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RTI: A Tool for CSO Accountability in India

About RTI Briefs

Summary and Recommendations

The Right to Information Act ● Globally, civil society organisations (CSOs) have
(RTI Act) was passed in 2005. become prime movers in shaping public opinion
The RTI Briefs series examines
and influencing government policies. As a result
issues relevant to the debate on
right to information in India,
CSOs have come under pressure to be more
highlighting international best accountable and transparent about their
practices with a view to inform activities, sources of funding and expenditure.
policy debates.

● In India many CSOs such as Credibility Alliance

Vol.1 No.3
and GiveIndia, have begun to voluntarily address
these issues by developing different kinds of self-
The third brief in this series regulatory tools and mechanisms. A tool that
looks at the RTI as a tool for CSO remains relatively underutilized is the Right to
transparency and accountability
Information Act 2005 (RTI Act).
in India.

Other Briefs in this Volume ● Under Section 2(h) (ii) of the RTI Act, CSOs that
are substantially financed by the government are
No.1: Proactive Disclosure – Best required to disclose information as per the
Practices from Mexico.
provisions of the law. Citizens can also access
No.2: Information Commissions – information about CSOs directly from public
Selection and Appointment. authorities. Under Section 2(f) of the RTI Act,
where public authorities have access to
information about private bodies under existing
laws or statutes, this information can be accessed
from the public authority through RTI requests.

● Finally, Section 4 of the RTI Act can serve as a

useful model for proactive disclosure of
information by CSOs.

Accountability Initiative, Centre for Policy Research, Dharam Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi - 110021
Tel: (011) 2611 5273-76, Fax: 2687 2746, Email:
RTI Briefs Vol.1, No.3 Accountability Initiative

Globally, civil society organisations (CSOs) of NGOs.2 Similarly in Chile, the country
have become prime movers in shaping chapter of Transparency International - Chile
public opinion and influencing government Transparente - has developed transparency
policies.1 Whether advocating for issues such standards for CSOs which require
as climate change or HIV/AIDs, voicing the organisations to publish information about
interests of marginalised groups or their vision, activities, funding etc. online.3
implementing development programs, CSOs
have become important social and political CSO Accountability in India
actors. In many countries, the growing
prominence of CSOs has led to demands for As in other countries, in India the growth of
public oversight of their activities, sources CSOs has sparked a lively debate about the
of funding and expenses – prompting a need for greater transparency and
broader debate on CSO accountability. accountability of CSO activities. According
to a recent government survey, at the end
In principle, the arguments in favour of of 2009 there were an estimated 3.3 million
greater accountability in the CSO sector are CSOs registered in the country.4 When it
quite straightforward. As organisations comes to regulation, CSOs may register their
working to serve the public good, CSOs have activities under a number of central
a moral and ethical responsibility to be just government laws such as the Societies
as accountable as governments are to the Registration Act 1860, Indian Trust Act
voices that they represent. Greater openness 1882, Indian Companies Act 1956, Public
by CSOs also builds trust and strengthens Trust Act 1950 and the Foreign Contribution
relationships with stakeholders and Regulation Act 1976 (FCRA). In addition,
governments. Finally, greater transparency many states have their own independent
by CSOs enhances their credibility as laws to regulate CSOs.
legitimate social actors.
In practice, these laws are often confusing,
Internationally, CSOs have proactively complex and in some cases even restrictive.
responded to demands for greater Recognising the inadequacy of existing laws,
accountability by developing self-regulation in 2007 the Planning Commission developed
and information reporting systems that seek a National Policy for the Voluntary Sector.
to clarify their accountability and credibility. The policy which received Cabinet approval
For example, CSOs in Kenya are legally seeks to create an “enabling environment
required to comply with ethical and for the voluntary sector” and encourage
governance standards set by the Code of those within the sector to adopt
Conduct for Non-Government Organisations “transparent and accountable systems of
(NGOs) developed by the National Council governance and management”.5

In this policy brief, the term civil society has been broadly interpreted to include a diverse range of formal and informal associations,
movements and forms of organisation such as non-government organisations (NGOs), registered societies, charitable trusts,
professional associations etc.
More information on the National Council of NGOs is available at
More information on Chil e Transparente is available at
“First official estimate, an NGO for every 400 people in India”, Indian Express,
National Policy on the Voluntary Sector, Planning Commission, Government of India, May 2007,

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Accountability Initiative RTI Briefs Vol.1, No.3

