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Reaching Convergence Through Broadening the Debate:

New Approaches to Security in the Cyprus Question


By Ioannis N Grigoriadis

Human Security and the Cyprus Issue meant to facilitate the emergence of compromise solutions
which meet the fundamental concerns of all parties and
It is no surprise that the security dimensions of the Cyprus overcome a zero-sum game mentality that has for years
question have been heavily influenced by conventional hampered security negotiations in Cyprus. Putting emphasis
views of international security. As a conflict that emerged and on the security concerns of citizens, Greek and Turkish
developed during the Cold War, it was inevitable that security Cypriots alike, become a priority. The security concerns
considerations were heavily affected by a state-centred of Greek Cypriots against Turkey and of Turkish Cypriots
approach. This was clear both in the founding documents against Greek Cypriots are crucial in terms of devising a
of the Republic of Cyprus, as well as in the transcripts of new security architecture. The following proposals provide a
the negotiations throughout the decade-long UN-facilitated useful guideline for reaching a security agreement if there is a
negotiations. Neither the 1992 Set of Ideas put forward by resumption of negotiations.
UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali, nor any of
the five versions of the Annan Plan employed any of the NGO Contributions to Human Security
instruments introduced by human security literature. While
following the end of the Cold War both theory and practice Given the nature of the topic, it was expected that non-state
of international relations were enriched with the concept of organizations would undertake a bigger role in promoting the
human security, the Cyprus problem remained unaffected human security agenda. Interpeace, a peace research non-
by this trend. State actors, and this includes both the governmental organization (NGO) founded by the United
Republic of Cyprus and the three guarantor states, Greece, Nations, has been among the main supporters of such
Turkey and the United Kingdom, remained unique and initiatives. In the context of the Cyprus dispute, the Centre for
unchallenged; they remained the single point of reference in Sustainable Peace and Democratic Development (SeeD), a
all security negotiations that led to the Annan Plan and ever local NGO that was recently established by Greek and Turkish
thereafter. Even in the latest peace negotiations between Cypriot peace researchers and quickly developed worldwide
Nicos Anastasiades and Mustafa Akinci, human security research activities in the field of peace research and conflict
remained virtually absent. Security issues were discussed resolution, has produced some important work on the topic.
for the first time with the participation of the two community This emphasis coincided with increased optimism about the
leaders, the foreign ministers of the three guarantor states, prospects of conflict resolution that the resumption of peace
the United Nations and the European Union, as an observer, negotiations by Anastasiades and Aknc had brought about.
at the conference held in Geneva in December 2016.
The importance of introducing human security into the
Meanwhile, human security needs have been one of the Cyprus peace negotiations was highlighted by two recent
instruments applied in the resolution of numerous conflicts publications, produced in the framework of the Security
around the world. Addressing the security chapter in Dialogue Project of SeeD, Interpeace and the Berghof
the Cyprus conflict in both its state- and citizen-oriented Foundation, a Berlin-based foundation that provides
parameters can gain from the study of other conflicts where support for conflict resolution research. These publications
peace settlements were reached and implemented The attempted to raise attention to the need for a rethinking of the
cases of Northern Ireland, Kosovo and Bosnia Herzegovina, security conundrum in the Cyprus issue. They were based
for example, can provide interesting insights and lessons on preliminary findings from comprehensive public opinion
regarding conflict resolution in Cyprus. The experience surveys aiming to identify the security concerns of the Greek
gained from other conflict resolution processes could thus Cypriot and the Turkish Cypriot community and to suggest
enhance the efficiency of the Cyprus security negotiation solutions that would broaden the security debate to include
and also hint at ways through which non-state actors and human security in all its manifestations and also encourage
citizens might be involved and contribute to the security a new security architecture in Cyprus addressing the needs
negotiations. Experience can help us imitate successful of both communities. This new architecture should be able to
practices and avoid mistakes made in other cases. provide effective response to both real and perceived threats,
develop not only reactive but also proactive measures and
Insistence on outdated forms of security has been one of aim to build endogenous resilience.
the obstacles to conflict resolution in Cyprus. What appears These findings have confirmed that it is possible to address
to be a security asset for the one side, becomes a security security concerns in a manner which benefits both Greek and
liability for the other. This zero-sum game approach derives Turkish Cypriots. In other words, it is possible to reconfigure
from the undisputed predominance of statist understandings key aspects of the security dilemmas of the Cyprus issue
of security, which is in itself an obstacle to a solution. The into a positive-sum game, where what is a gain for Greek
need to introduce the parameter of human security into the Cypriot security is not automatically a loss for Turkish Cypriot
peace negotiations and the wider security debate on Cyprus security and vice versa. Bringing the citizen to the centre
is not meant to downgrade the crucial role that all involved is an approach aiming to overcome the stalemate where
states are expected to play in a comprehensive solution. It is conventional discussions about security are bound to end.

