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ASHRAE

Chiller Plant Design

Julian R. de Bullet

President

deBullet Consulting

703-483-0179

julian@debullet.com

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What is a Chiller Plant?

Major components:

Building or Process cooling load Water cooled chiller- (this can be air-cooled) Cooling Tower Pumps and piping Controls

Why use chilled water?

Chilled Water Is A Great Way To Move Energy Around A Building A 2” Pipe Moves As Much Energy As A 42” Duct A Chilled Water Coil W/ Valve Can Offer Excellent Control Dehumidification Chiller Plants Can Be Very Efficient Locate Equipment Away From Occupants Service Sound Safety

Energy Usage

Energy Use by Sector

Electricity Use by Sector

Transportation Residential 29% Other 22% 28% Buildings Commercial Industry 72% 19% 30%
Transportation
Residential
29%
Other
22%
28%
Buildings
Commercial
Industry
72%
19%
30%

Source: Energy Information Administration 2009

Talking about

Green?

Sustainability?

and High Performance!

Green:

More efficient equipment

Sustainable:

Design considers the big

picture, how is equipment

made, where it is

installed, how long it

lasts….

High Performance:

High Efficient equipment, sized, installed and

maintained correctly for

maximum impact

Talking about Green? Sustainability? and High Performance! Green: More efficient equipment Sustainable: Design considers the big

k

W

Conventional Cooling Profile

1600

Cooling Pumps
Cooling
Pumps
avg. electric load Fans Lighting Base Load
avg. electric load
Fans
Lighting
Base Load

0

Cooling Pumps avg. electric load Fans Lighting Base Load 0

6 AM

12 PM

6 PM

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

Full load on “Design Day”

Chiller

58% Fans Tower 24% Pumps 5%
58%
Fans
Tower
24%
Pumps
5%

13%

Design Performance

Question: What is a cooling “Design Day”

a. The day the building load calculation was begun?

b. The first day the HVAC System is turned on?

c. The hottest day of the year?

d. The coldest day of the year?

Question: What is a cooling “Design Day”

a. The day the building load calculation was begun?

b. The first day the HVAC System is turned on?

c. The hottest day of the year?

d. The coldest day of the year?

ANSWER: c

Basic system

Chiller Cooling Tower Building Cooling Load Pumps and Piping

Annual Energy Usage

Chiller

Fans 33% 43% Tower 2% Pumps
Fans
33%
43%
Tower
2%
Pumps

22%

Annual Energy Usage

Chiller Basics

Air, Water Or Evaporatively Cooled

Reciprocating, Scroll,

Screw Or Centrifugal

Compressors

DX or Flooded Evaporators

Chiller Basics • Air, Water Or Evaporatively Cooled • Reciprocating, Scroll, Screw Or Centrifugal Compressors •

Single Chiller

Cooling Cooling Tower Tower
Cooling
Cooling
Tower
Tower

Air Handling Unit

Single Chiller Cooling Cooling Tower Tower Air Handling Unit Water-Cooled Chiller Condenser Chilled Water Pump Water
Single Chiller Cooling Cooling Tower Tower Air Handling Unit Water-Cooled Chiller Condenser Chilled Water Pump Water

Water-Cooled

Chiller

Single Chiller Cooling Cooling Tower Tower Air Handling Unit Water-Cooled Chiller Condenser Chilled Water Pump Water

Condenser

Chilled

Water Pump

Water Pump

Section 7 System Piping Arrangements

Typical Air-Cooled Chiller Piping Detail

Air-Cooled Chiller

Pressure Gauge (Typical) Return Supply Thermometer Drain Valve (Typical) Shutoff Valve (Typical)
Pressure
Gauge (Typical)
Return
Supply
Thermometer
Drain Valve
(Typical)
Shutoff Valve (Typical)

Section 6 Typical Piping Details at Equipment

Typical Water-Cooled Chiller Piping Detail

Supply Return Supply Return Shutoff Valves Chilled Thermometer Water (Typical) Water-Cooled Chiller Condenser Water Drain Drain
Supply
Return
Supply
Return
Shutoff Valves
Chilled
Thermometer
Water
(Typical)
Water-Cooled
Chiller
Condenser
Water
Drain
Drain
Flange (Typical)
Valve
Valve
Pressure Gauge (Typical)
Strainer (if pump is on return side of chiller)

Section 6 Typical Piping Details at Equipment

Typical Cooling Towers

Cooling towers are heat rejecters. They do not condense refrigerant so they are not considered condensers.
Cooling towers are heat
rejecters. They do not
condense refrigerant so
they are not considered
condensers.