CSOs have welcomed the government’s the autonomy of CSOs. In the midst of this
recognition of the voluntary sector and its debate, a number of CSOs have begun
contributions, however many have voluntarily developing self-regulatory tools
expressed concerns about the policy being and mechanisms to bring in greater
misused by the government.6 Furthermore, transparency within the CSO sector. These
while many CSOs recognise the need for include efforts at accrediting and peer
some kind of a coherent accountability reviewing CSOs, developing accountability
framework, there are legitimate concerns toolkits and setting standards for CSO
that given the diversity of the sector, a “one- governance (see Table 1 for details).
size fits all” approach would adversely affect

Table 1. Self-Regulatory Initiatives by CSOs in India

Credibility Alliance: Established in 2004, the Credibility Alliance (CA) is a consortium

of CSOs working towards setting norms and standards of good governance for those
within the sector. To become members, CSOs have to declare their adherence to a set
of minimum norms and standards established by the CA. If they fail to comply with
the norms, their membership can be terminated. In addition, CA has also developed
an Accreditation System and Peer Group Review system designed to verify the
compliance of CSOs with set norms and standards. Currently, more than 400 CSOs
across India are registered members of the CA. (

CSO Accountability Toolkit: The One World Trust in partnership with VANI and the
Commonwealth Foundation has recently developed a toolkit for CSOs in India. The
toolkit outlines a set of common accountability principles for CSOs, highlights best
practices within the CSO sector in India and provides CSOs with practical tools that
they can incorporate into their own activities. (

GiveIndia: GiveIndia is an online donation platform that allows individuals to make

donations to a CSO of their choice from a list of 200 CSOs. In order to be listed on the
portal, CSOs must fulfill a set of basic norms and meet certain eligibility criteria. Once
a donation has been made, GiveIndia tracks the donation and ensures that donors
receive a detailed feedback report within a few months. GiveIndia also annually reviews
the CSOs listed on its website to ensure their compliance with its norms and standards.

GuideStar India: GuideStar India is an online portal for CSOs in India to share
information, voice their needs and showcase their work. An initiative of Civil Society
Information Services India (CSIS) and GuideStar International, GuideStar India is an
effort at creating a comprehensive ‘one-stop shop’ for information on CSOs working
in the country. (

“National Policy on the Voluntary Sector”, Civil Society Voices, May – June, 2007,

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RTI Briefs Vol.1, No.3 Accountability Initiative

At the core of these self-regulatory initiatives proactively and on request. Under Section
is the idea that CSOs need to be more open 2(h)(ii) of the RTI Act the definition of “public
and transparent about their activities, authority” includes any “non-government
sources of funding and the impact of their organisation substantially financed, directly
work. However adherence to such norms or indirectly by funds provided by the
remains voluntary and information appropriate government.”8 In practice this
disclosure by CSOs continues to be an means that CSOs that receive substantial
irregular practice. One area that remains funds, grants or loans from the government
relatively unexplored is the right to have to disclose information under the RTI
information as a tool for CSO accountability like any other government department.9
and transparency.
There has been some debate about the
The Right to Information: A Tool for definition and interpretation of the term
CSO Accountability “substantially financed”. Proponents of the
RTI Act have argued that organisations,
The Right to Information Act 2005 (RTI Act)
public or private, that receive government
has been described as a landmark legislation
funds and are accountable to the
with the potential to bring in a new era of
government for how these funds are used,
transparent governance in India. The RTI Act
are in principle covered by the RTI Act. This
provides citizens with a legal right to access
interpretation has been supported by the
information held by the government and
Delhi High Court. In a recent case regarding
places a corresponding duty on the
the National Stock Exchange (NSE), Justice
government to provide information
Sanjeev Khanna of the Delhi High Court
proactively and on request. 7 In many
ruled that “…private organisations, which
countries, CSOs have resisted efforts at
are enjoying benefit of substantial funding
being included under right to information
directly or indirectly from the government,
laws for fear that such laws will be misused.
fall within the definition of public
However, in the Indian context, if used
authorities under the Act.” The NSE was
correctly, the RTI Act can serve as a powerful
challenging a Central Information
tool for pushing forward the debate on CSO
Commission order which had directed it to
disclose information under the Act–the plea
was dismissed by the Court.10
CSOs ‘Public Authorities’ under the RTI

Contrary to popular belief, the RTI Act While the issue of substantial financing
legally applies to CSOs and requires them continues to be debated, in principle, CSOs
to provide information to citizens have an obligation to be accountable to the

