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Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Hardness and
Toughness of Steel
Tutor: Mr. Yaqoub Mugal

Module: AME 5001

Student number: 1308192

Student name: Muhammad

Yousaf Chaudary

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Testing Plain Carbon Steel for Hardness and Toughness:

The criterion for the following report is to test and investigate upon the hardness of
steel by heat process, and by welding. Then to thoroughly investigate the toughness
of carbon steel at normal and low temperatures.


This report consists of the experiment carried out to evaluate the hardness and
toughness of plain carbon steel. To investigate on how the properties differ with the
carbon content through heat treatment and welding. The report will cover these
tests through proper explanation and reasoning. The results presented will be shown
visually and thoroughly.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Safety Measures:

The Charpy Impact Test Machine should only be used and operated by trained
personnel. The guards should be in place.
Eye protection should be worn at all times during any of the experiments.
Leather Gauntlets should be worn when removing hot metal from the furnace
to the water quench.
While using Long Tongs, one should keep a fair amount of distance from the
water quench.
Gloves should be worn when removing or using metal that is obtained or put
into the freezer.
The 2% Nitral solution should not get into contact with skin. If any contact,
wash immediately with cold water.
The 2% Nitral solution is also highly flammable therefore should be kept away
from any fire source.

Apparatus Used:

Electric Furnace at 800 degrees

Heat Resistant Material
Beaker of Cold Water for quenching
Vacuum Flask In Freezer
Brinell Hardness Apparatus
Charpy Impact Apparatus
Metal Polishing Apparatus
2% Nitral Etching Solution
Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Four Carbon Steel Impact Test Pieces, 10mm x 10mm x 55mm with 2mm deep
One piece cut from a welded Tee joint
Eye protection Goggles


To meet the criteria of being low carbon steel it (the Steel) ought to have the
aggregate carbon content under 0.3%. Low carbon steel additionally contains
pearlite and ferrite as significant segments. Low carbon steel is for the most part
utilized straight from the framing methodology, whether that process is hot shaping
or cool structuring, in light of the fact that that is the point at which its most
workable and simplest to structure.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Low carbon steel is one of the best in weldability when contrasted with different
metals. The sole explanation behind this is certainly because of the low carbon
substance of the metal. As carbon is added to steel, the steel gets increasingly hard.
This is an alluring result if the steel will be utilized structurally, or in a circumstance
where quality is of outright significance. On the other hand, the harder the steel gets
with more carbon, the more inclined to splitting it is the point at which you
endeavor to weld it. In that capacity, low carbon steel doesn't have that issue.

Carbon Steel:
The term steel is utilized for various compounds of iron. These composites shift both
in the way they are made and in the extents of the materials added to the iron. All
steels, notwithstanding, contain little measures of carbon and manganese. As such, it
can be said that steel is a crystalline combination of iron, carbon and a few different
components, which solidifies over its basic temperature. Carbon steel is by a wide
margin the most broadly utilized sort of steel. The properties of carbon steel depend
basically on the measure of carbon it contains. Most carbon steel has a carbon
substance of less than 1%. Carbon steel is made into an extensive variety of items,
including structural shafts, auto bodies, kitchen machines, and jars. Indeed, there are
3 sorts of plain carbon steel and they are low carbon steel, medium carbon steel,
high carbon steel, and as their names recommends all these sorts of plain carbon
steel varies in the measure of carbon they contain. Without a doubt, it respects
exact that plain carbon steel is a kind of steel having a greatest carbon substance of
1.5% alongside little rates of silica, sulfur, phosphorus and manganese.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Hardness is nearly identified with quality. It is the capacity of a material to oppose
scratching, scraped spot, space, or infiltration. It is specifically relative to elasticity
and is measured on extraordinary hardness testing machines by measuring the
resistance of the material against entrance of an indenter of uncommon shape and
material under a given burden. The distinctive sizes of hardness are Brinell hardness,
Rockwell hardness, Vicker's hardness, and so forth. Hardness of a metal does not
specifically identify with the hardenability of the metal. Hardenability is
demonstrative of the level of hardness that the metal can get through the solidifying
procedure. i.e., warming or extinguishing. For carbon steel it relies on upon the
carbon content, the warmth treatment and the temperature of the test utilized.

