You are on page 1of 26

DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Chapter 1

The Problem and its Scope

1.1 Introduction

This paper is a literature study on the preparedness phase of disaster management. Disaster

management is carried out by humanitarian organizations. The preparedness phase is a pre-disaster

phase in which damage is tried to be decreased by ways of preparation. A good preparation makes

response to disasters more efficient. The major challenges in disaster management are found and

preparedness actions are analyzed that can influence these challenges.

The uncertainties of location, severity, disaster type and time are big challenges for humanitarian

organizations. Success factors are response speed and customer satisfaction, the strategic goal is

to minimize loss of life and alleviate suffering. With risk assessment it can be pointed out what

risky areas are and decrease the uncertainty of location. By pre-positioning basic goods at these

locations we can increase the response time.

A big challenge for humanitarian organizations is to find enough of the right resources. It is

difficult to find funds for preparedness because the disaster has not happened yet and funds are

often disaster specific.

1
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

By learning and training humanitarian personnel, knowledge will be gained which increases the

quality of aid given. Public education and training increases the quality of aid as well because the

local population will be the first at a disaster location to give first aid. There are many differences

between the humanitarian sector and private business but they can still learn from each other.

Knowledge of logistics should be important for humanitarian organizations. And good planning

increases preparedness.

Disaster preparedness refers to measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters.

That is, to predict and, where possible, prevent disasters, lessen their impact on vulnerable

populations and respond to and effectively cope with consequences. Disaster preparedness

provides a platform to design effective, realistic and coordinated planning, reduce duplication of

efforts and increase the effectiveness of National Societies. Disaster preparedness activities

embedded with risk reduction measures can prevent disaster situation, enabling the affected

population to get back to normalcy within a short time of period. (IFRS,2013:11)

The concept disaster is defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a

society, causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the

ability of the affected community/society to cope using its own resources (ISDR, 2012:24)

Disaster preparedness refers to activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective

response to the impact of disasters, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings

and the temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location (ISDR, 2012:25).

2
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

1.2 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

It is not possible for persons within and between the many disciplines involved in disasters to

communicate with each other without clear definitions of the specific terms that are used. In many

instances, the same terms have different meanings in different disciplines. Thus, a standardized set

of definitions is provided. Some definitions discussed include: (1) hazard, (2) risk, (3) prevention,

(4) modification, (5) impact, (6) mitigation, (7) preparedness, (8) damage, and (9) disaster

management.

Figure 1.1 Diagrammatic representation of definition

3
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

1.2.1 Hazard

All disasters are related to a specific hazard or combination of hazard whether of a natural

phenomenon or a result of human actions. A hazard is anything that may pose a danger; thus, it is

used in this discussion to mean a natural or manmade phenomenon or a mixture of both that has

the potential to harmfully affect human health, property, activity, and/or the environment.

Figure 1.2 Classification of known hazards

4
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Hazard are classified as to type. A specific arm of science is dedicated to the identification of

hazards. Known hazards can be classified according to the scheme in Figure 1.2 The Specific

hazards to which we are exposed vary in time and space. They may vary between different

populations: what is recognized as a hazard in one community may not be so in another because

of the absence of a disaster.

1.2.2 Risk

Risk is the objective (mathematical) or subjective probability that something negative will happen.

For example, the probability of an earthquake occurring in faults compared to raised earth ground.

The probability of a typhoon becoming realized in Visayas is huge than of in Mindanao. Risk

applies only to one specific hazard. Thus, factors (risk factors) can be identified that may provide

the means to modify this probability.

1.2.3 Prevention

To prevent means to keep the event from happening, and thus, prevention is the total of approaches

and measures taken to ensure that human action or natural phenomena DO NOT cause or result

in the occurrence of an event related to the identified or unidentified hazard. It does NOT mean

decreasing the largeness, intensity, scale, and/or magnitude of the event. Prevention can, in

principle, occur only by eliminating hazards. It would be difficult and probably impossible to

prevent a natural hazard from occurring. However, some manmade hazards could be eliminated.

5
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

1.2.4 Modification

Modification of the event does not mean that the event will not occur. Modification can change

either the nature of the hazard or the risk that the hazard will evolve into an event.

1.2.5 Impact

Impact is defined as the actual process of contact between an event and a society. The impact refers

to both positive and negative influences produced by the event on the environment. The degree of

damage produced by the energy impacting on the environment is dependent upon the vulnerability

and preparedness of the environment and thee society for the specific event.

