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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

Volume 2, No 2, 2011
Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing services
Research article ISSN 0976 4399

Cold formed steel joints and structures -A review


Bayan A, Sariffuddin S., Hanim O
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
engbayan@gmail.com
doi:10.6088/ijcser.00202010137

ABSTRACT

Cold formed steel structures are structural products that are made by forming plane sheets of
steel at an ambient temperature into different shapes that can be used to convince structural
and functional requirements. In years, higher strength materials and a wider range of
structural applications have caused a most important development in cold-formed steel
relative to the common heavier hot rolled steel structural members. Therefore, the
understanding of cold formed steel performance becomes an important issue to be studied.
This paper holds three works. First, it reviews an introduction on cold formed steel structures.
Second, it summarizes general design considerations of cold formed steel constructions.
Finally, it offers a review on research of joints and structures for cold formed steel.

Keywords: Cold formed steel, buckling, joints and structures

1. Introduction

Cold formed steel sections are light-weight materials suitable for building construction owing
to their high structural performance. The most common sections are lipped C and Z sections,
the thickness typically ranges from 1.2 mm to 3.2 mm, and sections with yield strengths from
250 to 450 N/mm2 are commonly available (Yu et al., 2005). The higher yield stress steels
are becoming more common as steel manufacturers produce high strength steel more
efficiently. In general, cold formed steel members are used as secondary members in building
construction, and they are connected onto primary structural members through web cleats as
pinned or moment connections, depending on the connection configuration.

Over the past two decades, cold formed steel has seen increased usage as the structural frame
for residential and multi-story commercial buildings due to inherent features that overcome
the downsides of conventional products. Their strength, light weight, versatility, non-
combustibility, and ease of production have encouraged architects, engineers, and
contractors to use cold formed steel products, which can improve structural function and
building performance and provide aesthetic appeal at lower cost. For typical applications
of cold formed steel sections, there are many design recommendations on cold formed
steel structures available such as AISI (1996), BS5950 (1998) and Eurocode 3: Part 1.3.
Moreover, a number of design guides and commentaries are also available to assist
structural engineers to design cold formed steel structures (Chung 1993, Hancock 1998,
Lawson et al. 2002, Yu 2000). Cold formed steel members have unique structural stability
issues primarily due to the large width-to-thickness comparison element ratios, which is not
commonly the use with sections of hot-rolled steel. In order to enhance the practical use of
light steel framing, this paper provides a brief summary on behavior of cold formed steel
members and provides also a list of references and recommended readings, which is of vast
interest for readers concerned to advance their understanding in this field.

Received on September, 2011 Published on November 2011 621


Cold formed steel joints and structures -A review
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2. Cold Formed Steel Structures and their Applications

The use of cold-formed steel members in structural framing have many advantages as listed
below (Yu, 2002):

Buildability: The use of prefabricate and preassembled steel works lessen site workings,
material waste, and advanced quality.

Speed: This system requires a shorter construction period compared to that for a
conventional system.

Strong and Lightweight: Steel has one of the peak strength-to-weight proportions of any
building material. This steel in the foundation required and the lightness also makes for
easier on-site handling.

Safety: Steel's natural strength and non-combustible qualities enable light steel frame
houses to defend against such destructive events as fires, earthquakes, and hurricanes.
Homes can be designed to meet the highest seismic and wind load specifications in any
part of the country.

Figure 1: Cold formed steel framing

Quality: A better quality finished house that is durable and low in maintenance.
Easy to modify: Modifying can be easily skilled. Non-load bearing walls can be readily
relocated, removed or altered.

Design Flexibility: Because of its high strength, steel can be used in longer span lengths,
presenting larger open spaces and increased design flexibility without requiring
intermediate columns or load bearing walls.

Recyclable: All steel products are recyclable.

Since 1990, there is a growing trend to use cold-formed steel sections as primary structural
members in building construction for low to medium rise residential houses and portal
frames of modest span (Yu et al., 2005) as example shown in Figure 1. In tall multi-story
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structures the major framing is typically of heavy hot rolled shapes and the minor elements
may be of cold formed steel members such as steel joists, decks, or panels. In this case, the
heavy hot rolled steel shapes and the cold formed steel sections supplement each other.

