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Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Climate change and groundwater: a short review

W. Dragoni and B. S. Sukhija

Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2008; v. 288; p. 1-12


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© 2008 Geological Society of

Climate change and groundwater: a short review
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Perugia, Piazza Università
1, 06001 Perugia, Italy (e-mail:
National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad-500 007, India

Abstract: There is a general consensus that climate change is an ongoing phenomenon. This will
inevitably bring about numerous environmental problems, including alterations to the hydrolo-
gical cycle, which is already heavily influenced by anthropogenic activity. The available
climate scenarios indicate areas where rainfall may increase or diminish, but the final outcome
with respect to man and environment will, generally, be detrimental. Groundwater will be vital
to alleviate some of the worst drought situations. The paper analyses the main methods for study-
ing the relationships between climate change and groundwater, and presents the main areas in
which hydrogeological research should focus in order to mitigate the likely impacts.

This article has two aims. The first is to present a some doubts about the driving role of greenhouse
summary of the current knowledge of the relation- gases (de Jager & Usoskin 2006; Stanhill 2007;
ships between climatic variations and water Svensmark 2007). Indeed, a heated dispute is
resources, with emphasis on groundwater. The going on, as there is a minority of scientists who
second aim is to review the main issues that ground- claim that the main reason for the present climatic
water specialists will have to face and study in order behaviour is natural (sun variability being the
to minimize the impact of climatic variation and to most probable) and that, very likely, the future
protect groundwater resources. warming will be moderate (Essex & McKitrick
The climate has changed in the past, is changing 2003; Landscheidt 2003; Santer et al. 2004;
presently and will change in the future. The scale of Michaels 2005; Singer & Avery 2006; IDAG
the fluctuations varies from hundreds of millions of 2005; Shaviv 2005; Scafetta & West 2006;
years to decades or less (for example Huggett 1991; Zastawny 2006; Lockwood & Fröhlich 2007).
Goudie 1994; Issar 2003; Lamy et al. 2006; Yang This issue is critical, because the worst possibilities
2006). The present climatic trend (i.e. a warming considered by the IPCC indicate that the tempera-
trend), which is no longer a hypothesis but a planet- ture will rise by several degrees and the warm
wide observation, may correspond to a natural phase will last for centuries, with dramatic conse-
warming phase, probably at the scale of a few hun- quences beyond those that can reasonably be
dreds years, which began in the nineteenth century; defined at present. In any case, today, there is an
the warming is being accelerated and increased unanimous consensus on the forecast that the
because of the anthropogenic release of greenhouse warming will persist for decades, no matter what
gases from fossil fuels burnt during the last two cen- action is taken (Michaels 2005; Singer & Avery
turies. The main concern raised by global warming 2006; Trenberth et al. 2006; IPCC 2007). As the
is that climatic variations alter the water cycle; warming process continues, it will bring about
indeed, in many cases, the data show that the hydro- numerous environmental problems, among which
logical cycle is already being impacted (Dragoni the most severe will relate to water resources (Loái-
1998; Buffoni et al. 2002; Labat et al. 2004; ciga 1996, 2000; Milly et al. 2005; Holman 2006;
Huntington 2006; IPCC 2007). IPCC 2007).
Today there is a very large consensus, supported The magnitude of future consequences can be
by an impressive set of observations and analyses, inferred from the dramatic effects caused by the
that anthropogenic activity is the main factor natural and ‘moderate’ climatic changes that
causing the present global warming (Trenberth occurred during the last millennium, during which
et al. 2006; Kerr & Balter 2007). However, the millions of deaths all over the world were caused
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change directly by the alternation of droughts and short
(IPCC), does not provide total certainty to this cool –warm periods (Lambe 1977; Goudie 1994;
view, but only indicates a probability greater than Dragoni 1998; Brown 2001; Fagan 2001; Davis
90% (IPCC 2007) and a few recent papers raise 2002). The development (and in some cases the

From: DRAGONI , W. & SUKHIJA , B. S. (eds) Climate Change and Groundwater. Geological Society, London, Special
Publications, 288, 1 –12.
DOI: 10.1144/SP288.1 0305-8719/08/$15.00 # The Geological Society of London 2008.