1.2.6 Mitigation

Mitigate means to lessen or decrease the seriousness of the process to which the word is applied.

Mitigate is the action verb and mitigation is the result of this action. To avoid confusion in the use,

mitigate, in this study, will be reserve for any process that is undertaken to reduce immediate

damage otherwise being caused by a destructive force.

1.2.7 Preparedness

Preparedness is the total of all measures and policies taken by humans before the event occurs that

reduce the damage that otherwise would have been caused by the event. Preparedness is comprised

6
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

of the ability to mitigate the immediate result of the impact of an event and our ability to lessen

suffering and accelerate recovery. Preparedness includes warning system, evacuation, relocation

of dwellings (e.g., for floods), stores of food, water, and medical supplies, temporary shelters,

energy, response strategies, disaster drills and exercise, etc.

1.2.8 Damage

Damage is defined as harm or injury impairing the value of usefulness of something, or the health

or normal function of persons. Damage is the negative result of the impact of an event on the

society and environment. Damages may manifest in multiple ways and forms. Events may produce

damage that may or may not be of sufficient magnitude to result in a disaster. It is the amount and

characteristics of the damage that result from an event results in a disaster.

Figure 1.3 Flow chart illustrating some of the pathways for damage to occur related to a

destructive event

7
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

All events regardless of their type, mode of onset, magnitude have an impact of the population.

Figure 1.3 outlines show some of the potential aspects of damages that may result from an event

and cause-effect relationship involved in creating damage.

1.2.9 Disaster Management

Disaster Management is the total of all measures taken to reduce the likelihood of damage that

will occur related to a hazard(s), and to minimize the damage once an event is occurring or has

occurred and to direct recovery from the damage. The effectiveness of disaster management

determines the final result of the impact of the event on the environmental and society impacted.

Training of medical response personnel, as a part of preparedness and the actual responses of

medical personnel to the person injured by the event are both parts of management.

1.2.10 Schematic Diagram

Figure 1.4 Disaster Awareness and Preparedness Schematic Diagram

8
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

1.3 Statement of the Problem

The study aims to suggest or enhance the awareness and preparedness of students, teachers and

college personnel of Jose Rizal Memorial State University Dipolog Campus.

Specifically, this study required answers to the following question:

1.3.1 Main Question

To what extent is disaster preparedness achieved by students and teachers in Jose

Rizal Memorial State University- Dipolog City Campus (JRMSU)?

1.3.2 Sub-Question

Is Jose Rizal Memorial State University- Dipolog City aware of policy documents

stipulating the teaching of disaster preparedness to learners?

To what extent have students around Jose Rizal Memorial State University

Dipolog City Campus been taught about disaster preparedness?

What is the level of students and teachers knowledge about disaster education in

Jose Rizal Memorial State University Dipolog City Campus?

1.4 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study would justify the need to conduct the study. It specifies the group of

people who will benefit from the study, in which the school can trace the standing of students and

teachers disaster awareness and preparedness.

9
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

1.5 Scope and Delimitation

1.5.1 Scope

The scope of this study was conducted in the premises of the school Jose Rizal

Memorial State University in understanding the knowledge of the students, teachers and

personnel about awareness and preparedness in disaster

1.5.1 Delimitations

School to conduct interviews were chose, Jose Rizal Memorial State University

Dipolog Campus. Although these are not representative of all schools in Dipolog City nor in other

Jose Rizal Memorial State Universities, it nevertheless provided relevant evidence to determine

whether disaster preparedness is taught in schools, colleges and universities in Dipolog City.

1.6 Definition of Terms

Disaster defined by Merriam Webster as something (such as a flood, tornado, fire, plane crash,

etc.) that happens suddenly and cause much suffering or loss to many or as something that has a

very bad effect or result.

Disaster is defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society, causing

widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the

affected community/society to cope using its own resources (ISDR, 2012:24)

10
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Disaster preparedness refers to measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters.

That is, to predict and, where possible, prevent disasters, lessen their impact on vulnerable

populations and respond to and effectively cope with consequences. Disaster preparedness

provides a platform to design effective, realistic and coordinated planning, reduce duplication of

efforts and increase the effectiveness of National Societies. Disaster preparedness activities

embedded with risk reduction measures can prevent disaster situation, enabling the affected

population to get back to normalcy within a short time of period. (IFRS,2013:11)

Disaster preparedness refers to activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective

response to the impact of disasters, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings

and the temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location.