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This could facilitate mobility, communication and interaction The promotion of civic values and a Cypriot identity which
between the two communities, in particular in the cases where would not negate but overarch existing ethnic identities would
Greek Cypriots have settled in the Turkish Cypriot constituent be also understood as one of the core objectives of these
state and vice versa. commissions. They might propose the establishment of a
federal Ministry of Civic Solidarity which would be set up
A Set of Proposals to Improve Human Security in Cyprus following the first successful elections in a reunified federal
Cyprus, with a leading role among other federal ministries.
Proposal I - Working towards Security Perceptions: Promoting civic solidarity in all possible ways would reinforce
Towards a Change in Hearts and Minds greatly the sense of security not only among the two larger
communities of the island, but also among the smaller
All recently published opinion surveys and the SeeD report communities of Cyprus, Maronites, Armenians, and Latins.
have pointed towards the significance of perceptions with
respect to the security concerns of Greek and Turkish The fact that in a federal Cyprus both Greek and Turkish
Cypriots. Security appears to be high on the list of issues Cypriots will be able to employ members of their own
that would affect the vote of both Greek and Turkish Cypriots communities in police and judicial positions of their respective
in a prospective peace settlement referendum. While constituent state will provide a strong feeling of security.
each community fosters some specific security concerns, Nevertheless, it is important to stress that the higher the
surveys also highlight commonalities. Insecurity appears to security that Greek and Turkish Cypriots feel in their respective
be embedded not always in bitter personal experience or constituent states, the higher the chance it would lead to
memories but most frequently in information communicated reduced civic security among minorities. Minority populations
through family, friends, the media or public education. Viewing residing within the constituent state dominated by the other
Greek Cypriots or Turkish Cypriots as existential threats or community, would require institutional guarantees for their
refusing them the status of equal citizens of the Republic equal treatment. The Ministry of Civic Solidarity would have
of Cyprus or even worse dehumanizing them have greatly as its primary mission to counterbalance the emphasis on
contributed to mutual mistrust. In view of that, human security ethnic solidarity through a variety of research projects and
would greatly improve if the two mainstream narratives about proposals for nurturing a strong civic movement embracing
the two communities and the Cyprus question which victimize all Cypriots. This could materialize through legislation,
the one and scapegoat the other community were challenged. educational activities and other events which promote civic
solidarity.
The way Cypriot history is communicated to the younger
generations and the way Cypriots perceived state institutions There appear to be three major initial challenges. First, the
and their role in protecting human rights are critical in that establishment of a Public Administration Academy for the
respect. In other words, addressing the question of Cyprus training and retraining of civil servants to serve effectively in
security requires among other things a change of hearts and what will now be a Federal Republic. Developing a common
minds. Along these lines lie the proposals of a discussion esprit de corps among old and new public servants, with the
paper authored by the Greek members of the Greek Turkish aim to develop a civic Cypriot identity regardless of religion,
Forum (GTF). The GTF was founded in 1998 with the aim race or ethnicity and a strong attachment to Cyprus would
to facilitate Greek-Turkish dialogue and contribute to the be a major step for bringing the two communities closer
improvement of Greek-Turkish relations. In 2006 it set up a together. Second, taking initiatives in favour of the poor,
Cyprus chapter aiming to contribute to conflict resolution in and addressing the question of gender equality, would
Cyprus. The Greek members of the GTF have elaborated represent another important step both within and beyond the
first a Preliminary Discussion paper on Security and then the limits of the constituent states. Last but not least, working in
recent Discussion Paper. Many of the ideas both of the GTF subcommittees on the preparation of joint school curricula and
and of SeeD, first originated in the pages of the Friends of the development of school programmes for civic education
Cyprus Reports which have appeared regularly from 1974. including the history of Cyprus with a view to promoting
mutual understanding would be of the utmost importance.
These proposals suggest the formation of three commissions Developing an infrastructure for a dispassionate and fair
to assist overcoming false security perceptions on both sides of teaching of Cypriot history is probably the most important
the Green Line. These commissions would focus on human investment for a future civic Cypriot identity. Subcommittees
rights, including gender equality, public administration, and could also recommend guidelines for responsible behaviour
civic action and education. They would be equally composed by the media, important professional associations and
of Greek and Turkish Cypriots, under a rotating chair, while religious institutions, against the dissemination of xenophobic,
members of the other smaller communities of the island, the racist and hateful speech.
Maronites, the Armenians and the Latins, would participate
but without voting rights. These commissions would comprise The federal Ministry of Civic Solidarity would inevitably be in
an ideal venue to discuss sensitive political issues, overcome direct communication and close cooperation with the authorities
misunderstandings or errors of the past and attempt to build a of both constituent states, with the aim to promote civic federal
common civic future for all Cypriots irrespective of their ethnic values. The constituent states will need to have committed
origin. Addressing questions on history textbooks, the role of themselves constitutionally to collaborative dialogue with the
mass media, the prevention of and measures against hate federal Ministry of Civic Solidarity in pursuing these aims.
speech are some of the issues that could be discussed. One obvious example would be to discuss the introduction