3. Common Design Considerations of Cold Formed Steel Members

The use of slender material and cold-forming processes results in several design problems for
cold formed steel construction dissimilar to those of heavy hot rolled steel construction. The
next is a short argument of some problems usually joins in design (Yu, 2000).

3.1. Buckling of Cold Formed Members

The three basic buckling modes of thin-walled cold formed steel members are shown in
Figure 2. Local buckling is a mode involving plate flexure alone without transverse
deformation of the line or lines of intersection of adjoining plates, distortional buckling is a
mode of buckling involving change in cross-sectional shape excluding local buckling, and the
term global buckling embraces Euler (flexural) and lateral-torsional buckling of
columns and lateral buckling of beams (Hancock, 2003).

Figure 2: Examples of bending and compression buckling modes (AISI, 2004)

3.2. Torsion and Distortion

Cold formed open section steel members are more expected to go through torsional
deformation due to their low torsional rigidity, resulting from their slender walls. Further, the
sections are often loaded eccentrically from their shear centers and so are subject to
considerable torques as shown in Figure 3(a) and sometimes include distortional buckling
Figure 3(b).

3.3. Stiffeners in Compression Elements

The load-carrying capability and the buckling performance of compression components of


beams and columns can be enhanced significantly by the use of edge stiffeners or

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intermediate stiffeners. Requirements for the design of such stiffeners have been developed
from previous research. Nevertheless, this type of stiffener generally is not practical in hot
rolled shapes and built-up members.

Figure 3: Torsional and distortional buckling deformations of channel sections


(Hancock, 2003)

3.4. Properties of Cold Formed Steel Sections

This section having a stiffened, partially stiffened, or unstiffened compression element, the
whole width of the element is fully effective when the width-to thickness proportion of the
element is small or when it is subjected to low compressive stress. Nevertheless, as stress
rises in the element having a reasonably large width-to-thickness ratio, the parts closest to the
supported edges are more structurally effective after the plate buckles. Consequently, the
stress distribution is nonuniform in the compression element. In the design of such
members the sectional properties are founded based on a reduced effective area.

3.5. Web Crippling

Web crippling frequently arises in cold formed members because they have loading eccentric
from the web centerline due to the rounded corners of the sections, and because the webs are
often slender and unstiffened, dissimilar to hot rolled design where web stiffeners are often
used. A current paper by Young and Hancock (2001) presents experimental data on cold
formed unlipped channels subject to web crippling.

3.6. Ductility and Plastic Design


Mainly due to the sectional buckling phenomena, cold formed sections are of class 4 or class
3 as shown in Figure 4, at the most, but also due to the effect of cold-forming by stress
hardening; the cold formed steel sections possess a low ductility and are not generally
allowed for plastic design. Cold formed sections can be used in seismic resistant
structures because there are structural benefits coming from their reduced weight,
but only elastic design is allowed and no reduction of shear seismic force is possible.

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Figure 4: section classifications according to moment capacity

3.7. Joints

Methods for connecting cold formed members are frequently quite different from those of hot
rolled members. Where welding and bolting are familiar for hot rolled members, such
connection forms as screws, clinching, and riveting may be used for cold formed members.
Also even for bolted connections, the structural behavior of cold formed connections is often
quite different from hot rolled members due to the thin sheets and higher strength steels used
(Honcock, 2003). The database used to develop specifications for the design of connections
among cold formed sections is mostly based on testing a very large number of connections.
These experimental works are costly and take time. They can be, at least partially,
replaced by numerical models using a finite element program. Fan et al. (1997) have
revealed the enormous attention of such models to advance our understanding of the real
performance of the connections.

3.8. Thickness Limitations


In the design of cold formed steel structural members, the important factors are the width-to-
thickness ratio of compression elements and the unit stress used; the thickness of the steel
itself is not a critical factor.

3.9. Cold Work of Forming

The mechanical properties of cold formed sections are sometimes substantially different from
those of the steel sheet, strip, plate, or bar before forming. This is because the cold-forming
operation increases the yield point and tensile strength and at the same time decreases the
ductility. The percentage increase in tensile strength is much smaller than the increase in
yield strength, with a consequent marked reduction in the spread between yield point and
tensile strength. Since the material in the corners of a section is cold-worked to a
considerably higher degree than the material in the flat elements, the mechanical
properties are different in various parts of the cross section (Chen and Young, 2006).
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4. Previous Research on Joints and structures for Cold-Formed Steel

All of the connection methods appropriate to hot rolled sections are also appropriate to cold
formed steel sections (Rhodes and Shanmugam, 2003). For thin sections, the main design
considerations tend to be the bearing of the sections. Conventionally, connections between
cold formed steel sections comprising two bolts per member are considered as shear resisting
connections. Review of research on joints and structures for cold formed steel is summarized
below.