disappearance) of many civilizations was deter- † The more optimistic globally averaged rises in
mined by natural and ‘moderate’ climatic change sea level at the end of the twenty-first century
(Stewart 2005; Brooks 2006; Cremaschi et al. are between 0.18 –0.38 m, but an extreme scen-
2006; Kumar et al. 2006; Issar & Zohar 2007). ario gives a rise up to 0.59 m;
Clearly a comprehensive knowledge of climate † It is very likely that hot extremes, heat waves
variations in space and time is vital in order for and heavy precipitation events will continue to
human society to adapt and survive. The key issues become more frequent; and
in the study of climate change (Oldfield 2005) are: † Increases in the amount of precipitation are very
(i) what will be the amplitude and rate of global likely at high latitudes, whereas decreases are
climate change over the next century and likely in most subtropical land regions.
beyond; The IPCC scenarios (global and regional) are
(ii) how will the global mean climate be expressed based on the results from Global Circulation
in terms of extreme droughts and floods, sea Models (GCMs), traditionally considered by the
level changes, groundwater recharge, soil IPCC to be the most reliable tools for obtaining
degradation, deforestation, loss of biodiver- indications regarding the future climate (Troen
sity, and changes in ecosystem functioning, 1993; Kattenberg et al. 1996; IPCC 2007). Uncer-
especially in view of the human-induced tainties conspire to make the model output, a
greenhouse effect; and rough approximation at best, of what could
(iii) how do the complex changes involved affect happen under various assumptions of greenhouse
the key issues of vulnerability and sustaina- gases emissions (Covey 2003; Friedlingstein et al.
bility of water resources for the human 2003; Bender et al. 2006; Hegerl et al. 2006;
population in general and groundwater in Schmidt et al. 2004; Masson-Delmotte et al.
particular. 2006; van Ulden & van Oldenborgh 2006; Zhang
The importance of the relationship between et al. 2006; IPCC 2007; Schneider 2007). Future
groundwater and climatic change cannot be over- scenario outputs may even be contradictory (Rosen-
stated. The global volume of groundwater is berg et al. 1999; Gagnon & Gough 2005; Stephen-
estimated at between 13% and 30% of the total son et al. 2006; IPCC 2007; Kripalani et al. 2007; Li
volume of fresh water of the hydrosphere (Jones et al. 2007) and the results are averages over vast
1997; Babklin & Klige 2004) and groundwater areas (IPCC 2007; Jacob et al. 2007; Ruosteenoja
provides 15% of the water used annually et al. 2007). By using Regional Circulation
(Shiklomanov 2004b), the remainder being from Models (RCMs), nestled within a GCM, one can
surface water. Aquifers mitigate droughts as they arrive at averaged results (in terms of rainfall and
have a high storage capacity and are less sensitive temperature) for areas as small as 600 to
to climate change than surface water bodies. 2500 km2, but the results often depend more on
Surface water baseflow is, of course, groundwater the choice of the initial GCM than on the choice
discharging from store. of the emission scenarios (Hay et al. 2006;
Graham et al. 2007; Ruosteenoja et al. 2007;
Olesen et al. 2007). This is unsatisfactory for defin-
General observations regarding ing the impact of climatic variations on water
resources, and for planning intervention strategies
scenarios, future climate and water for mitigating the likely impacts.
resources The inadequacy of the GCMs suggests that other
approaches, although empirical, should be used
The IPCC prepared five reports, the latest of which, in together with the GCMs. The ‘analogue approach’
a preliminary version, was released in January 2007. gives information that is more specific than that
The conclusions of this report most relevant to given by the GCMs by reconstructing past climates
water resources and groundwater are (IPCC 2007): (i.e. temperature and precipitation) in a given area.
† Projected warming in the twenty-first century These reconstructions can be used to construct
shows geographical patterns similar to those future scenarios by analogy. The analogue approach
observed over the last few decades. Warming assumes that, if a given average temperature vari-
is expected to be greatest over land and at ation corresponded to a given variation in rainfall
the highest northern latitudes, and least over or in water resources in the past, a similar tempera-
the Southern Oceans and parts of the North ture variation in the future will cause similar effects.
Atlantic Ocean; Thus it is accepted that this occurs regardless of the
† Snow cover is projected to contract. Widespread causes of the variations in temperature, which may
increases in thaw depth are projected over most also be of different types, such as variations in the
permafrost regions; solar constant or the concentration of greenhouse