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of common federal holidays, which would bring together question as tourism development looms as a threat for their
citizens of differing ethnicities, and which do not necessarily fragmentation or very survival as intact ecosystems. The
refer to the history of any particular constituent group but experience of tourism development in other parts of Cyprus
rather to the common future of the Republic of Cyprus, with such as Kyrenia (Girne) and Ayia Napa has left a rather bitter
the aim to cultivate a civic loyalty. Europe Day could be a taste of how detrimental tourism development can be to the
bright example for this, as it symbolizes the reconciliation of Cypriot natural environment. The inclusion of both the Akamas
European peoples following a series of catastrophic wars. and the Karpas regions into federal areas as national parks of
Recognizing the work of or commemorating Cypriots who, a post-settlement Cyprus might become a swift way to protect
standing against the nationalist waves of the times, opted environmental heritage for all Cypriots. Wetlands in the
for cooperation with members of the other community and Akrotiri and Dhekeleia UK sovereign bases, which serve as
often paid for it with their lives would be another excellent habitats of numerous wildlife species, could also be included
idea. Such a commemoration would represent an enormous in such federal park provisions. Moreover, special protection
step for the cultivation of a civic constitutional patriotism measures should be taken in the core forest areas of Mount
among all Cypriots. After decades of separation and bitter Olympus (Troodos) and Pentadaktylos (Beparmak), which
feuds, Cypriots would have for the first time the chance to have also come under threat by intensive economic activity.
revisit their history and achieve civic solidarity across ethnic
lines through the recognition of past mistakes and a mutual Alongside the destruction of coastline habitats, the threat
commitment to a common peaceful future. of desertification is another major environmental security
concern for Cyprus. Cyprus, along with other Mediterranean
Similarly, the recommendation of the SeeD survey for the regions, has experienced declining rainfall and increasing
establishment of a Council of Unity and Cooperation would average temperatures over the last decades. Besides
be rather helpful. The appointment of the members of such developing water desalination infrastructure powered from
a council would have to be made by a federal institution. Its renewable energy sources, the water pipeline that has
members will need to enjoy a high moral prestige to permit connected Turkey with the northern part of the island could in
them to contribute to deadlock resolution and mediation the event of a peace settlement provide substantial additional
both within the federal government and between the federal relief for the whole island. It should not, however, detract from
government and the administrations of the two constituent the aim of optimal management and protection of Cyprus
states. Such a Council would have to be gender-inclusive forested areas and minimizing water waste in agricultural and
and include some members active in the religious life of their civilian uses.
respective communities. Bringing together representatives of
all social groups who have enjoyed high esteem for their civic Proposal III - Promoting Cultural Security
engagement in a single council could provide useful guidance
for the further development of Cypriot civic identity. Moreover, Cypriot cultural heritage has greatly suffered due to the
this Council could lend its intellectual weight and prestige to conflict. Monuments that were viewed as belonging to the
path breaking initiatives which would otherwise meet with community residing on the other side of the Green Line were
suspicion by one or the other of the two communities. exposed to dereliction, conversion and/or systematic looting.
The looting of the mosaics of the Kanakaria Church has been
Proposal II - Promoting Environmental Security just one example of how monuments have suffered since
the beginning of the Cyprus conflict. Images of destroyed or
Within its area of 9.251 square kilometres Cyprus hosts a derelict cultural heritage sites have been one of the strongest
remarkable environmental diversity. Nevertheless, economic instruments in the hands of hardliners on both communities.
and in particular real-estate and tourism development have Raising the threat of obliteration of the cultural heritage of their
taken their toll on the landscape and the environment of respective community they claimed that the other community
Cyprus. Intensive tourism development combined with and their motherland remained an existential threat.
climate change pose significant threats for the environmental
security of Cypriots. Given this situation, it is hard to overestimate the significance
of the work of the bicommunal committee for the protection
Tourism accounts for a substantial part of the Cypriot GDP, of cultural and religious heritage led by Takis Hadjidemetriou
and tourism development will probably boom following a and Ali Tuncay. This committee has delivered invaluable
solution, when security concerns become dissipated, the services, yet much more needs to be done for all buildings
property issue is resolved, and previously blocked private facing an imminent threat of collapse to be rescued and
land becomes available for investment. This renders the restored. Special attention should be paid to Greek Cypriot
protection of environmental security ever more important. and Turkish Cypriot religious monuments on the territory of
the other constituent state of the prospective federal republic
In particular, the development of the tourism sector will of Cyprus. This would also be of great significance for many
most probably exert pressure on the most remote and Greek and Turkish citizens and a great example for both
hence pristine regions of Cyprus. Akamas and the Karpas Greece and Turkey.
on the westernmost and north easternmost tip of Cyprus
respectively, have due to their geographic position remained Respect for Cyprus multicultural and multireligious heritage
unscathed by human activity and preserved excellent natural is essential and requires the development of institutions
wildlife habitats. Nonetheless, their future may come into designed to serve that purpose. The walled old towns of

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Nicosia and Famagusta both host numerous excellent concerns, pave the way for increased communication and
specimens of medieval architecture that have suffered interaction between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and even
because of conflict-related dereliction or damage. Their encourage displaced Cypriots to move back to their ancestral
restoration should not only rescue precious parts of Cypriot lands even if these are part of the constituent state of the other
cultural heritage, but would also be a major contribution to community. As increasing contact correlates with decreasing
world heritage preservation. Some key cultural and religious incidence of stereotypes and increasing willingness to
heritage sites could be better served by coming under cooperate, developing such an institutional structure would
the responsibility of the federal government. The ruins of signal the commitment of federal authorities to foster contact
Salamis, Kourion, Soloi and Vouni, and important religious and interaction between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and will
sites such as the Apostolos Andreas Monastery in the render invaluable services to confidence-building among an
Karpas, the Apostle Barnabas Monastery near Famagusta increasing number of Greek and Turkish Cypriots. While hate
and the Hala Sultan Tekke in Larnaca should all come crime incidents cannot be prevented, what matters most is
under the protection of a federal authority aiming to treasure the existence of an efficient structure that will deliver justice
cultural and religious heritage of all Cypriots. This would in a fast and transparent manner, according to the rule of law.
make it clear that all cultural heritage sites are recognized as
elements of a common Cypriot heritage and as the Cypriot Proposal V - Federal Ombudsperson for Intercommunal
contribution to the common European cultural heritage, not to Disputes
be appropriated in a spirit of ethnic or religious triumphalism.
Special attention should be devoted to the heritage of Cyprus In addition to the above and while the institution of the
smaller communities, Maronites, Armenians and Latins. Ombudsperson may have already been introduced in Cyprus,
it would be meaningful to consider the introduction of a special
Proposal IV - Federalisation of Crimes Involving Ethnic, federal Ombudsperson public federal authority responsible
Racial or Religious Hate to address disputes that might emerge between either
constituent state and members of the other community before
Since the 2003 opening of checkpoints along the Green these reach federal courts. While the federal courts will also
Line, the numbers of those crossing from north to south provide legal recourse in such cases, it is very important that
and vice versa did not meet initial expectations. Many Greek the number of cases to reach the court remain at a minimum.
and Turkish Cypriots refused to cross the Green Line. A Providing effective legal recourse in early stages would be
significant percentage of Cypriots have hitherto failed to of crucial importance, as issues involving each constituent
cross to the other side citing security concerns. Low trust state and members of the other community should be tackled
in the police and judicial authorities of the other side was early before they evolved into legal cases with the potential
also frequently cited in polls. Unfortunately, the record of to harm intercommunal relations. Working pre-emptively and
the ethnic communities of Cyprus in punishing their own providing the means for a friendly settlement of any emerging
for crimes committed against the other is poor. The fear intercommunal disputes or any disputes which could be
that one might be subjected to violence because of ones considered as having an intercommunal dimension would
ethnicity weighed heavily in the minds of many Greek and be critical. Dealing with complaints of Greek Cypriots against
Turkish Cypriots particularly in light of the bitter memories the Turkish Cypriot constituent state and Turkish Cypriots
of interethnic conflict, before and during the 1974 war against the Greek Cypriot constituent state would require a
which led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of high degree of familiarity with the language and culture of
Cypriots and the effective separation of the two communities. both communities. Similarly, the ombudspersons office would
Incidents of violent harassment or vandalism against Turkish have to be especially equipped with bilingual personnel, able
Cypriots shopping or travelling in areas controlled by the to empathise with both communities.
Republic of Cypriots have not always been handled in such
a way that justice would be delivered. Hence the perception Proposal VI - Resetting Greek-Turkish Relations on the
that the police or judiciary of one community would very Eve of a Cyprus Settlement: A Treaty of Friendship and
likely discriminate against members of the other community Alliance
has grown stronger. In the event of a peace settlement, if
such crimes were to be tried by courts of either of the two While the Cyprus question has become an international
constituent states, members of the other community would dispute since the independence of the Republic of Cyprus
mistrust the judgement. This would likely turn into a major in 1960, it is important not to underestimate its effect on
obstacle to the development of stronger bonds and eventually Greek-Turkish bilateral relations. Since the 1950s the Cyprus
a civic solidarity between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and question and Greek-Turkish relations have been in a mutually
foment a widespread feeling of insecurity. constitutive and interacting relationship. The 1963 - 1964
crisis in Cyprus had a disastrous effect on Greek-Turkish
It would therefore be wise to declare crimes involving ethnic, relations and on the fate of the Greek minority in Turkey.
religious or racial hatred as federal offences and transfer Similarly tensions in Greek-Turkish relations were reflected in
jurisdiction over them from the constituent states to the intercommunal relations. Cyprus application for accession to
federal state. The federal police and judiciary, which would the European Union was a big step in the disengagement of
have already developed a strong Cypriot civic identity, would the Cyprus issue from bilateral Greek-Turkish relations, while
be best suited to apply the rule of law and protect all Cypriots the 1999 Helsinki EU Council decision provided a framework
regardless of their ethnic origin and the location of the alleged for the resolution of the Cyprus question and the referral of
offence. Such a decision would alleviate legitimate fears and the Greek-Turkish maritime zone delineation disputes to the

