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Problem 4. At 11:00AM on September 7, 2001, more than one million British school children jumped up and down for one minute. The

curriculum focus of the Giant Jump was on earthquakes, but it was integrated with many other topics, such as exercise, geography,

cooperation, testing hypothesis, ans setting world records. Children built their own seismographs that registered local effects. (a)

Find the mechanical energy released in the experiment. Assume that Nc = 1, 050, 000 children of an average mass m = 36.0 kg jump

N j = 12 times each, raising their centers of mass by h = 25.0 cm each time and briefly resting between one jump and the next. The

free gall acceleration in Britain is g = 9.81 m/s2 . (b) Most of the energy is converted very rapidly into internal energy within the bodies

of the children and the floors of the school buildings. Of the energy that propagates into the ground, most produces high frequency

microtremor vibrations that are rapidly damped and cannot travel far. Assume that p = 0.01 % of the energy is carried away by a

long-range seismic wave. The magnitude of an earthquake on the Richter scale is given by

log E 4.8

M= (1)

1.5

Where E is the seismic wave energy in joules. According to this model, what is the magnitude of the demonstration quake? It did not

register above background noise overseas or on the seismograph of the Wolverton Seismic Vault, Hampshire.

(a) From briefly resting between each jump we are to conclude that each collision is perfectly inelastic (that all the mechanical

energy the student had during the jump was lost into internal energies). The energy lost by one student preforming a single jump is just

Ug = mgh, so the energy lost during the entire experiment is

ET = Nc N j mgh = 1.05 106 12 36.0 kg 9.81 m/s2 0.250 m = 1.11 109 J (2)

(b) The energy in long-range seismic waves is given by E = pEt /100 so the magnitude of the quake is

M= = 0.164 (3)

1.5

Problem 47. The system shown in Fig. P7.47 consists of a light inextensible cord, light frictionless pulleys, and blocks of equal mass. It

is initially held at rest so that the blocks are at the same height above the ground. The blocks are then released. Find the speed of block

A at the moment when the vertical separation of the blocks is h.

Let m be the mass of one block, and ibe the vertical direction, with x = 0 for both blocks at their initial position. After some

consideration, we decide that block A will fall and block B will rise (if you are not convinced, find the mass that B must have in order for

the system to remain stationary). In order to get a quantitative relationship between the motion of the two blocks, imagine that B moves

up a distance x in some time t. Then block B will have an average velocity of vB = x/t, and block A will have gone a distance 2x

with an average velocity of vA = 2x/t. So xA = 2xB and vA = 2vB .

When they are a distance h apart

h

xB = (5)

3

2h

xA = (6)

3

So conserving energy

1 1 h 2h

Ei = Ki +Ugi = 0 = E f = K f +Ug f = mv2A + mv2B + mg + mg (7)

2 2 3 3

2

2h vA 1 5

g = v2A + v2B = v2A + = v2A 1 + = v2A (8)

3 2 4 4

r

8gh

vA = (9)

15

Problem 50. A childs pogo stick (Fig/ P7.50) stores energy in a spring with a force constant of k = 2.50 104 N/m. At position A

(xA = 0.100 m), the spring compression is a maximum and the child is momentarily at rest. At position B (xB = 0), the spring is relaxed

and the child is moving upward. At position C, the child is again momentarily at rest at the top of the jump. The combined mass of

child and pogo stick is m = 25.0 kg. (a) Calculate the total energy of the child-stick-Earth system, taking both gravitational and elastic

potential energy as zero for x = 0. (b) Determine xC . (c) Calculate the speed of the child at B. (d) Determine the value of x for which the

kinetic energy of the system is a maximum. (e) Calculate the childs maximum upward speed.

1

(a) We know the most about point A, so well calculate the total energy there.

1 1

EA = UsA +UgA = kxA2 + mgxA = 2.50 104 N/m (0.100 m)2 + 25.0 kg 9.8 m/s2 (0.100 m) = 100.5 J (10)

2 2

(b) Conserving energy between A and C

EA = EC = UgC = mgxC (11)

EA 100.5 J

xC = = = 0.410 m (12)

mg 25.0 kg 9.8 m/s2

(c) Conserving energy between A and B

1

EA = EB = KB = mv2B (13)

r s2

2EA 2 100.5 J

vB = = = 2.84 m/s (14)

m 25.0 kg

(d) The kinetic energy is maximized when the speed is maximized which occurs at the point where the accelerating spring force

balances the decelerating gravitational force. Before this point, the spring force exceeded the gravitational force and the child was

speeding up. Afterward, the gravitation force exceeded the spring force and the child was slowing down.

Fs = kx = Fg = mg (15)

2

mg 25.0 kg 9.8 m/s

x== = 0.00980 m = 9.80 mm (16)

k 2.50 104 N/m

(e) Conserving energy between A and the point of maximum velocity D

EA = ED = UsD +UgD + KD (17)

1 1 2

KD = mv2D = EA UsD UgD = EA kxD mgxD (18)

2 s 2

2 2mgx

2EA kxD D

vD = (19)

m

s

2 100.5 J 2.50 104 N/m (9.80 103 m)2 2 25.0 kg 9.8 m/s2 (9.80 103 m)

= (20)

25.0 kg

= 2.85 m/s (21)

Problem 62. A roller coaster car is released from rest at the top of the first rise and then moves freely with negligible friction. The roller

coaster shown in Fig. P7.62 has a circular loop of radius R in the vertical plane. (a) First, suppose the car barely makes it around the

loop; at the top of the loop the riders are upside down and feel weightless. Find the required height of the release point above the bottom

of the loop, in terms of R. (b) Now assume that the release point is at or above the minimum required height. Show that the normal force

on the car at the bottom of the loop exceeds the normal force at the top by six times the weight of the car. The normal force on each rider

follows the same rule. Such a large normal force is dangerous and very uncomfortable for the riders. Roller coasters are therefore not

build with circular loops in vertical planes. Figure P5.24 and the photograph on page 134 show two actual designs.

(a) Because the riders feel weightless at the top of the loop (point T ), we will assume that they are in free fall with a centerwards

acceleration of g = v2T /R. Conserving energy between T and the release point A

1

EA = mgh = ET = mv2T + mg(2R) (22)

2

1 2 Rg

h = vT + 2R = + 2R = 2.5R (23)

2g 2g

(b) If the release comes from a higher point, there will be some normal force at the top NT and at the bottom NB . Summing forces at

both points

v2

FcT = mg + NT = m RT (24)

NT

v2T = gR + R (25)

m

v2

FcB = mg + NB = m RB (26)

NB

v2B = gR + R (27)

m

2

And conserving energy between the top and bottom

1 1

EB = mv2B = ET = mv2T + mg(2R) (28)

2 2

NB NT

v2B = v2T + 4gR = gR + R = gR + R + 4gR (29)

m m

NB = NT + 6mg (30)

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