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DOI 10.1007/s13369-012-0482-0

Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Ahmet Tuken Nadeem A. Siddiqui

Received: 7 October 2011 / Accepted: 22 January 2012 / Published online: 12 December 2012

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2012

ings with shear walls to resist seismic loads. In the present

study, an easy to apply analytical method has been proposed

to determine the amount of shear walls necessary to make

reinforced concrete buildings seismic-resistant against mod-

erate to severe earthquakes. The method is based on the fol-

lowing design strategy: (1) The total design base shear must

be resisted by shear walls; (2) Equal amounts of shear walls

must be placed in both orthogonal directions of the struc-

ture; and (3) The moment resisting frame elements, which

are beams and columns, must independently be able to resist

25 % of the total design base shear. For such a system, the

ratio of the total area of shear walls to the area of the floor

plan has been obtained by equating the total design base

shear to the total shear resistance provided by all shear walls

in one direction. Because seismic action may occur in any

direction, equal amount of shear walls is recommended to

provide in the two orthogonal directions. A procedure is also

presented to check the stiffness (or storey drift) requirement

for the determined amount of shear walls. The complete ana-

lytical procedure was demonstrated by implementing it on a

10 storey 3-D reinforced concrete building.

Dual system

1 Introduction

(RC) building must possess adequate strength, stiffness and

ductility. These three requirements are generally satisfied by

properly placing the required amount of shear walls in RC

A. Tuken N. A. Siddiqui (B)

buildings. Observations and evaluations of past earthquake

Department of Civil Engineering, King Saud University,

Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia damages show that buildings with shear walls, despite inade-

e-mail: nadeem@KSU.EDU.SA quate amount and poor placement in the building plan, resist

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2640 Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648

the seismic forces efficiently and generally do not collapse having relatively stiff perimeter shear walls. Various degrees

under moderate to severe earthquakes. It is due to the reason of diaphragm flexibility, shear wall flexural over-strength and

that almost all the seismic codes recommend the employment numbers of stories were considered in the inelastic dynamic

of shear walls in RC buildings. In the recent past, substantial analyses. The results confirmed that current code provisions

research has been carried out on seismic response of RC consistently underestimate diaphragm forces at the upper and

buildings with shear walls. lower floors under common conditions.

Kim et al. [1] proposed an efficient method for a three- Lee and Ko [6] studied three 1:12 scaled 17-storey RC

dimensional analysis of a high-rise building structure with wall building models having different types of irregularity

shear walls. Three-dimensional super elements for walls and at the bottom two stories after subjecting to the simulated

floor slabs were developed and a substructure was formed by earthquake excitations to observe their seismic response

assembling the super elements to reduce the time required characteristics. The first model had a symmetrical moment-

for the modeling and analysis. Static and dynamic analyses resisting frame (Model 1), the second had an infilled shear

of example structures with various types of opening were wall in the central frame (Model 2), and the third had an in-

performed to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the pro- filled shear wall in only one of the exterior frames (Model

posed method. They concluded that the proposed method is 3) at the bottom two stories. Based on the test results, which

very useful for an efficient and accurate analysis of high-rise were analyzed and compared, the following conclusions were

building structures with significantly reduced computational drawn:

time and memory. (1) The estimated fundamental periods for other structures

Aksogan et al. [2] studied the forced vibration analysis of a than moment frames and bearing wall structures in UBC 97

multi-bay coupled shear wall on an elastic foundation. Their and AIK 2000 appear to be reasonable, (2) The total amounts

analysis considers shear walls with a finite number of stiff- of energy absorption by damage are similar regardless of the

ening beams, the properties of which vary from span to span existence and location of the infilled shear wall, (3) The larg-

and/or from section to section in the vertical direction. They est energy absorption is due to overturning, followed by that

employed continuous connection method (CCM) to find the due to shear deformation and (4) The rigid upper system ren-

structure stiffness matrix. The structure mass matrix was ders rocking behavior in the lower frame, and thereby the self

found with the lumped mass assumption. A time-history anal- weight contributes up to about 23 % of the resistance against

ysis was carried out using the Newmark numerical integra- the total overturning moment.

