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MEHD221 Thermofluids Lab 2017

Experiment No. 2

Objectives

Apparatus

Solteq Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit, FM 24. (Fig 3)

TecQuipment Hydraulic Bench, H1.

Summary of Theory

Consider the flow of an incompressible fluid through the convergent-divergent pipe shown
in Fig.1. The cross-sectional area at the upstream section 1 is a1, at the throat section 2 is
a2, and at any other arbitrary section n is an. Piezometer tubes at these sections register h1,
h2, and hn as shown.

Fig 1: Ideal conditions in a Venturi meter.

Assuming that there is no loss of energy along the pipe, and that the velocity and
piezometric heads are constant across each of the sections considered, then Bernoullis
theorem states that
u1 2 u2 2 un 2
h1 h2 hn
2g 2g 2g
1

Where u1, u2 and un are the velocities of flow through section 1, 2, and n. The equation of
continuity is
u1a1 = u2a2 = unan = Q
2
Q denotes the volume flow or discharge rate.

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MEHD221 Thermofluids Lab 2017

2
u2 2 a2 u2 2
h1 h2
2g a1 2g

And solving this equation for u2 leads to

2g(h1 h 2)
u2 2
a2
1
a1
So that the discharge rate, from equation becomes:

2g(h1 h 2)
Q a2 2
a2
1
a1

In practice, there is some loss of energy between sections 1 and 2, and the velocity is not
constant across either of these sections. Consequently, measured values of Q usually fall a
little short of those calculated from equation (3) and it is customary to allow for this
discrepancy by writing:

2g(h1 h 2)
Q Ca 2 2
a2
1
a1
4

C is known as the coefficient of the meter, which may be established by experiment. Its
value varies slightly from one meter to another and even for a give meter it may vary
slightly with the discharge, but usually lies within the range of 0.92 to 0.99.

The ideal pressure distribution along the convergent-divergent pipe may be seen from
Bernoullis equation 1 to be given by

u1 2 un 2
hn h1
2g

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MEHD221 Thermofluids Lab 2017

For the purpose of calculation and of comparison of experimental results with calculation,
it is convenient to express (hn h1) as a fraction of the velocity head at the throat of the
meter, that is:

hn h1 a 2 a 2
2 2

u2 2 a1 an
2g
5

Procedures
1. Open fully the flow control valve (on the right side of the hydraulic bench).
2. Open fully the discharge valve.
3. Switch on the hydraulic bench pump by pressing the black button on the right side of
the hydraulic bench.
4. Let the water flow through the system for a while.
5. Close the discharge valve. All manometer tubes will show the same water level reading.
This is called the total head of the system.
6. Record the total head of the system in the result sheet.
7. Adjust the discharge valve to let the water flow through the venturi meter. Set the water
level of manometer tube C at approximately 10mm.
8. Record the water levels of all manometer tubes in the result sheet (Table 2).
9. Place the PVC tubing into the drain hole. Using the stopwatch, measure and record the
time it takes for the water to reach 5 litres. The volume of the water could be seen on
the left side of the hydraulic bench. Record the time in Table 2.
10. Once it is done, open the drain and let the water flow into the tank.
11. Close the discharge valve slightly to obtain a different flow rate (increase the water
level of manometer tube C by approximately 10mm).
12. Record the water level of the piezometer tubes labeled A and C in Table 3.
13. Place the PVC tubing into the drain hole. Using the stopwatch, measure and record the
time it takes for the water to reach 5 litres. Record the time in Table 3.
14. Once it is done, open the drain and let the water flow into the sump tank.
15. Repeat steps (11) to (14) to obtain an additional 5 sets of water level reading (A and C)
with different flow rates.
16. Switch off the hydraulic bench pump by pressing the red button on the right side of the
hydraulic bench.
17. Close the flow control valve and discharge valve.

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MEHD221 Thermofluids Lab 2017

The dimensions of the meter and the position of the piezometer tappings are shown
below.