The durability of a material is its capacity to withstand both plastic and versatile
disfigurements. It is alluring quality for structural and machine parts to withstand
stun and vibration. Manganese steel, fashioned iron, gentle steels are intense
materials. For Ex: If a heap is abruptly connected to a bit of gentle steel and after
that to a bit of glass the mellow steel will retain considerably more vitality before
disappointment happens. Consequently, gentle steel is said to be much harder than
a glass. Sturdiness is a measure of the measure of vitality a material can assimilate
before real break or disappointment happens. "The work or vitality a material retains
is called modulus of durability" Toughness is additionally imperviousness to stun
stacking. It is measured by an uncommon test on Impact Testing Machine. The
Impact quality can be characterized as the resistance of the material to crack under
effect stacking, i.e., under immediately connected element loads.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Two standard tests are regularly used to focus this property:

The IZOD impact test.
The CHARPY test.

Rockwell Test:
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale in view
of the indentation hardness of a material. The
Rockwell test decides the hardness by
measuring the profundity of entrance of an
indenter under an expansive burden
contrasted with the infiltration made by a
preload. There are distinctive scales, signified
by a solitary letter, that utilization diverse
burdens or indenters. The outcome is a
dimensionless number noted as HRA, where A
is the scale letter. At the point when testing
metals, space hardness relates straightly with
tensile strength. The determination of the
Rockwell hardness of a material includes the
use of a minor burden took after by a
noteworthy burden, and afterward noticing the profundity of infiltration, hardness
esteem straightforwardly from a dial, in which a harder material gives a higher
number. The main advantage point of Rockwell hardness is its capacity to show
hardness values specifically, along these lines hindering dreary figurings included in
different hardness estimation. It is normally utilized in engineering and metallurgy.
Its business prevalence emerges from its speed, dependability, power, determination

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

and little region of space. Keeping in mind the end goal to get a solid perusing the
thickness of the test-piece ought to be no less than 10 times the profundity of the
indentation. Also, readings should be taken from a level opposite surface, in light of
the fact that arched surfaces give lower readings. An amendment variable can be
utilized if the hardness of an arched surface is to be measured. The Rockwell
hardness analyzer to gauge the hardness of metal measures imperviousness to
entrance like the Brinell test, yet in the Rockwell case, the profundity of the
impression is measured instead of the polar zone. With the Rockwell analyzer, the
hardness is demonstrated straightforwardly on the scale appended to the machine.
This dial like scale is truly a profundity gage, graduated in uncommon units. The
Rockwell hardness test is the most utilized and flexible of the hardness tests.

Charpy Test:
The Charpy effect test,
otherwise called the Charpy
V-Notch test, is a
standardized high strain-rate
test which decides the sum
of energy absorbed by a
material during fracture. This
assimilated vitality is a
measure of a given material's notch toughness and goes about as an instrument to
study temperature-subordinate malleable weak move. The contraption comprises of
a pendulum of known mass and length that is dropped from a known tallness to
affect a scored example of material. The vitality exchanged to the material can be
inferred by contrasting the distinction in the stature of the sledge previously, then
after the fact the crack (energy absorbed by the fracture event).
Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Experiment Procedure:

1. Two of the specimens B and C were first placed into the furnace to heat up to
800 degrees:

2. After almost 45 minutes of heating the furnace, it reached an allocated

temperature and stopped. The specimens were then taken out of the furnace
using a tong.

3. One of the specimens was placed in cold water flash for quenching while the
other was left in still air to cool down slowly.