tion method to obtain the response. The response obtained by Kara and Dundar [7] presented an iterative analytical

the present method was then compared with those obtained procedure to study the effect of concrete cracking on the stiff-

using SAP2000 structural analysis program. They found a ness and deflection of shear walls. They developed a com-

good match between the results of present method and the puter program for the mentioned study. In the program, the

results of the SAP2000 program. variation of the flexural stiffness of a cracked member was

Chai and Kunnath [3] outlined a methodology for assess- evaluated by ACI and probability-based effective stiffness

ing the minimum wall thickness to ensure that the in-plane models. In the analysis, shear deformation which can be large

lateral strength was fully developed. The results were pre- and significant after development of cracks was also taken

sented for a number of parameters including the ground into account and the variation of shear stiffness in the cracked

motion intensity, longitudinal reinforcement ratio, floor regions of members was also considered using effective shear

weight, wall-to-floor area ratio and number of stories. The stiffness model available in the literature. Verification of the

minimum wall thickness was compared with recommenda- proposed procedure was confirmed with series of reinforced

tions in current building codes. concrete shear wall tests available in the literature as well.

Kim and Lee [4] proposed an efficient analysis method Comparison between the analytical and experimental results

that can be used regardless of the number, size and loca- showed that the proposed analytical procedure can provide

tion of openings. The analysis method uses super elements an accurate and efficient prediction of both the deflection

developed by the matrix condensation technique. Static and and flexural stiffness reduction of shear walls with different

dynamic analyses of example structures having various types height to width ratio and vertical load. The results of the ana-

of openings were performed to verify the efficiency and accu- lytical procedure also indicated that the percentage of shear

racy of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that deflection in the total deflection increases with decreasing

the proposed method can be used for the analysis of a shear height to width ratio of the shear wall.

wall structure with openings. Outstanding accuracy in analy- Marini and Meda [8] presented a new technique for the

sis was achieved with drastically reduced computational time strengthening of existing R/C shear walls based on the appli-

and memory. cation of thin high performance jackets. The strengthening

Lee et al. [5] investigated the amplification of forces and jacket was made of high performance concrete, having a com-

displacements in flexible diaphragms for low-rise structures pression resistance higher than 150 MPa, and reinforced by

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Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648 2641

means of a high strength steel mesh. The experimental study boundary between economically repairable minor damage

was carried out on a 1:3 scale-R/C wall, proportioned to resist and damage that is not worth repairing. The intensity of

vertical loads only, and reinforced by means of a 15 mm ground shaking associated with this limit state has a low prob-

thick-high performance jacket. Cyclic loads of increasing ability of occurrence during the expected life of the building.

magnitude were applied to the experimental shear wall up In the event of a ground shaking, the most important desired

to collapse. The effectiveness of the technique was also ver- property is the strength of the building, especially when its

ified numerically. The results showed the efficiency of the elastic limit is attained or slightly exceeded. A building can be

proposed solution on the significantly increasing structure avoided to reach the limit state by providing adequate shear

resistance, deformation capacity and ductility. walls in the orthogonal directions. Keeping this requirement

Mo et al. [9] presented a study which accomplishes three in view, in the present study, effort has been made to deter-

main tasks: (1) formulating the Cyclic Softened Membrane mine that amount of shear walls, which is necessary to make

Model (CSMM) for the development of a finite element pro- a building safe against excessive damage. For this purpose,

gram, (2) implementing the formulated CSMM into a finite the following assumptions (or design strategy) were made.

element program SCS (Simulation of Concrete Structures)

using OpenSees that stands for Open System for Earthquake The total design base shear is resisted by shear walls;

Engineering Simulation as a framework, (3) validating the Equal amounts of shear walls are available in the orthog-

finite element program SCS by comparing its predictions onal directions of the structure because seismic action

with the experimental results of RC framed shear walls avail- may occur in both directions;

able in the literature. The moment resisting frame elements, which are beams

Tuken [10] proposed an analytical method to determine and columns, independently resist 25 % of the total

the sway of a mixed structure (frame + shear wall) subject design base shear.

