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Teacher: Alejandro Gutierrez Date: ________09/26/2017_________________

Subject: Japanese Americans during WWII.

Grade Level: 11

TDS or SAC Procedure: TDS

Title: Japanese Americans during WWII

113.41. United States History Studies Since 187

(c) (7) History. The student understands the domestic and international impact
of U.S. participation in World War II. The student is expected to:

TEKS: (D) analyze major issues of World War II Japanese Americans and Executive
Order 9066.

Students will learn about Executive Order 9066, timeline of important events, conditions
Learning Objectives:
of internment camps, and location of internment camps.

Why were Japanese and Japanese-Americans interned during the Second World War?
Essential Question(s):

Essential Vocabulary: Executive Order 9066, internment camps.

History Lessons read pg. 212 in History lessons

Power Point
Resources/Materials:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_7TJ34Nphg

Quick write on what the students value most.


Discuss what Japanese went through during WWII Time: 5

Procedure:

Watch a video that explains the what Japanese American went through after
Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Time: 10
Power Point lecture
Time: 10

Discussion on what students think Japanese treatment was during that time.
Relate this discussion with the quick write that was complete in the beginning
of class. See if students change their minds on what they value and explain Time: 10
what Italians Americans and German Americans went through during WWII.

Assessment: Students will write a short 3 sentences on what they think about the Japanese Time: 5
Internment Camps. Was Executive Order 9066 necessary or was the
government using excessive force.
Japanese Internment Timeline

1891 - Japanese immigrants arrive on the mainland U.S. for work primarily as agricultural laborers.

1906 - The San Francisco Board of Education passes a resolution to segregate children of Chinese,
Japanese, and Korean ancestry.

1913 - California passes the Alien Land Law, forbidding "all aliens ineligible for citizenship" from
owning land.

1924 - Congress passes the Immigration Act of 1924 effectively ending all Japanese immigration to
the U.S.

November 1941 - Munson Report released (Document B).

December 7, 1941 - Japan bombs U.S. ships and planes at the Pearl Harbor military base in Hawaii.

February 19, 1942 - President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 authorizing military authorities
to exclude civilians from any area without trial or hearing.

January 1943 - The War Department announces the formation of a segregated unit of Japanese
American soldiers.

January 1944 - The War Department imposes the draft on Japanese American men, including those
incarcerated in the camps.

December 1944 - The Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066 in
Korematsu v. United States (Document D).

March 20, 1946 - Tule Lake "Segregation Center" closes. This is the last War Relocation Authority
facility to close.

1980 - The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians is established.

1983 - The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians issues its report, Personal
Justice Denied (Document E).

August 10, 1988 - President Ronald Reagan signs HR 442 into law. It acknowledges that the
incarceration of more than 110,000 individuals of Japanese descent was unjust, and offers an
apology and reparation payments of $20,000 to each person incarcerated.
The Korematsu Supreme Court Ruling

We uphold the exclusion order as of the time it was made and when the petitioner violated it.In
doing so, we are not unmindful of the hardships imposed by it upon a large group of American
citizens.But hardships are part of war, and war is an aggregation of hardships. All citizens alike,
both in and out of uniform, feel the impact of war in greater or lesser measure. Citizenship has its
responsibilities, as well as its privileges, and, in time of war, the burden is always heavier.
Compulsory exclusion of large groups of citizens from their homes, except under circumstances of
direst emergency and peril, is inconsistent with our basic governmental institutions. But when,
under conditions of modern warfare, our shores are threatened by hostile forces, the power to
protect must be commensurate with the threatened danger To cast this case into outlines of
racial prejudice, without reference to the real military dangers which were presented, merely
confuses the issue. Korematsu was not excluded from the Military Area because of hostility to him
or his race. He was excluded because we are at war with the Japanese Empire, because the
properly constituted military authorities feared an invasion of our West Coast and felt constrained
to take proper security measures, because they decided that the military urgency of the situation
demanded that all citizens of Japanese ancestry be segregated from the West Coast temporarily,
and, finally, because Congress, reposing its confidence in this time of war in our military leaders -- as
inevitably it must -- determined that they should have the power to do just this.
Amache (Granada), Colorado Opened August
24, 1942. Closed October 15, 1945. Peak
population 7318. Origin of prisoners: Nothern
California coast, West Sacramento Valley,
Northern San Joaquin Valley, Los Angeles. 31
Japanese Americans from Amache
volunteered and lost their lives in World War
II. 120 died here between August 27, 1942 and
October 14, 1945. In April, 1944, 36 draft
resisters were sent to Tucson, AZ Federal
Prison.

