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# Propellers: Momentum theory for thrust and power

Use momentum theory to determine the thrust, power requirement and thrust loading coefficient for a 4.2 m
diameter propeller that is driving a ship at 20 kn in sea water. Assume that the ideal efficiency of the
propeller is 88%, and ignore the effect of the ship wake and the propeller boss.

Solution

## u A 0.5144 20 10.3 m/s

2u A 2 10.3
i 0.88 u j 13.1 m/s
u j u A u j 10.3

A0 D 2 4.2 2 13.9 m2
4 4
u uA 10.3 13.1
u A AA u0 A0 j A0 13.9 163 m3/s
2 2
T (u A AA ) u j u A 1.025 163 (13.1 10.3) 468 kN
T u A 468 10.3
P 5.48 MW
i 0.88
T 468
CTh 0.62
1
2 u 2
A A0
1
2 1. 025 10. 3 2
13.9
Propellers: Momentum theory for changing propeller arrangements

a) A 2.5 m diameter screw propeller is required to produce a thrust of 700 kN at a speed of 24 kn in sea
water. Use momentum theory to estimate the minimum power which must be supplied to the
propeller.
b) Use momentum theory to estimate the power requirement for the situation of item a), if the single
2.5 m diameter propeller is replaced by two 1.5 m diameter propellers.
c) Use momentum theory to estimate the propeller diameter of a twin-screw option that delivers the
same thrust and absorbs the same power as in the situation of item a).

Solution

## a) u A 0.5144 24 12.3 m/s

A0 D 2 2.52 4.91 m2
4 4
T 700
CTh 1 1.84
1
2
u A A0 2 1.025 12.32 4.91
2

2 2
i 0.745
1 1 CTh 1 1 1.84

T u A 700 12.3
P 11 .6 MW
i 0.745

## b) u A 12.3 m/s (as before)

A0 D 2 1.52 1.77 m2 (for a single propeller)
4 4
T 350
CTh 1 2.55 (for both propellers)
1
2
u A A0 2 1.025 12.32 1.77
2

2 2
i 0.693 (for both propellers)
1 1 CTh 1 1 2.55
T u A 700 12.3
P 12.4 MW
i 0.693

## c) u A 12.3 m/s (as before)

CTh 1.84 (as before)
T T 350
CTh A0 1 2.45 m2
1
2
u A2 A0 1
2
u A CTh 2 1.025 12.32 1.84
2

4 A0 4 2.45
A0 D2 D 1.77 m
4
Propeller: Open-water efficiency

Consider a propeller with 4.5 m diameter and the following open-water characteristics:

J KT KQ 0 J KT KQ 0
0.650 0.2573 0.0438 0.820 0.1646 0.0316
0.680 0.2415 0.0418 0.833 0.1594 0.0309
0.700 0.2284 0.0401 0.880 0.1380 0.0285
0.730 0.2119 0.0379 0.920 0.1128 0.0244
0.760 0.1972 0.0360 0.980 0.0807 0.0198
0.790 0.1800 0.0336 1.030 0.0421 0.0143

Assume sea water density to be = 1026 kg/m3. The inflow velocity is VA = 11.245 m/s.

## a) Compute the corresponding open-water efficiencies.

b) What should be the propeller rpm for the propeller to be at maximum efficiency at ship design
speed?
c) What should then be the power delivered at the propeller PD 2 n Q ?
d) What is the open-water efficiency?
e) What is the averaged axial velocity in the propeller downstream wake V VA 1 CTh ?

Solution
KT J 0.1594 0.833
a) The open-water efficiency is: 0 0.684
K Q 2 0.0309 2

J KT KQ 0 J KT KQ 0
0.650 0.2573 0.0438 0.608 0.820 0.1646 0.0316 0.680
0.680 0.2415 0.0418 0.625 0.833 0.1594 0.0309 0.684
0.700 0.2284 0.0401 0.635 0.880 0.1380 0.0285 0.678
0.730 0.2119 0.0379 0.650 0.920 0.1128 0.0244 0.677
0.760 0.1972 0.0360 0.663 0.980 0.0807 0.0198 0.636
0.790 0.1800 0.0336 0.674 1.030 0.0421 0.0143 0.483

## b) The maximum efficiency is reached for J0 = 0.833. This yields:

VA 11 .245
n 3 Hz (or 180 rpm)
J D 0.833 4.5
The power delivered at the propeller is expressed by the torque:
Q K Q n 2 D 5 0.0309 1026 32 4.55 0.527 MNm
PD 2 n Q 2 3 0.527 9.92 MW

T 603.5 103
CTh 0.585
1
2
V 2
A D
2
4
1
2
1026 11 . 2452
4.5
2
4
The axial velocity in the propeller slipstream is:
V VA 1 CTh 11 .245 1 0.585 14.16 m/s
Propellers: Propeller curve

Consider a propeller with 4.5 m diameter and the following open-water characteristics:

J KT KQ 0
0.650 0.2573 0.0438 0.6080
0.680 0.2415 0.0418 0.6250
0.700 0.2284 0.0401 0.6350
0.730 0.2119 0.0379 0.6500
0.760 0.1972 0.0360 0.6630
0.790 0.1800 0.0336 0.6740
0.820 0.1646 0.0316 0.6800
0.833 0.1594 0.0309 0.6810
0.880 0.1380 0.0285 0.6780
0.920 0.1128 0.0244 0.6770
0.980 0.0807 0.0198 0.6360
1.030 0.0421 0.0143 0.4830

## The inflow velocity at design speed is VA = 11.245 m/s.

a) What should be the propeller rpm for the propeller to be at maximum efficiency at ship design
speed?
b) What should then be the power delivered at the propeller PD 2 n Q ?
c) What is the open-water efficiency?
d) What is the averaged axial velocity in the propeller downstream wake V V A 1 CTh ?

Solution

a) The maximum efficiency is reached for J0 = 0.833. The associated rpm is:
VA 11 .245
n 3 Hz (= 180 rpm)
J D 0.833 4.5
b) The power delivered at the propeller is expressed by the torque:
Q K Q n 2 D 5 0.0309 1026 32 4.55 0.527 MNm
PD 2 n Q 2 3 0.527 9.92 MW
c) The open-water efficiency is:
K J 0.1594 0.833
0 T 0.684
K Q 2 0.0309 2