to seismic forces. The validity of the analytical method was

tested on 3-D buildings of different heights. He also obtained The Uniform Building Code (UBC)-1997 [12] defines the

the sway response using SAP2000 and found that the sway structure that possesses the above-mentioned three proper-

results obtained by the analytical method matches well with ties as the dual system.

the results of SAP2000. In a similar study, Tuken and Atim- In the present study, the amount of required shear walls in

tay [11] proposed an analytical method to determine the sway one direction was obtained by satisfying the strength crite-

of a totally framed building subject to seismic forces. The rion that is obtained by equating the total design base shear

implementation of the proposed method to framed buildings (Vt ) to the total shear resistance (Vr ) provided by all the shear

in regions of high seismic risk was emphasized. walls in one direction. That is

A detailed review on different aspects of typical frame

structures containing shear walls shows that simplified pro- Vt = Vr (1)

cedures for the assessment of shear wall quantity that can

resist the earthquake forces safely and can also satisfy the two The total design base shear, Vt , can be estimated using an

major requirements of the seismic codes (strength and stiff- acceleration response spectrum. In the present study, the

ness) are not widely available. Keeping this scope in view, in acceleration response spectrum defined by UBC-1997 [12],

the present study, an easy to apply analytical method has been was employed. This spectrum is shown in Fig. 1.

proposed to determine the amount of shear walls necessary to

make reinforced concrete buildings seismic-resistant against

moderate to severe earthquakes. The amount of shear walls

2.5Ca Control Periods

obtained was checked to fulfill the two requirements (i.e.

Spectral Acceleration (gs)

Ts= Cv /2.5Ca

adequate strength and adequate stiffness) of seismic design. To=0.2Ts

The third requirement, ductility, was not presented here as

ductility requirement can easily be satisfied with the same

quantity of shear walls by proper detailing and satisfying the Cv/T

minimum requirements of the seismic codes.

Ca

2 Problem Formulation

Period (Seconds)

age to the contents of buildings is acceptable. Therefore,

a damage control limit state is to be defined to mark the Fig. 1 Acceleration response spectrum (UBC-97 [12])

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2642 Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648

The above acceleration response spectrum reveals that the web; f y is the yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement

effective ground acceleration is magnified by a factor of 2.5, (in MPa).

for natural periods of 0.21.0 s. These natural periods are Equating the Eqs. (5) and (6), the ratio of the total area of

the most typical values of building structures generally exist shear walls to the area of the floor plan can be obtained as

in practice. Based on this observation, the total design base

Asw S(T )A0 I nwi

shear, Vt , can be estimated by the equation provided by UBC- = 103 , (7)

1997 [12]. This equation is given by Ap

R(0.166 f c + sh f y )

S(T )A0 I W

Vt = , (2)

where wi is in kN/m2 ; f c and f y are in MPa.

R

The total area of shear walls obtained from above equa-

where S(T ) is the spectrum coefficient, which is the ratio tion (Eq. 7) must also satisfy the stiffness requirement. In

of spectral acceleration to effective peak ground accelera- other words, the stiffness provided by all shear walls should

tion, its maximum value is 2.5; A0 is the effective ground not be less than the minimum stiffness required by the codes

acceleration coefficient; I is the building importance factor; by means of storey drift limitation. In the present study the

R is the seismic force reduction factor (structural behavior storey drift (i ) and relative storey drift (i / h i ) are defined

factor); and W is the total weight of building calculated by as

considering live load participation factor .

The total weight of the building can be expressed in terms i di di1

i = di di1 ; = (8)

of its floor areas and number of stories as hi hi

n

Where h i = Height of ith storey of building; di = Displace-

W = wi Api , (3) ment calculated at ith storey of building. In each earthquake

i=1

direction; the maximum value of calculated storey drifts,

where Api is the plan area of the ith floor; n is the number of (i )max , for columns and structural walls of the ith storey of a

stories; wi = gi + qi . building should not exceed the limiting value lim , generally

Here wi is the weight of ith storey of building by consid- specified by the building codes. In other words,

ering live load participation factor ; gi is the total dead load

at ith storey of building; qi is the total live load at ith storey (i )max lim . (9)

of building.

