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SDCCL PUBLIC SCHOOL

PHYSICS PROJECT
Topic: Laser .
Submitted To : Shweta Mishra.
Submitted By : Vishwa Rana.
Class : 12th- A.
Roll No. : 14.

certificate

This is to certify that ____________________ of


class 12th-B has successfully completed this physics
project entitled " ______________________ "
under my guidance and supervision in the academic
year 2017-2018,Miss Shweta Mishra.

Teacher Signature
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all , I heartily thank my physics Teacher ,
_________________for her incomparable efforts,
support and constant cooperation indeed towards me
in the completion of this project. He has also been
the vital source of encouragement for me through the
working of this project. Finally I would also grateful
to my friends and parents who devoted their
auspicious time in completion of this project.

Chancha0l kumar rathi


PREFACE
"My project provides complete information on the
topic"_________________________________" and
maximum efforts have been taken to make the
project more comprehensive and lucid to understand.
My project covers a variety of sub topics like It's
working, setup, uses in life and different aspects of
Laser Security Alarm System . One may notice a
perceptible change in written in an easy dialogue
style engaging the readers constantly and included
with more informatics comments. I assure you to go
through this project thoroughly to know a bit more
and facts about Laser Security Alarm System .
INDEX
Introduction.
Components / Materisl Required.
Circuit Diagram.
Experimental Setup.
Working.
Uses Of Laser Security Alarm System .
Advantages Of Laser Security Alarm
System .
Conclusion.
Components /
Material
Required.
1)Breadboard: A breadboard also known as protoboard is a type of solderless
electronic circuit building.You can build a electronic circuit on a breadboard
without any soldering ! Best of all it is reusable.
2)LDR:A photoresistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR) or photocell is a
lightcontrolled variable resistor. The resistance of a photoresistor decreases
with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits
photoconductivity3)Resistor :A resistor is an electrical component that limits or
regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also
be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor.
4) NPN Transistor : NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors, consisting
of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. A
small current entering the base is amplified to produce a large collector and emitter
current.

5)Laser Pointer:A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power
source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-
powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of
interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.
6)LED :A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light
when an electric current passes through it.
7) Battery :A container consisting of one or more cells, in which chemical energy is
converted into electricity and used as a source of power.

co .

8) Wire : Metal drawn out into the form of a thin flexible thread or rod. That
connects
different components in a circuit .

9) Buzzer : An electrical device that makes a buzzing noise and is used for
signalling.

10) Battery Clip: It is the thing with two studs on it, it provides an electrical
11)CAPACITOR : A device used to store an electric charge, consisting of one or
more pairs of conductors separated by an insulator.
I
NTRODUCTION

Security is a most important factor today.Technology develops day by day in


the world.The crime gang also improves their technology toperform their
operation.

So technology of securityshould be modern with time to protect the crime


works.We decide to make a security project as our project. Inthis project
we have used laser light to cover a large area.

We know laser light goes through long distancewithout scattering effect. Its
also visible only at sourceand incident point, otherwise invisible.

These two properties help us to build up a modern security system,which may


name as laser security.

When any personor object crossover the laser line the security alarm
willringing and also the focus light will on to focus the

entrance of unauthorized person. We can make asecurity boundary of single


laser light by using mirror at every corner for reflection.
Circuit Diagram

Experimental Setup
1) Connect a photocell to a 5K resistor. This will pick up the laser
light and enable the alarm.
2) Use a 2N7000 transistor to link the resistor, a 1uF 63v capacitor,
a
5v siren and a 9v battery clip. The attached schematic should
demonstrate how the parts come together. Use an breadboard to
hold them in place and make sure the board is small enough to fit
into a project box. Do not connect the battery yet.

3) Use tape, glue, or strips of velcro to mount the two project boxes
on either side of the door you wish to protect.

4) Connect a 9v battery to the first project box and replace it in the


exact position is was in.

