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Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik

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By:- Manjunath Naik Class: 12th Section A Roll no.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik INVESTIGATORY PROJECT ON:- TO ESTIMATE THE CHARGE INDUCED ON EACH OF THE TWO IDENTICAL STRYO FOAM (OR PITH) BALLS SUSPENDED IN A VERTICAL PLANE BY MAKING USE OF COULOMBS LAW. 2 .

Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik INDEX TOPICS Page no. OBSERVATION 14 9. CERTIFICATE 4 2. OBJECTIVE 6 4. CONCLUSION AND RESULT 15 10. SOURCES OF ERROR 16 12. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 5 3. PROCEDURE 13 8. THEORY 9 7. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 8 6. PRECAUTIONS 16 11. INTRODUCTION 7 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 17 3 . 1.

Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik CERTIFICATE Ryan International School This is hereby to certify that the Project titled “TO ESTIMATE THE CHARGE INDUCED ON EACH OF THE TWO IDENTICAL STRYO FOAM (OR PITH) BALLS SUSPENDED IN A VERTICAL PLANE BY MAKING USE OF COULOMBS LAW” was successfully completed by Manjunath Naik. External’s Signature: Internal’s Signature: Principal’s Signature: School Stamp 4 . student of class XII Ryan Sanpada under the guidance of Mr Amit Kumar during the academic year 2017-2018.

I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for their invaluable guidance. Mrs Murial Fernandez. constant encouragement and immense motivation which has sustained my efforts at all stages of this project work. 5 . I can’t forget to offer my sincere thanks to my classmates who helped me to carry out this project work successfully and for their valuable advice and support which I received for them time to time. Sanpada for her encouragement and for all the facilities she has provided for this project work. Ryan International School.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to the Principle. I extend my hearty thanks to my subject teacher Mr Amit Kumar and Lab Assistant Devesh Sir who guided me to the successful completion of this project.

Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik Objective To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical styro foam balls (or pith balls) suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb’s law:- 𝑞1 𝑞2 |𝐹 | = k e 2 𝑟 6 .

Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik INTRODUCTION When it is only of interest to know the magnitude of the electrostatic force (and not its direction). the force between the two charges is repulsive. If the product q1q2 is positive. it may be easiest to consider a scalar version of the law. The scalar form of the Coulomb’s Law relates the magnitude and sign of the electrostatic force F acting simultaneously on two point charges q1 and q2 as follows: 𝑞1 𝑞2 |𝐹 | = k e 𝑟2 where r is the separation distance and ke is Coulomb’s constant. if the product is negative. the force between them is attractive. 7 .

Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik Material and Equipment  Small size identical balls (pitch or soft plastic)  Physical balance or electrical balance  Half meter scale  Cotton thread  Small stand  Glass rod  Silk cloth 8 .

r is the separation between the charges (measured in meters). a rubber comb on cat fur - produces a “static” charge. Charged particles exert electrical and magnetic forces on one another. The charged particles which make up the universe come in three kinds: positive. and k is a constant of nature (equal to 9x109 Nm2/C2 in SI units). but if the charges are stationary. the mutual force is very simple in form and is given by Coulomb’s Law: 𝑞1 𝑞2 𝐹 = ke 𝑟2 where F is the electrical force between any two stationary charged particles with charges q1 and q2(measured in coulombs). negative.for example. We are all familiar with the fact that rubbing two materials together . Neutral particles do not interact with electrical forces. This process is called charging by friction.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik THEORY The fundamental concept in electrostatics is electrical charge. and neutral. 9 .

They are composed of atoms that consist of negatively charged electrons moving in quantum motion around a positively charged nucleus.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik The study of the Coulomb forces among arrangements of stationary charged particles is called electrostatics. and two particles of opposite charge exert an attractive force on each other. Coulomb’s Law describes three properties of the electrical force: 1)The force is inversely proportional t o t h e s q u a r e o f t h e distance between the charges. The total negative charge of the electrons is normally exactly equal to the total positive 10 . Most of the common objects we deal with in the macroscopic (human-sized) world are electrically neutral. 3)Two particles of the same charge exert a repulsive f o r c e o n each other. and is directed along the straight line that connects their centres. 2)The force is proportional to the p r o d u c t o f t h e m a g n i t u d e o f the charges.

