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A sand-cone method is commonly used to determine the

density of compacted soils. The density of the compacted

soil calculated from the sand-cone method could be
correct, provided the calibration container has
approximately the same size or volume and allows the sand
to fall to approximately the same height as a test hole in
the field. However, in most cases, the size or shape of the
test hole is not exactly the same as that of the calibration
container. This can result in a difference in the settlement
or deposition of sand particles between the laboratory
calibration and the field testing, which may cause an
erroneous determination of the in-situ density. The sand-
filling process is simulated in the laboratory and its effect
on the determination of density is investigated. Artificially
made holes with different depths and bottom shapes are
prepared to simulate various shapes of the test hole in the
field. Sands with different particle size distributions are
used in the testing to examine how sand grain size
influences the determination of density in the field. The
error between the assumed and calculated densities is
highly dependent on the types of sand used in the sand-
cone method. This paper presents some guidelines for
obtaining correct in-situ densities through the sand-cone
Quality during a compacting process field is measured from a parameter known as
compactness, which represents a certain percentage. Evaluation involves prior
determination of specific gravity and optimum moisture corresponding to the layer
and compacted material. This method of determining the level of compaction is a
destructive method since it is based on determining the dry specific gravity field
from the extracted material of a hole, which is done on the layer of material already
compacted. It is important to say that this test only applies to granular soils and are
cohesive, we must also mention that while doing the test can be no vibrations near
the place where the test is being done. The thickness of the hole will depend on the
maximum size of the particles contained in the ground, which are shown in the
following table: To this essay we will need the following equipment: 1. Proctor
Molde to know the density of the sand. 3. Team (composedof a bottle, a metal cone
and Ottawa silica sand or passing the # 20 mesh and retained on the # 30 4. Metal
base for the cone 5. Balance of 20 kg to the nearest 1 g 6. A square tray

A brush and a spoon 8. An aluminum cap with lid 9. A furnace with controllable
temperature which is capable of maintaining a temperature of 110 10. A chisel and
hammer 11. Plastic Bags 12. A plate of 10cm diameter PROCESS the diameter and
height of the cylinder is measured and the volume of the cylinder is calculated; then
the cylinder is weighed with the base, the valve cone is closed, it is placed on the
cylinder butterflies preventing it from moving, the valve is opened and the mold is
filled with sand until it spills; the valve closes once the movement has ceased inside
the bottle and helped by a cordell to keep pressure cylinder enraza, the base with
the brush is cleaned and weighed; by weight difference the weight of sand divided
between the cylinder volume we provide the volumetric weight is obtained. the
above process is repeated 3 to 5 times depending on variations in the weight of the
sand. Cylinder basis BOTTLE WITH CONE For the weight of the sand that fills the
cone and the base proceed to do the following: the team is weighed with sand, the
base on a flat surface (in this case the tray) is placed, the valve is closed and place
the cone on the plate allowing the sand to flow into the cone, when the movement of
the sand into the jar to stop the valve is closed and the computer is weighed with
the remaining sand. Cone on the plate to get the weight of the retained sand
between the cone and plate

The next step is to obtain the volumetric weight of field, so the team is weighed with
sand and the capsule. In the countryside, in the place where the test will be
performed must be leveled, place the plate and trace the diameter of this, the
material is removed while avoiding losses to a depth of 8 to 10 cm. The extracted
material should be placed in a plastic bag to prevent water loss. Then the cone on
the base is placed, the valve is closed and when ready the valve is opened to flow
the sand in the creek and the cone, when both elements are filled, the valve closes
and the computer is weighed the remaining sand. the extracted material Creek is
weighed and then himself a representative sample that will be heavy for the
moisture content, these data the specific gravity is obtained maximum dry field and
dividing by the dry density is obtained maximum laboratory we indicates the degree
of compaction field.
He Los Angeles test is a measure of degradation of mineral aggregates of standard
gradings resulting from a combination of actions including abrasion or attrition,
impact, and grinding in a rotating steel drum containing a specified number of steel
spheres. The Los Angeles (L.A.) abrasion test is a common test method used to
indicate aggregate toughness and abrasion characteristics. Aggregate abrasion
characteristics are important because the constituent aggregate in HMA must resist
crushing, degradation and disintegration in order to produce a high quality HMA.


Steel Spherical Balls

Machine (The machine is equipped with a counter. The machine shall consist of
hollow steel cylinder closed at both ends. An opening in cylinder shall be provided
for introducing the sample


Aggregate used in highway pavement should be hard and must resist wear due to
the loading from compaction equipment, the polishing effect of traffic and the
internal abrasion effect.

The road aggregate should be hard enough to resist the abrasion of aggregate.
Resistance to abrasion is determined in laboratory by loss angles abrasion test.

Principle of the Test:

Steel Ball Bearings in Hardness TestTo produce the abrasive action by use of
standard steel balls which when mixed with the aggregate and rotated in a drum for
specific number of revolution cause impact on aggregate. The %age wear due to
rubbing with steel balls is determined and is known as abrasion value.

Prepare the sample by the portion of an aggregate sample retained on the 1.70 mm
(No. 12) sieve and place in a large rotating drum that contains a shelf plate attached
to the outer wall.