Assuming an average value of wi , and same floor-area for In the cases, where the condition specified by Eq. (9) is not

each storey, the total weight of the building can be approxi- satisfied, the lateral stiffness of the structural system should

mately expressed as: be increased.

The value of total stiffness of all shear walls = E I =

n

total stiffness of all shear walls within a storey. Here, E is

W = wi Api = wi n Ap (4) the modulus of elasticity of building material (e.g. concrete)

i=1

and I is the moment of inertia of shear wall.

Substituting above expression for the total weight of the Let n sw be the number of shear walls to be used in each

building in Eq. (2), we get direction and taking bw = bmin. Here bmin is the minimum

width of shear wall required by the code. We may write,

S(T )A0 I wi n Ap

Vt = (kN), (5)

R Asw

lw = (10)

where wi is in kN/m2 and Ap is in m2 . bw

Having determined the total base shear, now we need to Then assuming a typical shear wall with (lw )typical = lmin

find an expression of shear resistance Vr . According to UBC-

1997 [12], a lower-bound value of the shear strength of the lw Asw

n sw = = (11)

total number of shear walls in one orthogonal direction can (lw )typical (Asw )typical

be obtained using the following expression: K min = (E I ) = n sw E Itypical , (12)

Vr = Asw 0.166 f c + sh f y 103 (k N ), (6) where Itypical = 12 1

bw lw3 = 12

1 3 ; (A )

bmin lmin sw typical =

lw bw = lmin bmin

where is the strength-reduction factor; Asw is the area of Substituting Eq. (11) into Eq. (12) we have

shear wall (in m2 ); f c is the 28-day characteristic compres-

sive strength of concrete (in MPa); sh is the ratio of hori- Asw

K min = E Itypical (13)

zontal web reinforcement of wall to the gross area of wall (Asw )typical

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Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648 2643

Substitution of Asw from Eq. (7) into Eq. (13) yields the flexural rigidity of the structure in the horizontal plane;

v 2 = 1 + KK0 ; GA is the the shear rigidity of the frame per

E Itypical S(T )A0 I n Ap wi

K min = 103 (kN/m2 ), unit height (i.e. equivalent shear stiffness of the building).

(Asw )typical R 0.166 f c + sh f y

(14)

2.1.1 Solution Procedure

where wi is in kN/m2 , Ap is in m2 , E is in kN/m2 and f c and

f y are in MPa. Letting w = K y in Eq. 17, the differential equation of lateral

A multiplying factor (1) is introduced in the above displacement factored by K multiplier, can be obtained as

equation to increase the lateral stiffness of building having expressed in Eq. (18).

many stories (e.g. 10). This is necessary to satisfy the maxi-

mum relative storey drift value required by the seismic codes. d4 w d2 w v 2 1

Thus, Eq. (14) can be rewritten in the following form that s2 + M(x) s 2 f (x) = 0, (18)

dx 4 dx 2 v2

includes the multiplying factor .

where s 2 = K /(v 2 G A); K = K (shear walls) + K

E Itypical S(T )A0 I n Ap wi

K min = 103 (kN/m2 ). (columns).

(Asw )typical R(0.166 f c + sh f y ) In shear wall-frame structures, since the stiffness of col-

(15) umns is negligibly small when compared to that of shear

walls, K (columns) term can be neglected.

For those buildings which have relatively lesser number of Bending moment expression can easily be found by dif-

stories (e.g. 9), the value of multiplying factor = 1. It ferentiating the equation of w = K y twice. Therefore, the

is worth mentioning that Eq. (15) includes a multiplication degree of general differential equation of bending is reduced

factor that can be obtained easily by increasing the value of to two as expressed in Eq. (19).

K min in Eq. (14) until any seismic code requirement for max-

imum relative storey drift is satisfied. Equation (15), thus, d2 M(x) v2 1

provides the value of the total stiffness required to satisfy s2 M(x) + M0 (x) s 2 f (x) = 0. (19)

dx 2 v2

both strength and stiffness requirements of seismic design.

