3GPP R8 LTE Overview

조봉열, Bong Youl (Brian) Cho
brian.cho@intel.com
Intel Corporation
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Contents
 Technology Evolution
 OFDM(A) and SC-FDMA
 LTE Overview
 LTE Radio Interface Architecture
 LTE Downlink Transmission
 LTE Uplink Transmission
 LTE Cell Search
 LTE Performance
 Summary
Technology Evolution
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Worldwide Mobile Users
Number Percentage
cdmaOne 2,512,409 0.06%
CDMA2000 1X 309,507,900 7.18%
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 121,821,983 2.83%
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. A 13,912,386 0.32%
Subtotal for 3GPP2 447,754,678 10.39%
GSM 3,449,010,903 80.02%
WCDMA 255,773,412 5.93%
WCDMA HSPA 132,079,727 3.06%
TD-SCDMA 825,044 0.02%
Subtotal for 3GPP 3,837,689,086 89.03%
Subtotal for 3GPP except GSM 388,678,183 9.02%
TDMA 753,411 0.02%
PDC 2,752,436 0.06%
iDEN 21,361,981 0.50%
Total 4,310,311,592
* Data supplied by GSMA Mobile Infolink on Aug/07/2009
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3GPP Standards Evolution
GPRS
DL PDR: 50 kbps
UL PDR: 21 kbps
UMTS
WCDMA
(5MHz)
DL PDR: 384 kbps
UL PDR: 64 kbps
R5 HSDPA
(5MHz)
DL PDR: 14 Mbps
UL PDR: 384 kbps
R6 HSUPA
(5 MHz)
DL PDR: 14 Mbps
UL PDR: 5.7 Mbps
R7 HSPA
Evolution
(5 MHz)
DL PDR: 28.8 Mbps
UL PDR: 11.5 Mbps
R8 HSPA
Evolution
(5(x2) MHz)
DL PDR: 43.2 Mbps
UL PDR: 11.5 Mbps
EGPRS
DL PDR: 236 kbps
UL PDR: 118 kbps
GERAN
SAIC
PS Handover
GERAN
Evolution
MSRD
Dual Carrier
LTE
Feasibility
Study
(1.25-20MHz)
R8
LTE/SAE
(1.25-20MHz)
DL PDR: > 100 Mbps
UL PDR: > 50 Mbps
R10
LTE-Adv
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Ongoing GERAN Evolution
Ongoing
HSPA Evolution
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Technology Evolution Path
802.16m ?
(WiMAX R2.0)
LTE-Adv ?
?
2005 2006 2007-2009 2010+
3G Technology Evolution
Broadband Wireless Technology Evolution
3G 3.5G~3.99G IMT-Adv?
Wi-Fi
OFDM
802.16e
OFDMA
802.16e
MIMO-OFDMA
(WiMAX R1.0)
WCDMA(R99)
EVDO R.0
HSDPA(R5)
HSPA+(R7/R8)
3GPP LTE (R8)
EVDO R.B
3GPP2 UMB
EVDO R.A
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Advancement For High Data Rate
2G, 3G
3.5G
(HSDPA,EVDO)
4G
(LTE,WiMAX)
Access Scheme CDMA OFDM(A)
Modulation QPSK Up to 16QAM
QPSK,16QAM,
64QAM
Link Adaptation Mainly PC Mainly AMC with channel-aware scheduler
ARQ
ARQ without soft
combining
HARQ with soft combining
Handover SHO HHO
Duplexing FDD
FDD,
TDD is emerging
Antenna
Technology
Rx Antenna Diversity
Various Antenna
Diversity, MIMO, BF
OFDM(A) and SC-FDMA
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ISI Prevents High Data Rate?
 In general, ISI prevents “HIGH DATA RATE”
 Symbol rate increase Ts decrease severe ISI
Symbol rate decrease Ts increase less ISI
s1 s2
Ts
s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 s11 s12 s13 s14 s15 s16
Ts
Multipath profile in the wireless channel
(which is already given)
time
System#1
System#2
• System#2 achieves 10x higher data rate by using 10x more spectrum (BW)
• However, at the same time, system#2 suffers 10x more severe ISI due to
short symbol duration compared to the multipath profile in the time domain
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Multicarrier to “Minimize” ISI Effect
 Ways to “minimize” inter-symbol interference:
 Reduce the symbol rate, but data rate goes down too
 Equalizers, but equalization is processor intensive & expensive
 Solution:
 Transmit data over multiple carrier frequencies in parallel
 Narrow, slower channels are MUCH LESS vulnerable to ISI thanks to long symbol duration compared to
the multipath delay in time domain
 OFDM splits data into parallel, independent, narrowband channels (“subcarriers”)
 Expensive adaptive equalizers are not required
We are talking about
“Broadband Wireless” which
requires high data rate
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FDM and OFDM
Unlike conventional FDM which requires Guard Band & Sharp Filter between carriers, OFDM exploits
the mathematical property of the signal and doesn’t require any GB or Filter between subcarriers
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Guard Interval To “Remove” ISI
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Cyclic Prefix for Guard Interval
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More on CP (Cyclic Prefix)
 OFDM guarantee no interference „between‟ subsequent OFDM symbols
OFDM allows ISI „within‟ one OFDM symbol
 Then, how can we remove ISI „within‟ each OFDM symbol?
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Circular Convolution
 Circular convolution
where is a periodic version of x[n] with period L.
 DFT
 The duality b/w circular convolution in the time domain and simple multiplication
in the frequency domain is a property unique to DFT
 The above simple formula describes an ISI-free channel in the frequency
domain, where each input symbol X[m] is simply scaled by a complex value
H[m]
 It is trivial to recover the input symbol by simply computing
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Frequency Domain Model of OFDM Tx/Rx
One-tap EQ
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OFDMA: (1) Better BW Utilization
 Cell center area
 mostly BW-limited region
 MSs are mostly not power-hungry
 In general, if we want to increase user data rate, we need to allocate more BW.
 Cell edge area
 mostly power-limited region
 MSs are mostly power-hungry
 In general, it will not be very effective to allocate wide BW to power-hungry MS since they will not be
able to use the allocated BW anyway.
To better utilize the resource,”FDM-based access” is also required especially in wideband system
Enhance uplink link budget as well.
200mW
200mW
Total System BW
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OFDMA: (2) Freq. Domain Scheduling
 Freq. domain scheduling gain = Freq. domain multiuser diversity
Localized subcarrier assignment Distributed subcarrier assignment
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OFDMA: (3) Interference Coordination
 Flexible Fractional Frequency Reuse

Cell-A
Cell-B
Cell-C
A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 A5
B5 C5
A1 A2 A3 A4 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 A5 B5 C5
C2 C3 C4 C5
P
o
w
e
r
B2
C1
A5 A4 B5 B4 A3 A2 A1 B3 B2 B1
good users weak users
good user weak user
weak users
good users
B1
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A Brief History of OFDM*
 1966: Chang shows that multicarrier modulation can solve the multipath
problem without reducing data rate
 R. W. Chang, “Synthesis of band-limited orthogonal signals for multichannel
data transmission”, Bell Systems Technical Journal, 45:1775-1796, Dec. 1966
 1971: Weinstein and Ebert show that multicarrier modulation can be
accomplished using a DFT
 S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data Transmission by frequency-division
multiplexing using the discrete Fourier transform”, IEEE Transactions on
Communications, 19(5): 628-634, Oct. 1971
 1985: Cimini at Bell Labs identifies many of the key issues in OFDM
transmission and does a proof-of-concept design
 L. J. Cimini, “Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing”, IEEE Transactions on
Communications, 33(7): 665-675, July 1985
 1993: DSL adopts OFDM
 1999: IEEE 802.11 releases the 802.11a standard for OFDM
* Jeffrey Andrews, et al., Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007
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OFDM in Communication Systems
 3GPP LTE
 3GPP2 UMB
 IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX
 DAB, DVB-T, DVB-H
 T-DMB
 MediaFlo
 IEEE 802.11a WLAN
 xDSL
 PLC
 Etc…
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SC-FDMA Transmitter
Low
PAPR
Low
PAPR
High
PAPR
Signal at each subcarrier is linear combination of all M symbols
DFT
Sub-carrier
Mapping
CP
insertion
Size-M
Size-N
Coded symbol rate= R
Msymbols
IFFT
Spreading
 SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation technique combining the low PAR
single carrier methods of current systems with the frequency allocation
flexibility and long symbol time of OFDM
 SC-FDMA is sometimes referred to as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread
OFDM = DFT-SOFDM
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CM of OFDMA & SC-FDMA
OFDMA
SC-FDMA
16QAM
SC-FDMA
QPSK
SC-FDMA
pi/2-BPSK
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Comparing OFDM and SC-FDMA*
 QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers
 How OFDM and SC-FDMA would be used to transmit a sequence of 8
QPSK symbols
* Moray Rumney (Agilent), “Concepts of 3GPP LTE”, Live Webinar, Sep. 20th, 2007.
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Comparing OFDM and SC-FDMA
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Time Domain Equalizer
 In general, the complexity of time-discrete equalizer with linear equalization
implementation (as above) grows relatively rapidly with the bandwidth of the
signal to be equalized
 A more wideband signal is subject to relatively more frequency selectivity or,
equivalently, more time dispersion. This implies the equalizer needs to have a larger
span.
 A more wideband signal leads to a correspondingly higher sampling rate for the
received signal. Thus, also the receiver-filter processing needs to be carried out with
a correspondingly higher rate.
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Frequency Domain Equalizer
* D. Falconer, et al., “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband
wireless systems,” IEEE Communication Magazine, vol.40, no.4, April 2002
 Frequency domain equalization basically consists of
 A size-N DFT/FFT
 N complex multiplications (the frequency-domain filter)
 A size-N inverse DFT/FFT
 Especially in extensive frequency selective channel, the complexity of the
frequency domain equalization can be significantly less than that of time
domain equalization
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SC-FDMA & FDE:
Good papers
LTE Overview
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3GPP Specifications
 LTE Study Phase (Release 7)
 TR 25.813, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: Radio interface protocol aspects
 TR 25.814, Physical layer aspects for E-UTRA
 TR 25.912, Feasibility study for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN
 TR 25.913, Requirements for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN
 LTE Specifications (Release 8)
 TS 36.101, E-UTRA: UE radio transmission and reception
 TS 36.104, E-UTRA: BS radio transmission and reception
 TS 36.201, E-UTRA: LTE Physical Layer - General Description
 TS 36.211, E-UTRA: Physical channels and modulation
 TS 36.212, E-UTRA: Multiplexing and channel coding
 TS 36.213, E-UTRA: Physical layer procedures
 TS 36.214, E-UTRA: Physical layer – Measurements
 TS 36.300, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: Overall description; Stage 2
 TS 36.302, E-UTRA: Services provided by the physical layer
 TS 36.306, E-UTRA: UE Radio Access Capabilities
 TS 35.321, E-UTRA: Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification
 TS 36.323, E-UTRA: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification
 TS 36.331, E-UTRA: Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol specification
 TS 36.401, E-UTRAN: Architecture description
 TR 36.938, E-UTRAN: Improved network controlled mobility between LTE and 3GPP2/mobile
WiMAX radio technologies
 TR 36.956, E-UTRA; Repeater planning guidelines and system analysis
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3GPP LTE
 LTE focus is on:
 enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
 optimisation of the UTRAN architecture
 With HSPA (downlink and uplink), UTRA will remain highly competitive for
several years
 LTE project aims to ensure the continued competitiveness of the 3GPP
technologies for the future (started at Nov. 2004)
 Motivations
 Need for PS optimized system
 Evolve UMTS towards packet only system
 Need for higher data rates
 Can be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPA and/or new air interface defined by 3GPP LTE
 Need for high quality of services
 Use of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of services
 Always-on experience (reduce control plane latency significantly)
 Reduce round trip delay
 Need for cheaper infrastructure
 Simplify architecture, reduce number of network elements
 Most data users are less mobile
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Detailed Requirements*
 Peak data rate
 Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100 Mb/s within a 20 MHz downlink
spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz)
 Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50 Mb/s (2.5 bps/Hz) within a 20MHz
uplink spectrum allocation)
 Control-plane latency
 Transition time of less than 100 ms from a camped state, such as Release 6
Idle Mode, to an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH
 Transition time of less than 50 ms between a dormant state such as Release 6
CELL_PCH and an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH
 Control-plane capacity
 At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum
allocations up to 5 MHz
 User-plane latency
 Less than 5 ms in unload condition (ie single user with single data stream) for
small IP packet
* 3GPP TR 25.913, Technical Specification Group RAN: Requirements for Evolved
UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN), Release 8, Version 8.0.0, Dec. 2008
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Detailed Requirements
 Average user throughput
 Downlink: average user throughput per MHz, 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA
 Uplink: average user throughput per MHz, 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
 Cell edge user throughput
 Downlink: user throughput per MHz at 5% of CDF, 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA
 Uplink: user throughput per MHz at 5% of CDF, 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
 Spectrum efficiency
 Downlink: In a loaded network, target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site), 3 to 4
times Release 6 HSDPA )
 Uplink: In a loaded network, target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site), 2 to 3 times
Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
 Mobility
 E-UTRAN should be optimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h
 Higher mobile speed between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high
performance
 Mobility across the cellular network shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350
km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the frequency band)
 Coverage
 Throughput, spectrum efficiency and mobility targets above should be met up to 5 km
cells, and with a slight degradation up to 30 km cells. Cells range up to 100 km should
not be precluded.
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Detailed Requirements
 Spectrum flexibility
 E-UTRA shall operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes, including 1.25 MHz, 2.5
MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz in both the uplink and downlink. Operation
in paired and unpaired spectrum shall be supported
 Co-existence and Inter-working with 3GPP RAT (UTRAN, GERAN)
 Architecture and migration
 Single E-UTRAN architecture
 The E-UTRAN architecture shall be packet based, although provision should be made
to support systems supporting real-time and conversational class traffic
 E-UTRAN architecture shall support an end-to-end QoS
 Backhaul communication protocols should be optimized
 Radio Resource Management requirements
 Enhanced support for end to end QoS
 Support of load sharing and policy management across different Radio Access
Technologies
 Complexity
 Minimize the number of options
 No redundant mandatory features
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LTE System Performance
 Peak Data Rate
baseline
baseline
150.8
302.8
51.0
75.4
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LTE System Performance – cont’d
 Downlink Spectral Efficiency
 Uplink Spectral Efficiency
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LTE Key Features
 Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
 Less critical AMP efficiency in BS side
 Concerns on high RX complexity in terminal side
Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-FDMA)
 Less critical RX complexity in BS side
 Critical AMP complexity in terminal side (Cost, power Consumption, UL coverage)
 Single node RAN (eNB)
 Support FDD (frame type 1) & TDD (frame type 2 for TD-SCDMA) <cf> H-FDD MS
 User data rates
 DL (baseline): 150.8 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ 2x2 SU-MIMO
 UL (baseline): 75.4 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ non-MIMO or 1x2 MU-MIMO
 Radio frame: 10 ms (= 20 slots)
Sub-frame: 1 ms (= 2 slots)
Slot: 0.5 ms
 TTI: 1 ms
 HARQ
 Incremental redundancy is used as the soft combining strategy
 Retransmission time: 8 ms
 Modulation
 DL/UL data channel = QPSK/16QAM/64QAM
Making MS cheap as
much as possible by
moving all the burdens
from MS to BS
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LTE Key Features – cont’d
 MIMO SM (Spatial Multiplexing), Beamforming, Antenna Diversity
Min requirement: 2 eNB antennas & 2 UE rx antennas
 DL: Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable
 UL: 1x2 MU-MIMO, Optional 2x2 SU-MIMO
 Resource block
 12 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 15kHz “180kHz”
 24 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 7.5kHz (only for MBMS)
 Subcarrier operation
 Frequency selective by localized subcarrier
 Frequency diversity by distributed subcarrier & frequency hopping
 Frequency hopping
 Intra-TTI: UL (once per 0.5ms slot), DL (once per 66us symbol)
 Inter-TTI: across retransmissions
 Bearer services
 Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data services are supported
 Voice must use VoIP
 MBSFN
 Multicast/Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network
 To support a Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast System (MBMS)
 Time-synchronized common waveform is transmitted from multiple cells for a given duration
The signal at MS will appear exactly as a signal transmitted from a single cell site and subject to multi-path
Not only “improve the received signal strength” but also “eliminate inter-cell interference”
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E-UTRAN Architecture*