Chung and Lawson (2000) carried out an investigation on the structural performance of
shear resisting connections between cold formed steel sections where web cleats of cold
formed steel strips were used to attach beams to supporting beams and columns. A total
of 24 connection tests with different fasteners (bolt, screw, and rivet) were carried out.
The results were compared to design rules based on BS 5950-5:1998 and EC3-1-3. Three
modes of failure were identified: failure of fasteners, shear buckling of cold-formed steel
web cleats or webs of supported beams, and lateral torsional buckling of cold formed
steel web cleats. It was demonstrated that the cold formed steel web cleats might be used
with bolts or self-drilling self-tapping screws as practical shear resisting connections in
building construction. The rationalized usage of cold formed steel web cleats allowed
simple and effective connections to be formed between cold formed steel sections
leading to improved buildability.

Chung and Ip (2001) established a finite element model with three-dimensional solid
elements to investigate the bearing failure of cold-formed steel bolted connections under
shear. The finite element package ANSYS (Version 5.3) was used to predict the struc-
tural performance of bolted connections between cold-formed steel strips and hot-rolled
steel plates under shear. Three dimensional eight-noded, iso-parametric solid elements
SOLID45 were employed to model all the components of a typical bolted connection,
namely, the cold-formed steel strip, the hot-rolled steel plate, the bolts and also the
washer, in order to capture material yielding throughout the steel thickness. It was
demonstrated that the predicted loadextension curves of bolted connections in lap shear
tests followed closely to the measured loadextension curves provided that measured
steel strengths and geometrical dimensions were used in the analysis. Furthermore, it was
shown that the stressstrain curves, contact stiffness and frictional coefficients between
element interfaces, and clamping forces developed in bolt shanks were important
parameters for accurate prediction of the deformation characteristics of bolted
connections. This research presented an extension of the finite element investigation onto
the structural behaviour of cold-formed steel bolted connections, and three distinctive
failure modes observed in lap shear tests are successfully modelled: bearing failure; the
shear-out failure; and the net-section failure. Consequently, semi empirical formula for
bearing resistance of bolted connections is proposed after calibrating against finite
element results.

A general report on the developments of cold formed steel members and structures until Year
2000 presented (Rondal, 2000). He gave particular emphases to the developments in the field
of distortional buckling and improvement of new types of connections. Distortional buckling
plays an important role on stability with the use of thinner sections made with high strength
steel. The new theory included generalized beam theory has lead to enhanced understanding

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of this complex buckling form. Researchers were investigated this issue and suggested new
theory to include the distortional buckling in the design of cold formed steel flexural member.
For joints between cold formed members, new joints methods have been developed for shear
resisting capacity, such as press-joining and rosette joint. He concluded that the last two
decade has shown large and significant growth in the facts of the performance cold formed
steel members and structures by joining scientific knowledge, high strength steels, and
modern design specifications. LaBoube and Soko (2002) studied the behaviour of single-
shear connections using self-drilling screws in cold-formed steel construction. Fastener
patterns, screw spacing, stripped screws, and the number of screws in a connection was
varied to determine their influence on connection strength. A design equation was
established. The findings of the research demonstrated that the screw pattern did not
significantly influence the strength of the connection. However, the assumption that the
connection strength for a multiple screw connection is proportional to the number of
screws in the connection pattern was found to be unconservative. The connection
strength decreased with decreased spacing of the screws. A stripped screw in a single
shear connection did not result in the erosion of the connection strength.

Chung and Ho (2005) presented an analysis and design method for lapped connections
between cold-formed steel Z sections after careful calibration against test obtained from
a total of 26 one point-load tests on lapped connections. Once the co-existing moments
and shear forces in the lapped connections were evaluated, the critical sections were
readily checked against combined bending and shear using codified design rules.
Moreover, design expressions were also proposed for the evaluation of effective flexural
rigidities of lapped connections with various bolt configurations against practical lap
length to section depth ratios. Consequently, the structural behavior of lapped sections
between cold-formed steel Z section in terms of strength and stiffness is quantified
rationally for general design.