gases in the atmosphere. This assumption can only Main tools to study the relations between
be maintained if the temperature variations being groundwater and climate variations
compared are similar and if they occur during
similar atmospheric boundary conditions, i.e. General considerations
during time periods in which the planet has cryo-
sphere, oceans and land masses in similar conditions A good knowledge of the geology and hydrogeo-
(Wigley et al. 1986; Dragoni 1998). Similarity can logy of the study system is an essential prerequisite
be accepted only if the ‘palaeoanalogue periods’ to investigating the impact of climate change.
go back no more than a few millennia or, on a Ideally, the study of groundwater resources should
more detailed scale, if the palaeoanalogues consist be based on a reliable, continuous and dense data-
of multi-annual instrumental series, such as those base of hydrometeorological data and soil moisture,
of the warm years at the beginning and the end of covering a long time interval. These data should be
the twentieth century. Of course the future scenarios coupled with a large amount of spatially distributed
based on such palaeoanalogues are not quantitat- quantitative information such as hydraulic conduc-
ively sound, and cannot be extrapolated confidently tivity and porosity. However, adequate data are
into the future beyond a few decades. Thus, despite rarely available and work is often qualitative.
the progress made by GCMs and by information Thus a high quality network of data collection
obtained by the analogue approach, it must be recog- needs to be established. The networks are essential
nized that a definition of scenario given about twenty not only to evaluate the present situation but also to
years ago is still valid: ‘scenarios are not meant to be follow the evolution of the processes and, therefore,
predictions of future climate; rather they are meant to validate the knowledge gained through time.
to be internally consistent pictures of a plausible Natural experimental systems, not directly influ-
future climate, a basis for other workers to evaluate enced by anthropic activities (in terms of variations
the possible impacts of climatic change on Man and in the use of the land or irrigation) may be used to
society’ (Wigley et al. 1986). isolate, at least locally, the effects of climate variation
Data and information on past climatic and from those derived by Man’s presence. Management
hydrological conditions are important for verifying of water resources has brought, even on a regional or
whether a GCM or RCM is potentially reliable: only continental basis, significant variations (Vörösmarty
a model that provides good results for the present et al. 2004; Shiklomanov 2004a).
and/or for past climate can be reliably used for Remote sensing provides a convenient way of
constructing future scenarios (Bell et al. 2003; assessing the spatial and temporal variations in
Karl & Trenberth 2003; Dearing 2006; Sloan 2006). water fluxes in different components of the water
Confidence is increased if one or more models cycle. Attempts to estimate small scale temporal
and the analogue approach independently indicate changes in the gravity field due to redistribution
a similar future scenario in terms of temperature of water are in progress. The GRACE (Gravity
and rainfall. Nevertheless, the actual intensity and Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite is
spatial and time variability of rainfall and tempera- aimed at observing the gravity field to a high accu-
ture for a given scenario and a given region still racy (c. 1 cm in terms of geoid height and a spatial
remain uncertain. The same degree of uncertainty resolution of 200–300 km). Any redistribution of
is retained when translating rainfall and temperature water masses in different parts of water cycle may
to evapotranspiration, runoff and aquifer recharge, result in time variation of gravity field.
whatever procedure is adopted (Strzepek & Yates Numerical hydrological and hydrogeological
1997; Di Matteo & Dragoni 2006). models, in spite of being a simplified representation
Another consequence of the uncertainties intrin- of reality, are invaluable tools for describing and
sic to the climatic scenarios is that the impact of the understanding hydrogeological processes. The
conditions provided by the scenarios on hydrogeo- model serves both the understanding the system
logical systems are tentatively simulated for and prediction, once the model is validated and cali-
different, and more or less arbitrary values for the brated using historical data. Models should ensure
climatic factors (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Loáiciga internal consistency, compatibility with uncertain-
et al. 2000; Taeuea et al. 2000; Nijssen et al. ties, compatibility with constraints of data and
2001; Yusoff et al. 2002; Allen et al. 2004; robust performance (Oldfield 2005). In order to
Gagnon & Gough 2005; Jha et al. 2006; Vicuna assess the effect of climate on a particular ground-
& Dracup 2007; Olesen et al. 2007). The results water system, dedicated monitoring of various
provided by this approach show the most probable parameters is required. There are many modelling
direction of change, the sensitivity to different codes for flow in both the unsaturated zone and
factors which regulate hydrological systems, and the saturated zone and various water quantity
point to the processes which will be modified and quality issues can be accounted for depending
most by future climate variation. upon the boundary conditions, subsurface properties