For example. Nevertheless. we are transferring some of the electrons from one material to another. the electrons in the atoms of the insulator will be pushed slightly away from the negative rod. neutral insulator.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik charge of the nuclei. Each metal atom contributes one or two electrons that can move relatively freely through the material. A neutral particle is not affected by electrical forces. a charged object will attract a neutral macroscopic object by the process of electrical polarisation. if a negatively charged rod is brought close to an isolated. Other materials such as glass are insulators. but does not move freely through it. When we charge a material by friction. Materials such as metals are conductors. Charge sticks on an insulator. so the atoms (and therefore the entire object) have no net electrical charge. and the positive nuclei will be 11 . A conductor will carry an electrical current. Their electrons are bound tightly and cannot move.

If the negative rod is brought near an isolated. If the wire or path is subsequently disconnected.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik attracted slightly toward the negative rod. and its charge is opposite that of the rod. The conductor has been charged without actually being touched with the charged rod. Thus. but its net charge is still zero. electrons are free to move through the material. the positive charge is attracted to the rod more strongly than the negative charge is repelled. and there is an overall net attraction. the conductor as a whole is left with a net positive charge. the conductor will also be polarised. The polarisation of charge in the insulator is small. Now if we connect a conducting wire or any other conducting material from the polarised conductor to the ground. 12 . Electrons will actually move along this path to the ground. We say that the rod has induced polarisation in the insulator. leaving the surface near the negative rod with a net positive charge. neutral conductor. In the conductor. and will now be attracted to the charged rod. This procedure is called charging by induction. and its negative charge is a bit farther away. and some of them are repelled over to the opposite surface of the conductor. but now it’s positive charge is a bit closer to the negative rod. The conductor has been polarised. we provide a “path” through which the electrons can move.

Now touch the glass rod with both the pith balls together so that equal charge is induced on both the balls. Note down the distance. 13 . Measure the distance between the balls when are at rest. Hang the two balls from a rigid support using light silk or cotton threads of same length ‘l’. 3. Rub the glass tod silk cloth to induce charge on it. the two balls will repel each other. and repeat step 4. take third uncharged ball touch it to any one of the two balls and take the third ball away.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik PROCEDURE 1. Take other uncharged suspended with other uncharged 4th ball and take the 4th ball away and repeat step 4. 5. Measure the mass (m) of each of the two identical pith balls using a physical balance. When left freely. To change the charge on ball. 4. 2. 6.

4cm 2 2. Charge on Charge on Distance Ball B1 Ball B2 between the two balls (in cm) 1 0.2cm 4 1.8cm 14 . Length of thread l = 100 cm.0cm 3 2. Radius of the ball a = 0.2 cm.00µC 1.00µC 26. Sl.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik OBSERVATIONS Mass of the pith balls m = 200 gm.00µC 0.00µC 20.00µC 0.00µC 33.00µC 2.00µC 1.no.

Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik Calculation and Result Let the force between two stationary charges be F. q2 and q3 then at equilibrium kq×q mg sinθ = 𝑥2 𝑚𝑔𝑟 3 Charge on the pith ball = √ 2𝑘𝑙 15 . 𝑞1 𝑞2 𝐹 = ke 2 𝑟 The weight of the ball w = mg The restoring force on each ball = mg sinθ From the diagram in the right in triangle ABC 𝑥 Sinθ = 2𝑙 Let the charge on each ball be q1.

) Rub the glass rod properly with silk rod to produce more charge.) Weight the mass of the balls accurately. 2. SOURCES OF ERROR  The balls may not be of equal size and mass. 3.) The suspended balls should not be touched by any conducting body.  The distance between the balls may be measured inaccurately. 16 .Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik Precautions 1.

com  Books.google.in  Physics NCERT class 12 book 17 .co.com  Wikipedia  Chemmicalland.Physics Investigatory Project Manjunath Naik BIBLIOGRAPHY  iCBSE.