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Press Fits
Form-fitting Aid. Press fits
between plastic parts and
metal shafts become substan-
tially more effective when the
frictional linkage has a suit-
able degree of form-fitting
superimposed upon it by an appropriately modified metal surface. In extensive
investigations 30 left-right knurling (criss-cross knurling) has turned out to be
extremely suitable as a form-fitting assistance.

JOHANNES KUNZ or between plastic parts, however, the Furthermore, it is important with re-
DEJAN LUKIC transmittable forces and torques are lim- gard to the design measure to be under-
ited particularly because, as a result of the taken whether the form-fitting assistance
n principle press fits are frictional viscoelastic behaviour immediately after should act axially or tangentially, that is

I joints which are fixed and detachable

under certain conditions. They are
based on the fact that on joining, an over-
joining, stress relaxation sets in. Suitable
geometric modifications in the design of
metal shafts involved in such joints can
to say to prevent translational or rota-
tional movement between the shaft and
the hub.
size in one of the two usually cylindrical bring about a certain degree of form-fit-
surfaces is overcome by forced deforma- ting which aids the frictional linkage. The Twofold Mode of Action
tion and converted into mechanical effect of this measure is twofold: on the
stresses between the mated parts forming one hand, it increases the transmittable A simple technical consideration allows
the joint. These normal stresses together force and, on the other hand, it can slow the twofold action of form-fitting assis- 8 PE103765

with the friction between the mated parts down relaxation [13]. tance to be quantitatively evaluated. A ba-
allow axial forces and torques to be trans- sis of comparison in doing this is provid-
mitted. In the case of press fits involving Active and Passive Form-fitting ed by the purely frictional joint with the
Assistance same nominal geometry, that is to say with
a cylindrical shaft having a smooth surface.
In an earlier article it was explained that If the variables FF and FL represent the join-
due to the mechanical processes in the ing and loosening forces respectively of the
material a distinction has to be made pri- joint axially assisted by form-fitting and
marily between active and passive form- FF0 and FL0 represent those of the purely
fitting assistance [4], it being also possi- frictional comparative joint, the total in-
ble for both types to occur in combina- crease in loosening force FLFL0 can be
tion. Active form-fitting assistance arises broken down into the actual increase in
when a volume of plastic is displaced by force FL and the component FL for the
appropriately shaped convex elements slowing down of relaxation (Fig. 2).
which are formed on the shaft and locat- The actual increase in force is the dif-
ed outside the diameter of fit. In contrast, ference FL between the theoretical loos-
passive forming-fitting assistance is ob- ening force FL and the loosening force FL0
Fig. 1. Active and passive form-fitting assis- tained as a result of restitution, i.e. after of the comparative joint. This results from
tance: Principle of action relief of stress, backward creep of the dis- the assumption that the ratio of the join-
placed volume of plastic into appropri- ing forces for the modified and the
ately shaped concave elements which are smooth shaft also applies to loosening.
formed on the shaft and located inside the This is the case in particular for form-fit-
Translated from Kunststoffe 12/2006, pp. 6871 diameter of fit (Fig. 1). ting assistance which on account of its

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the aim in the present paper is to exam-