Disaster management according to the Disaster Management Act (Philippine, 2010) means a

continuous and integrated multi-sectorial, multi-disciplinary process of planning and

implementation of measures aimed at:

Preventing or reducing the risk of disasters

Mitigating the severity or consequences of disasters

Emergency preparedness

A rapid and effective response to disasters

Post-disaster recovery and Rehabilitation

11
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Disaster Management is the total of all measures taken to reduce the likelihood of damage that

will occur related to a hazard(s), and to minimize the damage once an event is occurring or has

occurred and to direct recovery from the damage.

Hazard is anything that may pose a danger; thus, it is used in this discussion to mean a natural or

manmade phenomenon or a mixture of both that has the potential to harmfully affect human health,

property, activity, and/or the environment.

Risk is the objective (mathematical) or subjective probability that something negative will happen.

Prevention is the total of approaches and measures taken to ensure that human action or natural

phenomena do not cause or result in the occurrence of an event related to the identified or

unidentified hazard.

Modification of the event does not mean that the event will not occur.

Impact is defined as the actual process of contact between an event and a society. The impact refers

to both positive and negative influences produced by the event on the environment.

Mitigate means to lessen or decrease the seriousness of the process to which the word is applied.

12
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Preparedness is the total of all measures and policies taken by humans before the event occurs

that reduce the damage that otherwise would have been caused by the event.

Damage is define as harm or injury impairing the value of usefulness of something, or the health

or normal function of persons

13
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Chapter 2
RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents foreign and local studies, reports and journals that will support the literature

and studies cited in this chapter tackle the different concept, understanding, and ideas,

generalization or conclusion and different development related to study of the knowledge of

disaster awareness and preparedness which serves as the research in developing the project. Those

that were also included in this chapter helps familiarizing information that are relevant and similar

to the present study.

2.1 Literature

Disaster preparedness is both a condition and a choice. While the knowledge of disaster is a

condition for learning their eventual management, the choice of capacities to build is directly

proportional to the degree of disaster risk reduction which the researchers may deem acceptable to

a certain community. In being so, disaster preparedness may yet prove to be the one, single factor

which finally would institute the much needed flexibility as well as change internal and external

for the social development of any other city. For the selected school of this study, it could well

be the framework in its need to transform its own condition of vulnerability into capability and

turn its own choice of mere self-preservation into managed self-livelihood.

14
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

A review of literature and related studies, therefore, is of primary concern to the researcher so they

will be able to understand more about the problems stated in this study, and through a steady

process of elimination and validation, learn how to later on proceed with the search for a reliable

set of summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations. It is, should the researcher say, a

vital organ of this researchs own development plan.

This review, therefore, shall present the legal basis, local and foreign literature, related studies, as

well as a synthesis. It is the fervent prayer of the researchers that the great amount of literature

gathered for this study shall not only work for the end-result of the answering the problems

presented in this research, but also as a great source of additional knowledge which could be

developed for the advancement of disaster management as an academic subject or course, in

general, and for the enhancement of community disaster preparedness, in particular.

2.1.1 Local Literature

Logically, this is how the researchers may begin this review with a plan. The National Disaster

Risk Reduction and Management Plan (NDRRMP) is first mentioned in (e), Section 3-Declaration

of Policy of the IRR of R.A. No. 10121

It is the policy of the state to develop, promote and implement a comprehensive National Disaster

Risk Reduction and Management Plan (NDRRMP) That aims to strengthen the capacity of the

15
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

national government and local government units (LGUs), together with partner stakeholders, to

build the disaster resilience of communities, and to institutionalize the arrangements and

measures for reducing disaster risks, including projected climate change risks, and enhancing

disaster preparedness and response capabilities at all levels.

In the No. 2 Priority Area of the NDRRMP, disaster preparedness is set to establish and strengthen

capacities of communities to anticipate, cope and cover from the negative impacts of emergency

occurrences and disaster

This priority area, more or less, summarizes the 4 Cs the researchers have indicated in the

introduction.

For the study at hand, the NDRRMP establishes the approach the researchers can use to answer

many, if not all, of the problems stated in Chapter 1-Introduction, Statement of the Problem. In

using similar profiling techniques and methodologies, the researchers can put in place the

following in relation to the set of questions the researchers posed as a result of the implementation

of R.A. No. 10121.

There are different types of approach mentioned has directly associated disaster preparedness with

age-related demographic variables (e.g., age, civil status) socio-economic related demographic

16
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

variables (e.g., highest educational attainment, income, home ownership) and psycho-behavioral

variable (e.g., training, risk assessment).