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International Court of Justice in the Hague, on the basis of the navigation, trade and development of the energy upstream
international law of the sea by 2004. and downstream sectors in the Eastern Mediterranean. The
discovery of natural gas reserves in the EEZs of Cyprus, Egypt
This took place in the context of awarding Turkey EU and Israel and the possibility of further discoveries within the
candidate status and triggering a Europeanisation and reform EEZs of the aforementioned states or even within the EEZ
process which it was hoped would give Turkey the incentive of Lebanon or the Palestinian Authority makes stronger the
to support conflict resolution and accept the jurisdiction of the case for EU and international endorsement and support.
International Court of Justice over its disputes with Greece Developing the infrastructure for the transport of Cypriot,
in the Aegean. While these efforts failed and the opportunity Egyptian or Israeli energy resources to the European market
to refer the disputes to the Hague in 2004 was missed, via Turkey, depending on the availability of resources and
Greek-Turkish relations have ever since developed at the the economic viability of the project, would be an essential
low politics level, despite the absence of conflict resolution in product of the Treaty. Support for such a project could become
Cyprus and the long-standing bilateral disputes. EU-Turkey even higher if both Cypriot leaders emphatically endorsed a
relations soured after 2013, while Turkey has ever since request for such support.
claimed a stronger role in its Middle Eastern neighbourhood
and became involved in multiple ways in the conflicts of Iraq, This Treaty should also commit the parties to adjudication as
Libya and Syria. The need to prevent negative spill over the solution of the dispute on the delineation of the continental
effects from the Cyprus issue to Greek-Turkish relations and shelf between Greece and Turkey. The International Court
vice versa has remained strong. Maintaining a stable bilateral of Justice or the International Tribunal for the Law of the
relationship and avoiding acts that would increase tension Sea could serve as the forum of this adjudication within the
and insecurity is a sine qua non both for the achievement and parameters of an acceptance by all parties that the Treaty of
maintenance of a just settlement in Cyprus. Lausanne of 1923, the Turkish-Italian Treaty of 1932 and the
Greek-Italian Treaty of 1947 remain and shall remain in full
Nevertheless, there is one Greek-Turkish bilateral dispute force and effect. If this is not done then the open issue of the
that could have a major impact on the conflict resolution delimitation of the continental shelf will not only continue to
process in Cyprus. This is the dispute over the delineation prevent improved Greco-Turkish relations but, even if there
of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the two countries, in were to be a settlement in Cyprus, would speedily divide a
particular in the Eastern Mediterranean. Given Greece and future federal government of Cyprus on ethnic lines, thus
Turkey have completely different views on the delineation of threatening an early breakdown of a settlement achieved
their EEZs in the region and given that these border with the after so long and with such difficulty.
EEZ of the Republic of Cyprus, it would be easily conceivable
that a reunified Cyprus may face a deadlock if the Greek A Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between Cyprus, Greece
Cypriot constituent state sides with the Greek position and and Turkey could provide good service on another crucial
the Turkish Cypriot constituent state sides with the Turkish issue. Cooperation of Cypriot, Greek and Turkish employers
position. Thus, it would be most advisable to refer the issue and trade union federations and the establishment in Cyprus
of the delineation of the Greek and Turkish maritime zones of offices of such Turkish federations would promote the
in the Eastern Mediterranean to international adjudication involvement of Turkish business associations, chambers and
before a final peace settlement in Cyprus, so a probable crisis trade union federations with EU authorities and decision-
is averted. making process regarding the Common Market. This would
prove highly significant in light of the current asymmetric
In the light of the above, the proposal for a Treaty of Friendship relationship between the European Union and Turkey, as far
and Alliance between Cyprus, Greece and Turkey, acquires as the EU-Turkey customs union is concerned, in particular
more relevance. It certainly needs to be more than a public in respect to the current ability of the EU authorities to legally
relations exercise, as otherwise it may produce the opposite bind Turkey in its customs relations with third countries
of the desired effect. It needs to pave the way for the resolution without involving it in any negotiations.
of bilateral disputes between the two countries that still have
the potential of causing hostilities and relieve the Cyprus Proposal VII: From a Treaty of Guarantee to a Treaty for
issue from the risk of a negative spill over effect. It will do the Implementation
former if it removes from the current picture serious disputes
which are currently disturbing Greco-Turkish relations to the The failure of all guarantor states to meet their obligations
point of creating a risk of an accidental war between the two and past misinterpretations of the word guarantee by all
countries and certainly impeding the possibility of achieving a three guarantor powers under the 1960 Agreements render
settlement of the Cyprus problem. the continuation of the existing security and guarantees
system undesirable also from a human security perspective.
Such a Treaty is likely to prove a cornerstone of future EU The possibility that any guarantor power, entirely on its own
security policy in the Eastern Mediterranean. The resolution of initiative, decides whether or not to intervene, or can decide
the Cyprus issue and advanced cooperation between Cyprus, not to meet its obligations to intervene when the situation,
Greece and Turkey would unlock the EUs strategic potential given the terms of the relevant treaty, clearly demands
in the region and provide a fundamental new element in its intervention, means that neither the Federal Republic of
regional policy in and towards the countries of the Eastern Cyprus, or any of the constituent states nor yet any citizen of
Mediterranean. It could help the EU face the challenges Cyprus would ever be able to feel secure.
of state failure, refugee and migrant movements and of In view of the above, and as per the SeeD recommendation,
course global terrorism and crime, while securing freedom of
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the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee should be replaced by a Treaty a substantial contribution to the transition of Cyprus from the
of Implementation of a Cyprus peace settlement. The Federal current status quo of division and insecurity to a future state
Republic of Cyprus, the hitherto guarantor states Greece, of a federal, consociational and secure republic.
Turkey and the United Kingdom, the United Nations and the
European Union would be parties. A Continuing Resolution Proposal VIII - From Demilitarisation to a
of the UN Security Council concerning Regional Security Cypriot Contribution to Regional Security
in Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean could underpin
the commitment of all parties involved. This Resolution In light of the regional security situation the concept of
could set a timetable for the departure of foreign troops, as demilitarisation of Cyprus as envisaged by the then leaders
the new security architecture was in parallel deployed by Spyros Kyprianou and Rauf Denkta in the 1979 High Level
the United Nations and the European Union. It would also Agreement needs to be revisited.
state that the European Union would undertake to support
the implementation of the agreed federal settlement in Cyprus could under certain conditions turn from a security
collaboration with the Federal Republic of Cyprus. liability to an asset for its European partners and the Eastern
Mediterranean. Discussions on demilitarisation of the island
Only two international institutions undoubtedly possess the have focused on the need to dispel fears that armed forces or
prestige with Cypriots to play a key role in the process of ethnic militias may become threats for the security of Greek
overseeing the implementation of a peace settlement, namely Cypriots or Turkish Cypriots. Nevertheless, Cyprus security
the United Nations and the European Union. Both are well is threatened not only by domestic but also by regional
suited to play such a role as they both enjoy high approval threats. The eastern coasts of Cyprus are not far from the
ratings among both communities and are considered to be Syrian coastline, where a scorching civil war has brought
the most suitable bodies for that sensitive role. According the country to rubble, led to the death of at least 400.000
to the SeeD survey, the European Union is desired by 73% people and displaced millions from their homes. The rise of
and tolerated by 18 percent of Greek Cypriots as a potential ISIS, Al Nusra Front and other jihadist groupings is only
supporting organization. The figures for Turkish Cypriots are one of the ramifications of the implosion of the state order in
54 percent of strong support and 27 percent of toleration. Syria and Iraq and is not likely to dissipate even when ISIS
In the case of the United Nations, the figures become 67 loses control over Syrian and Iraqi territory and is forced
percent and 24 percent for Greek Cypriots and 43 percent to go underground. Refugee trafficking which is currently
and 34 percent for Turkish Cypriots. primarily taking place in the Central Mediterranean and the
Aegean Sea could also become a major human security
The United Nations would be assigned with helping set up concern in the Eastern Mediterranean, which can only be
the federal police, overseeing the relationship between the addressed through efficient patrolling of the Cypriot EEZ.
police forces of the two constituent states and maintaining Thus the concept of demilitarisation, we suggest, remains
a small peace-keeping force in Cyprus for as long as this is valid for Cyprus internally, but may be counterproductive both
requested by the involved parties. On its side, the European for Cyprus and the EU if also implemented outside the land
Union should also be in a position to impose sanctions on territory of the Federal Republic.
any side that delayed or failed to meet its obligations during A federal Cyprus can best serve European, Western and
the transition period according to the settlement terms. This global interests in contributing to regional stability by effectively
would require that the federal Republic of Cyprus should policing its EEZ through the development of a naval force.
voluntarily forfeit its veto rights in respect of any potential Such a force could also serve the protection of the recently
sanction imposed by the European Union during the transition discovered Aphrodite natural gas field and any other that may
period after a settlement. be discovered in the future. Through policing the Eastern
Mediterranean sea lanes and through the monetization of
Keeping the size of police forces within reason so as to its own energy resources Cyprus can make a substantial
prevent a mini arms-race is an additional critical issue where contribution to European security. Given the nature of the
the European Union and the United Nations could play a duties of the Cypriot coastguard and naval force, it would be
crucial role. In an island without land troops, the police forces advisable that it would be located in areas of the constituent
of the constituent states would have to remain within size states under a federal regime or directly federal territory.
limits reasonable for their mission. While the size of the police
forces of the constituent states would inevitably be bigger Proposal IX - Cyprus as Energy Security Asset
than that of the federal police, it is important that the size of
the federal police force should be such that neither of the two Energy security has become a recent addition to the security
constituent states could judge that its own police force would debate in Cyprus. Energy discussions over Cyprus have
easily be able to overrun the federal and other constituent inevitably focused on natural gas since the discovery of the
states police force together. The UN expertise on police forces Aphrodite natural gas field within the Cypriot EEZ and hopes
would prove invaluable in that respect, as criteria could be set that more natural gas fields might be discovered in the coming
and added to the Treaty for Implementation, and overseen by years. The discovery of natural gas fields in the EEZ of the
the United Nations. Any alteration in the level of equipment by Republic of Cyprus, Israel and Egypt has generated optimism
either constituent state should be subject to the agreement about the energy potential of the Eastern Mediterranean.
of the other on the basis of a proportionate increase in the Yet the Cyprus issue remains a most significant obstacle
equipment of the police force of the other constituent state. to energy cooperation and monetization of resources at a
The European Union and the United Nations could thus make regional level. The monetization of energy resources requires

