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Engineering

Volume 7, Issue 4 2011 Article 7

Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube

Heat Exchangers

Xianhe Deng, South China University of Technology

Recommended Citation:

Jiang, Fuhua and Deng, Xianhe (2011) "Numerical and Experimental Study on Temperature

Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers," International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol.

7: Iss. 4, Article 7.

DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.2217

Available at: http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol7/iss4/art7

2011 Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

Numerical and Experimental Study on

Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube

Heat Exchangers

Fuhua Jiang and Xianhe Deng

Abstract

Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to investigate the heat transfer

characteristics of five shell and tube heat exchangers (STHXs) with ratio of the length to width (L/

W) at the range of 1.85 to 9.23. Temperature crossover in counter flow STHXs is meaningful in

food processing industry. The relationship between temperature crossover and L/W is proposed

for the first time. Both the experimental and numerical results show that temperature crossover can

be achieved in STHXs with L/W4.62 and cant be achieved any more in STHXs with L/W3.08.

The results also indicate that heat transfer performance decreases with L/W decreasing. The

inherent reason of this phenomenon is analyzed by computational fluid dynamics method.

KEYWORDS: temperature crossover, temperature difference field, shell and tube heat

exchanger, uniformity factor

Author Notes: This project 20776046 is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of

China.

Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

1. INTRODUCTIONS

Shell and tube heat exchangers (STHXs) are widely used in food processing

industry according to their robust geometry construction, easy maintenance and

possible upgrade. In STHXs, the ratio (outlet temperature of hot fluid to that of

cold one) indicates heat exchange depth. When outlet temperature of hot fluid is

lower than that of cold fluid, <1, temperature crossover is achieved. Temperature

crossover is avoided in cross flow and co-current flow heat exchangers. But in

counter flow heat exchangers like STHXs, temperature crossover is allowed to

exist. Temperature crossover in STHX is meaningful in food processing industry.

In recent years, STHXs have a trend to be super large as the production

scale is larger and larger. Temperature crossover cant be achieved in super large

STHXs. In order to solve the problem, numerous heat transfer enhancement

investigations have been conducted (Colorado-Garrido et al., 2009; Eryener, 2006;

Mandal and Nigam, 2009; Shen et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2009).

In super large STHXs, the tube number increases but the tube length is not

changed, the ratio of length to diameter (L/D) is getting smaller and leads

temperature crossover cant be achieved. Setting clapboards in the shell side shown

in Fig.1(a) is a method to solve the problem(Deng X.H., 2006.01). Clapboards

(Fig.1 (b)) help to split the stream in the shell side to flow in the path shown in

Fig.1(c). This structure makes a super large STHX like a heat exchanger network

which is composed of lots of STHX shown in Fig.2. With clapboards in the shell

side of a super large STHX, temperature crossover can also be achieved if L/D of

the STHX, L/W, is large enough even L/D of the super large STHX is small. Thus, it

is necessary to do research on the relationship between L/W and temperature

crossover.

Fig.1. (a) Schematic of a super large STHX with clapboards in the shell side (b) clapboards (c)

schematic of shell-side fluid flow path in a super large STHX with clipboards in the shell side

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

The heat transfer performance of five STHXs with L/W ranging from 1.85

to 9.23 is studied with both experimental and numerical methods in this paper. The

inherent reason why heat transfer performance decreases with L/W decreasing is

presented based on the numerical results. The range of L/W at which temperature

crossover can be achieved has been given. In the following, the numerical approach

to deal with 10-50tube STHXs will be presented first, followed by the experimental

setup and data processing method. The experimental and numerical results are then

reported in parallel to facilitate the comparison between two methods. Finally the

inherent reason of heat transfer performance decreases with decreasing L/W is

given.

2. SIMULATION STUDY

understand food thermal processes (Augusto and Cristianini, 2010; Augusto et al.,

2009; Chai et al., 2010). In order to quantitatively predict heat transfer

performances of 10-50tube STHXs, five three-dimensional physical models have

been developed. The configuration of 10tube STHX is shown in Fig.2. As the

primary objective of this research is to study the influence of L/W on temperature

http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol7/iss4/art7 2

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

crossover, the tube bundle arrangement in the shell side is identical for all the five

heat exchangers. The tube numbers are 10,20,30,40 and 50 for 10-50tube STHXs,

respectively. Fig.3 shows the tube bundle arrangement in the shell side. Detailed

physical dimensions of the five STHXs are summarized in Table 1. Air is the

working fluid in the shell side and its thermo-physical properties are listed in

Table2.