The Right to Information Act 2005 applies to central, state and local government bodies as well organisations that are substantially
financed by the government. It sets in place a formal process for citizens to access information from public authorities and an
independent grievance redressal system to deal with complaints that arise from non-compliance with the law. Right to Information
Act 2005, No 22 of 2005,
Section 2(h) (ii), Right to Information Act 2005, No 22 of 2005,
In some countries, CSOs depending on their sources of funding and the nature of services they provide are covered under right to
information laws. For example in Bangladesh, CSOs that receive funding from the government, foreign donors or that carry out
public functions are covered by the Right to Information Act 2009. There are similar provisions covering CSOs under right to
information laws in Bulgaria, Indonesia and South Africa.
“NGOs getting public funds come under RTI purview”, Outlook India, 20 April 2010,

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public for the resources that they receive public authorities. Under Section 2(f) of the
from the government and how they spend RTI Act the definition of ‘information’
these resources. Furthermore, in the spirit includes “information relating to any private
of openness, CSOs ought to be transparent body which can be accessed by a public
about all their activities. authority under any other law” currently in
place. 12 This means that where public
Apart from their sources of funding, CSOs authorities have access to information about
that perform ‘public functions’ or provide private bodies under existing laws, this
services similar to those provided by the information can be accessed via RTI
government are also covered by the RTI Act. requests. Thus for example, information
The Delhi High Court in a series of submitted by CSOs to the government under
progressive judgments has expanded the the Societies Registration Act 1860, can be
ambit of the RTI Act to include CSOs and accessed by citizens by filing an RTI request
autonomous organisations that perform with the Registrar of Societies. Similarly,
public functions. For example, in January information submitted by CSOs to the
2010, in a case related to the Indian Olympic government under income tax and labour
Association and the Commonwealth Games laws can also be accessed from the
Organising Committee, Justice S Ravindra appropriate public authorities under the RTI.
Bhatt of the Delhi High Court ruled that In a recent case, the Central Information
whether “…the institution or organisation Commission citing Section 2(f) of the RTI
is not controlled [by the government] and is Act, stated that since the records of private
autonomous is irrelevant…”. Furthermore, schools are accessible to the Directorate of
that “… the organisation does not perform Education, Government of Delhi under the
or pre-dominantly perform public duties too Delhi School Education Rules 1973, this
may not be material as long as the object information can accessed by filing an RTI
for funding is achieving a felt need of a request with the Directorate of Education.13
section of the public or to secure larger
societal goals”.11 The Court went on to rule Proactive Information Disclosure by CSOs
that the Indian Olympic Association and the
Commonwealth Games Organising In addition to being responsive to the public
Committee were public authorities under through the RTI, CSOs can also proactively
the RTI Act. These judgments have disclose information about their activities,
expanded the scope of the RTI Act to include projects and sources of funding etc. to the
CSOs. public. The RTI Act provides CSOs with one
model of proactive disclosure. Section 4 of
Accessing Information on CSOs the RTI Act outlines 17 categories of basic
information that public authorities have to
The RTI Act also enables citizens to access disclose proactively through websites,
information about CSOs indirectly from manuals and other means. CSOs can very

“NGOs, autonomous organisations can come under the RTI Act”, Outlook India, 7 January 2010,
Section 2(f), Right to Information Act 2005, No 22 of 2005,
“Private schools come under RTI too, rules CIC, The Times of India, 5 August 2010,

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easily and at low costs, adapt and expand government accountable for its actions and
the provisions of Section 4 and disclose a policies. In this process, CSOs have moved
greater volume of useful and relevant beyond an arm’s length relationship with the
information. In practice, this would also set state to one of direct engagement where they
a positive example for government have become the conduit through which
departments to follow. citizens’ voices are articulated. Given the
growing prominence and influence of CSOs
CSOs and RTI: The Way Forward in public life, CSOs need to recognise the
value of being more open and transparent
In India over the last 10 years, as public faith
about their activities. Furthermore, as those
in the state's ability to deliver basic services
that demand greater accountability from the
has declined, CSOs are playing an
government, CSOs have a moral
increasingly important role in pushing
responsibility to be as answerable and
forward the government's development
accountable to the public for their actions.
agenda through their advocacy around
The RTI Act provides CSOs with an enabling
critical issues such as the Right to Work,
framework with which to push for greater
Right to Education and Right to Food. As
transparency and create models for CSO
‘watchdogs’ of the government, CSOs are
also playing a central role in holding the

Prepared by Mandakini Devasher Surie,

The RTI Briefs series examines issues relevant to the debate on right to information
in India, highlighting international best practices with a view to inform policy debates.
Information from this document may be reproduced or redistributed for non-
commercial purposes in part or in full with due acknowledgement to the
Accountability Initiative (“AI”). The opinions expressed are those of the author(s).
More information on the work of AI can be found at
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