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regional cooperation which will be greatly facilitated through a end of transition period. For it should be clear that protecting
resolution of the Cyprus dispute. the personal security of all Cypriot citizens is a duty falling on
the federal Republic of Cyprus and no other states. All opinion
Energy security is one of the fields where a federal polls have pointed out that a substantial number of Greek and
Cyprus could become an asset instead of liability for the Turkish Cypriots avoid crossing the Green Line because
European Union. Conflict resolution would pave the way of their fear of mistreatment. This needs to be addressed as
for comprehensive exploration activities, the monetization soon as possible.
of energy reserves and the development of infrastructure
for the transport of Cypriot, Egyptian and Israeli natural gas In light of the above, the recommendation of the SeeD survey
to the European market via a pipeline to Turkey and other for the establishment of a Federal Rapid Reaction Police
commercially viable destinations. In such a case, Cyprus Force (FRRPF) aiming to intervene in security emergencies
would not only become self-sufficient in terms of energy, throughout the island, before the situation could get out of
but also contribute to European energy security through its control is very positive. The FRRPF would be an armed
natural gas exports to its European partners. The additional unit consisting of an equal number of Cypriots from each
income from the export of hydrocarbons could contribute to constituent state and assigned with the duty to respond to
meeting the financial costs of a peace settlement in Cyprus. crises, such as terrorist attacks, civil unrest or intercommunal
violence. This suggestion in the SeeD survey received sizeable
It is true that that the discovery of natural gas reserves in support from both Greek and Turkish Cypriot respondents.
the Cypriot EEZ provides a bounty for Cypriot and European On the other hand, it would be of vital importance to make
energy security. European energy security would further sure that such a FRRPF would not include contingents from
improve through the supply of Egyptian and Israeli natural Greece and Turkey and would remain far from any Greek or
gas through Cyprus. Yet the development of hydrocarbons Turkish forces that might be assigned with security-related
should not come to the detriment of a development of duties on the island.
renewable energy infrastructure in Cyprus since according
to the EU Renewable Energy Directive, each member state A crucial matter with respect to the FRRPF would be the clear
is required to meet at least 20% of total energy needs from identification of its own rules of engagement, in other words
renewables by 2020. It also needs to ensure that at least 10% the conditions for its involvement. It goes without saying that
of its transport fuels comes from renewable sources by the the FRRPF would be called into action, on the orders of the
same year. In its action plan, Cyprus has set an even more President of the Republic, if the Federal Administrative Area
ambitious target. or areas under federal regime, such as the EEZ, would face
a terrorist attack. One needs to consider, however, its role
Given its geographic position, Cyprus has all the potential to in the constituent states. When it comes to the possibility of
become a leader, as far as a renewable energy economy is security emergencies within the territory of the constituent
concerned. Solar and biomass power projects should attract states, one needs to remember that those more likely to be
more attention and become one of the booming sectors of threatened would be the ethnic minority population residing
the economy of a federal Cyprus. Investing in renewables to within each constituent state. One also needs to account
meet and even exceed the EU thresholds would allow Federal for the probability that at some time an ethnic nationalist
Cyprus to export an ever-larger part of its future natural gas party might come to dominate the parliament of one of the
production and thus make a bigger contribution to European constituent states. Under these circumstances federal
energy security. institutions would undergo a stress test and would have to
prove their ability to protect Cypriot civic identity and the
Proposal X - Federal Areas and the Federal Rapid human rights of all Cypriots regardless of ethnicity or religion.
Reaction Police Force (FRRPF) Federal legislative organs should definitely have a say on
any such occasion, given that the FRRPF would be a federal
Shifting attention to human security also entails increased institution. One should also expect that at least a number of
interest in the development of efficient and transparent federal parliamentary deputies would vote on such an issue
federal authorities, in particular the federal police force. The regardless of their ethnic origin, something which is of course
federal areas of the new republic should be large enough to even more likely if they have in part been chosen by cross-
host the federal headquarters and the accommodation units voting.
of their employees, but not so large as to de facto create
a third jurisdiction competing with the Greek Cypriot and On the other hand, it would be advisable to allow the parliament
Turkish Cypriot constituent states. A major step at the level of either constituent state to submit a formal request to the
of justice and home affairs would be the establishment of a federal authorities for the deployment of the FRRPF under
federal police force which will deal with all crimes that could specific circumstances. The competent organ to decide should
contribute to interethnic tension or violence, with the aim to be the federal Upper House or Senate whose membership
provide maximum transparency and accountability. Putting would be equally divided between Greek and Turkish
emphasis on the successful establishment of a federal police Cypriots. If the Federal Presidency recommends use of the
will be a crucial criterion for the success of the transition FRRF a simple majority of the Senate could be adequate. If
period from the status quo to a federal reunited Cyprus. It is not, it should have been a matter of constitutional negotiation
important that the federal police should have no institutional what minimum of positive votes should be required either of
or informal links to Greek or Turkish security forces that might the Upper House as a whole or of the representatives of the
be involved in maintaining Cypriot security during or after the two communities in the Upper House separately. It seems