eNB
MME / S-GW MME / S-GW
eNB
eNB
S
1
S
1
S
1
S
1
X2
X
2
X
2
E-UTRAN
* 3GPP TS 36.300, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN; Overall description; Stage 2, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
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Functional Split b/w E-UTRAN and EPC*

internet
eNB
RB Control
Connection Mobility Cont.
eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision
Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
PDCP
PHY
MME
S-GW
S1
MAC
Inter Cell RRM
Radio Admission Control
RLC
E-UTRAN EPC
RRC
Mobility
Anchoring
EPS Bearer Control
Idle State Mobility
Handling
NAS Security
P-GW
UE IP address
allocation
Packet Filtering
* 3GPP TS 36.300, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN; Overall description; Stage 2, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
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3GPP Architecture Evolution
Towards Flat Architecture
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E-UTRA Frequency Band*
* 3GPP TS 36.101, E-UTRA: UE radio transmission
and reception, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
Korea?
Korea?
Japan, Korea?
Europe
China?
US?
US?
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E-UTRA Channel Bandwidth*
 1RB = 180kHz 6RBs = 1.08MHz, 100RBs = 18MHz
 6RBs (72 subcarriers) with 128 FFT, 100RBs (1200 subcarriers) with 2048 FFT
* 3GPP TS 36.101, E-UTRA: UE radio transmission
and reception, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
LTE Radio Interface Architecture
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LTE Protocol Architecture (DL)
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Example of LTE Data Flow
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Logical Channels: “type of information it carries”
 Control Channels
 Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
used for transmission of system information from the network to all UEs in a cell
 Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
used for paging of UEs whose location on cell level is not known to the network
 Common Control Channel (CCCH)
used for transmission of control information in conjunction with random access, i.e.,
used for UEs having no RRC connection
 Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
used for transmission of control information to/from a UE, i.e., used for UEs having
RRC connection (e.g. handover messages)
 Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
used for transmission of control information required for reception of MTCH
 Traffic Channels
 Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
used for transmission of user data to/from a UE
 Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
used for transmission of MBMS services
* 3GPP TS 36.300, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN; Overall
description; Stage 2, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
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Transport Channels: “how”, “with what characteristics”
 Downlink
 Broadcast Channel (BCH)
 A fixed TF
 Used for transmission of parts of BCCH, so called MIB
 Paging Channel (PCH)
 Used for transmission of paging information from PCCH
 Supports discontinuous reception (DRX)
 Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)
 Main transport channel used for transmission of downlink data in LTE
 Used also for transmission of parts of BCCH, so called SIB
 Supports discontinuous reception (DRX)
 Multicast Channel (MCH)
 Used to support MBMS
 Uplink
 Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)
 Uplink counterpart to the DL-SCH
 Random Access Channel(s) (RACH)
 Transport channel which doesn‟t carry transport blocks
 Collision risk
* 3GPP TS 36.300, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN; Overall
description; Stage 2, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
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DL Physical Channels
 Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
 실제downlink user data를전송하기위한transport channel인DL-SCH와paging 정보를전송
하기위한transport channel인PCH가매핑
 동적방송정보인SI (System Information) 값들도RRC 메시지형태로DL-SCH를통해전송되
므로이역시PDSCH로매핑
이경우는전체셀영역으로도달될수있는능력이요구되기도함
 Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
 UE가cell search과정을마친후에최초로검출하는채널로서, 다른물리계층채널들을수신하
기위하여반드시필요한기본적인시스템정보들인MIB (Master Information Block)를전송하
기위한transport channel인BCH가매핑
 Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
 방송형데이터를전송하기위한transport channel 인MCH가매핑
 Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
 매subframe마다전송, only one PCFICH in each cell
 Informs UE about CFI which indicates the number of OFDM symbols used for PDCCHs
transmission
 Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
 Informs UE about resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH
 HARQ information related to DL-SCH
 UL scheduling grant
 Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
 Carries HARQ ACK/NACKs in response to UL transmission
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
50
UL Physical Channels
 Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
 Uplink counterpart of PDSCH
 Carries UL-SCH
 Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
 Carries HARQ ACK/NAKs in response to DL transmission
 Carries Scheduling Request (SR)
 Carries channel status reports such as CQI, PMI and RI
 At most one PUCCH per UE
 Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
 Carries the random access preamble
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
51
LTE Channel Mapping
Downlink
Uplink
LTE Downlink Transmission
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
53
Frame Structure: Type 1 for FDD
where, Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) seconds “the smallest time unit in LTE”
Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 #19
One slot, T
slot
= 15360×T
s
= 0.5 ms
One radio frame, T
f
= 307200×T
s
=10 ms
#18
One subframe
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
54
Frame Structure: Type 2 for TDD

One slot,
Tslot=15360Ts
GP UpPTS DwPTS
One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms
One half-frame, 153600Ts = 5 ms
30720Ts
One subframe,
30720Ts
GP UpPTS DwPTS
Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 Subframe #0 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
55
Frame Structure: FDD/TDD
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
56
DL Slot Structure
 : Downlink bandwidth configuration,
expressed in units of
 : Resource block size in the
frequency domain, expressed as a
number of subcarriers
 : Number of OFDM symbols in an
downlink slot
RB
sc
N
RB
sc
N
DL
RB
N
DL
symb
N

DL
symb
N OFDM symbols
One downlink slot
slot
T
0 = l 1
DL
symb
÷ = N l
R
B
s
c
D
L
R
B
N
N
×
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
R
B
s
c
N
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
RB
sc
DL
symb
N N ×
Resource block
resource elements
Resource element ) , ( l k
0 = k
1
RB
sc
DL
RB
÷ = N N k
The minimum RB the eNB uses for LTE
scheduling is “1ms (1subframe) x 180kHz
(12subcarriers @ 15kHz spacing)”
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
57
Definitions
 Resource Grid
 Defined as subcarriers in frequency domain and OFDM symbols in time domain
 The quantity depends on the DL transmission BW configured in the cell and shall fulfill
 The set of allowed values for is given by TS 36.101, TS 36.104
 Resource Block (1 RB = 180 kHz)
 Defined as “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and “consecutive” OFDM
symbols in time domain
 Corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz in the frequency domain
 Resource Element
 Uniquely defined by the index pair in a slot where and
are the indices in the frequency and time domain, respectively
110 6
DL
RB
s s N
RB
sc
DL
RB
N N
DL
symb
N
RB
sc
N
( ) l k,
DL
RB
N
DL
RB
N
DL
symb
N
1 ,..., 0
DL
symb
÷ = N l 1 ,..., 0
RB
sc
DL
RB
÷ = N N k
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
58
Normal CP & Extended CP
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
59
PRB and VRB (LVRB, DVRB)
 Physical resource blocks are numbered from 0 to in the frequency domain.
 The relation between the physical resource block number in the frequency domain
and resource elements in a slot is given by
 A virtual resource block is of the same size as a physical resource block.
Two types of virtual resource blocks are defined: LVRB and DVRB
 Virtual resource blocks of localized type are mapped directly to PRBs such that virtual
resource block corresponds to physical resource block .
Virtual resource blocks are numbered from 0 to , where .
1
DL
RB
÷ N
PRB
n
) , ( l k

=
RB
sc
PRB
N
k
n
VRB
n
VRB PRB
n n =
1
DL
VRB
÷ N
DL
RB
DL
VRB
N N =
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
60
DVRB
 Virtual resource blocks of distributed type are mapped to PRBs as follows
 Consecutive VRBs are not mapped to PRBs that are consecutive in the frequency domain
 Even a single VRB pair is distributed in the frequency domain
 The exact size of the frequency gap depends on the overall downlink cell BW
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
61
Resource-element groups (REG)
 Basic unit for mapping of PCFICH,
PHICH, and PDCCH
 Resource-element groups are used
for defining the mapping of control
channels to resource elements.
 Mapping of a symbol-quadruplet
onto a resource
-element group is defined such that
elements are mapped to resource
elements of the resource-element
group not used for cell-specific
reference signals in increasing order
of l and k
) 3 ( ), 2 ( ), 1 ( ), ( + + + i z i z i z i z
) (i z
) , ( l k
n
+
0
n
+
1
n
+
2
n
+
3
n
+
4
n
+
5
n
+
6
n
+
7
n
+
0
n
+
1
n
+
2
n
+
3
n
+
4
n
+
5
n
+
6
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
62
DL Physical Channel Processing
 scrambling of coded bits in each of the code words to be transmitted on a
physical channel
 modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued modulation symbols
 mapping of the complex-valued modulation symbols onto one or several
transmission layers
 precoding of the complex-valued modulation symbols on each layer for
transmission on the antenna ports
 mapping of complex-valued modulation symbols for each antenna port to
resource elements
 generation of complex-valued time-domain OFDM signal for each antenna port