and process representation. The models can differ before they are smoothed by diffusion and
in scale and in detail depending upon specific dispersion to vary from several years to 10 000
process (e.g. evapotranspiration or groundwater years. Climate fluctuations over 5–10 years are
mass transport). discernible in chloride profiles in regions like
Cyprus (Edmunds & Walton 1980; Edmunds et al.
1982, 1988); however, two chloride profiles in
Isotope methods Senegal (Edmunds et al. 1992) have a length of
During the last four decades, isotope methods have record of 30– 50 years and exceptionally 475
been developed which are based on proxy records years (at Longa). Attempts are in progress
of climate change in the past in different media, (Lal 2000) to study palaeoclimatic recharge
and such studies are termed as palaeohydrology/ during the last thousand years using 32Si.
palaeoclimatic studies (Parrish 2001; Mazor
2003). The different media/materials through
Impacts and adaptation: some topics on
which climate change can be studied are:
which to focus research
(i) oxygen and carbon isotope composition
of benthic and planktonic foraminifera
Impact of climate change on groundwater
(Bar-Matthews et al. 2003);
(ii) hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of organic recharge and discharge
matter (Sauer et al. 2001; Shu et al. 2005;
Any variation in the regime and quantity of precipi-
Webb & Longstaffe 2006);
tation, together with variations in temperature and
(iii) ice cores (Thompson et al. 1998; Hondoh
evapotranspiration, affects groundwater recharge.
2000; Thompson et al. 2000); and
In general, groundwater recharge will increase in
(iv) carbon and oxygen composition of carbon-
areas where precipitation is increased and vice
ates, cave deposits, lake, groundwater (Li
versa. Groundwater recharge will increase also in
et al. 1989; Bar-Matthews et al. 1998;
areas where permafrost thaws (Potter 2002; Kita-
Frumkin et al. 1999; Niggemann et al.
bata et al. 2006). Most of the consequences of
2003; Sasowsky & Mylroie; 2004; Pentecost
changes in recharge will be detrimental. There is
2005; Parker et al. 2006).
general agreement that many areas of currently
Most media are basically formed through pre- high precipitation are expected to experience pre-
cipitation which in turn originates or is modified cipitation increases, whereas many of the areas at
by climatic processes, and these can be recon- present with low precipitation and high evaporation,
structed on the basis of their isotopic composition, now suffering water scarcity, are expected to have
which in many cases provides some information rain decreases (IPCC 2007; Issar & Zohar 2007).
about rainfall, aquifer recharge and the water table As conditions change rapidly, the existing infra-
position at the time of deposition (Cremaschi & structure network will have to be reshaped rapidly
Di Lernia 1999; Nelson et al. 2000; Drake et al. (Potter 2002; Semadeni-Davies et al. 2007).
2004; Garnett et al. 2004; Mariani et al. 2007). The groundwater recharge is the residual flux
The vadose zone of an unsaturated aquifer of water added to the saturated zone resulting
contains information about climate change in the from the evaporative, transpirative and runoff
range of tens of years to thousand of years. This losses of the precipitation. It can take place by
information is contained within the solute (chloride) diffuse infiltration, a preferential pathway, and
and the 3H, 2H, 18O profiles. In case of homogenous through surface streams and lakes. Thus ground-
soils (without cracks and fissures) infiltrating water water recharge is a sensitive function of the climatic
moves through the unsaturated zone by displace- factors, local geology, topography and land use.
ment (Zimmermann et al. 1967). Estimates of Generally, measured groundwater recharge is a
recharge using thermonuclear tritium peaks of site specific quantity and this complicates the
1963–64 have been made (Anderson & Sevel problem of defining its regional impact. The broad
1974; Sukhija & Shah 1976; Allison & Hughes scenarios given by the GCMs should be considered
1978). Chloride profiles have also been used to only as a very preliminary basis for investigations to
measure mean recharge and residence time of be carried out to understand the effects of the chan-
water in vadose zone (Allison & Hughes 1978; ging climate on groundwater. Any research on
Edmunds & Walton 1980; Sukhija et al. 1988; Lo the variation of recharge has to be based on data
Russo et al. 2003). and investigation specific to the hydrogeological
The residence time of a tracer in the vadose zone system under consideration. These investigations
determines the number of years for which the must be based on detailed knowledge of the geo-
climate information may be available. Cook et al. logical structures, and may involve the use of
(1992) estimated the persistence time of isotopes complex models which consider multi-component