This categorically puts this thesis in a position of reliability. Like the matter of risk perception

briefly implied in the earlier portion of this study, it validated the direct relationship between the

profiles of the respondents. This lead premise serves as a link which now connects the study of

human behavior in terms of preparation to a disaster both by as an individual and as a member of

an organization.

In being so, the researchers observed that disaster preparedness belongs to the social systems

school of management. This school views management as a social system and consider the

organism which is subject to pressures ad conflicts coming from the social environment. This, in

effect, validates the two (2) elements of a disaster risk, vulnerability and capacity as having social

aspects.

For Marites, C.R. (2011), a social system is a complex and dynamic set of relationship among its

actors interacting with one another. Thus R.A. No. 10121 acknowledge the need to adopt a

disaster risk reduction and management approach that is general, broad, unified and proactive in

lessening the socio-economic and environmental impacts of disaster including climate change, and

promote the involvement and participation of all sectors and all individuals concerned, at all levels,

especially the local community. Disaster preparedness, aside from being a multilevel system

(global, regional, national, community, individual), becomes also multi-relational (physical,

17
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

social, economic, environment) within the social system of the community, there are still various

subsystem interdependent with each other.

2.2 Studies

Disaster is defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving

widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceed the

ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. It often described as

a result of the combinations of vulnerabilities that are present and insufficient capacity of measures

to reduce or cope with the potential negative and catastrophic consequences. Disaster impacts may

include loss of life, injury, disease, and other negative effects of human physical, mental and social

well-being, together with damage to property, destruction of assets, loss of services, social and

economic disruption and environmental degradation. Disasters are a constraint to economic and

human development at the household and national level when roads, bridges, hospitals, schools

and other facilities are damage.

Figure 2.1 provides different types of disasters that could have an impact on schools.

18
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Figure 2.1: Types of disaster, natural, man-made, warfare, and hybrid disaster classification
Source: Shaluf (2014)

In line with the above schematic representation of disaster classification, disasters are classified as

natural, man-made or hybrid, which covers all types of disastrous events. He also maintains that

natural disasters are catastrophic events resulting from natural causes, are beyond human control

and are often termed as Acts of God. Some of the natural disaster such as earthquakes, strike

with no early warning, while flash floods are sudden and difficult to forecast and give people little

time to escape or to take other essentials with them. Disaster can caused by hazard-induced climate

19
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

change can damage or destroy school facilities and educational systems, threatening the physical

safety and psychological well-being of communities and interrupting educational continuity.

Red Cross reports the natural disasters like flood, destroys the lives of more than 300 million

people every year and also states that disasters can affect anybody at any time, but in most cases

the poorest and most vulnerable people are affected first and are hit the hardest.

To highlight the impact of disasters in schools, Table 2.2 depicts a list of regions in Mindanao, the

year and the type of disaster with impact on schools.

Figure 2.2 Depicting the impact of disasters on schools

Disasters have the following impact on education:

Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, floods and others can

have devastating impacts on formal, non-formal and informal education.

Disasters can disrupt learning for days, weeks, months or even for a life time. The worst

are the after effects of the event including trauma, displacement of families, health impacts,

the common decrease of food security, etcetera, all of which can contribute to negative

impacts on the education sector and society in general.

20
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Ways in which natural disasters impact the educational sector include:

Disruption of the school calendar, as school building are usually used as temporary shelters

or evacuation centers.

The return of teachers to their affected home communities

Lack of access to schools due to disruption in transportation system, destroyed bridges,

damage to school structures and equipment.

Students removed from school by parents because of their services are needed to clean

homes, replant crops and engage in other livelihood practices.

Homeless families relocated to temporary shelters or evacuation centers.

Consequences of man-made and natural disaster on education:

Governments are weakened by conflicts or losses caused by natural disaster.

Limited or no support as government overwhelmed with immediate needs of affected

population.

Loss of teachers, teaching and learning materials, and school building used for shelter.

Quality education low, already high rates of drop outs, low enrollment and limited access

before the emergency. The current situation leads to complete breakdown, lack of teachers,

infrastructures and systems to support education needs of affected population.

21
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter represent the methods of research used in the study, requirements analysis,

design phase, population and sample, description of respondents, research locale, data gathering

procedure, statistical treatment.