ine left-right knurled surfaces (DIN 82
[6]) in more detail with regard to their ef-
fects in aiding axial and tangential form-
Fig. 2. Twofold action fitting [7]. As is well known, knurled sur-
of form-fitting assis- faces are relatively simple to produce. As
tance: Increasing a general rule they exercise a combined
force and slowing active and passive effect: on the one hand,
down relaxation the peaks in the knurling displace plastic
and then the latter deforms as a function
of time back into the intervening recess-
es. The point now was to quantify the ef-
fectiveness of the measure of using
knurled surfaces on the basis of the rela-
tionships (1) and (2) and, building on
symmetry acts equally in the joining and In order to estimate the effective join- this, to evaluate the suitability of differ-
in the loosening direction. From this it ing and loosening forces FF and FL by ent knurled surfaces for use in practice.
follows that the relative increase in force means of (3) and (4) respectively, the or- The test specimens consisted of a plas-
is given by the relationship: ders of magnitude of the relative increase tic hub, composed of the polyacetal
F L F in force and the relative slowing down of copolymer Tecaform POM C natural
CF = = F (1) relaxation must be known either from de- (supplier: Kundert AG, Jona/Switzerland)
F L0 F F 0 sign recommendations or from personal in the form of a sleeve, and a steel shaft
where FF and FF0 are the measured join- experience. with a knurled surface or a smooth sur-
ing forces of the joint aided by form-fit- The same applies by analogy to tan- face having a nominal diameter of 15 mm.
ting and of the smooth comparative joint gential form-fitting, the forces being re- For the difference (oversize) between the
respectively. placed by the corresponding torques. nominal diameter of the shaft and the in-
The relative slowing down of relaxation Since, however, the joining forces FF and ternal diameter of the hub 0.3 mm was
is the ratio of the effective loosening force FF0 in equations (1) and (2) are not rel- chosen, corresponding to an expansion of
FL and the theoretical loosening force FL. evant variables, they are usefully replaced 2 %.
It can be expressed by four measurable by the loosening torques ML and ML0 On the basis of knowledge obtained to
force variables in the following form: measured immediately after joining. date, shafts having three different forms
By making use of measurements the of left-right knurling were defined for the
CR = = (2) effectiveness of a measure favouring present investigation, namely two cross
F L F F F L 0 form-fitting assistance can now be eval- knurls of 0.8/45 and 1/45 as well as a
when FL from (1) is determined and sub- uated on the basis of the factors CF and criss-cross knurl of 1/30, the first num-
stituted. CR. There is effective form-fitting assis- ber designating the pitch and the num-
Starting from the loosening force FL0 tance when the relative increase in force ber after the slash being the angle with re-
for the smooth comparison shaft it is now CF is significantly greater than 1. In the spect to the axial direction (Fig. 3). The
case of the slowing down of relaxation fitting length was set at 30 mm. The
CR a value greater than 1 would likewise knurled surfaces were very carefully
be desirable. milled. Special care was taken to ensure
that the prominences were cleanly formed
Knurling as a Form-fitting so that when the specimens were joined
Assistance the plastic part sustained as little damage
as possible. The smooth shafts required
Many detailed aspects of the topic of for comparison were finely ground to sur-
form-fitting assistance have already been face roughness N5 corresponding to a
investigated previously [5]. On this basis depth of roughness Ra of 0.4 mm (Fig. 4).
Fig. 3. Left-right knurling: definition of terms

possible using (1) and (2) to determine

the loosening force FL expected for the
joint aided by form-fitting by means of
the simple equation:
Fig. 4. Steel shaft,
F L = C F C R F L0 = C F L0 (3) smooth finish

and the joining force FF required for the

joint aided by form-fitting is given corre-
spondingly by:

F F = C F F L0 (4)

2 Carl Hanser Verlag, Mnchen Kunststoffe international 12/2006

2006 Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany Not for use in internet or intranet sites. Not for electronic distribution.

have been altered in uncertain and com- increasing force but slowed down relax-
plex fashion. ation very significantly. Interestingly, the
Previous experience allowed the test to criss-cross knurling with a factor
be limited to two periods of 10 and 1000 C = CF CR 4.7 after 1000 hours exhib-
hours. In this way three decades were cap- ited, even axially, the greatest effect over-
tured and the total number of specimens all as a form-fitting aid.
was kept low. For each variation of pa- In tangential form-fitting assistance
rameters three test specimens were inves- the criss-cross knurl dominated as ex-
tigated. pected (Fig. 9) and this was accomplished
with an astonishing total value of C 9
Fig. 5. Test device for tangential form-fitting Conclusions for Use in Practice after 1000 hours. The other two geome-
assistance tries are a long way behind but neverthe-
Although it was not possible to conduct less have a C value of about 6. Earlier stud-
Axial form-fitting assistance was in- a more comprehensive study program, a ies had shown that a knurl with axially
vestigated on a tensile testing machine on series of interesting findings of use in parallel ridges (DIN 82 RAA) does not
which the specimens were both joined practical design was obtained. Overall
and loosened and the forces required for they confirm that in press fits with plas-
this were measured. For measuring the tic hubs, knurled metal shafts are highly
tangential form-fitting assistance a test suitable as a form-fitting aid. The most
device was specially designed and built effective measure turned out to be criss-
so that the required reproducibility could cross knurling.
be guaranteed (Fig. 5) [8]. Interestingly, In axial form-fitting assistance the two
the specimens with knurled shafts exhib- knurls with a 45 angle proved to be vir-
ited distinctly lower scatter of the meas- tually identical, with the smaller pitch of
ured values than those with a smooth 0.8 mm having a slight advantage (Fig. 8).
shaft, this being already the case for the However, relaxation in the first decade
joining forces. was accelerated a little instead of being
While the hubs for axial form-fitting slowed down as desired. By comparison Fig. 6. Hub composed of POM for axial
assistance could be constructed with sim- the criss-cross knurling had less effect in form-fitting assistance
ple geometry (Fig. 6), for the tangential
form-fitting assistance a variant had to be
devised in which the torque can be ap-
plied at the end face in the test device
without substantially interfering with the
joining zone. For this purpose the fitting
length of the hub was unchanged and its Fig. 7. Hub composed
internal diameter slightly increased but it of POM for tangential
was extended axially on one side and pro- form-fitting assis-
vided with six bores into which corre- tance
sponding drive pins of the test device
could engage (Fig. 7). For application of
a moment through tangential forces on
the outer contour it would not have been
possible to retain the basic cylindrical
geometry and the state of stress would