The solution of this differential equation can be expressed

2.1 Formulation of Shear Wall-Frame Interaction as the summation of two separate solutions, one is particular

solution and the other one is complementary solution. That

In the present study, to derive the governing equation for is

the estimation of lateral storey drift of the shear wall-frame

building under seismic excitation, a number of assumptions M(x) = M(x)complementary + M(x)particular (20)

were made as mentioned in Tuken [13].

Using these assumptions, the following governing differ-

ential equation of flexuralshear beam (i.e. shear wall-frame)

has been derived considering dynamic equilibrium of shear M(x) = A1 cosh + A2 sinh

wall-frame building.

v2 1

d2 y (1 + s 2 D 2 ) s 2 f (x) M 0 (x) (21a)

4

d y 2

d y K M(x) v2

K 4 G A 2 + dx = f (x)

2

(16) x

dx dx K0 where = .

s

d4 y 2

2d y G A M(x) The calculation of M0 (x) in Eq. (21a) based on Fig. 2

K 4

G A v 2

+ f (x) = 0, (17)

dx dx K0 can be written as in Eqs. (21b) and (21c).

x (H x)2 x (H x)2

where G is the shear modulus; K = E I = total stiffness M0 (x) = p + p 1 (21b)

of all shear walls within the storey (since stiffness of the col- H 2 H 3

umns are very small compared to total stiffness of all the (H x)2 x H x

M0 (x) = p +

shear walls within that storey); f (x) is the distributed lateral H 2 3

2

force; K ddx y2 M(x) is the moment taken by the frame; M(x) 2H 3 3H 2 x + x 3

2 =p (21c)

is the moment caused by the external loads at height x; K ddx y2 6H

2y

Kd 2 M(x)

is the moment taken by the shear walls; dx K 0 is the unit To find A1 and A2 , two boundary conditions can be applied

rotation due to axial deformations of frame columns; K 0 is as follows:

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2644 Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648

structure under triangular

distributed lateral load

(H-x) = +

x x

p(x/H) p(x/H)

1. The shear force at the base level must be equal to the 1. Moment at the top of the structure must be zero, i.e.

total lateral load, i.e. M(H ) = 0 (25b)

2. The shear force at the base level must be equal to

H

dM(0) the total lateral load, i.e.

= f (x)dx (22)

dx dM 1

0

= p H. (25c)

dx x=0 2

2. Moment at the top of the structure must be zero, i.e.

Applying the above two boundary conditions in order, we

obtain A1 and A2 as expressed in Eqs. (26) and (27), respec-

M(H ) = 0 (23)

tively.

Recalling w = K y, Eq. (21) must be integrated twice and

ps 2 1

two more boundary conditions must be applied to find the A1 = 2 1+ sinh (26)

v cosh 2

equation of lateral displacement, w, as expressed in Eq. (24).

ps 2 1

x A2 = 2 , (27)

v 2

w= M(x)dx + A3 x + A4

2

(24)

0 where = Hs .

To find A3 and A4 , two additional boundary conditions can The lateral displacement expression can be obtained by

be applied as follows: integrating Eq. (25) twice, as expressed in Eqs. (28) and (29).

x

1. Displacement must be zero at the base level of the struc- w(x) = M(x)dx 2 (28)

ture, i.e.

0

v 2 1

w(0) = 0 w(x) = A1 s 2 cosh + A2 s 2 sinh + M(x)dx 2

v2

s2 p x 3

2. Slope must be zero at the base level of the structure due + A3 x + A4 (29a)

v2 H 6

to the fixed base assumption, i.e. To obtain A3 and A4 , the following two boundary

dw(0) conditions can be applied.

= 0. 1. Displacement must be zero at the base level of the

dx

building, i.e.

2.1.2 Response Estimation Under Triangular Load w(0) = 0 (29b)

x 2. Slope must be zero at the base level of the building due to

For triangular distributed lateral load of f (x) = p H as

shown in Fig. 2, Eq. (21a) will take the following form. fixed base assumption, i.e.

dw

v2 1 =0 (29c)

M(x) = A1 cosh + A2 sinh + M0 (x) dx x=0

v2

s2 Applying the above two boundary conditions in order, we

p(k), (25a) obtain A3 and A4 as expressed in Eqs. (30) and (31), respec-

v2

x tively.

where k = .