4. A similar Specimen D was left to cool down to -15 degrees so that it could also
be tested for hardness and toughness

5. Specimen A which was not heat treated and was in its normalized condition
was the first to be tested for hardness and toughness.

6. The Rockwell Hardness Test was the first to be carried out. The specimen is
placed between the two plates and is pressed until the pointer reaches a point
before the red mark on the dial. The left level is then moved towards the right,
then towards the left and then towards the right again. The pointer on the dial
shows the rockwell hardness reading of the specimen.

7. After the hardness test was done the next was the toughness test also known
as the impact test or the Charpy test. For this test the notch is created on the
specimens so that the test is carried out with comfort. The specimen is placed
on the anvil and the fairly large and heavy hammer has a full swing on it. The
specimen breaks and the pointer show the energy that was applied to break
the specimen in two.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Specimen D was only tested for its toughness and not for its hardness.

8. The noted results were made and the precise comments along with conclusion
were taken down.

Experimental Results:
Part One: Normalized Steel Specimens
Specimen A is on the bench
Specimen B and C are in the furnace
Specimen D is in the Freezer

Specimen Initial State Treatment Hardness Test Impact Test

A Normalised None H =57 Room Temp
J =52
B Normalised Heat to Cool slowly H =29 Room Temp
800C J = 200
C Normalised Heat to Water H = 34 Room Temp
800C Quench J = 57
D Normalised None Not tested At - 15C
J =50

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Figure 1 Specimen A RAK [Self Captured]

Figure 3 Heat Treatment of specimen B & C, Figure 2 Specimen D kept in -25o centigrade
RAK[Self Captured] RAK[Self Captured]

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Figure 8 Specimens kept and tested RAK[Self

Figure 4 Specimens to be tested for Captured]
Hardness RAK[Self Captured]

Figure 10 Materials placed turn by turn,

Figure 9 Charpy Impact Test Machine RAK[Self Captured]
RAK[Self Captured]

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

A. Tensile Strength: According to the graph, it clearly shows that the tensile
strength of the steel increases almost linearly with carbon content until when
the carbon content reaches 1.1% where it starts to decrease a little.
B. Impact Energy: The Impact energy decreases with the increase in carbon
content and almost reached to zero when the carbon content reaches to the
value of 1.1%-1.2%.
C. Percentage Elongation: The Percentage elongation of plain carbon steel also
decreases with the increase in carbon content and reaches to the minimum
value when carbon content is at 1.2%.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Part Two: Welded Steel Specimen

Now we take the 5th specimen which is welded. We will do only the Hardness test on
this specimen.
The hardness test will be done on three points of the same specimen. The three
points of the specimen are Parent Metal, Weld Metal & Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ)
PARENT METAL: the original metal
WELD METAL: The welded part of the specimen.
HAZ METAL: During welding some part of the metal is affected by the heat.

Specimen Description Treatment Hardness

W Cut from 1. Polish surface Welded Joint
Welded 2. Observe surface with microscope
Joint 3. Etch surface with 2% Nitral solution for
about 1 minute. Wash and dry specimen.
4. Observe surface with microscope.
Sketch the appearance of the weld area.
Identify parent metal, weld metal and heat-
affected zone (HAZ)
5. Carry out hardness tests as below:
Parent Metal H =57
Weld Metal H =59
Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) H =17