Fiorino et al. (2007) tested screw connections between wood- or gypsum-based panels
and cold-formed steel stud profiles. The main objectives of the study were: to compare
the response of different types of panels, to study the effect of sheathing orientation, to
examine the effect of the loaded edge distance, to examine the effect of different cyclic
loading protocols, and to assess the effect of the loading rate. The outcomes of this
experimental investigation were deeply discussed, aiming to select the main parameters
affecting the shear behaviour of this type of connections. In addition, a procedure for the
prediction of the lateral loaddisplacement response of steel frame panel systems based
on the obtained results was presented. Dubina and Zaharia (1997) presented an
experimental research program aiming to evaluate the semi-rigid behaviour of some
typical bolted connections used in cold formed steel plane truss joints. Structural
performance of the connections was evaluated in term of strength and stiffness. A
numerical analysis of this type of truss, in which this semi-rigid behaviour was taken into
account using experimental results, was performed in order to demonstrate the
improvement of load capacity in comparison with the classical assumptions.

Chung and Lau (1999) presented an experimental investigation on the structural


performance of cold formed steel members with bolted moment connections. Two lipped
C sections back-to-back with interconnections are used as beam and column members.
The structural performance and modes of failure of all tests were investigated. Among
sixteen component and system tests, the moment resistance of bolted moment
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connections with four bolts per member was found to lie between 42% and 84% of the
moment capacities of the connected members. The beam column connections with
haunched gusset plates failed at a much higher applied moment when compared with the
other connection configurations. Thus, it was demonstrated that moment connections
among cold formed steel members are structurally feasible and economical through
rational design. Wong and Chung (2002) presented an experimental investigation on
bolted moment connections between cold-formed steel sections. A total of 20 column
base connection tests and beam-column sub frame tests with different connection
configurations were carried out to assess the strength and stiffness of bolted moment
connections between cold-formed steel sections. The beam and column members were
double channel section Grade 450 N/mm2 back to back. Findings showed that there was
little difference in the moment resistances of connections with different bolt pitches
while thicker gusset plates always give higher moment resistances. The presence of 50
mm deep chamfers was found to be effective in gusset plates 10 mm thick as their
structural behaviour is similar to those gusset plates 16 mm thick but without chamfers.
The moment resistance ratios of the connections were found to be over 90% with flexural
failure in connected cold formed steel sections. Consequently, it was demonstrated that
through rational design and construction, effective moment connections between cold-
formed steel sections might be readily achieved. Engineers are encouraged to build light-
weight low to medium rise moment frames with cold-formed steel sections.

Lim and Nethercot (2003) studied the behaviour and design of bolted moment-
connections between cold-formed steel members, formed by using brackets bolted to the
webs of the section. A combination of laboratory tests and finite element analysis were
used in their investigation. It was demonstrated that there was a good agreement between
the measured ultimate moment-capacity and the predicted value by using the finite
element method. A parametric study conducted using the finite element model showed
that the moment-capacity of a practical size joint can be up to 20% lower than that of the
cold-formed steel sections being connected. Web buckling so-caused must therefore be
considered in the design of such connections. The study done by Wong and Chung
(2002) was later analyzed by Yu et al. (2005) to predict the structural behaviour of bolted
moment connections between cold-formed steel sections. A non-linear finite element
model of the beamcolumn sub-frames incorporating the effect of semi-rigid joints was
presented. On the basis of the measured moment joint rotation curves of the bolted
moment connections, the overall lateral loaddeflection curves of the sub-frames were
predicted, and they were found to follow closely the curves obtained from tests. The
research proposed a semi-empirical formula for flexibility prediction and design rules for
the proposed bolted moment connection.