H

To find A1 and A2 in Eq. (25) following two boundary, A3 = A2 s (30)

conditions can be applied; A4 = A1 s . 2

(31)

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Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648 2645

Finally, the equation of lateral displacement factored by K Calculate the minimum stiffness of all shear walls (K min );

multiplier, w(x), can be written as expressed in Eq. (32) or flexural rigidity (K 0 ), due to the most exterior columns

equivalently in Eq. (33). and the shear walls that is not placed on the symmetry

axis of building; and shear rigidity (GA) of all the col-

v2 1

K y(x) = A1 s 2 cosh + A2 s 2 sinh + pH4 umns using

v 2

k3 k4 k5 k2 1 k k2 k3

+ + + E Itypical S(T )A0 I (n Ap wi )

12 12 40 3 2 2 4 20 K min = 103 .

s2 p x 3 (Asw )typical R 0.166 f c + sh f y

+ A3 x + A4 (32)

v2 H 6

1

K y(x) = A1 s 2 cosh + A2 s 2 sinh + 1 2 p H 4 K 0 is the flexural rigidity of the structure in the horizon-

v

tal plane (i.e. Ad2 terms due to the most exterior columns

k 2 k 3 k 5 2

s pk 2 and the shear walls that is not placed on the symmetry

+ x + A3 x + A4 (33)

6 12 120 6v 2 axis of building) and

slope distribution is obtained. If it is differentiated twice, the 12E c Ic 1

GA = . ,

curvature distribution over the shear walls is obtained. Multi- lc2 1+ 2Ic

I I

lc l b1 + l b2

plying the curvature by the sum of flexural rigidities of shear b1 b2

obtained by Eq. (34). where Ib1 is the moment of inertia of beam to the left

EI of the column considered; Ib2 is the moment of inertia

M(x) = [A1 cosh + A2 sinh of beam to the right of the column considered; E is the

K

Modulus of elasticity of concrete; Ic is the moment of

1 1 x x3 s2 p

+ 1 2 p H 4

+ 2 x (34) inertia of column; lc is the length of column; lb1 is the

v 3H 2 2H 3 6H 5 v H

length of beam to the left of the column considered; lb2

2.2 Algorithm for the Determination of Stiffness Multiplier is the length of beam to the right of the column considered.

()

Estimate the lateral storey drifts by calculating the lateral

For any particular case, stiffness multiplier () can easily be displacement y(x) using

figured out by following the algorithm given below:

K y(x) = A1 s 2 cosh + A2 s 2 sinh

Determine the amount of total shear wall ( Asw ) using

1 2 k3 k5

4 k

+ 1 2 pH +

Asw S(T )A0 I (nwi ) v 6 12 120

= 103

Ap s 2 pk 2

R 0.166 f c + sh f y x + A3 x + A4

6v 2

Assume bw = bmin , which is the minimum width of shear Finally, based on the maximum relative storey drift value;

walls required by the seismic code; Calculate the total the value of that is the multiplier of K can be obtained

length of shear walls to be used in both x and y directions easily by increasing only the K value until any valid seis-

( Iw ) using mic code requirement for relative storey drift has been

satisfied.

Asw

lw =

bw

Assume the minimum length of each shear wall being 3 Implementation and Numerical Study

lw = lmin , and calculate the total number of shear walls to

be used in both directions as To demonstrate the methodology discussed in problem for-

mulation, a 10 storey 3-D building having a typical floor

lw Asw

n sw = = plan as shown in Fig. 3 was selected. The other salient data

(lw )typical (Asw )typical required for the analysis are presented in Table 1.