Axial form-fitting assistance Tangential form-fitting assistance

Kunststoffe Kunststoffe

Fig. 8. Axial form-fitting assistance by knurls: action variables realized Fig. 9. Tangential form-fitting assistance by knurls: action variables real-

Kunststoffe international 12/2006 3

2006 Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany Not for use in internet or intranet sites. Not for electronic distribution.

achieve the effect of a left-right knurl de- REFERENCES 7 Kunz, J., Lukic, D., Furrer, F., Studer, M.: Research
spite the angle of 0. 1 Schmidt, H.: Pressverbindungen bei Kunststoff- project on form-fitting assistance in press fits
Knurling with its combined active and teilen, Teil 2: Manahmen zur Steigerung der involving plastics. Miscellaneous internal, unpub-
passive mode of action surpasses purely Belastbarkeit. Kunststoffe 66 (1976) 3, lished documents. HSR Hochschule fr Technik
passive form-fitting assistance by a sig- pp. 170173 Rapperswil, 20042006
nificant factor. As earlier studies [5] had 2 Erhard, G., Strickle, E.: Pressverbindung von 8 Arpagaus, B.: Entwicklung einer Prfeinrichtung
shown, relaxation is slowed down very gerndelten Bolzen mit Kunststoffbauteilen. fr die azimutale Formschlussuntersttzung von
little by a passive form-fitting aid and for Konstruktion Elemente Methoden 1976/9, Pressverbindungen mit Kunststoffen. Study at the
the relative increase in force values of pp. 5860 HSR Hochschule fr Technik Rapperswil, 2004
about 1.21.4 were obtained. Effects in 3 Anon: Berechnen von Pressverbindungen. Hoechst
this range may suffice at any rate for the AG, Company publication B. 3.4, Frankfurt/Main THE AUTHORS
axial self-locking of bolts which are not 1992 PROF. DIPL.-ING. JOHANNES KUNZ, born in 1940,
placed under load by an axial force or by 4 Kunz, J.: Formschluss untersttzt Kunststoff- Institut fr Werkstofftechnik und Kunststoffverar-
a torque. Pressverbindung. Kunststoffe-Synthetics 49 (2002) beitung (IWK; Institute for Materials Technology and
6, pp. 1517 Plastics Processing) at the HSR Hochschule fr Tech-
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 5 Keller, R., Sallenbach, R., Hausmann, J., nik Rapperswil, Switzerland;
The present work was carried out in the course of the Zurkirchen, M., Schweizer, R., Schdler, B., Loher, DIPL.-ING. DEJAN LUKIC, born in 1972, member of
research project Basic Principles in the Design of T.: Studies and diploma theses on the subject of the scientific staff at IWK
Plastic Structures. For funding this work the authors form-fitting assistance in press fits involving
express their thanks to the Gebert Rf Stiftung plastics. HSR Hochschule fr Technik Rapperswil,
(Gebert Rf Foundation), Basel, and to the Research 19912001
Fund of the HSR Hochschule fr Technik Rapperswil. 6 DIN 82: Rndel. Beuth-Verlag Berlin, 1973

4 Carl Hanser Verlag, Mnchen Kunststoffe international 12/2006

2006 Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany Not for use in internet or intranet sites. Not for electronic distribution.