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76

2D wind tunnel measurements are generally used to obtain the

coefficients, CL and CD, in the pre- and post-stall regions,

A method developed by Viterna and al. (1981) can also be used for their

prediction

The maximum drag coefficient at inflow angle a = 90 is

Where, AR is the ratio blade length (L) to chord length (c)

C D B1 sin 2 a B2 cos a 15 a 90

B1 C D ,max

1

B2

C Ds C D ,max sin 2 a s

cos a s

77

The lift coefficient is given by

C L A1 sin a A2

2 cos 2

a

15 a 90

sin a

B1 C D ,max

A1

2 2

sin a s

A2 C Ls C D ,max sin a s cos a s

cos a s

2

CDs drag coefficient at stall onset

CLs lift coefficient at stall onset Stall onset on airfoil

78

Example Airfoil - NACA 0012

4-digit series of airfoils

The NACA 0012 airfoil is symmetrical, the 00

indicating that it has no camber

The 12 indicates that the airfoil has a 12%

thickness to chord length ratio

This series uses the following equation to

specify the shape:

y t x x x

2

x

3

x

4

c 0.2 c c c c c

x is the position along the chord from 0 to c,

t 0.12 y is the half thickness at a given value of x (centreline to surface)

t is the maximum thickness

* NACA airfoils are airfoil shapes for aircraft wings developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)

79

Aerodynamics of a wind turbine blade (~18% thick NACA)

A wind turbine

blade operates in

this region of

angle of attack

under normal

operating

conditions,

Lowering the

angle of attack

lowers the lift and

blade loading.

Typical aero-properties for a wind turbine blade (~18% thick NACA)

80

Blade Element Momentum Balance - Assumptions

The flow area swept by the

rotor is divided into a number

of concentric ring elements,

There is no radial

dependency between the

rings,

distributed over each ring

element,

constant.

81

consider now the ring element of radius r and

thickness dr

82

The thrust on this element from the disc defined by the

rotor is:

dT dm V1 V4

The mass flow rate on this element is also given by

Vb dA Vb 2rdr

dm

Thus,

dT 2rVb V1 V4 dr

Where,

V1 wind speed before the rotor,

Blade section

V1 V4

Vb is the wind speed through the rotor plane

2 83

By introducing the axial induction factor

Vb

a 1

V1

And the tangential induction factor

1 Vt W

a

2 wr 2w Helical wake pattern of single tip vortex

number of rotations per minute, Vt is the tangential velocity of

the flow and W is the local angular velocity of the flow,

The thrust can be rewritten as:

dT 4rV1 a 1 a dr

2

84

and the torque on the ring element is given by:

dQ dm Vt r 2rdrVb 2wr a 2

dQ 4r V1w 1 a adr

3

3 2

85

According to Betz, the blade element would

also give

V1 2rdr

16 1

dP 3

27 2

Which gives

1 a 3

16

0.593

a 27

86

Example 4.4

A horizontal-axis wind turbine with

rotor 30 m in diameter is 32%

efficient in 12 m/s average winds.

Assuming standard air density of

1.23 kg/m3, estimate the power in the

wind (kW) and the annual energy

(kWh/yr) produced by the turbine in

those winds.

87

Solution

The power in the wind is given by:

1 1

P a AV x1.23x x302 x123 751.2 kW

3

2 2 4

in a year with 8760 hours the energy delivered

would be

88

Outline

Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

Blade Element Momentum Theory (BMT)

Bernoullis equation applied to the wind

stream tube

Power coefficient of the rotor - Betz limit

Axial induction factor - the tip-speed ratio

The power law - Friction coefficient of various

terrain

89

Wind turbine blade performance Analysis using BMT method

solution is required,

The algorithm for an iterative solution is as

follows:

1. Guess a and a

2. Calculate lr and b or f

3. Look up CL and CD for the appropriate

incidence angle a

4. Calculate a and a again.

90

The local pitch angle of the blade

b is calculated from

lr 1 a

b tan

1

1 a

of attack) is

a f b

wr

Where, lr V is the local tip speed ratio, and f is the

flow angle,

1

91

The normal and tangential coefficients CN and CT are given by

C N CL cos f CD sin f

CT CL sin f CD cos f

CL and CD coefficient of the blade are determined from adequate tables.

* Betz does not include rotation of the wind, a 0

92

The influence factors a and a are then calculated by :

1

a and

4 F cos 2 b

1 sCL

sCL sin b a 1 a

4 Flr cos b

annular element which is covered by the blade materials.

The solidity depends on the radius r of the annular element of the blade

and is defined as

cr B

s r

2r

Where, B is the number of the blades,

Blade cross-section

93

Solidity s is usually defined as the % of the circumference of the rotor which contains material

rather than air,

High-solidity machines carry a lot of material and have coarse blade angles, and

generate much higher starting torque than low-solidity machines but are inherently less

efficient than low-solidity machines

blade chord length and R the turbine radius

Blade cross-section

94

Where, F is the Prandtl tip loss factor (introduced to

account for the decreasing forces on the blade towards

the tip), defined as

2 B R r

F arccos exp

2 r sin f

reduction in forces along the blade.

95

1

Momentum theory breaks down when a

3

Glauerts correction can be applied whenever

a ac where ac 0.2

a is replaced by:

1

a 2 K 1 2ac

2

K 1 2ac 2

2

4 Kac2 1

4 F sin 2 f

Where, K

sC N

96

Once a convergent set of a and a has been determined,

the local normal and tangential forces per length unit of

the blade are calculated

1 V 1 a 2 2

FN r 1

c r C and

sin f

2 N

2

1 V1 1 a wr 1 a

FT r cr CT

2 sin f cos f

97

The distribution of these forces along the rotor blade

form

the basis for calculating the total shaft torque and

the mechanical power captured by the rotor,

thus, the total axial force and power are given by:

R

T B FN r dr

0

R

P wB rFT r dr

0

98

The mechanical power captured by the rotor is also given by

P AV C p a, a, b , TSR

1 3

2

In which Cp, the power coefficient is a function of the pitch angle

b and the tip speed ratio (TSR), l:

wR R

TSR l

V1

wR is the angular speed of the rotor and R is the rotor radius,

the pitch angle b and the rotor speed wR are the parameters

used for the turbine control.

99

The power coefficient is given by

l

8 CD

C p 2 Flr a 1 a 1

3

tan b dlr

l lh CL

The chord length as a function of radius according to Betz is

given by

16R

cr Betz

1

9 BC L r 4

2

TSR TSR

2

R 9

attack, a .

100

Example 4.5 Calculate the power output from the turbine

described in Table below. The turbine has a tip radius of 5 m,

and will operate in a wind speed of 7 m/s, a tip speed ratio of 8

and three blades. Assume that the tip loss and the drag

coefficient are zero. The turbine uses a NACA 0012 aerofoil.

Assume that the drag CD = 0 and the tip loss correction F = 1

101

The mechanical power output of one ring element of the rotor is

calculated by making the following iteration:

1 a and a are set at some guessed values

a = a = 0 is a good first time guess

2- The incidence angle a is calculated

3- From the blade profile data sheet we find CL and CD

4 - CN and CT are calculated

5 - a and a are calculated. if a > 0.2 then a is calculated from the

Glauerts correlation

6 - If a and a as found under step-5 differ more than 1% from the

last/initial guess, continue at step-2, using the new a and a

102

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