interaction, hydrological-atmospheric processes, the spring, and partly feeds a deeper, regional,
hydrological boundary conditions and identification flow (Fig. 1).
of model sensitivity to parameter uncertainty. In A numerical model was built and calibrated in
one way or another, the results given by the different stages in order to quantify the possible
models must have some form of calibration, and effects of climatic variations on the Bagnara
this inevitably leads to using the known present or spring system. The simulations confirmed that if
past conditions of the systems under investigation. there is a decrease of recharge, the area feeding
Generally, variations in aquifer recharge not the spring shrinks, while the area feeding the
only change the aquifer yield or discharge, but lower regional flow system increases. This implies
also modify the groundwater flow network, e.g. that any decrease in annual recharge will produce
gaining streams may suddenly become losing a larger decrease in the spring yield and to a
streams, groundwater divides may move position. smaller percent decrease of the regional flow. It
The effects of recharge variation on ground- may, therefore, be necessary to develop new tech-
water flow has been considered by various niques for capturing some of the water feeding the
authors, sometimes not within the context of seaso- regional flow, before it reaches the polluted alluvial
nal variations in recharge. Meyboom (1967) has plains or deep evaporitic formations where saliniza-
shown on a seasonal basis how the decrease or tion occurs (Cambi & Dragoni 2000).
absence of recharge changes the flow relationships In the areas already suffering from water scar-
between recharge areas and shallow, contiguous city and in those where the rainfall will decrease
lakes. An important paper by Winter (1999) and the climate will get drier, it is crucial to try to
shows how climatic conditions affect the direction increase recharge artificially. The techniques for
of groundwater flow and the relationship between the reuse and recharge of the aquifers by means of
superficial hydraulic bodies and subterranean low-quality reclaimed water play a crucial role.
waters, at different scales. Cambi & Dragoni Groundwater discharge is another key element
(2000) studied the effects of climatic variations on in the water cycle which includes loss of water
the Bagnara spring, located in the Umbria-Marche from the aquifers to surface water, to the atmos-
Apennines (Italy), in an area where both the ana- phere and abstraction for human needs. The influ-
logue approach and the most recent GCMs forecast ence of the climatic changes on the discharge can
a decrease in rainfall and, therefore, of groundwater be assessed by measuring, both spatially and tem-
recharge (De Felice & Dragoni 1994; IPCC 2007). porally, the base flow to the rivers, lakes, wetlands
The Bagnara spring is located on the west slope and oceans and by studying the role of vegetation
of an asymmetric anticline (Mount Pennino Anti- in transpiration.
cline), the core of which comprises permeable lime-
stone and is bounded by a low permeability marl Climatic change and fresh water discharges to the
formation. The spring is located at the interface oceans. During the last decades it has been realized
between the marl formation and the limestone. that the contribution of subterranean discharge of
The recharge over the anticline core partly feeds groundwater to the oceans is large, perhaps as

Fig. 1. Hydrogeological diagram of the Mount Pennino anticline and the Bagnara spring. Thick arrows indicate
faults. Thin arrows indicate the flow path, towards the regional flow (q1) and the spring (q2). H, recharge area of the
spring (flow towards the higher boundary); L, recharge area of the regional flow (flow towards the lower boundary).
If the recharge decreases, H decreases and L increases, while the value q2/q1 decreases. Elevation is in metres above
mean sea level, horizontal scale is equal to vertical scale.