improved predictions of near-wall flows(Tao, 2001). The governing equations for

the mass, momentum, and energy conservations, and for k and can be expressed as

follows:

Mass:

ui 0 (1)

xi

Momentum:

u p

ui uk k (2)

xi xi xi xk

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

Energy:

k t

ui t (3)

xi xi c p xi

Turbulent kinetic energy:

k

k kui k eff Gk (4)

t xi x j x j

Turbulent energy dissipation:

* 2

ui eff C1 Gk C2 (5)

t xi x j x j k k

where

1

k2

eff t , t c , C1 C1

* O ,

1 3

k 1 ui u j

2 Eij Eij

1

2

, Eij .

2 x j xi

The empirical constants for the RNG k-model are assigned as

following(Smith and Woodruff, 1998)

C 0.0845 , C1 1.42 , C2 1.68 , 0.012 , o 4.38 , k 1.39 .

Now boundary conditions are presented. Non-slip boundary condition is

applied on the shell surface and thermal coupled condition is applied on the tube

surface in the computational domain. The standard wall function method is used to

simulate the flow in the near-wall region. The velocity-inlet and pressure-outlet

boundary condition(Smith and Woodruff, 1998) are applied on the inlet and outlet

sections, respectively.

are generated by the commercial code GAMBIT. The region adjacent to the tube is

meshed much finer with the help of successive ratio scheme. Before any

computational result can be deemed enough to illuminate the physical phenomenon,

it must be justified by a grid independence test. Grid independence tests have been

carried out for each mesh model to ensure the optimized computational mesh. The

follow mesh modes having approximately 515983, 1029862, 1475661, 1936078,

2451194 elements are adequate for the 10-50tube STHXs, respectively.

The computer code FLUENT is used to calculate the fluid flow and heat

transfer characteristics of the STHXs. The governing equations are iteratively

solved by the finite-volume-method with SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling

algorithm. Segregated approach is selected. It is used to solve a single variable field

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

by considering all cells at the same time, and then solves the next variable field by

again considering all cells at the same time. The convective term in governing

equations are discretized by QUICK scheme with three-order precision. The

convergence criterion is that the normalized residuals are less than 10-5 for the flow

equations and 10-8 for the energy equation.

3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

In the present study, heat transfer performances of 10-50tube STHXs are studied

experimentally, respectively.

The experimental setup of the study is shown in Fig.4. The system includes

a cooling air part and a heating air part. The heating air part consists of an air pump,

a volumetric flow meter, a heater, and a heat exchanger. Air is heated up by a heater

to reach a predetermined inlet temperature before entering the tube side of the heat

exchanger. Then it is pumped to the tube side to be cooled down. Finally, the cooled

air is pumped out off to the environment. The cooling air part consists of an air

pump, a volumetric flow meter and the heat exchanger. The cool air is pumped to

the shell side of the heat exchanger for heat-up. Then it is pumped out off to the

environment. To minimize heat loss of the facilities, 40mm thickness fibreglass

insulation is covered on the outer surface of the heat exchanger.

Measurements of inlet and outlet fluid temperature are carried out using

T-type thermal couples. The volumetric flow is measured with a flow meter at a

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

of thermal couples.

The experiments are being conducted under steady state conditions. The

procedure is repeated a few times for different flow rates of the shell side ranging

from 20 to 200m3/h, while the flow rate of the tube is maintained constant. Prior to

each experiment, an energy balance test is conducted.. After reaching the stable

condition, temperatures are recorded by a Data Acquisition System for 10min

maintaining a span of 5s between two successive readings. At the same time, the

volumetric flow rate is recorded.

des us s

Res (6)

s

Where us is the mean velocity at the minimum transverse area; des is the

characteristic dimension which takes the value of tube diameter d ; s is the fluid

density.

Before each experiment was carried out, a heat balance test was conducted.

The difference of heat duties between the hot air and cool air needs to be within

5.0%. The heat balance equation is

Qs Qt

5.0% (7)

Qave

Qs Qt

Qave (8)

2

Qs s vs cp,s Ts,in Ts,out (9)

Qt t vt cp,t Tt,in Tt,out (10)

where Qs and Qt are heat transfer rate of the shell side and the tube side; Ts,in and

Ts,out are shell-side temperature at the inlet and outlet; Tt,in and Tt,out are tube-side

temperature at the inlet and outlet, respectively. cp,s and cp,t are special heat of the

cool air and hot air. The thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot air and

cool air are calculated according to average temperature values of the inlet and

outlet for the section.