OFDM signal
generation
Layer
Mapper
Scrambling
Precoding
Modulation
Mapper
Modulation
Mapper
Resource
element mapper
OFDM signal
generation
Scrambling
code words layers antenna ports
Resource
element mapper
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
63
Channel Coding
 Turbo code
 PCCC (exactly the same as in WCDMA/HSPA)
 QPP (quadratic polynomial permutation) interleaver
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
64
Modulation
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
65
DL Layer Mapping and Precoding
 Explained in MIMO session
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
66
DL OFDM Signal Generation
 OFDM Parameters
N = 2048 for Af=15kHz
N = 4096 for Af=7.5kHz
 Check with resource block parameters
 (160+2048) x Ts = 71.88us
(144+2048) x Ts = 71.35us
71.88us + 71.35us x 6 = 0.5ms
 Normal Cyclic Prefix = 160 Ts = 5.2 us
Normal Cyclic Prefix = 144 Ts = 4.7 us
Extended Cyclic Prefix = 512 Ts = 16.7 us
Extended Cyclic Prefix for MBMS = 1024 Ts = 33.3 us
( )
s , CP
0 T N N t
l
× + < s
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
67
DL Physical Channels & Signals
 Physical channels
 Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
 Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
 Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
 Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
 Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
 Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
 Physical signals
 Reference Signals
 Cell-specific RS, associated with non-MBSFN transmission
 Aid coherent detection (pilot)
 Reference channel for CQI from UE to eNB
 MBSFN RS, associated with MBSFN transmission
 UE-specific RS
 Synchronization Signals
 Carries frequency and symbol timing synchronization
 PSS (Primary SS) and SSS (Secondary SS)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
68
DL Reference Signals
 Cell-specific reference signals
 Are transmitted in every downlink subframe, and span entire cell BW
 Can be used for coherent demodulation of any downlink transmission
“except” when so-called non-codebook-based beamforming is used
 Using antenna ports {0, 1, 2, 3}
 MBSFN reference signals
 Are used for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of signals being
transmitted by means of MBSFN
 Using antenna port 4
 UE-specific reference signals
 Is specifically intended for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of
DL-SCH when non-codebook-based beamforming is used.
 Are transmitted only within the RB assigned for DL-SCH to that specific UE
 Using antenna port 5
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
69
Cell-Specific Reference Signals
 When estimating the channel for a certain RB, UE may not only use the
reference symbols within that RB but also, in frequency domain, neighbor
RBs, as well as reference symbols of previously received slots/subframes
 Pseudo-random sequence generation
 is the slot number within a radio frame.
 is the OFDM symbol number within the slot.
 The pseudo-random sequence c(i) is a length-31 Gold sequence.
 The complex values of reference symbols will vary b/w different reference-
symbol position and also b/w different cells. Thus, RS of a cell can be seen as
a cell-specific two-dimensional sequence with the period of one frame.
 Regardless of cell BW, the reference signal sequence is defined assuming the
maximum possible LTE cell BW corresponding to 110 RBs in frequency
domain
( ) ( ) 1 2 ,..., 1 , 0 , ) 1 2 ( 2 1
2
1
) 2 ( 2 1
2
1
) (
DL max,
RB ,
s
÷ = + · ÷ + · ÷ = N m m c j m c m r
n l
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
70
Relationship with Cell Identity
 504 unique Cell ID:
 168(N1) Cell ID groups, 3 (N2) Cell ID within each group
 Cell ID = 3xN1+N2 = 0 ~ 503 index
 504 pseudo-random sequences
 One to one mapping between the Cell ID and Pseudo-random sequences
 Cell-specific Frequency Shift (N1 mod 6)
 1 RE shift from current RS position in case of next Cell ID index
 Each shift corresponds to 84 different cell identities, that is 6 shifts jointly cover all
504 cell identities.
 Effective with RS boosting to enhance reference signal SIR by avoiding the collision
of boosted RSs from neighboring cells (assuming time synchronization)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
71
Cell-Specific RS Mapping

0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l
O
n
e

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
T
w
o

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
Resource element (k,l)
Not used for transmission on this antenan port
Reference symbols on this antenna port
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l
F
o
u
r

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
0 = l 6 = l 0 = l
2
R
6 = l 0 = l 6 = l 0 = l 6 = l
2
R
2
R
2
R
3
R 3
R
3
R
3
R
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 0
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 1
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 2
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 3
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
72
MBSFN RS Mapping
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
73
MBSFN RS Mapping
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
74
UE-specific RS on top of Cell-specific RS
 UE-specific RS (antenna port 5)
 12 symbols per RB pair
 DL CQI estimation is always based on cell-specific RS (common RS)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
75
PCFICH
 The number of OFDM symbols used for control channel can be varying per TTI
 CFI (Control Format Indication)
 Information about the number of OFDM symbols (1~4) used for transmission of PDCCHs in a
subframe
 PCFICH carries CFI
 2 bits 32 bits (block coding) 32 bits (cell specific scrambling) 16 symbols (QPSK)
 Mapping to resource elements: 4 REG (16 RE excluding RS) in the 1
st
OFDM symbol
 Spread over the whole system bandwidth
 To avoid the collisions in neighboring cells, the location depends on cell identity
 Transmit diversity is applied which is identical to the scheme applied to BCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
76
PCFICH REG Mapping
Cell ID
R
E
G
RB
sc
N
DL
RB
N
 Example for 5 MHz BW LTE
 = 25 (number of REGs = 50)
 = 12
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
77
PCFICH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
78
PHICH
 HARQ ACK/NAK in response to UL transmission
 HI codewords with length of 12 REs = 4 (Walsh spreading) x 3 (repetition)
 3 groups of 4 contiguous REs (not used for RS and PCFICH)
 BPSK modulation with I/Q multiplexing
SF4 x 2 (I/Q) = 8 PHICHs in normal CP
 Cell-specific scrambling
 Tx diversity, the same antenna ports as PBCH
 Typically, PHICH is transmitted in the first OFDM symbol only
 For FDD, an uplink transport block received in subframe n should be acknowledged on the
PHICH in subframe n+4
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
79
PHICH REG Mapping

( )

( )

( ) ¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= + + ·
= + + ·
= + ·
=
' ' '
' ' '
' '
2 mod 3 2 '
1 mod 3 '
0 mod '
1
cell
ID
1
cell
ID
1
cell
ID
i n n m n n N
i n n m n n N
i n m n n N
n
i i i
i i i
i i
l l l
l l l
l l
i
DL
RB
N
Cell ID
R
E
G
 Example for 5 MHz BW LTE
 = 25 (number of REGs = 50)
 = 12
RB
sc
N
DL
RB
N
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
80
PHICH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
81
PCFICH/PHICH RE Mapping
symbol
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
 Example for 5 MHz BW LTE
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
82
PDCCH DCI Format
 PDCCH is used to carry DCI where DCI includes;
 Downlink scheduling assignments, including PDSCH resource indication, transport format, HARQ-
related information, and control information related to SM (if applicable).
 Uplink scheduling grants, including PUSCH resource indication, transport format, and HARQ-
related information.
 Uplink power control commands
DCI
Formats
Usage Details
0 UL grant For scheduling of PUSCH
1
DL
assignment
For scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (SIMO, TxD)
1A
For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (SIMO, TxD) and random access procedure
initiated by a PDCCH order
1B For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding information (CL single-rank)
1C
For very compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (paging, RACH response and dynamic
BCCH scheduling)
1D For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding & power offset information
2 For scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in CL SM
2A For scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in OL SM
3
Power
control
For transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH/PUSCH with 2-bit power adjustment
3A For transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH/PUSCH with single bit power adjustment
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
83
Downlink Assignment
 Major contents of different DCI formats: not exhaustive
 DCI format 0/1A indication [1 bit]
 Distributed transmission flag [1 bit]
 Resource-block allocation [variable]
 For the first (or only) transport block
 MCS [5 bit]
 New-data indicator [1 bit]
 Redundancy version [2 bit]
 For the second transport block (present in DCI format 2 only)
 MCS [5 bit]
 New-data indicator [1 bit]
 Redundancy version [2 bit]
 HARQ process number [3 bit for FDD]
 Information related to SM (present in DCI format 2 only)
 Pre-coding information [3 bit for 2 antennas, 6 bit for 4 antennas in CL-SM]
 Number of transmission layer
 HARQ swap flag [1 bit]
 Transmit power control (TPC) for PUCCH [2 bit]
 Identity (RNTI) of the terminal for which the PDCCH transmission is intended [16 bit]
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
84
Uplink Grants
 Major contents of DCI format 0 for UL grants: not exhaustive
 DCI format 0/1A indication [1 bit]
 Hopping flag [1 bit]
 Resource-block allocation [variable]
 MCS [5 bit]
 New-data indicator [1 bit]
 Phase rotation of UL demodulation reference signal [3 bit]
 Channel-status request flag [1 bit]
 Transmit power control (TPC) for PUSCH [2 bit]
 Identity (RNTI) of the terminal for which the PDCCH transmission is intended [16 bit]
 The time b/w reception of an UL scheduling grant on a PDCCH and the
corresponding transmission on UL-SCH are fixed
 For FDD, the time relation is the same as for PHICH
 Uplink grant received in downlink subframe n applies to uplink subframe n+4
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
85
PDCCH Processing
 First n OFDM symbols
 < 10RB: 2~4 OFDMA symbols
 > 10RB: 1~3 OFDMA symbols 1/14~3/14 (10~20%) overhead
 PDCCH format based on # of CCE (Control Channel Element, = 9 REGs)
 Depending on the payload size of control information (DCI payload) & coding rate
 Number of CCEs for each of PDCCH may vary and is not signaled, so UE has to blindly
determine this
search space: a set of candidate control channels formed by CCEs on a given aggregation
level {1, 2, 4, 8}, which UE is supposed to attempt to decode
 User identification is based on “UE specific CRC (normal CRC with UE ID masking)”
 Cell-specific scrambling, QPSK with tail-biting Conv. Code
 Tx diversity, the same antenna ports as PBCH
 Mapped to REG not assigned to PCFICH or PHICH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
86
PDCCH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
87
System Information
 Master information block (MIB) includes the following information:
 Downlink cell bandwidth [4 bit]
 PHICH duration [1 bit]
 PHICH resource [2 bit]
 System Frame Number (SFN) except two LBSs
 Etc…
 LTE defines different SIBs:
 SIB1 includes info mainly related to whether an UE is allowed to camp on the cell. This includes info about the
operator(s) and about the cell (e.g. PLMN identity list, tracking area code, cell identity, minimum required Rx
level in the cell, etc), DL-UL subframe configuration in TDD case, and the scheduling of the remaining SIBs.
SIB1 is transmitted every 80ms.
 SIB2 includes info that UEs need in order to be able to access the cell. This includes info about the UL cell
BW, random access parameters, and UL power control parameters. SIBs also includes radio resource
configuration of common channels (RACH, BCCH, PCCH, PRACH, PDSCH, PUSCH, PUCCH, and SRS).
 SIB3 mainly includes info related to cell-reselection.
 SIB4-8 include neighbor-cell-related info. (E-UTRAN, UTRAN, GERAN, cdma2000)
 SIB9 contains a home eNB identifier
 SIB10/11 contains ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) notification
 More to be added
 MIB mapped to PBCH
 Other SIBs mapped to PDSCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
88
BCH on PBCH
 To broadcast a certain set of cell and/or system-specific information
Requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell
 BCH transmission
 The coded BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes (slot #1 in subframe #0)
within a 40ms interval
 40ms timing is blindly detected (no explicit signaling indicating 40ms timing)
 Each subframe is assumed to be self-decodable, i.e. the BCH can be decoded from a
single reception, assuming sufficiently good channel conditions
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
89
BCH on PBCH – cont’d
 Single (fixed-size) transport block per TTI (40 ms)
 No HARQ
 Cell-specific scrambling, BPSK with ½tail-biting Conv. Code, Tx diversity(1,2,4)
 BCH mapped to 4 OFDM symbols within a subframe in time-domain at 6 RBs
(72 subcarriers) excluding DC in freq-domain
 PBCH is mapped into RE assuming RS from 4 antennas are used at eNB,
irrespective of the actual number of TX antenna
 Different transmit diversity schemes per # of antennas
 # of ant=2: SFBC
 # of ant=4: SFBC + FSTD (Frequency Switching Transmit Diversity)
 No explicit bits in the PBCH to signal the number of TX antennas at eNB
 PBCH encoding chain includes CRC masking dependent on the number of
configured TX antennas at eNB
 Blind detection of the number of TX antenna using CRC masking by UE
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
90
PBCH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
91
PDSCH Processing
1) RS
2) PSS & SSS
and BCH
3) PCFICH
4) PHICH
5) PDCCH
6) PDSCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
92
DL constellation & frame summary
LTE Uplink Transmission
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
94
LTE Uplink Key Features
 SC-FDMA 사용
 단말의PAPR을낮추어커버리지를증가시키기에 적합함
 DFT size is limited to products of the integers 2, 3, and 5
(e.g. DFT sizes of 60, 72, and 96 are allowed but a DFT size of 84 is not allowed.)
 No unused DC-subcarrier is defined
 CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation) sequence 사용
 Reference signal 및제어정보채널전송시각단말들의신호를구분하기위하여CDM
을수행하는경우CAZAC sequence를주로사용
 CAZAC sequence는시간/주파수 차원에서일정한amplitude를유지하는특성을가지
므로단말의PAPR을낮추어커버리지를 증가시키기에적합함
 MU-MIMO 지원
 QPSK, 16QAM, (64QAM) modulation 지원
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
95
UL Slot Structure
 : Uplink bandwidth configuration,
expressed in units of
 : Resource block size in the
frequency domain, expressed as a
number of subcarriers
 : Number of SC-FDMA symbols in
an uplink slot
RB
sc
N
RB
sc
N
UL
RB
N
UL
symb
N

