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Jef Leong
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Mechanical System Design, 23 May 2016
Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Malaysia


Leong Guo Bang (MH13063)

Automotive Engineering Research Group (AERG), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia,


In the modern world, one of the largest concerns is the ever depleting supply of oil. The
automotive industry is especially impacted. In recent years the price of gasoline has
fluctuated substantially and the price of crude oil has reached record highs. The high
price of gasoline coupled with the uncertainty of its availability and future price have
put a high priority on fuel economy of an engine. In addition the emissions released
from internal combustion (IC) engines are polluting the atmosphere. Many studies have
linked the greenhouse gases produced by an automobile engine to the partial destruction
of our atmosphere and to global warming. As a result the US government is passing
stricter and stricter emissions regulations. These major issues are putting pressure on
automakers to develop new technologies to increase the fuel economy and decrease the
emissions while maintaining or improving the engines performance. Several new
technologies have resulted. All of these technologies accomplish these goals by
increasing the efficiency of an engine. As a whole these technologies are called variable
valve actuation. These technologies achieve a higher efficiency by reducing the
constants of the engine. However, the added variability increases the time to calibrate an
engine. To address this, more testing is being performed using engine simulations
instead of physical testing. This thesis focuses on how to create an engine model and
how engine simulation can be used to optimize such an engine. In addition the benefits
of a particular variable valve actuation technology, cam phasing, will be explored.


Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is one of the most common engines used in
automotive industry nowadays. Engine heat transfer is important and very complex in
an engine [1]. Fundamental and factual development of the science and engineering
underlying the design of combustion engines and turbines is discuss in this paper [2].
There is also research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine [3]. The
fundamental thermodynamic requirements for maximizing internal combustion (IC)
engine cycle efficiency are study to improve the efficiency of internal combustion
engine [4]. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future
energy carrier [5]. A specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a
vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) [6]. Hydrogen
internal combustion engine (H2ICE) easily occur inlet manifold backfire and other
abnormal combustion phenomena because of the low ignition energy, wide
flammability range and rapid combustion speed of hydrogen [7]. Another promising
mechanism that accomplishes both objectives is the conversion of engine waste heat to
a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical [8]. At present, the
emissions of internal combustion engine can only be improved by catalytic treatments
of the exhaust gases [9]. Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for
substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental
compatibility [10]. Transient plasma, or plasma during a formative true nonequilibrated
phase, is studied as an ignition methodology in comparison with traditional spark
ignition (2.5-3 ms and 80 mJ) in a single-cylinder gasoline internal combustion engine
[11]. Considering the different characteristics of the waste heat of exhaust gas, cooling
water, and lubricant, a combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat recovery of ICE
is proposed [12]. Recent activity in nonthermodynamic modeling of automotive internal
combustion engines with spark ignition, which are inherently nonlinear, is reviewed. A
fundamental nonlinear model of the engine is presented, and a linear control-oriented
model is derived from the nonlinear process [13-15]. Experimental evidence is given
which indicates that wall-quenching of the combustion reaction occurs in an internal
combustion engine [16-18]. There have been few reports of studies proposing
theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations [19]. The cycle variation
characteristics of a port fuel injection hydrogen internal combustion engine (PFI-HICE)
have been extensively investigated [20-21]. Concerns such as depletion of petroleum
fuels and global warming are placing more severe demands on internal combustion
engines each year for reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions [22-25]. The main
objective is to highlight recent efforts to improve (IC) engine fuel efficiency and
combustion [26]. It is concerned that optimization of the surface roughness when
milling Mould Aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6) with carbide coated inserts [27].
Combustion is still very important to generate energy [28]. The future of today's society
is greatly depending on the energy development[29]. The one-dimensional numerical
analysis of GT-Power software is used to simulate the commercial single cylinder diesel
engine [30].

Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for substantial improvements,
particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. In order to
fully exploit the remaining margins, increasingly sophisticated control systems have to
be applied. Mathematical models for these processes are developed and solutions for
selected feed forward and feedback control-problems are presented.


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