46
clear for example that if all Greek Cypriot or all Turkish Cypriot territorial integrity of a Federal Republic of Cyprus, as well
members of the Upper House requested it, the Presidency as free and secure navigation in the sea lanes of the Eastern
should be obliged to deploy the FRRPF, but it would of course Mediterranean could become two of the first missions of
be possible to agree on a lower percentage figure that would such a force. While such a force would primarily consist
dispel concerns of either community that the federal senate of contingents from EU member states, it could include
could be paralysed in such an occasion. Fine-tuning the vote contingents from non-member states and would do so, in
threshold for FRRPF deployment represents one of the most the case of Cyprus, both from Turkey and from the United
important subjects for discussion and negotiation between Kingdom, if the parties agreed that the EURRF for Cyprus
the two communities before a settlement. would include contingents from the guarantor states. Such
an arrangement could include the possibility of stationing of
Last but not least, one needs to learn from past experience in such contingents in one of the two constituent states in an
so far as the involvement of small Greek or Turkish contingents emergency to defend it from the police force of the other. This
with the work of the FRRPF is concerned. Any contingent would give a strong deterrent message to any attempts to
based on the territory of the Federal Republic of Cyprus undermine the federal constitutional order.
would come under heavy emotional -and possibly political-
pressure to align themselves with their ethnic brethren rather The three guarantor states could agree on the immediate
than with those actively upholding the Federal Republic of availability of their contingents to be contributed to the
Cyprus, regardless of the fact that both Greece and Turkey EURRF. Subject to the agreement of all parties, these forces
will have pledged to uphold the independence, sovereignty could be based in the territory of the three states or in the UK
and security of the Federal Republic of Cyprus. The sovereign bases in Cyprus, namely on the island of Cyprus
experience of 1960-1974 should serve as a warning against but outside the borders of the federal republic of Cyprus.
the permanent involvement of Greek and Turkish contingents
based in the Republic in the security of Cyprus. Their very Conclusion - Keeping the Momentum Through the
presence can rally ethnic nationalism and corrode efforts for Cypriot Presidential Elections
the establishment of a civic Cypriot identity and ethnicity- and
religion-blind federal institutions. Even if Greek and Turkish The Cyprus problem has been compared to a padlock
Cypriots might, in their majority, be prepared to accept such requiring four keys, held respectively by the Greek Cypriots,
contingents so as to obtain an agreed settlement, the political the Turkish Cypriots, Greece and Turkey. This has been
logic of the operation of such contingents is likely to cause one of the biggest obstacles to the resolution of the Cyprus
trouble in the medium term and - thus protective measures question, as it implied that any of the four parties could block
need to be worked out. The dangers would be substantially the resolution of the Cyprus conflict. Given the electoral cycle
diminished if such small Greek and Turkish contingent were and other political developments in the four stakeholders, it
normally based in the SBAs. has always been very difficult to find a window of opportunity
where all involved parties have had no domestic political
Proposal XI - Establishing a European Union Rapid priorities and were willing to invest political capital in the
Reaction Force (EURRF) for Cyprus: The Role of resolution of the Cyprus question. Similarly 2017 was a year
Guarantor States influenced by two major political events in Cyprus and Turkey.
The Turkish constitutional referendum of 16 April 2017 and
In the event that the FRRPF faces resistance by the police the upcoming January/February 2018 presidential elections
force or militias of a constituent state, it is vital that the in the Republic of Cyprus have had an inevitable effect on
international community should be able to provide swift and the course of negotiations. The referendum campaign made
effective assistance. The responsibility would then fall to the any Turkish compromise on the Cyprus issue politically
European Union and the United Nations as per the suggested unpalatable. The Cypriot presidential elections at the end
UN Security Council Continuing Resolution on Regional of January 2018 made impossible the resumption of peace
Security in Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean. negotiations before February 2018 after the July breakdown
at Crans Montana.
A peace agreement in Cyprus could serve as a long due
trigger for the development of EU security and defence Crucial time has been lost. Recurrent delays have
capacity. The formation of a European Union Rapid Reaction understandably demoralised peace activists. The challenge
Force (EURRF) has been discussed in the EU headquarters now facing Cypriots and the international community alike is
for many years. Nonetheless, it met with the persistent to take steps that would facilitate a final settlement in 2018
opposition of some EU member states weary of further through a quick resumption of the negotiations following the
integration in the areas of defence and security, most notably presidential elections. Working on the security chapter along
the United Kingdom. Brexit with all its negative effects might the lines of the above proposals would be one way. The
in fact contribute to the acceleration of EU integration in the implementation of confidence-building measures (CBMs)
fields of defence and security. So might the advent of the which have long been discussed and could boost optimism
Trump administration. The new US President has made it and highlight the benefits of reunification should take
clear that the United States under his administration intends priority. The opening of new checkpoints, the facilitation of
to reduce its contribution to European defence and security communication between the two communities, the opening of
and called on European states and the European Union to the ghost town of Varosha to its displaced residents are only
undertake their own defence and security responsibilities. some of the many measures that could generate a positive
In light of the above, the protection of the sovereignty and momentum on the path to conflict resolution. Public discourse