UL
symb
N SC-FDMA symbols
One uplink slot
slot
T
0 = l 1
UL
symb
÷ = N l
R
B
s
c
U
L
R
B
N
N
×
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
R
B
s
c
N
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
RB
sc
UL
symb
N N ×
Resource block
resource elements
Resource element ) , ( l k
0 = k
1
RB
sc
UL
RB
÷ = N N k
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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Definitions
 Resource Grid
 Defined as subcarriers in frequency domain and SC-FDMA symbols in time domain
 The quantity depends on the UL transmission BW configured in the cell and shall fulfill
 The set of allowed values for is given by TS 36.101, TS 36.104
 Resource Block
 Defined as “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and “consecutive” SC-
FDMA symbols in time domain
 Corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz in the frequency domain
 Resource Element
 Uniquely defined by the index pair in a slot where and
are the indices in the frequency and time domain, respectively
110 6
UL
RB
s s N
RB
sc
UL
RB
N N
UL
symb
N
RB
sc
N
( ) l k,
UL
RB
N
UL
RB
N
UL
symb
N
1 ,..., 0
UL
symb
÷ = N l
1 ,..., 0
RB
sc
UL
RB
÷ = N N k
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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UL Physical Channels & Signals
 UL physical channels
 Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
 Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
 Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
 UL physical signals
 An uplink physical signal is used by the physical layer but does not
carry information originating from higher layers
 Two types of reference signals
 UL demodulation reference signal (DRS) for PUSCH, PUCCH
 UL sounding reference signal (SRS) not associated with PUSCH,
PUCCH transmission
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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UL Reference Signals
 UL RS should preferably have the following properties:
 Favorable auto- and cross-correlation properties
 Limited power variation in freq-domain to allow for similar channel-estimation quality for all
frequencies
 Limited power variation in time-domain (low cubic metric) for high PA efficiency
 Sufficiently many RS sequences of the same length to avoid an unreasonable planning effort
 Zadoff-Chu Sequence
 Appeared in IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory in 1972
 Poly-phase sequence
 Constant amplitude zero auto correlation (CAZAC) sequence의일종
 Cyclic autocorrelations are zero for all non-zero lags, Non-zero cross-correlations
 Constant power in both the frequency and the time domain
 No restriction on code length N
- Sequence number p is relatively prime to N
- Sequence length: N
- Number of sequences: N-1
,
,
) (
) 1 (
2
2
2
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
+ ÷
÷
n pn
N
j
pn
N
j
p
e
e
n g
t
t
when N is even
when N is odd
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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DRS
 DRS is made from Z-C sequence*, and the DRS sequence length is the same
with the number of subcarriers in an assigned RBs
 DRS is defined with the following parameters
 Sequence group (30 options): cell specific parameter
 Sequence (2 options for sequence lengths of 6PRBs or longer): cell specific
parameter
 Cyclic shift (12 options): both terminal and cell specific components
 Sequence length: given by the UL allocation
 Typically,
Cyclic shifts are used to multiplex RSs from different UEs within a cell.
Different sequence groups are used in neighboring cells.
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
100
DRS Location within a Subframe
 DRS for PUSCH
 Normal CP 적용시PUSCH RS는한슬롯당중앙의SC-FDMA 심볼에위치
Extended CP 적용시PUSCH RS는한슬롯당3번째SC-FDMA 심볼에위치
 DRS for PUCCH
 Format 1x
 Format 2x
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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SRS
 기지국이각단말의상향링크채널정보를추정할수있도록단말이전송하는RS
 Reference for channel quality information
 CQ measurement for frequency/time aware scheduling
 CQ measurement for link adaptation
 CQ measurement for power control
 CQ measurement for MIMO
 Timing measurement
 Reference signal sequence is defined by a cyclic shift of a base sequence (ZC)
 SRS 전송주기/대역폭은 각단말마다고유하게할당
 From as often as once in every 2ms to as infrequently as once in every 160ms (320ms)
 At least 4 RBs
 SRS는서브프레임의마지막SC-FDMA 심볼로전송
 SRS multiplexing by
 Time, Frequency, Cyclic shifts, and transmission comb (2 combs distributed SC-FDMA)
 To avoid the collision b/w SRS and PUSCH transmission from other UEs, SRS
transmissions should not extend into the frequency band reserved for PUCCH.
( ) ( ) n r n r
v u
) (
,
SRS o
=
RS
sc ,
) (
,
0 ), ( ) ( M n n r e n r
v u
n j
v u
< s =
o o
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
102
SRS – cont’d
 Non-frequency-hopping (wideband) SRS and frequency-hopping SRS
 Multiplexing of SRS transmissions from different UEs
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
103
Uplink L1/L2 Control Signaling
 Uplink L1/L2 control signaling consists of:
 HARQ acknowledgements for received DL-SCH transport blocks
 UE reports downlink channel conditions including CQI, PMI, and RI
 Scheduling requests
 Two different methods for transmission of UL L1/L2 control signaling
 No simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH
 UE doesn‟t have a valid scheduling grant, that is, no resources have been assigned for UL-SCH
in the current subframe
 PUCCH is used for transmission of UL L1/L2 control signaling
 Simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH
 UE has a valid scheduling grant, that is, resources have been assigned for UL-SCH in the
current subframe
 UL L1/L2 control signaling is time multiplexed with the coded UL-SCH onto PUSCH prior to SC-
FDMA modulation
 Only HARQ acknowledgement and channel-status reports are transmitted
No need to request a SR. Instead, in-band buffer status reports are sent in MAC headers
 The basis for channel-status reports on PUSCH is aperiodic reports
If a periodic report is configured to be transmitted on PUCCH in a frame when US is scheduled
to transmit PUSCH, then the periodic report is rerouted to PUSCH resources
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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Periodic/Aperiodic Channel Info Feedback
Periodic reporting Aperiodic reporting
When to send Periodically every 2-160 ms When requested by eNB
Where to send
Normally on PUCCH, PUSCH used
when multiplexed with data
Always on PUSCH
Payload size of the reports 4-11 bits Up to 64 bits
Channel coding Linear block codes RM coding or tail-biting CC
CRC protection No Yes, 8 bit CRC
RI
Sent in separate subframes at lower
periodicity
Sent separately encoded in the
same subframe
Freq. selectivity of CQI
Only very limited amount of
frequency info
Detailed frequency selective reports
are possible
Freq. selectivity of PMI Only wideband PMI
Frequency selective PMI reports are
possible
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
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UL L1/L2 control signaling on PUCCH
 The reasons for locating PUCCH resources at the edges of the spectrum
 To maximize frequency diversity
 To retain single-carrier property
 Multiple UEs can share the same PUCCH resource block
 Format 1: length-12 orthogonal phase rotation sequence + length-4 orthogonal cover
 Format 2: length-12 orthogonal phase rotation sequence
 PUCCH is never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH from the same UE
 2 consecutive PUCCH slots in Time-Frequency Hopping at the slot boundary
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
106
PUCCH Formats
PUCCH
format
Modulation
scheme
Number of bits
per subframe
Usage
Multiplexing
capacity
(UE/RB)
1 N/A N/A SR 36, 18*, 12
1a BPSK 1 ACK/NACK 36, 18*, 12
1b QPSK 2 ACK/NACK 36, 18*, 12
2 QPSK 20 CQI 12, 6*, 4
2a QPSK+BPSK 21 CQI + ACK/NACK 12, 6*, 4
2b QPSK+QPSK 22 CQI + ACK/NACK 12, 6*, 4
* Typical value with 6 different rotations (choosing every second cyclic shift)
 PUCCH Format 2/2a/2b is located at the outermost RBs of system BW
 ACK/NACK for persistently scheduled PDSCH and SRI are located next
 ACK/NACK for dynamically scheduled PDSCH are located innermost RBs
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
107
PUCCH Resource Mapping
 Format 1
 4 symbols are modulated by BPSK/QPSK
 BPSK/QPSK symbol is multiplied by a length-4 orthogonal cover sequence (a length-3
orthogonal cover when there is SRS), and then it modulates the rotated length-12
sequence.
 Reference signals also employ one orthogonal cover sequence
 PUCCH capacity: up to 3 x 12 = 36 different UEs per each cell-specific sequence
(assuming all 12 rotations being available Practically, only 6 rotations.)
 Format 2
 5 symbols are modulated by QPSK after being multiplied by a phase rotated length-12
cell specific sequence.
 Resource consumption of one channel-status report is 3x of HARQ acknowledgement
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
108
PUCCH Format1 Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
109
PUCCH Format2 Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
110
UL L1/L2 control signaling on PUSCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
111
PUSCH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
112
UL SC-FDMA Signal Generation
 This section applies to all uplink physical signals and physical channels
except the physical random access channel
 SC-FDMA parameters
where N = 2048
 Check with numbers in Table 5.2.3-1.
 {(160+2048) x Ts} + 6 x {(144+2048) x Ts} = 0.5 ms
 6 x {(512+2048) x Ts} = 0.5 ms
( )
s , CP
0 T N N t
l
× + < s
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
113
PUSCH Frequency Hopping
 PUSCH transmission
 Localized transmission w/o frequency hopping
Frequency Selective Scheduling Gain
 Localized transmission with “frequency hopping”
Frequency Diversity Gain, Inter-cell Interference Randomization
 Two types of PUSCH frequency hopping
 Subband-based hopping according to cell-specific hopping patterns
 Hopping based on explicit hopping information in the scheduling grant
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
114
Hopping based on cell-specific patterns
 Subbands are defined
 In 10 MHz BW case, the overall UL BW corresponds to 50 RBs and there are a total of 4 subbands, each consisting
of 11 RBs. The remaining 6 RBs are used for PUCCH transmission.
 The resource defined by a scheduling grant (VRBs) is not the actual set of RBs for transmission.
The resource to use for transmission (PRBs) is the resource provided in the scheduling grant “shifted” a
number of subbands according to a cell-specific hopping pattern.
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
115
More on hopping w/ cell-specific patterns
 Example for predefined hopping for PUSCH with 20 RBs and M=4
(subband hopping + mirroring)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
116
Hopping based on explicit information
 Explicit hopping information provided in the scheduling grant is about the “offset” of the
resource in the second slot, relative to the resource in the first slot
 Selection b/w hopping based on cell-specific hopping patterns or hopping based on explicit
information can be done dynamically.
 Cell BW less than 50 RBs
 1 bit in scheduling grant indicating to specify which scheme is to be used
 When hopping based on explicit information is selected, the offset is always half of BW
 Cell BS equal or larger than 50 RBs
 2 bits in scheduling grant
 One of the combinations indicate that hopping should be based on cell-specific hopping patterns
 Three remaining combinations indicate hopping of 1/2, +1/4, and -1/4 of BW
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
117
PRACH
 PRACH는RA 과정에서단말이기지국으로전송하는preamble이다
 6RB를차지하며부반송파간격은1.25kHz (format #4는7.5kHz)
 64 preamble sequences for each cell 64 random access opportunities per PRACH resource
 Sequence부분은길이839의Z-C sequence로구성(format #4는길이139)
 Phase modulation: Due to the ideal auto-correlation property, there is no intra-cell interference from multiple
random access attempt using preambles derived from the same Z-C root sequence.
 Five types of preamble formats to accommodate a wide range of scenarios
 Higher layers control the preamble format
넓은반경의셀환경과같이시간지연이긴경우
SINR이낮은상황을고려하여sequence repetition
SINR이낮은상황을고려하여sequence repetition
TDD 모드용
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
118
Different Preamble Formats
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
119
PRACH Location
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
120
UL 16QAM SC-FDMA
LTE Cell Search
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
122
Synchronization Signals
 504 unique physical-layer cell identities
 168 unique physical-layer cell-identity groups (0~167)
 3 physical-layer identity within physical-layer cell-identity group (0~2)
 SS is using single antenna port
However, SS can be with UE-transparent transmit antenna scheme (e.g.
PVS, TSTD, CDD)
 Primary SS (PSS) and Secondary SS (SSS)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
123
Primary Synchronization Signal
 The sequence used for the primary synchronization signal is generated from a frequency-
domain Zadoff-Chu sequence (Length-62)
 For frame structure type 1, PSS is mapped to the last OFDM symbol in slots 0 and 10
 No need to know CP length
 The sequence is mapped to REs (6 RBs) according to
 Cell ID detection within a cell ID group (3 hypotheses)
 Half-frame timing detection (Repeat the same sequence twice)
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
=
=
+ +
÷
+
÷
61 ,..., 32 , 31
30 ,..., 1 , 0
) (
63
) 2 )( 1 (
63
) 1 (
n e
n e
n d
n n u
j
n un
j
u
t
t
( ) 61 ,..., 0 , 1 ,
2
31 ,
DL
symb
RB
sc
DL
RB
,
= ÷ = + ÷ = = n N l
N N
n k n d a
l k
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
124
Secondary Synchronization Signal
 The sequence used for the second synchronization signal is an interleaved concatenation
of two length-31 binary sequences (X and Y)
 The concatenated sequence is scrambled with a scrambling sequence given by PSS
 The combination of two length-31 sequences defining SSS differs between slot 0 (SSS
1
)
and slot 10 (SSS
2
) according to
where
 Blind detection of CP-length (2 FFT operations are needed)
 The same antenna port as for the primary sync signal
 Mapped to 6 RBs
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
5 subframe in ) (
0 subframe in ) (
) 1 2 (
5 subframe in ) (
0 subframe in ) (
) 2 (
) (
1 1
) (
0
) (
1 1
) (
1
0
) (
1
0
) (
0
1 0
0 1
1
0
n z n c n s
n z n c n s
n d
n c n s
n c n s
n d
m m
m m
m
m
30 0 s s n
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
125
Structure of SSS
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
126
Synchronization Signals – cont’d
 Cell ID group detection (the set of valid combination of X and Y for SSS are 168)
 Frame boundary detection (the m-sequences X and Y are swapped b/w SSS
1
and SSS
2
)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
127
LTE Cell Search
Primary SS
Symbol timing acquisition
Frequency synchronization
Cell ID detection within a cell group ID (3
hypotheses)
Half-frame boundary detection
Secondary SS
Cell group ID detection (168 hypotheses)
Frame boundary detection (2 hypotheses)
CP-length detection (2 hypotheses)
BCH
40ms BCH period timing detection
eNB # of tx antenna detection
MIB acquisition
(Operation BW, SFN, etc…)
PDCCH reception
SIB acquisition within PDSCH
Check Cell ID with cell-specific RS
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
128
Get PICH code group info from S-SCH
(cf) WCDMA Cell Search Procedure
8 PN codes per group.
64 code groups have
512 PN codes in total.
Terminal power on
Detect strongest PSCH
Get slot synch from P-SCH
Get PN code info by evaluating
all 8 PN codes in code group
Get system info from PCCPCH
Wait while monitoring SCCPCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
129
LTE Cell Search – cont’d*
PSS/SSS, BCH, RACH
1.4
3
LTE Performance
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
131
Spectral Efficiency per Features [15]
 The percentage figure to the left represents the individual feature impact, and the percentage
figure to the right represents the accumulated impact of the features combined.
 It is seen that in both downlink and uplink, the normalized FDD and TDD performance is indeed
similar. The differences are due to the TDD guard period, the UpPTS, and the slightly longer
channel-quality-feedback delays for TDD
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
132
Relative Efficiency of Different LTE BW*
 Downlink
1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz
RB 6 15 25 50 100
GB overhead 23% 10% 10% 10% 10%
BCH overhead 2.9% 1.1% 0.7% 0.3% 0.2%
SCH overhead 2.5% 1.0% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2%
Freq. domain
scheduling gain
5% (+) 20% (+) 35% (+) 40% (+) 45% (+)
* Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley, 2009
1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz
GB overhead 23% 10% 10% 10% 10%
PUCCH overhead 16.7% 13.3% 8.0% 8.0% 8.0%
Freq. domain
scheduling gain
2.5% (+) 10% (+) 17.5% (+) 20% (+) 22.5% (+)
 Uplink
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
133
SE Relative to 10MHz LTE*
* Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley, 2009
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
134
LTE DL Efficiency Benefit over R6 HSDPA
in Macro Cells*
LTE Benefit Gain Explanation
OFDM with freq.
domain EQ
Up to +70%
depending on
the multi-path
profile
HSDPA suffers from intra-cell interference fro
the Rake receiver. Rake receiver is assumed
in R6. However, most HSDPA terminals have
an EQ that removes most intra-cell
interference.
Freq. domain packet
scheduling
+40%
Frequency domain scheduling is possible in
OFDM system, but not in single carrier
HSDPA. The dual carrier HSDPA can get part
of the frequency domain scheduling gain.
MIMO +15%
No MIMO defined in HSDPA R6. The gain is
relative to single antenna BS transmission.
HSDPA R7 includes MIMO.
Inter-cell interference
rejection combining
+10%
The interference rejection combining works
better in OFDM system with long symbols.
Total =3.0x 1.7 x 1.4 x 1.15 x 1.1
* Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley, 2009
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
135
SE of HSPA and LTE*
* Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley, 2009
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
136
LTE (5 MHz) Voice Capacity*
AMR 5.9 AMR 7.95 AMR 12.2
DL
Dynamic scheduler w/o bundling 210 210 210
Dynamic scheduler with bundling 410 400 370
Semi-persistent scheduler 470 430 320
UL
Dynamic scheduler 230 230 210
Semi-persistent scheduler 410 320 240
* Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley, 2009
 VoIP with dynamic scheduler is limited by the available PDCCH resources,
and therefore the dynamic scheduler cannot fully exploit the PDSCH capacity
as there are not enough CCEs to schedule the unused PRBs.
 VoIP with semi-persistent scheduler is not limited by the control channel
resources, but is limited by the PDSCH resources.
Summary
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
138
LTE Frame & Slot Structure
* 윤상보 (삼성), “3GPP LTE & LTE-Advanced System”, 제5차 차세대이동통신 단기강좌, Aug. 2008
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
139
DL Frame Structure Type 1*
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
140
UL Frame Structure Type 1*
1 RB
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
141
E-UTRA UE Capabilities*
* 3GPP TS 36.306, E-UTRA; UE Radio Access Capabilities,
Release 8, V8.4.0, June 2009
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
142
Final Message*
* Signals Ahead
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
143
References
[1] 3GPP homepage: www.3gpp.org
[2] Hannes Ekström, Anders Furuskär, Jonas Karlsson, Michael Meyer, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Torsner, and Mattias
Wahlqvist (Ericsson), “Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution”, IEEE Communications Magazine,
March 2006
[3] Erik Dahlman, Hannes Ekstrom, Anders Furuskar, Ylva Jading, Jonas Karlsson, Magnus Lundevall, and Stefan
Parkvall (Ericsson), “The 3G Long-Term Evolution - Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation”, IEEE
VTC 2006
[4] Leonard J. Cimini Jr. and Ye (Geoffrey) Li, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for wireless channels”,
AT&T Labs – Research
[5] Richard van Nee and Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Artech House Publishers
[6] D. Falconer, et al., “Frequency domain equialization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems,” IEEE
Communication Magazine, vol.40, no.4, April 2002
[7] Hyung G. Myung, Junsung Lim, and David J. Goodman, “Single Carrier FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission”,
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Sep. 2006
[8] 오민석 (LGE), “3GPP LTE”, KRnet 2007, June 29 2007
[9] 김학성 (LGE), “3GPP LTE PHY Layer Specification and Technology”, 제4차 차세대이동통신 단기강좌, Feb. 2008
[10] Moray Rumney (Agilent), “Concepts of 3GPP LTE”, Live Webinar, Sep. 2007
[11] 이상근, 조봉열, 여운영, 쉽게 설명한 3G/4G 이동통신 시스템 (2
nd
edition), 홍릉과학출판사, 2009
[12] Erik Dahlman, et al, 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband (2
nd
edition), Academic Press, 2008
[13] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley, 2009
[14] Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, LTE, The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to
Practice, Wiley, 2009
[15] David Astély, et al, “LTE: The Evolution of Mobile Broadband,” IEEE Commun. Mag. April 2009
[16] Anna Larmo, et al, “The LTE Link-Layer Design,” IEEE Commun. Mag. April 2009
[17] LSTI, “Latest Results from the LSTI,” Feb. 2009;
http://www.lstiforum.com/file/news/Latest_LSTI_Results_Feb09_v1.pdf