Gila River, Arizona Opened July 20, 1942.


Closed November 10, 1945. Peak Population
13,348. Origin of prisoners: Sacramento Delta,
Fresno County, Los Angeles area. Divided into
Canal Camp and Butte Camp. Over 1100 citizens
from both camps served in the U.S. Armed
Services. The names of 23 war dead are
engraved on a plaque here. The State of Arizona
accredited the schools in both camps. 97
students graduated from Canal High School in
1944. Nearly 1000 prisoners worked in the 8000
acres of farmland around Canal Camp, growing
vegetables and raising livestock.2

Heart Mountain, Wyoming Opened August 12,


1942. Closed November 10, 1945. Peak
population 10,767. Origin of prisoners: Santa
Clara County, Los Angeles, Central Washington.
In November, 1942, Japanese American hospital
workers walked out because of pay
discrimination between Japanese American and
Caucasian American workers. In July, 1944, 63
prisoners who had resisted the draft were
convicted and sentenced to 3 years in prison.
The camp was made up of 468 buildings, divided
into 20 blocks. Each block had 2 laundry-toilet
buildings. Each building had 6 rooms each.
Rooms ranged in size from 16' x 20' to 20' x 24'.
There were 200 administrative employees, 124
soldiers, and 3 officers. Military police were
stationed in 9 guard towers, equipped with high
beam search lights, and surrounded by barbed
wire fencing around the camp.

Jerome, Arkansas Opened October 6, 1942.


Closed June 30, 1944. Peak population 8497.
Origin of prisoners: Central San Joaquin Valley,
San Pedro Bay area. After the Japanese
Americans in Jerome were moved to Rohwer and
other camps or relocated to the east in June,
1944, Jerome was used to hold German POWs.

Manzanar, California Opened March 21, 1942.


Closed November 21, 1945. Peak population
10,046. Origin of prisoners: Los Angeles, San
Fernando Valley, San Joaquin County,
Bainbridge Island, Washington. It was the first of
the ten camps to open -- initially as a processing
center.

Minidoka, Idaho Opened August 10, 1942.


Closed October 28, 1945. Peak population 9397.
Origin of prisoners: Seattle and Pierce County,
Washington, Portland and Northwestern Oregon.
73 Minidoka prisoners died in military service.

Poston (aka Colorado River), Arizona Opened


May 8, 1942. Closed November 28, 1945. Peak
population 17,814. Origin of prisoners: Southern
California, Kern County, Fresno, Monterey Bay
Area, Sacramento County, Southern Arizona. 24
Japanese Americans held at Poston later lost
their lives in World War II. Poston was divided
into three separate camps -- I, II, and III.

Rohwer, Arkansas Opened September 18,


1942. Closed November 30, 1945. Peak
population 8475. Origin of prisoners: Los Angeles
and Stockton.

Topaz (aka Central Utah), Utah Opened


September 11, 1942. Closed October 31, 1945.
Peak population 8130. Origin of prisoners: San
Francisco Bay Area.
Tule Lake, California Opened May 27, 1942.
Closed March 20, 1946. Peak population 18,789.
Origin of prisoners: Sacramento area,
Southwestern Oregon, and Western Washington;
later, segregated internees were brought in from
all West Coast states and Hawaii. One of the
most turbulent camps -- prisoners held frequent
protest demonstrations and strikes.