Chung et al. (2005) tested four column bases with different connection configurations, to
investigate their moment resistance and typical modes of failure. A finite element model
was generated using the ABAQUS (Version 6.4, 2004) software package was later
established using shell and spring elements to model the sections and bolted fastenings
respectively. Comparison between the test and numerical results was presented. Grade
450 cold-formed double channel steel sections of size of 150 mm depth and 64 mm
width were used. The thicknesses of the sections were 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm respectively.
All bolts used were 16 mm diameter of Grade 8.8. Column bases were formed with hot-
rolled steel plates 16 mm and 20 mm thick, into a T-shape, with the bolt pitch 180 mm
and 240 mm. Findings showed that the proposed design and analysis method was
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structurally adequate to predict the failure loads of column-base under shear and bending.
Dundu and Kemp (2006) presented tests to determine the failure modes of the eaves
region of steel portal frames. This was part of a major research project to establish the
over all behaviour of steel portal frames, constructed from single channels and bolted
back-to-back at the eaves joint. Variables in the 4 tests include the number of bolts in the
connection, the points of contraflecture, the width of the channel flanges and the strength
of the channels. Three modes of failure were observed. The final failure mode in all
structures was local buckling of the compression flange and web. Local buckling was
made more critical by stress concentrations, shear lag and bearing deformations caused
by back-to-back connections. It proposed that a factor of 0.8 should be applied to the
yield moment and the buckling moment of resistance to account for stress concentrations,
shear lag and bearing deformations. Tan (2009) carried out research in Universiti
Teknoloji Malaysia to develop the design procedures of bolted beam to column
connections for double channel cold-formed steel sections, to study the pin and partial
strength behaviour of the developed connections based on their strength and stiffness
performance, and to validate the performance of the proposed connection configurations
by comparing the analytical calculation to experimental results. A series of full scale
experimental investigation comprising of twenty-four isolated joint tests and twelve sub-
assemblage frame tests were carried out to understand the connections strength and
stiffness behaviour. The experimental results showed good agreement compared to
theoretical predictions. From the experimental and analytical results, some of the
connections were classified as pin joints, with the strengths less than 25% of beam
capacity; while others were classified as partial strength joints with moment resistance of
joints were in the range of 46% to 96% to the moment resistance of the connected beam.
Uang et al. (2010) carried out cyclic tests on nine full-scale beam-column sub
assemblages. With double channel beams and HSS columns interconnected by bearing-
type high-strength bolts, all specimens showed a story drift capacity significantly larger
than 0.04 radian. Typical response is characterized by a linear response, a slip range,
followed by a significant hardening region due to bolt bearing. Three failure modes were
identified. Confining in the connection region, inelastic action through bolt slippage and
bearing was ductile and desirable. Such inelastic action always occurs first, but either
column or beam may also experience buckling. Beam buckling was most undesirable due
to significant post-buckling strength degradation. Extending the concept of instantaneous
centre of rotation of an eccentrically loaded bolt group, a model that can reliably
simulate the cyclic behaviour of the bolted moment connection was presented.

A few research works have been done on cold formed steel frames. Tan (2001) presented
the analysis and tests of cold-formed thin-walled channel frames including nonlinear
flexible or semi-rigid connection behaviour. The semi-rigid connection behaviour was
modelled using a mathematical approximation of the connection flexibility or moment-
rotation relationship. Local instability in the form of local buckling of members was
included in the analysis. The full response of the frame, up to the collapse load, can be
predicted. Experimental investigation was carried out on a series of simple double storey
symmetrical frames with the purpose of verifying the accuracy and validity of the
analysis. Agreement between the theoretical and experimental results was acceptable.
The investigation also showed that affect of connection thickness on the strength of thin-
walled frames is less significant compared to that of the members thickness and lip size.
Lim and Nethercot (2004) presented a linear finite element model of cold-formed steel
portal frame for comparison with experimental results. Two approaches were adopted for
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the analysis; a full three dimensional linear shell element using ABAQUS software and a
linear beam elements with ANSYS program were used to idealize the column and rafter
members, and rotational spring elements are used to represent the rotational flexibility of
the joints. In addition, the beam idealization took into account the finite connection
length of the joints. Deflections predicted using the beam idealization was shown to be
comparable to deflections obtained from both a linear finite element shell idealization
and full-scale laboratory tests. Deflection predicted using the beam elements are shown
to be close to those predicted using more accurate shell model. Therefore, using the beam
idealization, engineers can analyze and design cold-formed steel portal frames, including
making appropriate allowances for connection effects, without the need to resort to
expensive finite element shell analysis.