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Qave

Km

ATLMTD (11)

where A is the surface area, and TLMTD is the log mean temperature difference,

which is determined by

T2 T1

TLMTD (12)

ln T

T1

T1 Tt , out Ts ,in , T2 Tt ,in Ts , out (13)

Heat transfer coefficient of the shell side is calculated with traditional Wilson plots

technique. The shell-side Nusselt numbers is computed by the following equation:

hs d

Nus (14)

s

method presented by Kline and McClintock. The uncertainty calculation method

involves calculating derivatives of the desired variable with respect to individual

experimental quantities and applying known uncertainties. According to the

reference, the experimental uncertainty is defined as follows:

2 2 2

R R R

WR Wx1 Wx2 Wxn

x1 x2 xn (15)

Where R f x1 , x2 ,..., xn and xn is the variable that affects the results of R .

For10-50tube STHXs, the uncertainties of Nusselt number are 1.8%.

4.1MODEL VALIDATION

In order to verify the experimental setup, 10 tube STHX is used to investigate heat

transfer characteristics firstly. The heat transfer measurements of the present work

are compared with the data from Bell-Delaware method(Bell, 1988).

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

Fig.5. Comparison of experiment results of Nusselt number with the data from Bell-Delaware

method for10tube STHX

with the data from Bell-Delaware method for 10tube STHX is presented in Fig.5. It

can be seen that the difference between the present experimental data and the

classical one is within 6%. The present experimental results are in great agreement

with the data from Bell-Delaware method. It indicates that the experimental setup is

reliable for the experimental research of 10-50tube STHXs.

order to simplify the problem, heat transfer performances of 10-50tube STHXs are

analyzed at the condition that average velocity is 10m/s both in the shell side and

the tube side.

Table3. Experimental and numerical results

the shell side and tube side and the data from the numerical results for 10-50tube

STHXs is shown in Table3. It is seen from the table that the differences between the

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

present experimental data and the numerical results are within 7%. The numerical

results are in good agreement with the data from experiments. It indicates that the

simulation method is reliable.

From table3, it can be observed that when L/W4.62, the outlet temperature

of the cold air ( Ts,out ) is higher than that of the hot air ( Tt,out ), that means

temperature crossover can be achieved at the STHX with L/W4.62. But when

L/W3.08, outlet temperature of the cold air is lower than that of the hot air, which

means temperature crossover cant be achieved any more. The outlet temperature

of the cold air will equal to that of the hot air in STHX with L/W at the range of 3.08

to 4.62.

coefficient with the data from simulations for 10-50tube STHXs, respectively. It

can be seen that the deviation between the present experimental measurements and

the numerical results is within 7%. The present experimental results are in good

agreement with the numerical results. From Fig.6, it also can be clearly observed

that heat transfer coefficients decrease with the increase of tube numbers in STHXs.

In other words, heat transfer coefficients decrease with L/W decreasing. The reason

for this phenomenon appears to be as follows, the ratio of the cross flow area to the

whole area is 19.5% for 10tube STHX, but for 50tube STHX the ratio is 97.5%. As

the heat transfer efficient is higher when hot air and cold air exchange heat in

counter flow than in cross flow, the heat transfer coefficient will be getting smaller

when cross flow proportion is getting larger.

The inherent reason why heat transfer coefficient decrease with L/W

decreasing is distributions of temperature difference field (TDF) in 10-50tube

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

STHXs become more and more uneven. It agrees with the principle of uniformity

of temperature different field (Guo et al., 2002).

and each sub-element is a small STHX. In Fig.7, 10-50 tube STHXs are divided

into numbers of the sub-elements with dimensions of 13mm100mm13mm in x,

y and z directions. Numbers of sub-elements in 10-50tube STHXs are 10121,

20121, 30121, 40121, 50121, respectively. Each sub-element is

numbered sequentially in x, y and z directions having a unique three-dimensional

coordinate (i, j, k). For example, the sub-element departed from the 10tube STHX

in Fig.7 is representative of (1, 1, 1). As there is only 1 sub-element in z direction,

k=1 for all sub-elements, so the three-dimensional coordinate (i, j, k) can be

simplified as two-dimensional coordinate (i, j). Then the sub-element departed

from the 10tube STHX in Fig.7 is representative of (1, 1). There is a characteristic

hot fluid temperature [ t ] and a characteristic cold fluid temperature [ s ]

T i, j T i, j

for each sub-element. Their difference [ T ] is named local characteristic

temperature difference. The aggregate of these local characteristic temperature

differences forms a temperature difference field of the heat exchanger.

