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BITS Pilani Pratik N Sheth

Department of Chemical Engineering

Pilani Campus

Contents

Model based design methods

Direct Synthesis Method

Internal model Control (IMC)

Controller Tuning: A Motivational Example

(FOPTD Model: K = 1, = 4, = 20). 3

Performance Criteria For

Closed-Loop Systems

The function of a feedback control system is to ensure

that the closed loop system has desirable dynamic and

steady-state response characteristics.

Ideally, we would like the closed-loop system to satisfy

the following performance criteria:

1. The closed-loop system must be stable.

2. The effects of disturbances are minimized, providing good disturbance rejection.

3. Rapid, smooth responses to set-point changes are obtained, that is, good set-

point tracking.

4. Steady-state error (offset) is eliminated.

5. Excessive control action is avoided.

6. The control system is robust, that is, insensitive to changes in process conditions

and to inaccuracies in the process model.

Alternative Techniques

2. Internal Model Control (IMC) method

3. Controller tuning relations

4. Frequency response techniques

5. Computer simulation

6. On-line tuning after the control system is installed.

Direct Synthesis method

In the Direct Synthesis (DS) method, the controller design is based on a process

model and a desired closed-loop transfer function.

The latter is usually specified for set-point changes, but responses to disturbances

can also be utilized (Chen and Seborg, 2002).

Although these feedback controllers do not always have a PID structure, the DS

method does produce PI or PID controllers for common process models.

As a starting point for the analysis, consider the block diagram of a feedback

control system in Figure.

The closed-loop transfer function for set-point changes is given by

Y K mGcGvG p

=

Ysp 1 + GcGvG p Gm

Direct Synthesis method

For simplicity, let G Gv G pGm and assume that Gm = Km. Then Eq. 12-1

reduces to

Y GcG

= (12-2)

Ysp 1 + GcG

Rearranging and solving for Gc gives an expression for the feedback controller:

1 Y / Ysp

Gc = (12-3a)

G 1 Y / Ysp

Equation 12-3a cannot be used for controller design because the closed-loop

transfer function Y/Ysp is not known a priori.

Also, it is useful to distinguish between the actual process G and the model, G%

, that provides an approximation of the process behavior.

A practical design equation can be derived by replacing the unknown G by G% ,

and Y/Ysp by a desired closed-loop transfer function, (Y/Ysp)d:

( )

1 Y / Ysp d

Gc = (12-3b)

G% 1 Y / Ysp

( )

d

The specification of (Y/Ysp)d is the key design decision and will be

considered later in this section.

Note that the controller transfer function in (12-3b) contains the inverse of

the process model owing to the 1/ G% term.

This feature is a distinguishing characteristic of model-based control.

Eq. 12-4 is a reasonable choice,

Y 1

= (12-4)

Ysp d c s + 1 8

The model has a settling time of ~ 4 c

Because the steady-state gain is one, no offset occurs for set-point

changes.

By substituting (12-4) into (12-3b) and solving for Gc, the controller design

equation becomes:

1 1

Gc = (12-5)

G% c s

The 1/ c s term provides integral control action and thus eliminates offset.

Design parameter c provides a convenient controller tuning parameter that

can be used to make the controller more aggressive (small c ) or less

aggressive (large c ).

9

If the process transfer function contains a known time delay , a reasonable

choice for the desired closed-loop transfer function is:

Y e s

= (12-6)

Ysp d c s + 1

for the controlled variable to respond to

a set-point change at t = 0, before t = .

If the time delay is unknown, must be replaced by an estimate.

Combining Eqs. 12-6 and 12-3b gives:

1 e s

Gc = (12-7)

G% c s + 1 es

( )

1 Y / Ysp d

Gc = (12-3b)

G% 1 Y / Ysp

( )

d

10

Although this controller is not in a standard PID form, it is physically

realizable.

Next, we show that the design equation in Eq. 12-7 can be used to derive PID

controllers for simple process models.