Contents
     

Technology Evolution
OFDM(A) and SC-FDMA LTE Overview LTE Radio Interface Architecture LTE Downlink Transmission LTE Uplink Transmission LTE Cell Search LTE Performance Summary
2


 

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

Technology Evolution

512.02% 89.50% 2.689.983 13.507.912.39% 80.06% 7.079.449.773.311.18% 2.678 3.678.06% 0.592 * Data supplied by GSMA Mobile Infolink on Aug/07/2009 4 .412 132.010.183 753.411 2.386 447.93% 3.361.436 21.086 388.02% 0.02% 5.06% 0.Worldwide Mobile Users Number cdmaOne CDMA2000 1X CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.821.83% 0.02% 0.310.903 255.900 121.32% 10.03% 9.981 4.044 3.754.837.727 825. A Subtotal for 3GPP2 GSM WCDMA WCDMA HSPA TD-SCDMA Subtotal for 3GPP Subtotal for 3GPP except GSM TDMA PDC iDEN Total LTE/MIMO 표준기술 Percentage 0.409 309.752.

5 Mbps R8 HSPA Evolution (5(x2) MHz) DL PDR: 43.3GPP Standards Evolution GPRS DL PDR: 50 kbps UL PDR: 21 kbps EGPRS DL PDR: 236 kbps UL PDR: 118 kbps GERAN SAIC PS Handover GERAN Evolution MSRD Dual Carrier Ongoing GERAN Evolution UMTS WCDMA (5MHz) DL PDR: 384 kbps UL PDR: 64 kbps R5 HSDPA (5MHz) DL PDR: 14 Mbps UL PDR: 384 kbps R6 HSUPA (5 MHz) DL PDR: 14 Mbps UL PDR: 5.25-20MHz) R8 LTE/SAE (1.7 Mbps R7 HSPA Evolution (5 MHz) DL PDR: 28.5 Mbps Ongoing HSPA Evolution LTE Feasibility Study (1.2 Mbps UL PDR: 11.25-20MHz) DL PDR:  100 Mbps UL PDR:  50 Mbps R10 LTE-Adv 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 5 .8 Mbps UL PDR: 11.

B 3GPP2 UMB LTE-Adv ? ? Wi-Fi OFDM 802.Technology Evolution Path 3G 2005 2006 3.0) 802.0) Broadband Wireless Technology Evolution LTE/MIMO 표준기술 6 .16m ? (WiMAX R2.16e OFDMA 802.5G~3.0 HSDPA (R5) EVDO R.99G 2007-2009 IMT-Adv? 2010+ 3G Technology Evolution WCDMA (R99) EVDO R.16e MIMO-OFDMA (WiMAX R1.A HSPA+ (R7/R8) 3GPP LTE (R8) EVDO R.

64QAM Mainly AMC with channel-aware scheduler HARQ with soft combining HHO FDD.EVDO) CDMA 4G (LTE. TDD is emerging Various Antenna Diversity.WiMAX) OFDM(A) Modulation Link Adaptation ARQ Handover Duplexing Antenna Technology QPSK Mainly PC ARQ without soft combining SHO FDD Up to 16QAM QPSK. 3G Access Scheme 3.Advancement For High Data Rate 2G. MIMO. BF Rx Antenna Diversity LTE/MIMO 표준기술 7 .5G (HSDPA.16QAM.

OFDM(A) and SC-FDMA .

at the same time.ISI Prevents High Data Rate?   In general. ISI prevents “HIGH DATA RATE” Symbol rate increase  Ts decrease  severe ISI Symbol rate decrease  Ts increase  less ISI Multipath profile in the wireless channel (which is already given) time System#1 s1 Ts s2 System#2 s1 Ts s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 s11 s12 s13 s14 s15 s16 • System#2 achieves 10x higher data rate by using 10x more spectrum (BW) • However. system#2 suffers 10x more severe ISI due to short symbol duration compared to the multipath profile in the time domain LTE/MIMO 표준기술 9 .

independent. narrowband channels (“subcarriers”) Expensive adaptive equalizers are not required LTE/MIMO 표준기술 10 .Multicarrier to “Minimize” ISI Effect  Ways to “minimize” inter-symbol interference:   Reduce the symbol rate. but equalization is processor intensive & expensive We are talking about “Broadband Wireless” which requires high data rate  Solution:  Transmit data over multiple carrier frequencies in parallel    Narrow. slower channels are MUCH LESS vulnerable to ISI thanks to long symbol duration compared to the multipath delay in time domain OFDM splits data into parallel. but data rate goes down too Equalizers.

OFDM exploits the mathematical property of the signal and doesn’t require any GB or Filter between subcarriers LTE/MIMO 표준기술 11 .FDM and OFDM Unlike conventional FDM which requires Guard Band & Sharp Filter between carriers.

Guard Interval To “Remove” ISI LTE/MIMO 표준기술 12 .

Cyclic Prefix for Guard Interval LTE/MIMO 표준기술 13 .

how can we remove ISI „within‟ each OFDM symbol?  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 14 .More on CP (Cyclic Prefix)  OFDM guarantee no interference „between‟ subsequent OFDM symbols OFDM allows ISI „within‟ one OFDM symbol Then.