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2646 Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648

3-D building studied

seismic-analysis of the 3-D

building studied Column size 600 600 mm Assumed same for all columns

Beam size 250 450 mm Assumed same for all beams

Slab thickness 120 mm Assumed same for all slabs

Storey heights 3,000 mm Assumed same for all stories

Spectrum coefficient (S(T )) 2.5 Maximum value required by

Turkish Earthquake Code [14]

Compressive strength of concrete ( f c ) 20 MPa

Yield strength of steel ( f y ) 420 MPa

Modulus of elasticity of concrete (E) 28,500,000 kN/m2

Width of shear wall (bw ) 0.25 m Minimum value required by

Turkish Earthquake Code [14]

Length of shear wall (lw ) 3.0 m Assumed minimum value

Ratio of horizontal web reinforcement of wall to 0.0025 Minimum value required by

the gross area of wall web (sh ) UBC-97 [12]

Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient (A0 ) 0.4 For seismic zone 1

Storey weights (wi ) 7.0 kN/m2 Assumed average value for the

weight of ith storey of the

building (same value was

assumed for each storey)

Structural behavior factor (R) 7.0 For buildings in which seismic

loads are jointly resisted by

frames and solid and/or coupled

structural walls

Building importance factor (I ) 1.0 For residential and office buildings,

hotels, industrial buildings, etc.

Strength reduction factor () (for shear) 0.7 Recommended by UBC-97 [12]

for shear walls in seismic zone1

3.1 Total Area of Shear Walls Then the total area of shear walls to be used can be calcu-

lated as Asw = 0.008(1300) = 10.4 m2 . Using bw = 0.25 m

Using Eq. (7) and the data presented in Table 1, total area of of shear walls, minimum length of total shear walls to be

shear walls to the area of the floor plan can be calculated as provided in each orthogonal directions will be = 10.4 /

Asw / Ap = 0.008; where Ap = 50 26 = 1,300 m2 (Fig. 3). 0.25 = 41.6 m.

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Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648 2647

walls for the 3-D building

studied

For the 3-D building studied, shear walls can be placed on shear walls should not be less than the minimum stiffness

the floor plan as shown in Fig. 4. As it can be seen that the required by the codes with storey drift limitation. For the

total length of shear walls in x direction is 40 m and the total selected numerical example, the minimum value of total stiff-

length of shear walls in y direction is 38 m, which is nearly ness of all shear walls K min can be computed using Eq. 15.

equal to the length of shear walls provided in x direction. In Substituting = 1.2 for 10 storey building, and all the

Fig. 4, a symmetric placement of shear walls was preferred desired data from Table 1 we have K min = 209,664,000

to avoid the development of torsion. kN/m2 . As both the K x and K y are much greater than the

Having decided the arrangements of shear walls and tak- minimum required stiffness K min , the amount of shear walls

ing the minimum width of shear walls as bw = 0.25 m, total obtained using proposed methodology also satisfies the stiff-

stiffness of all shear walls along x and y directions can be cal- ness criteria required by the seismic codes (e.g. Turkish

culated as K x = 1,484,375,000 kN/m2 and K y = 681,625,000 Earthquake Code-1997 [14]).

kN/m2 . Under all circumstances; total stiffness of all the shear

Here, K x and K y are the lateral stiffness values provided walls, obtained from the strength requirement, is greater than

by the minimum amount of shear walls satisfying the strength the required minimum stiffness K min and hence the maxi-

requirement of seismic code. Using the minimum amount of mum relative storey drift requirement is automatically satis-

shear walls obtained from strength requirement of Vr = Vt and fied for the 10-storey building studied.

the minimum value of total stiffness of all shear walls (K min ),

stiffness requirement of seismic code was found to be auto-

matically satisfied up to 9 storey building. After that the min- 4 Conclusions

imum stiffness of total shear walls (K min ) must be increased

by a factor of to satisfy the maximum relative storey drift An easy to apply analytical method was presented to deter-

criteria (i.e. stiffness requirement) of seismic code. mine the amount of shear walls necessary to make rein-

For the selected numerical example, the minimum value of forced concrete buildings seismic-resistant against moderate

total stiffness of all shear walls K min can be computed using to severe earthquakes. The methodology was demonstrated

