a fire in a coni-
50 100 150 200 250
partnlent and showed that:
tf = ( K L ) (A,,-Arr)-1/2,
where tf is a measure of the fire severity
in a compartment (inin)
L is the total fire load ( k g )
A , is the window area ( l n 2 )
Arr is the sum of the wall and ceil-
ing areas (in2)
and K is a factor found to lie between
0.7 and 1.5.
Coward ( 1975) estimated the statistical
distribution of tf for office rooms by per-
forming a parameter sampling study using
Monte Carlo simulation. Based on some
approximations and assumptions, Cowarcl
estimated that about 7% of office rooms
wol~ldhave a fire severity exceeding one
hour, and that the distribution could be
approximated by an exponential relation of
FlRE LOAD, l b / f t 2 the form:
I 1 L a l ~ o r a t o ~fire
y endlirance test period
corresponding to experinlental telnperature-time
reslllts f r o n ~15 burn-out experiments performed by where p = proportion of rooms with fire
Inglwrg. Points marked 1 and . correspond to a severity greater than R and H,
match of areas above base temperatnres of 300 determined in minutes, is ex-
and 150 C, respectively. The solid line passes
through points recominended by Ingl~erg(1928).
pressed as:

ing the teiiiperature at which thin partitions If fire growth differs significantly from
would be damaged; and 300 C , representing the standard temperature-time curve, it
the temperature at which thicker partitions should ilot present too rnuch of a problem
or walls would be damaged. The relation- to program n fire endurance furnace to a
ship betwcen fire load and equivalent fire different temperature-time history, or even
entlurance period is firmly established and to a prescribed heat input schedule. Actu-
seems to hold fairly well for the limited ally, fire endurance furnaces are not staii-
ventilation situation ( Fig. 11) . The rela- dardized, and the fractions of input energy
tionship is less valid for short duration fires, which are lost through the exhaust stack
where increased ventilation permits con- and into the refractory surfaces are gen-
sitlerable flaining and heat release to occur erally unknown. A start in this direction
outside the burning compartment. In such has recently heen made by the addition of
cases, higher short duration peak tempera- a recornmendation in ASTM E 119 for re-
tures but lower average compartment tem- cording the amount of fuel flow to the fur-
peratures will generally yield lower equiv- nace burners. This inforination may be use-
alent fire endurancc periods. A closer ful for performing a furnace heat balance
apl~roachto reality in some fire endurance analysis, ineasuring the effect of changes
tr,sting may involve a considerably different in the furnace or control settings, compar-
fire exposure than the one we are most ing assemblies of different properties, and
familiar with. progra~nmingheat input rates representing
84 D. GROSS

ii wider and snore realistic range of fire ex- velopment: the second full-scale bedroom
posures and potential fire severity. fire test of the home fire project. FMRC
Serial 21011.4, RC 75-T-31. Factory Mutual
Research Corp. Norwood, MA.
CONCLUSION CULVER,C. G. 1976. S~irvevresults for fire loads
and live loads in office buildings. BSS 85.
Various surveys on measurements of fire Nat. Bur. Stand. Washington, D.C.
load5 havc been made with emphasis on - , AND J. KUSHNEH. 1975. A program for
office and residential occupancies. Fire survey of fire loads and live loads in office
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