The following derivation is based on approximating the time-delay term in the

denominator of (12-7) with a truncated Taylor series expansion:

e s 1 s (12-8)

Substituting (12-8) into the denominator of Eq. 12-7 and rearranging gives

1 e s

Gc = s

(12-9)

G% ( c + ) S

11

First-Order-plus-Time-Delay (FOPTD) Model

Consider the standard FOPTD model,

s

Ke

G% ( s ) = (12-10)

s + 1

Substituting Eq. 12-10 into Eq. 12-9 and rearranging gives a PI controller,

with the following controller settings:

Gc = K c (1 + 1/ I s ) ,

1

Kc = , I = (12-11)

K + c

Second-Order-plus-Time-Delay (SOPTD) Model

Consider a SOPTD model,

s

Ke

G% ( s ) = (12-12)

( 1s + 1)( 2 s + 1)

Substitution into Eq. 12-9 and rearrangement gives a PID controller in parallel

form,

1

Gc = K c 1 + + Ds (12-13)

where:

I s

1 1 + 2 1 2

Kc = , I = 1 + 2 , D = (12-14)

K c + 1 + 2

Example 12.1

Use the DS design method to calculate PID controller settings for the process:

s

2e

G=

(10s + 1)( 5s + 1)

Consider three values of the desired closed-loop time constant:

c = 1, 3, and 10 . Evaluate the controllers for unit step changes in both the

set point and the disturbance, assuming that Gd = G. Repeat the evaluation for

two cases:

b. The model gain is K% = 0.9, instead of the actual value, K = 2. Thus,

s

0.9 e

G% =

(10s + 1)( 5s + 1)

Dr Pratik N Sheth, Dept of Chemical Engg, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

The controller settings for this example are:

c = 1 c = 3 c = 10

Kc ( K% = 2 ) 3.75 1.88 0.682

Kc ( K% = 0.9 ) 8.33 4.17 1.51

I 15 15 15

D 3.33 3.33 3.33

The values of Kc decrease as c increases, but the values of I

and D do not change, as indicated by Eq. 12-14.

Chapter 12

model gain.

16

Chapter 12

model gain.

17

Dr Pratik N Sheth, Dept of Chemical Engg, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Internal Model Control (IMC)

A more comprehensive model-based design method, Internal

Model Control (IMC), was developed by Morari and

coworkers (Garcia and Morari, 1982; Rivera et al., 1986).

Chapter 12

process model and leads to analytical expressions for the

controller settings.

These two design methods are closely related and produce

identical controllers if the design parameters are specified in a

consistent manner.

The IMC method is based on the simplified block diagram

shown in Fig. 12.6b. A process model G% and the controller

output P are used to calculate the model response, Y% .

19

Figure 12.6.

Feedback control

strategies

Chapter 12

and the difference, Y Y% is used as the input signal to the IMC

controller, Gc*.

( )

In general, Y Y% due to modeling errors G% G and unknown

disturbances ( D 0 ) that are not accounted for in the model.

The block diagrams for conventional feedback control and

IMC are compared in Fig. 12.6.

20

It can be shown that the two block diagrams are identical if

controllers Gc and Gc* satisfy the relation

Gc*

Gc = (12-16)

1 Gc*G%

Chapter 12

feedback controller Gc, and vice versa.

The following closed-loop relation for IMC can be derived from

Fig. 12.6b using the block diagram algebra of Chapter 11:

Gc*G 1 Gc*G%

Y= Ysp + D (12-17)

1 + Gc* ( G G% ) 1 + Gc* ( G G% )

21

For the special case of a perfect model, G% = G , (12-17) reduces to

(

Y = Gc*GYsp + 1 Gc*G D ) (12-18)

Step 1. The process model is factored as

Chapter 12

G% = G% + G% (12-19)

zeros.

In addition, G% + is required to have a steady-state gain equal

to one in order to ensure that the two factors in Eq. 12-19

are unique.

22

Step 2. The controller is specified as

1

Gc* = f (12-20)

%

G

Chapter 12

1

f = r

(12-21)

( c s + 1)

constant. Parameter r is a positive integer. The usual choice is

r = 1.

23

(

For the ideal situation where the process model is perfect G% = G ,)

substituting Eq. 12-20 into (12-18) gives the closed-loop

expression

+ sp (

Y = G% fY + 1 fG% D

+ ) (12-22)

Thus, the closed-loop transfer function for set-point changes is

Chapter 12

Y

= G% + f (12-23)

Ysp

Selection of c

The choice of design parameter c is a key decision in both the

DS and IMC design methods.

In general, increasing c produces a more conservative

controller because Kc decreases while I increases.

24

Several IMC guidelines for c have been published for the

model in Eq. 12-10:

2. > c > (Chien and Fruehauf, 1990)

Chapter 12

3. c = (Skogestad, 2003)

25

Chapter 12

12.2

26

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