Section 4 Cooling Towers

Basic Cooling Tower Operating Characteristics

95° F db 78° F wb

Basic Cooling Tower Operating Characteristics 95 ° F db 78 ° F wb Approximately 90 °

Approximately 90° F Saturated Air

95° F From Water-Cooled Condenser 85° F Back to Condenser Cooling Tower
95° F
From Water-Cooled
Condenser
85° F
Back to Condenser
Cooling Tower

Section 4 Cooling Towers

Closed-Loop System

Chiller Piping 45° F Coil Expansion Tank Two-Way Valve Pump 55° F Three-Way Valve
Chiller
Piping
45° F
Coil
Expansion
Tank
Two-Way Valve
Pump
55° F
Three-Way
Valve

Includes:

A chiller and/or a boiler

Coils that produce cooling or heating Two or three-way valves to control the coils Piping and pump to circulate water An expansion tank (insignificant water contact with air)

Section 2 Types of Piping Systems

Open-Loop System

Open-Loop System Chiller Water-Cooled Condenser Cooling Tower 94 to 95 ° F 3 gpm/ton Condenser Water

Chiller

Water-Cooled

Condenser

Open-Loop System Chiller Water-Cooled Condenser Cooling Tower 94 to 95 ° F 3 gpm/ton Condenser Water
Open-Loop System Chiller Water-Cooled Condenser Cooling Tower 94 to 95 ° F 3 gpm/ton Condenser Water
Open-Loop System Chiller Water-Cooled Condenser Cooling Tower 94 to 95 ° F 3 gpm/ton Condenser Water

Cooling Tower

94 to 95° F

3 gpm/ton

Condenser

Water Pump

Open-Loop System Chiller Water-Cooled Condenser Cooling Tower 94 to 95 ° F 3 gpm/ton Condenser Water
85° F
85° F
Open-Loop System Chiller Water-Cooled Condenser Cooling Tower 94 to 95 ° F 3 gpm/ton Condenser Water

The water-cooled condenser is typically part of a water-cooled chiller or water-cooled package unit

A cooling tower rejects the condenser heat to the atmosphere

Flow rates and temperatures are industry standards for North America

Piping and pumps circulate water

Water is reused and exposed to the ambient conditions in the cooling tower

Section 2 Types of Piping Systems

Once-Thru Water System

Once-Thru Water System Chiller with Condenser Piping Pump Once-Thru Optional Valve Source of Water to water

Chiller with

Condenser

Piping
Piping
Once-Thru Water System Chiller with Condenser Piping Pump Once-Thru Optional Valve Source of Water to water

Pump

Once-Thru

Optional

Valve

Once-Thru Water System Chiller with Condenser Piping Pump Once-Thru Optional Valve Source of Water to water

Source of

Water to

water (river)

waste or

source

Once-Thru Water System Chiller with Condenser Piping Pump Once-Thru Optional Valve Source of Water to water
Once-Thru Water System Chiller with Condenser Piping Pump Once-Thru Optional Valve Source of Water to water
Once-Thru Water System Chiller with Condenser Piping Pump Once-Thru Optional Valve Source of Water to water

Much less common due to environmental concerns Water is sent to waste or returned back to source

Large consumption of water Source example: river, lake, well

Section 2 Types of Piping Systems

Question: What is a Closed Loop?

a. The pipe is capped

b. It is not open to the atmosphere

c. The chilled water piping is a closed loop

Question: What is a Closed Loop

a. The pipe is capped

b. It is not open to the atmosphere

c. The chilled water piping is a closed loop

ANSWER: b and c

Closed loop and Open loop- Recap!