DFT The duality b/w circular convolution in the time domain and simple multiplication in the frequency domain is a property unique to DFT  The above simple formula describes an ISI-free channel in the frequency domain.Circular Convolution  Circular convolution where  is a periodic version of x[n] with period L. where each input symbol X[m] is simply scaled by a complex value H[m]  It is trivial to recover the input symbol by simply computing  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 15 .

Frequency Domain Model of OFDM Tx/Rx One-tap EQ LTE/MIMO 표준기술 16 .

”FDM-based access” is also required especially in wideband system  Enhance uplink link budget as well. we need to allocate more BW. if we want to increase user data rate.  Cell edge area     To better utilize the resource. mostly power-limited region MSs are mostly power-hungry In general. it will not be very effective to allocate wide BW to power-hungry MS since they will not be able to use the allocated BW anyway. 200mW 200mW Total System BW LTE/MIMO 표준기술 17 .OFDMA: (1) Better BW Utilization  Cell center area    mostly BW-limited region MSs are mostly not power-hungry In general.

domain multiuser diversity Localized subcarrier assignment LTE/MIMO 표준기술 Distributed subcarrier assignment 18 . Domain Scheduling  Freq. domain scheduling gain = Freq.OFDMA: (2) Freq.

OFDMA: (3) Interference Coordination  Flexible Fractional Frequency Reuse Cell-A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 weak users good users Cell-B A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 good user weak user Cell-C A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 good users weak users LTE/MIMO 표준기술 Power 19 .

1966  1971: Weinstein and Ebert show that multicarrier modulation can be accomplished using a DFT  S. Oct. Bell Systems Technical Journal. 19(5): 628-634. 33(7): 665-675. Weinstein and P. IEEE Transactions on Communications. “Synthesis of band-limited orthogonal signals for multichannel data transmission”. Fundamentals of WiMAX. “Data Transmission by frequency-division multiplexing using the discrete Fourier transform”.A Brief History of OFDM*  1966: Chang shows that multicarrier modulation can solve the multipath problem without reducing data rate  R. Cimini. J. Ebert. 45:1775-1796.11a standard for OFDM * Jeffrey Andrews. Chang.. July 1985   1993: DSL adopts OFDM 1999: IEEE 802. Prentice Hall. W. Dec. 2007 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 20 . 1971  1985: Cimini at Bell Labs identifies many of the key issues in OFDM transmission and does a proof-of-concept design  L. et al. “Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing”. IEEE Transactions on Communications.11 releases the 802.

OFDM in Communication Systems
         

3GPP LTE 3GPP2 UMB IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX DAB, DVB-T, DVB-H T-DMB MediaFlo IEEE 802.11a WLAN

xDSL PLC Etc…
21

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

SC-FDMA Transmitter
 

SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation technique combining the low PAR single carrier methods of current systems with the frequency allocation flexibility and long symbol time of OFDM SC-FDMA is sometimes referred to as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM = DFT-SOFDM
Signal at each subcarrier is linear combination of all M symbols

Coded symbol rate= R

Spreading

DFT
Msymbols Low PAPR
LTE/MIMO 표준기술

Sub-carrier Mapping

IFFT

CP insertion

Size-M High PAPR Size-N Low PAPR
22

CM of OFDMA & SC-FDMA
OFDMA

SC-FDMA 16QAM

SC-FDMA QPSK SC-FDMA pi/2-BPSK

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

23

Sep. Live Webinar.Comparing OFDM and SC-FDMA*   QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers How OFDM and SC-FDMA would be used to transmit a sequence of 8 QPSK symbols * Moray Rumney (Agilent). 20th. “Concepts of 3GPP LTE”. 2007. LTE/MIMO 표준기술 24 .

Comparing OFDM and SC-FDMA LTE/MIMO 표준기술 25 .

This implies the equalizer needs to have a larger span. A more wideband signal leads to a correspondingly higher sampling rate for the received signal. 26 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . more time dispersion. also the receiver-filter processing needs to be carried out with a correspondingly higher rate. the complexity of time-discrete equalizer with linear equalization implementation (as above) grows relatively rapidly with the bandwidth of the signal to be equalized   A more wideband signal is subject to relatively more frequency selectivity or. equivalently.Time Domain Equalizer  In general. Thus.

40. the complexity of the frequency domain equalization can be significantly less than that of time domain equalization * D.Frequency Domain Equalizer  Frequency domain equalization basically consists of    A size-N DFT/FFT N complex multiplications (the frequency-domain filter) A size-N inverse DFT/FFT  Especially in extensive frequency selective channel..4. vol. et al. no. April 2002 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 27 .” IEEE Communication Magazine. Falconer. “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems.

SC-FDMA & FDE: Good papers LTE/MIMO 표준기술 28 .

LTE Overview .

E-UTRA: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification TS 36. E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: Radio interface protocol aspects TR 25.913. E-UTRA: LTE Physical Layer . Repeater planning guidelines and system analysis 30  LTE Specifications (Release 8)                 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 .302. E-UTRA: Physical layer procedures TS 36.300.813.956.306. E-UTRA: BS radio transmission and reception TS 36. E-UTRA. E-UTRA: Physical layer – Measurements TS 36. Stage 2 TS 36. E-UTRA: Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification TS 36. E-UTRA: Radio Resource Control (RRC).3GPP Specifications  LTE Study Phase (Release 7)     TR 25. E-UTRA: Services provided by the physical layer TS 36.101.323.214.912.321. Physical layer aspects for E-UTRA TR 25.212.General Description TS 36.213. E-UTRAN: Architecture description TR 36. E-UTRA: UE radio transmission and reception TS 36. E-UTRA: UE Radio Access Capabilities TS 35.814. E-UTRAN: Improved network controlled mobility between LTE and 3GPP2/mobile WiMAX radio technologies TR 36.331.104. Feasibility study for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN TR 25. E-UTRA: Multiplexing and channel coding TS 36.201. Requirements for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN TS 36.401. E-UTRA: Physical channels and modulation TS 36. Protocol specification TS 36.938.211. E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: Overall description.

UTRA will remain highly competitive for several years LTE project aims to ensure the continued competitiveness of the 3GPP technologies for the future (started at Nov. reduce number of network elements Most data users are less mobile Need for higher data rates  Need for high quality of services     Need for cheaper infrastructure   LTE/MIMO 표준기술 31 .3GPP LTE  LTE focus is on:   enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) optimisation of the UTRAN architecture    With HSPA (downlink and uplink). 2004) Motivations    Need for PS optimized system  Evolve UMTS towards packet only system Can be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPA and/or new air interface defined by 3GPP LTE Use of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of services Always-on experience (reduce control plane latency significantly) Reduce round trip delay Simplify architecture.

2008 32 .5 bps/Hz) within a 20MHz uplink spectrum allocation) Transition time of less than 100 ms from a camped state. to an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH Transition time of less than 50 ms between a dormant state such as Release 6 CELL_PCH and an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum allocations up to 5 MHz Less than 5 ms in unload condition (ie single user with single data stream) for small IP packet  Control-plane latency    Control-plane capacity   User-plane latency  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TR 25.0.913.0. Technical Specification Group RAN: Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). such as Release 6 Idle Mode. Dec. Release 8.Detailed Requirements*  Peak data rate   Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100 Mb/s within a 20 MHz downlink spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz) Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50 Mb/s (2. Version 8.

target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site). 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink Downlink: user throughput per MHz at 5% of CDF.Detailed Requirements  Average user throughput   Downlink: average user throughput per MHz. 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink E-UTRAN should be optimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h Higher mobile speed between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high performance Mobility across the cellular network shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350 km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the frequency band) Throughput. and with a slight degradation up to 30 km cells. spectrum efficiency and mobility targets above should be met up to 5 km cells. 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA ) Uplink: In a loaded network. target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site). 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink Downlink: In a loaded network. 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA Uplink: average user throughput per MHz. Cells range up to 100 km should not be precluded. 33  Cell edge user throughput    Spectrum efficiency    Mobility     Coverage  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA Uplink: user throughput per MHz at 5% of CDF.

25 MHz. although provision should be made to support systems supporting real-time and conversational class traffic E-UTRAN architecture shall support an end-to-end QoS Backhaul communication protocols should be optimized Enhanced support for end to end QoS Support of load sharing and policy management across different Radio Access Technologies  Radio Resource Management requirements    Complexity   Minimize the number of options No redundant mandatory features LTE/MIMO 표준기술 34 .Detailed Requirements  Spectrum flexibility  E-UTRA shall operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes. 2. GERAN) Architecture and migration     Single E-UTRAN architecture The E-UTRAN architecture shall be packet based. Operation in paired and unpaired spectrum shall be supported   Co-existence and Inter-working with 3GPP RAT (UTRAN. 5 MHz.5 MHz. 15 MHz and 20 MHz in both the uplink and downlink. including 1. 10 MHz.

8 302.8 51.0 75.LTE System Performance  Peak Data Rate baseline 150.4 baseline LTE/MIMO 표준기술 35 .

LTE System Performance – cont’d  Downlink Spectral Efficiency  Uplink Spectral Efficiency LTE/MIMO 표준기술 36 .

LTE Key Features

Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
 

Less critical AMP efficiency in BS side Concerns on high RX complexity in terminal side Less critical RX complexity in BS side Critical AMP complexity in terminal side (Cost, power Consumption, UL coverage)

Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-FDMA)
 

Making MS cheap as much as possible by moving all the burdens from MS to BS

  

Single node RAN (eNB) Support FDD (frame type 1) & TDD (frame type 2 for TD-SCDMA) <cf> H-FDD MS User data rates

DL (baseline): 150.8 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ 2x2 SU-MIMO
UL (baseline): 75.4 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ non-MIMO or 1x2 MU-MIMO

Radio frame: 10 ms (= 20 slots) Sub-frame: 1 ms (= 2 slots) Slot: 0.5 ms TTI: 1 ms

HARQ
 

Incremental redundancy is used as the soft combining strategy Retransmission time: 8 ms DL/UL data channel = QPSK/16QAM/64QAM

Modulation

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

37

LTE Key Features – cont’d

MIMO SM (Spatial Multiplexing), Beamforming, Antenna Diversity Min requirement: 2 eNB antennas & 2 UE rx antennas
 

DL: Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable UL: 1x2 MU-MIMO, Optional 2x2 SU-MIMO 12 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 15kHz  “180kHz” 24 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 7.5kHz (only for MBMS) Frequency selective by localized subcarrier Frequency diversity by distributed subcarrier & frequency hopping Intra-TTI: UL (once per 0.5ms slot), DL (once per 66us symbol) Inter-TTI: across retransmissions Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data services are supported Voice must use VoIP Multicast/Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network To support a Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast System (MBMS) Time-synchronized common waveform is transmitted from multiple cells for a given duration  The signal at MS will appear exactly as a signal transmitted from a single cell site and subject to multi-path  Not only “improve the received signal strength” but also “eliminate inter-cell interference”

Resource block
 

Subcarrier operation
 

Frequency hopping
 

Bearer services
 

MBSFN
  

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

38

E-UTRAN Architecture*

MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

X2
eNB eNB

S1

eNB

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

* 3GPP TS 36.300, E-UTRA and E-UTRAN; Overall description; Stage 2, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009

X2

S1
S1
X2

S1
E-UTRAN
39

E-UTRA and E-UTRAN. Stage 2.0. MME Radio Admission Control NAS Security eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC PDCP S-GW RLC MAC S1 PHY Packet Filtering internet E-UTRAN EPC Mobility Anchoring UE IP address allocation P-GW Idle State Mobility Handling EPS Bearer Control LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TS 36. Release 9.Functional Split b/w E-UTRAN and EPC* eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont.300.0. Overall description. V9. June 2009 40 .

3GPP Architecture Evolution Towards Flat Architecture LTE/MIMO 표준기술 41 .

Korea?  Korea?  Europe  Korea?  US?  US?  China? LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TS 36.0.E-UTRA Frequency Band*  Japan.101. June 2009 42 . V9.0. E-UTRA: UE radio transmission and reception. Release 9.

E-UTRA Channel Bandwidth*   1RB = 180kHz  6RBs = 1. 100RBs = 18MHz 6RBs (72 subcarriers) with 128 FFT. June 2009 43 . E-UTRA: UE radio transmission and reception.0.0. 100RBs (1200 subcarriers) with 2048 FFT LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TS 36.101. Release 9. V9.08MHz.

LTE Radio Interface Architecture .

LTE Protocol Architecture (DL) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 45 .

Example of LTE Data Flow LTE/MIMO 표준기술 46 .