47
has hitherto focused disproportionately on the risks and far member states overlook the fragile statehood of Northern
less on the opportunities from a peace settlement in Cyprus. Cyprus, the unwillingness of the European Union to set a
A media campaign which would inform Greek and Turkish precedent of endorsing partition, as well as the probability that
Cypriot, Greek and Turkish public opinion about the major such negotiations would turn even more cumbersome and
potential benefits of conflict resolution is essential. complicated than the current negotiations for a federation.
Were the current negotiation process finally to fail, increasing
One cannot overstate the positive contribution that the integration of northern Cyprus with Turkey and its final
European Union could make in terms of ending the stalemate annexation appear as a more likely scenario, one that would
as far as security is concerned. The development of the be disastrous for regional stability and security. The failure of
defence capabilities of the European Union is an issue the negotiation process at Crans Montana suggested that it
where the Brexit decision has created an opportunity for was impossible to overcome the current status quo without
further integration. Cyprus is an excellent case for testing transformative leadership. A fresh look at security issues
EU determination to finally develop its foreign and security could become a crucial tool to overcome seeming intractable
capabilities and thus make a critical contribution to the disagreements and make a substantial contribution to the
resolution of one of the longest-lasting conflicts. security architecture of a future united Cyprus. This would
require resolve and commitment from all parties involved, not
It would be inaccurate to argue that all risks can be eliminated least the leaders of the two communities.
before a peace settlement. Imponderabilia always lurk,
and it is possible that a Cyprus peace settlement may Dr Ioannis N Grigoriadis, an Associate Professor at Bilkent
face unpredicted obstacles. This is no reason for inertia. It University, was in the academic year 20162017 IPC-Stiftung
is unquestionable that the status quo offers no secure or Mercator Fellow at the German Institute for International and
prosperous future for anyone. Security Affairs (Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik-SWP). This
paper based in part on collective work of Greek colleagues in
Those who suggest that instead of a federal solution, it might the Greek Turkish Forum, of which he is a member, summarises
be desirable to negotiate an agreed partition of the island and some of the ideas discussed at a conference organised by SWP in
the mutual recognition of two states, one Greek Cypriot and Nicosia in June 2017.
one Turkish Cypriot in Cyprus that would both become EU