Closed Loop

The chilled water piping is usually a closed loop A closed loop is not open to the atmosphere The pump needs only to overcome the friction loss in the piping and the components The pump does not need to lift” the water to the top of the loop

Open Loop

When open cooling towers are used in the condenser piping

The condenser pump must overcome the friction of the system and “lift” the water from the sump to the top of the tower

Flow and Capacity

Q = W x Cp x deltaT

Where Q = Quantity Of Heat Exchanged (Btu/hr) W = Flow Rate Of Fluid (US gpm) Cp = Specific Heat Of Fluid deltaT = Temperature Change Of Fluid (°F)

For Water

Q (Tons) = US gpm x (°Fin - °Fout) x 500 Q (Btu/hr) = US gpm x (°Fin - °Fout)/24

Load Basics

Chilled Water Coils Transfer Heat From

Building Air To Chilled

Water

Load Basics • Chilled Water Coils Transfer Heat From Building Air To Chilled Water • Process

Process Loads

Cooling Jackets

Load Basics • Chilled Water Coils Transfer Heat From Building Air To Chilled Water • Process

1-Pipe Distribution System

Monoflow ®

Fitting

Typical Heating Terminal Typical Boiler Heating-Only Main Piping Loop System Supply and Return (1 size throughout)
Typical
Heating
Terminal
Typical
Boiler
Heating-Only
Main Piping Loop
System
Supply and Return
(1 size throughout)
System
Pump

Section 3 Water Distribution Systems

2-Pipe Distribution System

Summer Mode Typical Heating and Cooling Terminal Supply Piping Boiler Return Piping System Pump Chiller
Summer Mode
Typical
Heating and
Cooling
Terminal
Supply
Piping
Boiler
Return
Piping
System
Pump
Chiller

Section 3 Water Distribution Systems

3-Pipe Distribution System

Distributes hot and cold water simultaneously

Typical Heating and Cooling Terminal Chilled Water Supply Hot Water Supply Boiler Special 3-pipe Water Control
Typical
Heating and
Cooling
Terminal
Chilled
Water
Supply
Hot
Water
Supply
Boiler
Special 3-pipe
Water Control
Common Return Piping
with Mixed Hot and
Cold Water
System
Chiller
Pumps

Section 3 Water Distribution Systems

4-Pipe Distribution System

Distributes hot and cold water simultaneously

4-Pipe Heating and Cooling Terminal Chilled Water Supply Hot Water Supply Boiler System Chiller Pumps
4-Pipe
Heating and
Cooling
Terminal
Chilled
Water
Supply
Hot
Water
Supply
Boiler
System
Chiller
Pumps

Section 3 Water Distribution Systems

Direct and Reverse Return Systems

Reverse Return Horizontal Distribution

Unit-1 Unit-2 Unit-3 Unit-4 Unit-5 Supply Return
Unit-1
Unit-2
Unit-3
Unit-4
Unit-5
Supply
Return

Return header flow is same direction as supply flow

Water leaves Unit-1 and goes all the way around in returning to source

The first unit supplied is the last returned

Circuit pressure drop through Unit-1 = Unit-2 = Unit-3 = Unit-4 = Unit-5

Balancing valves may be eliminated

Section 4 Direct and Reverse Return Systems

Direct Return Horizontal Distribution

Unit-1 Unit-2 Unit-3 Unit-4 Unit-5 Supply Return
Unit-1
Unit-2
Unit-3
Unit-4
Unit-5
Supply
Return

Balancing Valves

Water enters Unit-1 from supply Water leaves Unit-1 and returns directly to source The first unit supplied is the first returned Unequal circuit pressure drops result Circuit pressure drop through Unit-1 < Unit-2 < Unit-3 < Unit-4 < Unit-5 Balancing valves are a necessity

Section 4 Direct and Reverse Return Systems

Piping Materials

Typical Materials:

> 2 ½-in. Schedule 40 black steel < 2-in. Schedule 40 black steel or Type L
> 2 ½-in. Schedule 40 black steel
< 2-in. Schedule 40 black steel or Type L copper

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

Control Valves

Control Valves Valve Actuator 3-Way Diverting 2 outlets 1 inlet 3-Way Mixing 2 inlets 1 outlet
Valve Actuator

Valve Actuator

Valve Actuator
Control Valves Valve Actuator 3-Way Diverting 2 outlets 1 inlet 3-Way Mixing 2 inlets 1 outlet

3-Way Diverting

2 outlets 1 inlet

Control Valves Valve Actuator 3-Way Diverting 2 outlets 1 inlet 3-Way Mixing 2 inlets 1 outlet
3-Way Mixing 2 inlets 1 outlet
3-Way Mixing
2 inlets 1 outlet