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Weldability of Steel:
The weldability, likewise known as join ability of a material alludes to its capacity to
be welded. Many metals and thermoplastics can be welded, yet some are less
demanding to weld than others. A material's weldability is utilized to focus the
welding procedure and to contrast the last weld quality with different materials. The
carbon substance builds the weldability (how effectively welded) diminishes. As it
were the higher the carbon contents the more probable unique techniques, for
example, preheating, interpass temperature control and post warming are essential.
The warming and cooling activity that happens when welding is a type of warmth
treating in the restricted zone of the puddle and weld joint that may bring about
changes to the mechanical properties of the base metal and encompassing region.
The zone most influenced by warming and cooling amid welding is known as the
HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ). The warming and cooling rate of welding
straightforwardly under the bend is from the dissolving temperature to ordinary
temperatures and may happen moderately rapidly or strategies may be utilized to
moderate the cooling rate of the joint. These techniques incorporate post warming
the weld region with an oxy-fuel light, covering the weld range, or utilizing an exact
warming and cooling strategy in a heater or modern setting. The more extravagant
Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192
and exact system for utilizing a heater under controlled conditions restores the
mechanical properties of the weld joint and the encompassing base metal. The zone
encompassing the joint is warmed to different temperatures relying upon the
separation from the circular segment, the warmth information of the methodology
and the quantity of weld passes. This region is alluded to as the Heat Affected Zone.

Low heat input may present unsuitable low toughness micro-structures, and also
manufacture weldability. High warmth inputs can present coarse microstructures
with both low durability and low quality. The warmth include alone does not control
the subsequent microstructure and HAZ properties, yet the impelled warm cycle
controls the microstructure and properties and subsequently both warmth info and
thickness ought to be considered.

The base steel around the weld is quickly being warmed and cooled amid welding,
bringing about warmth influenced zone (HAZ) with high hardness. Hydrogen in the
weld metal may diffuse into HAZ and reason hydrogen embrittlement, bringing
about postponed under dot or toe splitting outside of the weld. To minimize warmth
influenced zone splitting:
Use low hydrogen consumable, like a -H4 or -H2
Preheat. This slows down the cooling rate. Note that excessive preheating may
anneal the base material.
Slow Cool. More time at elevated temperatures allow the dissolved hydrogen
to escape.
Peen the weld beads to lower the residual weld stresses.
Use the lowest strength filler metal meeting design requirements. If making
fillet welds, the weld can be changed in sizes to give a specified strength
minimize weld restraint.
Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192

Higher concentrations of carbon and other alloying elements such as

manganese, chromium, silicon, molybdenum, vanadium, copper, and nickel tend to
increase hardness and decrease weldability.

Hardness of Steel Varying With Welding:

In comparison to Rockwell tests obtained, its clear that the hardness of the welded
metal is low compared to the parent metal.

Heat treatment process for hardness and toughness of steel:

Heat Treatment is the controlled warming and cooling of metals to modify their
physical and mechanical properties without changing the item shape. Heat
Treatment is regularly connected with expanding the quality of material,
manufacturability targets, enhance machining, enhance formability, and restore
malleability after a cool working operation. Steels are especially suitable for warmth
treatment, since they react well to warmth treatment and the business utilization of
steels surpasses that of some other material. Steels are warmth treated for one of
the accompanying reasons:

1. Softening

2. Hardening

3. Material Modification

Plain Carbon Steels can be given an assortment of mechanical properties by warmth

treatment. Heat-treatment is a term given to methodologies which change the
mechanical properties of a material by the utilization of warmth and the utilization
of particular cooling rates. These progressions happen in Plain Carbon Steels in light
of the progressions in structure, in the strong state, of these materials. The warmth

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192
treatment procedures suitable to Plain Carbon Steels are:

1. Annealing

2. normalizing

3. hardening

4. tempering

In all the above mentioned processes the steel is heated to a pre-determined

temperature and is left to cool afterwards. It is the pre-determined temperature and
the rate of cooling which determines the final properties of the steel.


To conclude this report, the experiment taken place to measure the hardness and
toughness of carbon steel carried out with great amount of success. The objectives
of the experiment were all met thus determining the results were correct. The
results gained through this experiment were of high accuracy, because the
experiment with each specimen was repeated three times. The main concept of the
report was to investigate the hardening of steel by heat treatment and by welding
which had to be researched through the toughness of the carbon steel at normal and
low temperatures. The main concept of the report was successfully achieved.

Hardness and Toughness of Steel AME 5001 1308192


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