3.1 Method Used

Research is the systematic process of collecting data and analyzing information in order to increase

our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested. Although

research projects vary in complexity and duration, 8 distinct characteristics are mentioned below:

Research originates with question or problem

Requires a clear articulation of a goal

Follow a specific plan of procedure

Research usually divides the principal problem into more manageable sub problems

Is guided by the specific problem, question or hypothesis

Accepts certain critical assumptions

Requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt to resolve the

problem that initiated the research

Research is, by its nature, is repetitive.

22
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

The research sampling method in this study focused on types of data collected and sources of data

consulted, data collection methods and instruments which includes questionnaires. The section

explains the rationale for selecting the research method and sampling techniques used.

Sampling refers to the process used to select a portion of the population for study. This is there for

the reason why the small portion of the population of Jose Rizal Memorial State University was

selected. Since mixed research method was used in this study both random and purposeful

sampling methods were used. For quantitative data collection, a simple random sampling was used.

The sample was chosen by simple random selection, whereby every member of the population had

an equal chance of being selected. The proposed study was conducted by applying probability

sampling, where the researcher could specify in advance that each segment of the population was

represented in the sample and non-probability sampling, where the researcher had no way of

forecasting or guaranteeing that each element of the population was presented in the sample.

3.2 Research Environment

The Jose Rizal Memorial State University (JRMSU), the Premier University in Zamboanga Del

Norte, by virtue of Republic Act 9852 is a state university in the country. It is mandated to provide

higher professional, technical, and special instruction for special purposes and promote research

and extension services, advanced study, and progressive leadership in agriculture, education,

engineering, arts and sciences and other fields. The JRMSU system has six (6) campuses with the

main campus situated in Dapitan City. Other campuses are located in Tampilisan, Siocon,

Katipunan, Sibuco, and Dipolog City all in the Province of Zamboanga del Norte.

23
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

JRMSU Dipolog Campus is situated in Dipolog City, the gateway to Mindanao and the capital city

of Zamboanga del Norte. Academic freedom, an ingredient of a progressing institution is felt

within the campus after a takeover on December 15, 2009 of Zamboanga del Norte School of Arts

and trades. Size of JRMSU Dipolog Campus is standing proudly in a 3 hectare site in Turno,

Dipolog City and along the national highway, just about a mile from the very heart of the city.

Figure 3.1 Map of Jose Rizal Memorial State University Dipolog Campus

24
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

3.3 Research Respondents

As already stated above, questionnaires are to be distributed randomly within the premises of Jose

Rizal Memorial State University Dipolog City such as teachers, students and other college

personnel and will be conducted randomly in a small portion of the institute where research

respondents had an equal chance of being selected.

3.4 Research Instruments

Research instrument used shall be interviews and distribution of questionnaires among the research

respondents in this study.

3.4.1 Questionnaires

Quantitative data was collected by means of survey questionnaires consisting of

different types of question designed in order to establish the level of participants

knowledge of disasters awareness and preparedness.

The questionnaires consisted of YES, NO, or UNCERTAIN and MULTIPLE

CHOICE required the participants indicate the appropriate answer or their response by

making use of X or shade the box provided. Each questionnaires was estimated to take

15-20 minutes of participants to complete it and comprised of three parts.

Part 1. Personal Profile

Part 2. General Disaster Awareness and Preparedness Level

Part 3. Knowledge of Drills under Disaster

25
DISATER AWARENESS & PREPAREDNESS 2017 - 2018

Part 1, 2 and 3 were designed in a manner in an attempt to address the following question:

1. Is Jose Rizal Memorial State University- Dipolog City aware of policy documents

stipulating the teaching of disaster preparedness to learners?

2. To what extent have students around Jose Rizal Memorial State University Dipolog City

Campus been taught about disaster preparedness?

3. What is the level of students and teachers knowledge about disaster education in Jose Rizal

Memorial State University Dipolog City Campus?

3.5 Data Gathering Procedure

Qualitative Approach - is one in which the researcher primarily uses knowledge, strategies,

experiments, surveys and collect data on a research instrument that return statistical data.

Mixed Method Approach - is one in which the researcher find to base knowledge in strategy

of inquiry that involve collecting data either simultaneously or sequentially to get better

understating in the research problem. The data collection also involves gathering both

numeric information to represent the final data gathered.

3.5 Statistical Treatment of Data

Weight Average - is the measure of tendency was used to determine the average

effectiveness rating of the students, teachers and college personnel on their awareness and

preparedness in disaster.

Weighted Average = (data frequency * assigned average) / total respondents

26