2-Way Modulating

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

Expansion Tanks

Open to

Compressed Air Space Air Overflow Drain
Compressed
Air Space
Air
Overflow
Drain

atmosphere

Diaphragm

Expansion Tanks Open to Compressed Air Space Air Overflow Drain atmosphere Diaphragm Open Tank • Open

Open Tank

Open to air

Air-water interface

Closed Tank

Very popular Captured air space Air-water interface

Closed Diaphragm Tank

Flexible membrane No air-water interface Very popular

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

Piping Example

Piping Example

Piping Example

Given The Following Pressure Drops in Feet

Coil

3.0 ft

Pipe

Try To Be Around 4ft P.D. Per 100 Ft Piping 2” Pipe= 3.1ft/100ft

2 Tees

10.7 ft

Gate Valve

0.04 ft

Balancing Valve

2.0 ft

4 Elbows

0.91 ft

Control Valve

0.64 ft

8.2 ft

Total

25.35 ft

Air Vents

Manual or Automatic Air Vent Service Valve 4 Pipe Diameters From Terminal Coil To Return Main
Manual or
Automatic
Air Vent
Service Valve
4 Pipe
Diameters
From Terminal
Coil
To Return Main
Locate at high points
Typical Locations:
• Risers
• Coils
• Terminals

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

Thermometers, Gauges and Pete’s Plug

Thermometers, Gauges and Pete’s Plug Locate thermometers and gauges at inlets and outlets of equipment Section
Thermometers, Gauges and Pete’s Plug Locate thermometers and gauges at inlets and outlets of equipment Section

Locate thermometers

and gauges

at inlets and outlets

of equipment

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

Thermometers, Gauges and Pete’s Plug Locate thermometers and gauges at inlets and outlets of equipment Section
Thermometers, Gauges and Pete’s Plug Locate thermometers and gauges at inlets and outlets of equipment Section

Pete’s Plugs:

Temperature and Pressure Ports

Thermometers, Gauges and Pete’s Plug Locate thermometers and gauges at inlets and outlets of equipment Section

Pipe Hangers and Anchors

100 ft of 4-Inch Schedule 40 Black Steel Pipe

100 ft of 4-Inch Schedule 40 Black Steel Pipe

100 ft of 4-Inch Schedule 40 Black Steel Pipe
 

Recommended Support Spacing for

Schedule 40 Pipe

Nominal Pipe Size

Distance Between

(in.)

Supports (ft)

¾ - 1¼

8

1½ - 2½

10

3

12

4 6

14

8 - 12

16

14 - 24

20

How many pipe hangers are

needed and what is their support

distance?

Distance between hangers is 14 ft

Number of hangers = (100/14) = 7

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

Check for Volume Tank Requirements

tank designs
tank designs

Suggested volume

Rule of thumb for chilled-water systems:

3 gallons per nominal ton of chiller for normal air-conditioning duty

6 to 10 gallons per nominal ton of chiller for process duty or low ambient unit operation

Section 5 Water Piping Components and Accessories

In-Line Pump

In-Line Pump Small capacity design Pump Assembly Motor Section 8 – Pump Basics and Types of

Small capacity design

Pump Assembly
Pump
Assembly

Motor

Section 8 Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

Close-Coupled Pump

Close-Coupled Pump Internal Self-Flushing Seal Section 8 – Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

Internal Self-Flushing Seal

Section 8 Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

Base-Mounted End Suction Pump

Coupling Guard Motor Short Shaft Discharge Suction Welded Steel Frame provides support and
Coupling Guard
Motor
Short Shaft
Discharge
Suction
Welded Steel Frame
provides support and

Section 8 Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

installation ease

Double-Suction Vertical Split Case Pump

Vertical Suction and Discharge
Vertical Suction
and Discharge

Large-capacity designs for

chillers and cooling towers

Section 8 Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

Double-Suction Horizontal Split Case Pump

Double-Suction Horizontal Split Case Pump Coupling Pump Guard Moto r Large-capacity design for chillers and cooling

Coupling

Pump Guard Moto r
Pump
Guard
Moto
r

Large-capacity design for

chillers and cooling towers

Section 8 Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

Pump Type Comparison

Pump

Cost

Flow & Head

Space

Ease of

Type

Capability

Required

Service

In Line

Least 1

200 gpm @ 55 ft

Least 1

Poor 5

Close-

       

Coupled

2

2,300 gpm @ 400 ft

2

4

End

       

Suction

3

4,000 gpm @ 500 ft

3

1

Vertical

       

Split Case

4

9,000 gpm @ 400 ft

4

2

Horizontal

       

Split Case

Highest 5

40,000 gpm @ 600 ft

Most 5

Good 3

Section 8 Pump Basics and Types of Pumps

Single Chiller

REMEMBER THIS? ARE YOU READY TO PLAY IN THE WATER?