5) Turn the laser on with the toggle switch and make sure it lines up
perfectly with the photo cell. The alarm is now activated. If
anything breaks the beam, the siren will go off.
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Working
1) This circuit is based on LDR (Light Depended
Resistor), a variable resistor in which the resistance
varies according to the light intensity falling on it.
2) The LDR and resistor R1 forms a potential divider
network, which is the main part of our security alarm
circuit.
3) We have already discussed about how transistor acts
as a switch, the same principle is used here.
4) The voltage drop across the LDR is used to drive the
transistor switch. When the voltage drop is above
cut in voltage (0.6V), the transistor is turned ON.
5) LDR has low resistance (m range) in the presence
of light and high resistance (M range) in the
absence of light.
6) In our security alarm, a LASER light is allowed to fall
on the LDR continuously using 3 mirrors (see the
project arrangement figure).
7) Light from other sources should not be allowed to
fall on the LDR, so place the LDR in a box with a
single hole to pass LASER.
8) In this situation, the resistance offered by LDR is
too low, since the LASER light is continuously allowed
to fall on the LDR surface.
9) Thus the voltage drop across the LDR is also low
[V=IR (Ohms law)] which is insufficient to turn ON
the transistor, so the transistor remains in OFF
state.
10) When a person (eg: thief) makes a block to the
continuous flow of LASER beam, then the light
falling on the LDR gets blocked. Thus its resistance
increases to a high value in the order of M range
(According to Ohms law V=IR).
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11) While resistance increases the voltage drop also


increases, when this voltage drop exceeds the cut in
voltage of the silicon NPN transistor (2N7000), it
will turn ON.
12) Then current from Vcc starts flowing to ground via
the buzzer and transistor, which makes the beep
sound.
13) The beep sound from the security alarm gives the
indication of some security failures.
Uses Of Laser Security Alarm System

1) Laser Security System Locks Working :


Laser door
alarm is based on
the

interruption of Laser beam. The laser pointer


is used as the source of light beam.
If somebody tries to break the laser path, then
an alarm will be generated in a few seconds.
Normally laser door alarm circuit will have two
sections.
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First one, laser transmitter is a laser pointer


readily available. This is powered with 3 volt DC
supply and fixed on one side of the door frame.
The receiver will have a Photo transistor at the
front end. We use 2N7000 NPN Darlington
photo transistor as a laser sensor.
Here IC1 is used as a voltage comparator with
its inverting input
tied to a potential
divider R2-R3. We
use the inverting
input to keep at
half supply voltage.
2) Laser System
:Laser technology
products will
calculate distance
by measuring the
time of flight of
very short pulses
of infrared light. It is
different from the traditional surveying
instrument method of measuring phase shifts
by comparing the incoming wavelength with the
phase of the outgoing light pulse.
Solid objects will reflect back a certain
percentage of the emitted light energy. It only
needs to be a small percentage for our sensitive
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detector to pick it. We can measure the time it


takes for a laser pulse to travel to the target
and back with a reflection. By knowing the
constant speed of light we cancalculate the
distance traveled. It calculate accurate area of
house and protects it from thiefs .
3) Theft Detection by Laser Sytem : It
can be designed as a simple electronic project for
demonstration in science exhibitions. It can also
be made as a mini or major project for electrical
or electronic students.
When making this laser security system one can
know all about laser beams and their installation.
While preparing a laser security system, we
need to
concentrate on the microcontroller program and
installed with the laser beam device.
When using traditional photo resistors for
preparing security systems one has to consider
the natural light phenomena. Laser are strong in
beam width and can be focused on the perfect
target.

By using laser security system one can be safe


in the case of harmful effects
to the body. As the beam width used in
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The laser
security
systems are
not strong
beam widths.
Which are
used in the
cutting
devices.
4)Other Uses Of Laser Security Systems :
The Laser security systems are high tech
innovations that have gained popularity in
home and office
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security systems. These are used to be


expensive solutions for security needs.
Depending on cost and fast technological

advancements laser security systems becoming


more adoptable.
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Conclusion
Home security is rapidly growing field
and there are new & improved burglar
alarms popping up everyday.
With rapid advancement of technology
the filled is turning out to be an area
full of scope and new changes can be
made to make its more efficient.
It has years to come, because security
is of prime
importance to one
and all.

Thank you