The Story of the Green Line


Director: Panicos Chrysanthou
Starring: Mihalis Sofokleous, Cihan Tariman, Matthias Lier Running Time: 113 minutes
Reviewed by Natalie Hami

M
oving, necessary Chrysanthou creates powerful images in the story that he
and thought- weaves, pitting neighbour against neighbour in a way that
provoking are brings into question the more well-versed narrative fed to
just three of the words both communities about the atrocities of that period of the
I would use to describe islands history.
Panicos Chrysanthous
In Chrysanthous depiction of the Green Line, it is impossible
new film, The Story of the
to escape the close quarters in which both Turkish and Greek
Green Line.
Cypriot soldiers find themselves in their respective posts:
Chrysanthous film, mainly in Greek and Turkish with they stand just a few metres from one another. And despite
spatterings of English and German, focuses on the unique the barriers imposed on them, the Green Line becomes
relationship formed between two soldiers. Set in a post-1974 penetrable, thus losing its power for these two protagonists
Cyprus, Greek Cypriot, Kypros and Turkish Cypriot, Murat, at least. For Kypros and Murat, the Green Line becomes the
find themselves at two guard posts opposite each other, site of an unlikely friendship.
along Nicosias Green Line.
Having watched both Akamas and Our Wall, two of
Early on in the film, Murat reveals to Kypros that hes living Chrysanthous more well-known films, the latter more of a
in his house north of the divide and soon after brings him documentary made with Niyazi Kuzilyurek, his style extends
a family picture, with the story unravelling thereafter. The itself to anyone willing to experience a different kind of
two soldiers, having suffered their own personal tragedies, Cyprus.
embark on a dangerous journey to take one another to each
This is a must-see film for all Cypriots and Cypriot watchers
others village on the other side of the divide.
as it shines a spotlight on the lives of Cypriot people post-
Although, the storyline is fictional, it is based on the events 1974: refugees still living in tents, the emotional trauma of
of 1974, with frequent flashbacks to harrowing killings losing a loved one as well as a home, and the very real issue
that took place execution-style in some of the villages. of security on the island.

48
REPORT ISSUE No 60 NEW YEAR 2018 5.00

SO NEAR BUT STILL SO FAR


THE CONFERENCE ON CYPRUS
CRANS MONTANA
28 June - 7 July 2017
From left to right:
Elizabeth Spehar, UNSG Special Representative;
Sir Alan Duncan, UK Minister for Europe and the
Americas; Mevlut Cavusoglu, Turkeys Foreign
Minister; Nicos Anastasiades, Greek Cypriot
Leader; Antonio Guterres, United Nations Secretary
General; Mustafa Akinci, Turkish Cypriot Leader;
Nicos Kotzias, Greeces Foreign Minister; Federica
Mogherini, High Representative of the European
Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and
Espen Barth Eide, UNSG Special Adviser.

L AST C HANCE I N 2018 ?


p1 Crans Montana July 2017 p37 Education and Colonisation: Shener Elcil
Report Index p38 Mistakes of Others and Ways to Overcome Mistakes: Mertkan Hamit
p2 Cyprus Peace Process Timeline p39 Europa Nostra Cultural Heritage Local Award Ceremony:
p3 Editorial Centre of Visual Arts & Research (CVAR)
p5 Non Paper on Implementation Monitoring Framework p40 Reaching Convergence Through Broadening the Debate: New
p6 Report of the Secretary General on his Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus Approaches to Security in the Cyprus Question: Ioannis N Grigoriadis
28 September 2017: Extracts p48 The Story of the Green Line: Director: Panicos Chrysanthou
p8 Shall We Build Mistrust or Confidence? Esra Aygin reviewed by Natalie Hami
p10 Cyprus Around Westminster 2017 p49 Intergroup Contact, Trust and Willingness to Live Together
p14 No to Partition and No to Enosis: Alper Riza QC with the other Community: Deniz Yucel and Charis Psaltis
p15 A View From Westminster and Cyprus: Bambos Charalambous MP p50 New Cyprus Association Award 2017: Alpay Durduran/Spyros Hadjigregoriou
p16 Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus p51 #UniteCyprusNow: Marina Christofides and Kemal Baykalli
p18 On Referendums and Options for a Constitutional Convention p52 Sir Stelios Haji-Ioannou Awards 2017
Professor Neophytos Loizides p54 Galatia Declaration
p19 Cyprus Dialogue Forum p55 Cyprus Friendship Programme
Ideas for a Cyprus Consultative Convention p56 WinPeace: Professor Maria Hadjipavlou
p20 The Fish and the Cypriots: Ahmet Hidiroglu p57 REVIEWS:
p22 Building Federalism: International Lessons and Perspectives Laconic Tales Cyprus 1974, Elias Pantelides, reviewed by Steve Comer
Rupak Chattopadhyay P58 Poetry: Neshe Yashin, Illustrations Hara Savvidou
p24 Federation for Cyprus: No Alternative or Many? Costa Carras p59 A City Walk about the Architecture of Cypriots during British Rule Home for
p32 Cyprus Presidential Elections: 28 January and 4 February 2018 Marios Epaminondas
Friends of Cyprus Questions to Candidates p60 THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CYPRIOTS DURING BRITISH RULE
p34 Turkish Cypriots vote: 7 January 2018 1878 1960: Costas Georghiou
p36 Discussing Efforts for a United Cyprus at the Socialist International Friends of Cyprus in the UK
Presidium Meeting in New York: Paulina Dampsa 1