Kwon et al. (2006) investigated the performance of the connections constituting a


pitched roof portal frame by holding a series of connection tests which were composed of
closed cold-formed steel sections. The flexural strength of the section was investigated
first and the structural behaviour of the connections including the moment-rotation
relation, the yield, and ultimate moment capacity of the connections were studied
experimentally. The connection test specimens consisted of column base, eave, and apex
connections of the portal frame. The main factors of the connection test were the
thickness and the shape of the mild steel connection element. Finally, the portal frame
was tested under both constant vertical and increasing horizontal loads to failure. The
pitched roof portal frame test showed that the semi rigid connections developed had high
structural performance and could successfully be applied to portal frames. A numerical
model of the portal frame using LUSAS (2002) for comparison with the test results was
presented.

A simplified model with the beam and joint elements that could consider an overall joint
characteristic explicitly was adopted for the analysis. Since the numerical analysis of the
frame could not include the material inelasticity and fracture of clinching of connections,
the load calculated was much higher than test results after the displacement was
increased beyond twice the allowable limit. Raftoyiannis I.G (2005) prepared a linear
stability analysis for establishing the combined effect of joint flexibility and an elastic
bracing system on the buckling load of steel plane frames. Based on the beam-to-column
model of Eurocode 3, the subsequent study showed that joint flexibility is a very
important parameter that needs to be incorporated into the stability analysis of frames
with semi rigid connections. It was found that assuming flexible connections in such
frames always leads to a reduction of their buckling load, which is proven to be
significant in many characteristic cases. Numerical results for simple elastically braced
or unbraced frames with semi-rigid connections, in tabular and graphical form, reveal the
pronounced effect of joint flexibility and elastic bracing on their buckling load.

Dawe and Wood (2006) tested twenty three small-scale roof trusses fabricated from cold-
formed steel to ultimate capacity. Each specimen was subjected to a single point load at
the ridge. One series of specimens was fabricated with a hinge connection at the ridge
while a second series had a gusset plate connection at this location. The hinge served to
isolate the strength properties of the heel connection and upper chords while the addition
of the ridge plate provided information that could be used to quantify the load sharing
between the ridge and heel connections. The performance of several heel plate
configurations, altered by adding edge stiffeners and varying their shapes and thicknesses,
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was evaluated. Local buckling of the top chord adjacent to the heel plate was the
predominant failure mechanism in combination with distortion of the heel plates in
instances where the plates were inadequately stiffened. Methods of reinforcing the top
chords to prevent local buckling were investigated.

Research on joints and structures among cold formed steel members as reviews
mentioned by the authors involved the application of cold formed steel in wider area and
high strength steel. It was found (from the review) that bolted moment connection among
single cold-formed steel frames is a new research area. In addition, the employment of
simple and effective joint can assist development of cold-formed steel structure in
building construction. Review also showed that limited research was exposed on the
numerical analysis in cold-formed steel structures as mentioned by McDonald et al.
(2008). Ideas of testing bolted moment connections (between single cold-formed steel
channel sections) of cold formed steel frame are stimulated from gap of the review; they
are proposed to be studied in detail by both experimental and numerical approach.

5. Conclusions

The structural use of cold formed steel in construction continually growing rapidly
across the world exceeded that for hot rolled steel structural members. The use of
thinner sections and high strength steels leads to design problems for structural
engineers, which may not normally be encountered in routine structural steel design.
This paper has concentrated on structural design consideration of cold formed steel
sections and research developments on joints and structures, which have come into view
in the principal journals in this area in purpose of increasing the usage of cold formed
steel members. It was concluded (from the review) that studying connections and portal
frame among single cold formed steel sections in both experimental and numerical
approach becomes a new area of study.

6. References

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2. American Iron and Steel Institute (1996), AISI Specification for the design of
cold-formed steel structural members. Washington (DC).

3. American Iron and Steel Institute (2004), Commentary on Appendix 1 Design of


Cold-Formed Steel Structure Members with the Direct Strength Method.

4. ANSYS (1994), User Manual of for Revision 5.3-Procedures Vol. I. USA:


Swanson Analysis Systems.

5. British Standards Institution (1998), BS5950: Structural use of steelwork in


buildings: Part 5: Code of practice for the design of cold-formed sections.
London.

6. British Standards Institution (2006), Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures- Part


1.3: General rules- Supplementary rules for cold-formed thin gauge members
and sheeting. London. BS EN 1993-1-3.
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7. Chen J. and Young B. (2006), Corner properties of cold-formed steel sections at


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