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

(a)

(b)

(c)

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

(d)

(e)

Fig.8. TDF in 10-50 tube STHXs (a) 10tube (b) 20tube (c) 30tube (d) 40tube (e) 50tube

method in 10-50tube STHXs. From Fig.8, it can be observed that the local

temperature difference is almost uniform and the temperature difference is in the

range of 17.15-29.61K for 10tube STHX. But for 50tube STHX, the local

temperature difference is very uneven and the temperature difference ranges from 0

to 21.09K. The uniformity characteristics for 20-40tube STHXs are between

10tube STHX and 50tube STHX. Temperature difference becomes more and more

non-uniform with L/W decreasing.

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

M N

[T i, j T i, j ]

i 1 j 1

t s

M N

MN [T i, j T i, j ]

t s

2

i 1 j 1

(16)

Where Tt i, j and Ts i, j are the temperature distributions in the tube side and the

shell side, respectively; M and N are the numbers of sub-elements in length and

width directions. The uniformity factor of TDF in reality is at the range of 0-1, and

the more non-uniform the TDF, the smaller the uniformity factor of TDF.

clearly observed that the uniformity factor of TDF decreases with L/W decreasing.

Thats because the uniformity factor of TDF decreases (Guo et al., 1996).

5. CONCLUSIONS

experimental and numerical method. Heat transfer coefficients and outlet

temperatures of the hot air and the cold air in five STHXs are reported. Temperature

difference fields and uniformity factors of TDF acquired by the numerical method

in 10-50tube STHXs are depicted, respectively.

The conclusions are as follows:

(1)The heat transfer coefficient decreases with L/W decreasing. The reason

why heat transfer coefficient decrease with L/W decreasing is temperature

difference fields become less and less uniform. The uniformity of the temperature

difference field is in favour of increasing heat exchanger effectiveness.

(2)At the condition that average velocity is 10m/s in both the shell side and

the tube side, temperature crossover can be achieved in STHXs with L/W4.62. But

when L/W of STHXs is smaller than 3.08, temperature crossover cant be achieved

any more. =1 will be achieved in STHX with L/W in the range of 3.08 to 4.62.

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 4, Art. 7

REFERENCES

Condition in Numerical Simulations of Thermal Process of Packed Liquid

Food by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). International Journal of

Food Engineering, 6(5), article 1.

Methodologies for Mathematical Modeling of Packaged Conductive Foods

Heat Process. International Journal of Food Engineering, 5(4), article 6.

Bell K.J. (1988) Delaware method of shell side design Taylor&Francis, New York.

Chai B.Y., Shao M., Li X.Y., Zhou S.J., Shi Y.C. (2010) Numerical Simulation of

Oscillating Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger. International Journal of Food

Engineering, 6(1), article 13.

Siqueiros J., Juarez-Romero D. (2009) Heat transfer of a helical

double-pipe vertical evaporator: Theoretical analysis and experimental

validation. Applied Energy, 86(7-8), 1144-1153.

Deng X.H. Z.Y.J. (2006.01) Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers with

Multi-parallel-channel Structure in Inlet and Outlet of the shell side in P. R.

China.

tube heat exchangers. Energy Conversion and Management, 47(11-12),

1478-1489.

Guo Z.Y., Li Z.X., Zhou S.Q., Xiong D.X. (1996) Principle of uniformity of

temperature difference field in heat exchanger. Science in China Series

E-Technological Sciences, 39(1), 68-75.

Mandal M.M., Nigam K.D.P. (2009) Experimental Study on Pressure Drop and

Heat Transfer of Turbulent Flow in Tube in Tube Helical Heat Exchanger.

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(20), 9318-9324.

Shen R.J., Feng X., Gao X.D. (2004) Mathematical model and numerical

simulation of helical baffies heat exchanger. Journal of Enhanced Heat

Transfer, 11(4), 461-466.

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Jiang and Deng: Temperature Crossover in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 275-310.

Tao W.Q. (2001) Numerical Heat transfer, second ed. second ed. Xi'an Jiaotong

University Press, Xi'an, China.

Zhang Z.G., Wu C.S., Fang X.M., Gao X., Wang Z.Y. (2009) Experimental Study of

Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop for an Integrally

Helical Baffled Heat Exchanger Combined with Different Enhanced Tubes.

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