Eq. 15. However, to use Eq. (15), it is necessary to compute by implementing it on a 10 storey 3-D reinforced concrete

first the stiffness multiplier . The value of was determined building. For a realistic set of data, total area of shear walls

using the data shown in Table 1 and following the Algorithm for the chosen building was determined and then provided

presented in Section 2.2. The value of this multiplier comes in x and y directions. The total stiffness of all shear walls

out to be 1.2 for this implementation problem. was also determined in x and y directions. To compare the

total stiffness provided by the shear walls in two orthogo-

3.2 Checking the Stiffness Requirement nal directions; a minimum value of total stiffness, satisfying

(Storey Drift Limitation) the storey drift limitation of any seismic code (e.g. Turkish

Earthquake Code [14]), was determined using a stiffness mul-

The total area of shear walls must also satisfy the stiffness tiplier . This multiplier was obtained using the selected data

requirement. In other words, the stiffness provided by the presented in Table 1 and proposed algorithm. The value of

123

2648 Arab J Sci Eng (2013) 38:26392648

comes out to be 1.2 for this implementation problem. The 3. Chai, Y.H.; Kunnath, S.K.: Minimum thickness for ductile RC

results clearly show that the amount of shear walls obtained structural walls. Eng. Struct. 27, 10521063 (2005)

4. Kim, H.S.; Lee, D.G.: Analysis of shear wall with openings using

using proposed methodology also satisfies the storey drift super elements. Eng. Struct. 25(8), 981991 (2003)

limitation required by any seismic code (e.g. Turkish Earth- 5. Lee, H.J.; Kuchma, D.; Aschheim, M.A.: Strength-based design of

quake Code [14]). This infers that for 3-D reinforced concrete flexible diaphragms in low-rise structures subjected to earthquake

buildings, the maximum relative storey drift requirement is loading. Eng. Struct. 29(7), 12771295 (2007)

6. Lee, H.; Ko, D.: Seismic response characteristics of high-rise RC

generally satisfied as long as the minimum amount of shear wall buildings having different irregularities in lower stories. Eng.

walls, obtained from the strength requirement, is provided in Struct. 29(11), 31493167 (2007)

each orthogonal direction irrespective of the orientation of 7. Kara, I.F.; Dundar, C.: Prediction of deflection of reinforced con-

shear walls. In the cases where the maximum relative sto- crete shear walls. Adv. Eng. Softw. 40, 777785 (2009)

8. Marini, A.; Meda, A.: Retrofitting of R/C shear walls by means of

rey drift requirement is not satisfied, the amount of shear

high performance jackets. Eng. Struct. 31, 30593064 (2009)

wall should be revised (considering minimum required lat- 9. Mo, Y.L.; Zhong, J.; Hsu, T.T.C.: Seismic simulation of RC wall-

eral stiffness) to satisfy the maximum relative storey drift type structures. Eng. Struct. 30, 31673175 (2008)

requirement of relevant seismic code. 10. Tuken, A.: Analysis and assessment of seismic drift of reinforced

concrete mixed (shear wall-frame) structures. Technology 7(4),

523532 (2004)

Acknowledgments This research work presented herein was sup-

11. Tuken, A.; Atimtay, E.: Analysis and assessment of seismic drift of

ported by the Deanship of Scientific Research, Research Centre,

concrete framed structures. In: Seventh International Congress on

College of Engineering, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Ara-

Advances in Civil Engineering, October 11-13, Yildiz Technical

bia through Grant No. 1/432.

University, Istanbul, Turkey (2006)

12. Uniform Building Code (UBC).: International Conference of

Building Officials (1997)

References 13. Tuken, A.: Quantifying Seismic Design Criteria for Concrete

Buildings: The Amount of Shear Walls Necessary to Satisfy Earth-

quake Code Requirements. PhD thesis, VDM Publishing, Germany

1. Kim, H.; Lee, D.; Kim, C.K.: Efficient three-dimensional seismic

(2009)

analysis of a high-rise building structure with shear walls. Eng.

14. Turkish Earthquake Code.: Specification for Structures to be Built

Struct. 27(6), 963976 (2005)

in Disaster Areas. Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara

2. Aksogan, O.; Bikce, M.; Emsen, E.; Arslan, H.M.: A simplified

(1997)

dynamic analysis of multi-bay stiffened coupled shear walls. Adv.

Eng. Softw. 38, 552560 (2007)

123

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