much as 12 000 km3/year (Speidel & Agnew more humid Little Ice Age to a dryer, recent
1988); a more recent review paper, presenting the climate (Schmidt & Dikau 2004). In the Italian
methods for quantifying submarine groundwater Dolomites there appears to be a close correlation
discharge, indicates that the process is essentially between landslides and climatic variations, to the
ubiquitous in coastal areas (Burnett et al. 2006). extent that many of the identified and dated land-
All this water is lost to the sea, often of acceptable slides can be considered as indicators of climatic
quality, and research to improve the measurement change (Corsini et al. 2004).
and recovery of it should be strongly enhanced.
Climatic change, groundwater rebound and
Groundwater and reforestation. As trees are CO2 sinkholes. In those areas in which mining activity
sinks, reforestation coupled with new tree planta- was intense and where working mines required
tion has been considered key to maintaining dewatering, a progressive groundwater rebound
control over CO2 in the atmosphere (Schellnhuber results when mining activities and pumping cease.
et al. 2006; IPCC 2007). However, in forested Groundwater rebound, which may last for many
areas, groundwater recharge is generally lower years and involve very large areas, can cause pro-
than in non-forested areas, and thus the water blems of engineering stability and pollution
table and groundwater storage are generally lower (Banks & Banks 2001; Razowska 2001; Burke
(Scanlon et al. 2006). Recent research, based on et al. 2005). Conversely, a fall in groundwater
computer simulations suggests that, despite carbon level may cause collapse of cavities with a roof
dioxide absorption, reforestation in high latitudes close to the surface, and the formation of sinkholes.
would help warming, because the tree would This risk is widespread in karst areas (Ford &
decrease albedo and increase evapotranspiration; Williams 1989; Waltham et al. 2004). The
conversely in the tropics the trees would have an problems of areas with groundwater rebound
overall cooling effect (Bala et al. 2007). These find- and sinkholes should be tackled whilst bearing in
ings support the idea that tropical arid and semi-arid mind future recharge variations as indicated by
areas should, whenever possible, be reforested and climatic scenarios.
afforested, as, according to some preliminary esti- Water scarcity and traditional techniques for water
mates, the sequestration of CO2 could be in the resource management. The problems of water
range of 30–50% of industrial emissions (Issar shortage in arid or semi-arid areas have been
2006, personal communication). The water to tackled using traditional techniques in some areas
carry on such activities should be provided by (Pandey 2000; Radhakrishna 2004). These include
surface runoff, sewage from urban centres and, water harvesting and use of qanats. Rainwater har-
most important, by low quality, fossil groundwater, vesting can be used to recharge groundwater via
which is largely present in the arid and semi-arid recharge ponds (Sukhija et al. 1997). Qanats are
areas of the world. drainage tunnels commonly found in the arid and
semi-arid areas of Europe, North Africa and Asia
Climatic change, groundwater and landslides. The (Castellani & Dragoni 1997; Issar & Zohar 2007).
variations in the level of groundwater inevitably The issue of the traditional techniques to face the
entail a variety of geomorphological and engineer- present and future aridity is an important one, as
ing effects. Slope stability is strongly influenced these techniques allowed the survival of human
by the water pressure in pores and fractures and, populations in difficult areas and during changing
therefore, by groundwater. In areas with increasing climates in the past. However, these techniques
groundwater recharge, there will be increased slope are incompatible with intensive agriculture and a
instability. An inverse evolution would be expected high population density. Moreover, qanats drain
in those areas in which recharge decreases. The aquifers permanently, even during periods in
relationships between all the factors which deter- which water is not needed. It is probable that
mine the stability of a slope, such as its geological in specific areas and with the use of present
set up, rock resistance, morphological situation, knowledge, these simple and low cost techniques
groundwater recharge, neutral pressure distribution can be revived and applied with much improved
and the quality of the climatic scenarios, are results.
complex and spatially variable so that it is difficult
to draw general conclusions, and research on the Climatic change and groundwater quality. The
subject is relatively scarce (Dehn & Buma 1999; climate is expected not only to affect input
Dikau & Schrott 1999; Dehn et al. 2000; Malet (recharge) and output (discharge), but also to influ-
et al. 2005; Dixon & Brook 2007). In an area ence the quality of the groundwater. For example,
around Bonn (Germany) a process-based, spatial water recharged during an arid period may have a
and temporal model for groundwater variations higher concentration of salts and hence higher
and slope stability indicates that the most unstable TDS, while during a wet period the converse may
conditions occurred during the transition from the occur (Sukhija et al. 1998). However, to appreciate

such changes long-term monitoring of rainfall and References

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