Cooling Cooling Tower Tower
Cooling
Cooling
Tower
Tower
Single Chiller REMEMBER THIS? ARE YOU READY TO PLAY IN THE WATER? Cooling Cooling Tower Tower

Air Handling Unit

Single Chiller REMEMBER THIS? ARE YOU READY TO PLAY IN THE WATER? Cooling Cooling Tower Tower
Single Chiller REMEMBER THIS? ARE YOU READY TO PLAY IN THE WATER? Cooling Cooling Tower Tower

Water-Cooled

Chiller

Single Chiller REMEMBER THIS? ARE YOU READY TO PLAY IN THE WATER? Cooling Cooling Tower Tower

Condenser

Chilled

Water Pump

Water Pump

Section 7 System Piping Arrangements

Parallel Flow Systems

Production Loop (primary) Building System Loop (secondary) 233 Ton 233 Ton Hydraulic Alternate 233 Ton Decoupler
Production Loop (primary)
Building System Loop (secondary)
233 Ton
233 Ton
Hydraulic
Alternate
233 Ton
Decoupler
Bypass Line
(Bridge)
minimum
chiller flow
400 gpm
400 gpm
400 gpm

Building Load 100% (700 Tons)

3 x 267 Ton, Primary/Secondary

Production Loop (primary) Building System Loop (secondary) 233 Ton 233 Ton Hydraulic Alternate 233 Ton Decoupler
Production Loop (primary)
Building System Loop (secondary)
233 Ton
233 Ton
Hydraulic
Alternate
233 Ton
Decoupler
Bypass Line
(Bridge)
minimum
chiller flow
400 gpm
400 gpm
400 gpm

700 tons / 3 chillers = 233 tons per chiller When building 100% loaded, entering condenser water = 85F

Section 7 System Piping Arrangements

Variable Primary

Automatic Isolation Valves 350 Ton 350 Ton
Automatic
Isolation Valves
350 Ton
350 Ton
1050 gpm Flow Meter
1050 gpm
Flow Meter
Control Valve, sized for minimum chiller flow Bypass
Control
Valve, sized
for minimum
chiller flow
Bypass

Variable Speed

Primary Pumps

Variable Speed Chillers

Series Counter Flow Lift Reduction

58F

Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F

Lift Reduced by 7.5°F

Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F

98F

42F

Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F
Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F

83F

Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F
Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F

50F

Variable Speed Chillers Series Counter Flow – Lift Reduction 58F Lift Reduced by 7.5 ° F

90.5F

Both chillers designed to operate at 42F/83F.

Downstream screw chiller cools from 50F 42F

Upstream centrifugal chiller cools from 58F 50F.

Reduced Lift = Reduced Speed = Reduced KW

kWh

Variable Flow vs. Constant Flow

500000

450000

400000

350000

300000

250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

0

Pump Work Cut In Half Chillers Pumps Towers Fans Variable Primary Flow 2 Chiller Primary/Secondary Flow
Pump Work Cut
In Half
Chillers
Pumps
Towers
Fans
Variable Primary Flow
2 Chiller Primary/Secondary Flow
2 Chiller Parallel Flow

Lift = SCT SST

Summary

CS vs VS Centrifugal Chillers

VFDs take advantage of Part Lift & Part Load with Speed Control

Variable Speed Screw Technology

Series Counter Flow Systems Reduce Lift & Lower KW

Chiller Plant Analysis

Integration of Systems

HVAC & Electronic Security Fire Safety Fire detection and alarm Electronic locks, systems and energy management
HVAC & Electronic Security
Fire Safety
Fire detection
and alarm
Electronic locks,
systems
and energy management
systems
Access control,
intrusion monitoring
and video surveillance
Building
Fire fighting and
suppression
Systems
systems
Air handling, fan
coils
and refrigeration
Building Automation
Service, maintenance and
inspection
System
Chillers and

controls

THANK YOU!
THANK YOU!