V9. Stage 2.g..e. used for UEs having RRC connection (e. Overall description. E-UTRA and E-UTRAN.0. Release 9.300. used for UEs having no RRC connection  Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) used for transmission of control information to/from a UE..0. i.Logical Channels: “type of information it carries”   Control Channels  Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) used for transmission of system information from the network to all UEs in a cell  Paging Control Channel (PCCH) used for paging of UEs whose location on cell level is not known to the network  Common Control Channel (CCCH) used for transmission of control information in conjunction with random access. June 2009 47 .e. i. handover messages)  Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) used for transmission of control information required for reception of MTCH Traffic Channels  Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) used for transmission of user data to/from a UE  Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) used for transmission of MBMS services LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TS 36.

so called MIB Used for transmission of paging information from PCCH Supports discontinuous reception (DRX) Main transport channel used for transmission of downlink data in LTE Used also for transmission of parts of BCCH. June 2009 48 . E-UTRA and E-UTRAN. so called SIB Supports discontinuous reception (DRX) Used to support MBMS  Paging Channel (PCH)    Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)      Multicast Channel (MCH)  Uplink  Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)  Uplink counterpart to the DL-SCH Transport channel which doesn‟t carry transport blocks Collision risk  Random Access Channel(s) (RACH)   LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TS 36.0.0. Stage 2. V9. Overall description.Transport Channels: “how”.300. Release 9. “with what characteristics”  Downlink  Broadcast Channel (BCH)   A fixed TF Used for transmission of parts of BCCH.

only one PCFICH in each cell Informs UE about CFI which indicates the number of OFDM symbols used for PDCCHs transmission Informs UE about resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH HARQ information related to DL-SCH UL scheduling grant Carries HARQ ACK/NACKs in response to UL transmission 49  Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)     Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 .DL Physical Channels  Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)   실제 downlink user data를 전송하기 위한 transport channel인 DL-SCH와 paging 정보를 전송 하기 위한 transport channel인 PCH가 매핑 동적 방송 정보인 SI (System Information) 값들도 RRC 메시지 형태로 DL-SCH를 통해 전송되 므로 이 역시 PDSCH로 매핑  이 경우는 전체 셀 영역으로 도달될 수 있는 능력이 요구되기도 함 UE가 cell search과정을 마친 후에 최초로 검출하는 채널로서. 다른 물리 계층 채널들을 수신하 기 위하여 반드시 필요한 기본적인 시스템 정보들인 MIB (Master Information Block)를 전송하 기 위한 transport channel인 BCH가 매핑 방송형 데이터를 전송하기 위한 transport channel 인 MCH가 매핑  Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)    Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)  Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)   매 subframe마다 전송.

UL Physical Channels  Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)   Uplink counterpart of PDSCH Carries UL-SCH Carries HARQ ACK/NAKs in response to DL transmission Carries Scheduling Request (SR) Carries channel status reports such as CQI. PMI and RI At most one PUCCH per UE Carries the random access preamble  Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)      Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 50 .

LTE Channel Mapping Downlink Uplink LTE/MIMO 표준기술 51 .

LTE Downlink Transmission .

Tf = 307200Ts=10 ms One slot. Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) seconds  “the smallest time unit in LTE” Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms LTE/MIMO 표준기술 53 .Frame Structure: Type 1 for FDD One radio frame.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19 One subframe where. Tslot = 15360Ts = 0.

Tslot=15360Ts 30720Ts Subframe #0 One subframe.Frame Structure: Type 2 for TDD One radio frame. 153600Ts = 5 ms One slot. 30720Ts DwPTS GP Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9 UpPTS DwPTS GP UpPTS LTE/MIMO 표준기술 54 . Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms One half-frame.

Frame Structure: FDD/TDD LTE/MIMO 표준기술 55 .

DL Slot Structure  DL N RB : Downlink bandwidth configuration. l ) The minimum RB the eNB uses for LTE scheduling is “1ms (1subframe) x 180kHz (12subcarriers @ 15kHz spacing)” k 0 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 l0 l DL N symb 1 56 . RB expressed in units of N sc One downlink slot Tslot DL N symb OFDM symbols  RB N sc : Resource block size in the DL RB k  N RB N sc  1 frequency domain. expressed as a number of subcarriers  DL N symb: Number of OFDM symbols in an Resource block DL RB N symb  N sc resource elements downlink slot DL RB N RB  N sc subcarriers RB N sc subcarriers Resource element (k .

.. l  in a slot where k  0. N RB N sc  1 and l  0.. respectively LTE/MIMO 표준기술 57 .. TS 36.104  Resource Block (1 RB = 180 kHz)  RB DL Defined as N sc “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and Nsymb “consecutive” OFDM symbols in time domain  Corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz in the frequency domain  Resource Element  DL RB DL Uniquely defined by the index pair k..Definitions  Resource Grid   DL RB DL Defined as N RB N sc subcarriers in frequency domain and Nsymb OFDM symbols in time domain DL The quantity N RB depends on the DL transmission BW configured in the cell and shall fulfill DL 6  N RB  110  DL The set of allowed values for N RB is given by TS 36.. Nsymb  1 are the indices in the frequency and time domain...101.

Normal CP & Extended CP LTE/MIMO 표준기술 58 .

where N VRB  N RB .  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 59 . DVRB)   DL Physical resource blocks are numbered from 0 to N RB  1 in the frequency domain.PRB and VRB (LVRB. Two types of virtual resource blocks are defined: LVRB and DVRB Virtual resource blocks of localized type are mapped directly to PRBs such that virtual resource block nVRB corresponds to physical resource block nPRB  nVRB . The relation between the physical resource block number nPRB in the frequency domain and resource elements (k . DL DL DL Virtual resource blocks are numbered from 0 to N VRB  1 . l ) in a slot is given by  k  nPRB   RB   N sc     A virtual resource block is of the same size as a physical resource block.

DVRB  Virtual resource blocks of distributed type are mapped to PRBs as follows   Consecutive VRBs are not mapped to PRBs that are consecutive in the frequency domain Even a single VRB pair is distributed in the frequency domain  The exact size of the frequency gap depends on the overall downlink cell BW LTE/MIMO 표준기술 60 .

PHICH. l ) of the resource-element group not used for cell-specific reference signals in increasing order of l and k n+4 n+5 n+6 n+0 n+1 n+2 n+3 n+4 n+5 n+6 n+7 61 . Mapping of a symbol-quadruplet z (i).Resource-element groups (REG)    LTE/MIMO 표준기술 n+0 n+1 n+2 n+3 Basic unit for mapping of PCFICH. z (i  2). z (i  3) onto a resource -element group is defined such that elements z (i) are mapped to resource elements (k . z (i  1). and PDCCH Resource-element groups are used for defining the mapping of control channels to resource elements.

DL Physical Channel Processing code words Modulation Mapper Layer Mapper Scrambling Modulation Mapper Precoding Resource element mapper layers antenna ports OFDM signal generation Scrambling Resource element mapper OFDM signal generation       scrambling of coded bits in each of the code words to be transmitted on a physical channel modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued modulation symbols mapping of the complex-valued modulation symbols onto one or several transmission layers precoding of the complex-valued modulation symbols on each layer for transmission on the antenna ports mapping of complex-valued modulation symbols for each antenna port to resource elements generation of complex-valued time-domain OFDM signal for each antenna port LTE/MIMO 표준기술 62 .

Channel Coding  Turbo code PCCC (exactly the same as in WCDMA/HSPA)  QPP (quadratic polynomial permutation) interleaver  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 63 .

Modulation LTE/MIMO 표준기술 64 .

DL Layer Mapping and Precoding  Explained in MIMO session LTE/MIMO 표준기술 65 .

7 us Extended Cyclic Prefix = 512 Ts = 16.35us 71.88us (144+2048) x Ts = 71.DL OFDM Signal Generation  OFDM Parameters 0  t  N CP.3 us 66 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 .7 us Extended Cyclic Prefix for MBMS = 1024 Ts = 33.88us + 71.2 us Normal Cyclic Prefix = 144 Ts = 4.35us x 6 = 0.5ms  Normal Cyclic Prefix = 160 Ts = 5.l  N  Ts N = 2048 for f=15kHz N = 4096 for f=7.5kHz  Check with resource block parameters  (160+2048) x Ts = 71.

associated with MBSFN transmission UE-specific RS Carries frequency and symbol timing synchronization PSS (Primary SS) and SSS (Secondary SS)  Synchronization Signals   LTE/MIMO 표준기술 67 .DL Physical Channels & Signals  Physical channels       Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) Reference Signals   Physical signals    Cell-specific RS. associated with non-MBSFN transmission  Aid coherent detection (pilot)  Reference channel for CQI from UE to eNB MBSFN RS.

1.  Are transmitted only within the RB assigned for DL-SCH to that specific UE  Using antenna port 5  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 68 . and span entire cell BW  Can be used for coherent demodulation of any downlink transmission “except” when so-called non-codebook-based beamforming is used  Using antenna ports {0. 3}   MBSFN reference signals Are used for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of signals being transmitted by means of MBSFN  Using antenna port 4   UE-specific reference signals Is specifically intended for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of DL-SCH when non-codebook-based beamforming is used. 2.DL Reference Signals  Cell-specific reference signals Are transmitted in every downlink subframe.

the reference signal sequence is defined assuming the maximum possible LTE cell BW corresponding to 110 RBs in frequency domain 69  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . is the OFDM symbol number within the slot.  The complex values of reference symbols will vary b/w different referencesymbol position and also b/w different cells.. Thus. as well as reference symbols of previously received slots/subframes Pseudo-random sequence generation  rl .Cell-Specific Reference Signals  When estimating the channel for a certain RB. The pseudo-random sequence c(i) is a length-31 Gold sequence. UE may not only use the reference symbols within that RB but also.. ns (m)     1 2 1  2  c(2m)   j 1 2 1  2  c(2m  1). 2 N RB DL  1 is the slot number within a radio frame. in frequency domain..1. max. Regardless of cell BW.. neighbor RBs. RS of a cell can be seen as a cell-specific two-dimensional sequence with the period of one frame. m  0.

Relationship with Cell Identity  504 unique Cell ID:   168(N1) Cell ID groups. Effective with RS boosting to enhance reference signal SIR by avoiding the collision of boosted RSs from neighboring cells (assuming time synchronization)  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 70 . that is 6 shifts jointly cover all 504 cell identities. 3 (N2) Cell ID within each group Cell ID = 3xN1+N2 = 0 ~ 503 index    504 pseudo-random sequences One to one mapping between the Cell ID and Pseudo-random sequences Cell-specific Frequency Shift (N1 mod 6)   1 RE shift from current RS position in case of next Cell ID index Each shift corresponds to 84 different cell identities.

Cell-Specific RS Mapping R0 R0 One antenna port R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 l 0 R0 l 6 l 0 l 6 Resource element (k.l) R0 R0 R1 R1 Two antenna ports R0 R0 R1 R1 Not used for transmission on this antenan port R0 R0 R1 R1 Reference symbols on this antenna port R0 l 0 R0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 R1 l 6 l 0 R1 l 6 R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3 R3 Four antenna ports R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3 R3 R0 l 0 R0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 R1 l 6 l 0 R1 l 6 l 0 R2 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots LTE/MIMO 표준기술 Antenna port 0 even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots 71 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3 .

MBSFN RS Mapping LTE/MIMO 표준기술 72 .

MBSFN RS Mapping LTE/MIMO 표준기술 73 .

UE-specific RS on top of Cell-specific RS  UE-specific RS (antenna port 5)  12 symbols per RB pair  DL CQI estimation is always based on cell-specific RS (common RS) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 74 .

PCFICH   The number of OFDM symbols used for control channel can be varying per TTI CFI (Control Format Indication)  Information about the number of OFDM symbols (1~4) used for transmission of PDCCHs in a subframe  PCFICH carries CFI   2 bits  32 bits (block coding)  32 bits (cell specific scrambling)  16 symbols (QPSK) Mapping to resource elements: 4 REG (16 RE excluding RS) in the 1st OFDM symbol   Spread over the whole system bandwidth To avoid the collisions in neighboring cells. the location depends on cell identity  Transmit diversity is applied which is identical to the scheme applied to BCH LTE/MIMO 표준기술 75 .

PCFICH REG Mapping Cell ID  Example for 5 MHz BW LTE   DL N RB = 25 (number of REGs = 50) RB N sc = 12 REG LTE/MIMO 표준기술 76 .

PCFICH Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 77 .

an uplink transport block received in subframe n should be acknowledged on the PHICH in subframe n+4 78 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . PHICH is transmitted in the first OFDM symbol only For FDD. the same antenna ports as PBCH Typically.PHICH   HARQ ACK/NAK in response to UL transmission HI codewords with length of 12 REs = 4 (Walsh spreading) x 3 (repetition)   3 groups of 4 contiguous REs (not used for RS and PCFICH) BPSK modulation with I/Q multiplexing  SF4 x 2 (I/Q) = 8 PHICHs in normal CP     Cell-specific scrambling Tx diversity.

PHICH REG Mapping    ni      Cell ID N N N cell ID  nli cell ID  nli cell ID  nli   n1   m' nl  3mod nl  n1   m' 2 nl  3mod nl  n1  m' mod nli i i i i i0 i 1 i2 DL N RB  Example for 5 MHz BW LTE   DL N RB = 25 (number of REGs = 50) RB N sc = 12 REG LTE/MIMO 표준기술 79 .

PHICH Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 80 .

symbol PCFICH/PHICH RE Mapping  Example for 5 MHz BW LTE Subcarrier LTE/MIMO 표준기술 81 .

PDCCH DCI Format

PDCCH is used to carry DCI where DCI includes;

Downlink scheduling assignments, including PDSCH resource indication, transport format, HARQrelated information, and control information related to SM (if applicable). Uplink scheduling grants, including PUSCH resource indication, transport format, and HARQrelated information. Uplink power control commands
Usage UL grant For scheduling of PUSCH For scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (SIMO, TxD) For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (SIMO, TxD) and random access procedure initiated by a PDCCH order For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding information (CL single-rank) DL assignment For very compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (paging, RACH response and dynamic BCCH scheduling) For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding & power offset information Details

DCI Formats 0 1 1A 1B 1C 1D

2 2A
3 3A Power control

For scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in CL SM For scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in OL SM
For transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH/PUSCH with 2-bit power adjustment For transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH/PUSCH with single bit power adjustment

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

82

Downlink Assignment

Major contents of different DCI formats: not exhaustive
 


DCI format 0/1A indication [1 bit] Distributed transmission flag [1 bit] Resource-block allocation [variable] For the first (or only) transport block
  

MCS [5 bit] New-data indicator [1 bit] Redundancy version [2 bit]

For the second transport block (present in DCI format 2 only)

 

MCS [5 bit] New-data indicator [1 bit] Redundancy version [2 bit]

 

HARQ process number [3 bit for FDD] Information related to SM (present in DCI format 2 only)


Pre-coding information [3 bit for 2 antennas, 6 bit for 4 antennas in CL-SM] Number of transmission layer HARQ swap flag [1 bit]

 

Transmit power control (TPC) for PUCCH [2 bit] Identity (RNTI) of the terminal for which the PDCCH transmission is intended [16 bit]

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

83

Uplink Grants

Major contents of DCI format 0 for UL grants: not exhaustive
 


   


DCI format 0/1A indication [1 bit] Hopping flag [1 bit] Resource-block allocation [variable] MCS [5 bit] New-data indicator [1 bit] Phase rotation of UL demodulation reference signal [3 bit] Channel-status request flag [1 bit] Transmit power control (TPC) for PUSCH [2 bit] Identity (RNTI) of the terminal for which the PDCCH transmission is intended [16 bit]

The time b/w reception of an UL scheduling grant on a PDCCH and the corresponding transmission on UL-SCH are fixed

For FDD, the time relation is the same as for PHICH Uplink grant received in downlink subframe n applies to uplink subframe n+4

LTE/MIMO 표준기술

84

QPSK with tail-biting Conv.PDCCH Processing  First n OFDM symbols   < 10RB: 2~4 OFDMA symbols > 10RB: 1~3 OFDMA symbols  1/14~3/14 (10~20%) overhead Depending on the payload size of control information (DCI payload) & coding rate Number of CCEs for each of PDCCH may vary and is not signaled. 4. 8}. = 9 REGs)    User identification is based on “UE specific CRC (normal CRC with UE ID masking)”    Cell-specific scrambling. Code Tx diversity. which UE is supposed to attempt to decode  PDCCH format based on # of CCE (Control Channel Element. so UE has to blindly determine this  search space: a set of candidate control channels formed by CCEs on a given aggregation level {1. 2. the same antenna ports as PBCH Mapped to REG not assigned to PCFICH or PHICH 85 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 .

PDCCH Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 86 .

random access parameters. PDSCH. SIB4-8 include neighbor-cell-related info. This includes info about the operator(s) and about the cell (e. cell identity. GERAN. and SRS). (E-UTRAN.System Information  Master information block (MIB) includes the following information:      Downlink cell bandwidth [4 bit] PHICH duration [1 bit] PHICH resource [2 bit] System Frame Number (SFN) except two LBSs Etc… SIB1 includes info mainly related to whether an UE is allowed to camp on the cell. PUCCH. SIB3 mainly includes info related to cell-reselection. PCCH. UTRAN. PRACH.g. and the scheduling of the remaining SIBs. PLMN identity list. tracking area code. PUSCH. minimum required Rx level in the cell. cdma2000) SIB9 contains a home eNB identifier SIB10/11 contains ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) notification More to be added        MIB mapped to PBCH Other SIBs mapped to PDSCH 87 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . DL-UL subframe configuration in TDD case. BCCH. SIBs also includes radio resource configuration of common channels (RACH. and UL power control parameters. This includes info about the UL cell BW.  LTE defines different SIBs:  SIB1 is transmitted every 80ms. etc).  SIB2 includes info that UEs need in order to be able to access the cell.

i. assuming sufficiently good channel conditions LTE/MIMO 표준기술 88 .e. the BCH can be decoded from a single reception.BCH on PBCH   To broadcast a certain set of cell and/or system-specific information Requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell BCH transmission    The coded BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes (slot #1 in subframe #0) within a 40ms interval 40ms timing is blindly detected (no explicit signaling indicating 40ms timing) Each subframe is assumed to be self-decodable.

BCH on PBCH – cont’d  Single (fixed-size) transport block per TTI (40 ms)   No HARQ Cell-specific scrambling. Tx diversity(1. BPSK with ½ tail-biting Conv. Code.4)    BCH mapped to 4 OFDM symbols within a subframe in time-domain at 6 RBs (72 subcarriers) excluding DC in freq-domain PBCH is mapped into RE assuming RS from 4 antennas are used at eNB. irrespective of the actual number of TX antenna Different transmit diversity schemes per # of antennas   # of ant=2: SFBC # of ant=4: SFBC + FSTD (Frequency Switching Transmit Diversity) PBCH encoding chain includes CRC masking dependent on the number of configured TX antennas at eNB Blind detection of the number of TX antenna using CRC masking by UE  No explicit bits in the PBCH to signal the number of TX antennas at eNB   LTE/MIMO 표준기술 89 .2.

PBCH Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 90 .

PDSCH Processing 1) 2) RS PSS & SSS and BCH PCFICH PHICH PDCCH PDSCH 3) 4) 5) 6) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 91 .

DL constellation & frame summary LTE/MIMO 표준기술 92 .

LTE Uplink Transmission .

and 96 are allowed but a DFT size of 84 is not allowed. 3. 72. DFT sizes of 60.g. (64QAM) modulation 지원 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 94 .) No unused DC-subcarrier is defined   CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation) sequence 사용  Reference signal 및 제어 정보 채널 전송 시 각 단말들의 신호를 구분하기 위하여 CDM 을 수행하는 경우 CAZAC sequence를 주로 사용 CAZAC sequence는 시간/주파수 차원에서 일정한 amplitude를 유지하는 특성을 가지 므로 단말의 PAPR을 낮추어 커버리지를 증가시키기에 적합함    MU-MIMO 지원 QPSK. and 5 (e. 16QAM.LTE Uplink Key Features  SC-FDMA 사용   단말의 PAPR을 낮추어 커버리지를 증가시키기에 적합함 DFT size is limited to products of the integers 2.

RB expressed in units of N sc One uplink slot Tslot UL N symb SC-FDMA symbols  RB N sc : Resource block size in the UL RB k  N RB N sc  1 frequency domain. l ) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 k 0 l0 l UL N symb 1 95 . expressed as a number of subcarriers  UL N symb : Number of SC-FDMA symbols in UL RB N RB  N sc subcarriers RB N sc subcarriers Resource block UL RB N symb  N sc resource elements an uplink slot Resource element (k .UL Slot Structure  UL N RB : Uplink bandwidth configuration.

.101... N RB N sc  1 and UL l  0. N symb  1 are the indices in the frequency and time domain. l  in a slot where k  0..104  Resource Block  RB UL Defined as N sc “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and Nsymb “consecutive” SCFDMA symbols in time domain  Corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz in the frequency domain  Resource Element  UL RB Uniquely defined by the index pair k...Definitions  Resource Grid  UL UL RB Defined as N RB N sc subcarriers in frequency domain and Nsymb SC-FDMA symbols in time domain UL The quantity N RB depends on the UL transmission BW configured in the cell and shall fulfill  UL 6  N RB  110  UL The set of allowed values for N RB is given by TS 36. respectively LTE/MIMO 표준기술 96 ... TS 36.

PUCCH transmission  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 97 . PUCCH  UL sounding reference signal (SRS) not associated with PUSCH.UL Physical Channels & Signals  UL physical channels  Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)  Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)  Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)  UL physical signals  An uplink physical signal is used by the physical layer but does not carry information originating from higher layers  Two types of reference signals UL demodulation reference signal (DRS) for PUSCH.

  No restriction on code length N when N is even when N is odd .Sequence length: N .UL Reference Signals  UL RS should preferably have the following properties:     Favorable auto.Number of sequences: N-1 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 98 . Non-zero cross-correlations Constant power in both the frequency and the time domain    j 2N pn2 .and cross-correlation properties Limited power variation in freq-domain to allow for similar channel-estimation quality for all frequencies Limited power variation in time-domain (low cubic metric) for high PA efficiency Sufficiently many RS sequences of the same length to avoid an unreasonable planning effort Appeared in IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory in 1972 Poly-phase sequence Constant amplitude zero auto correlation (CAZAC) sequence의 일종    Zadoff-Chu Sequence    Cyclic autocorrelations are zero for all non-zero lags.Sequence number p is relatively prime to N .  e g p ( n)   2  e  j N pn( n 1) .

Cyclic shifts are used to multiplex RSs from different UEs within a cell. Different sequence groups are used in neighboring cells. LTE/MIMO 표준기술 99 . and the DRS sequence length is the same with the number of subcarriers in an assigned RBs  DRS is defined with the following parameters   Sequence group (30 options): cell specific parameter Sequence (2 options for sequence lengths of 6PRBs or longer): cell specific parameter Cyclic shift (12 options): both terminal and cell specific components   Sequence length: given by the UL allocation  Typically.DRS  DRS is made from Z-C sequence*.

DRS Location within a Subframe  DRS for PUSCH  Normal CP 적용 시 PUSCH RS는 한 슬롯 당 중앙의 SC-FDMA 심볼에 위치 Extended CP 적용 시 PUSCH RS는 한 슬롯 당 3번째 SC-FDMA 심볼에 위치  DRS for PUCCH  Format 1x  Format 2x LTE/MIMO 표준기술 100 .

 ) n v    SRS 전송주기/대역폭은 각 단말마다 고유하게 할당 From as often as once in every 2ms to as infrequently as once in every 160ms (320ms) At least 4 RBs   SRS는 서브프레임의 마지막 SC-FDMA 심볼로 전송 SRS multiplexing by  Time.v (n). Frequency. ) (n)  e jn ru. and transmission comb (2 combs  distributed SC-FDMA)  To avoid the collision b/w SRS and PUSCH transmission from other UEs. 0  n  M sc v  Reference signal sequence is defined by a cyclic shift of a base sequence (ZC) r SRS n  ru(. SRS transmissions should not extend into the frequency band reserved for PUCCH. 101 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . Cyclic shifts.SRS   기지국이 각 단말의 상향링크 채널 정보를 추정할 수 있도록 단말이 전송하는 RS Reference for channel quality information      CQ measurement for frequency/time aware scheduling CQ measurement for link adaptation CQ measurement for power control CQ measurement for MIMO Timing measurement RS ru(.

SRS – cont’d  Non-frequency-hopping (wideband) SRS and frequency-hopping SRS  Multiplexing of SRS transmissions from different UEs LTE/MIMO 표준기술 102 .

Instead. PMI. resources have been assigned for UL-SCH in the current subframe UL L1/L2 control signaling is time multiplexed with the coded UL-SCH onto PUSCH prior to SCFDMA modulation  Simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH    Only HARQ acknowledgement and channel-status reports are transmitted No need to request a SR. no resources have been assigned for UL-SCH in the current subframe  PUCCH is used for transmission of UL L1/L2 control signaling UE has a valid scheduling grant. in-band buffer status reports are sent in MAC headers The basis for channel-status reports on PUSCH is aperiodic reports If a periodic report is configured to be transmitted on PUCCH in a frame when US is scheduled to transmit PUSCH. and RI Scheduling requests No simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH   Two different methods for transmission of UL L1/L2 control signaling  UE doesn‟t have a valid scheduling grant.Uplink L1/L2 Control Signaling  Uplink L1/L2 control signaling consists of:    HARQ acknowledgements for received DL-SCH transport blocks UE reports downlink channel conditions including CQI. that is. then the periodic report is rerouted to PUSCH resources  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 103 . that is.

Periodic/Aperiodic Channel Info Feedback Periodic reporting When to send Where to send Payload size of the reports Channel coding CRC protection RI Periodically every 2-160 ms Normally on PUCCH. selectivity of CQI Freq. 8 bit CRC Sent in separate subframes at lower periodicity Only very limited amount of frequency info Only wideband PMI Sent separately encoded in the same subframe Detailed frequency selective reports are possible Frequency selective PMI reports are possible Freq. selectivity of PMI LTE/MIMO 표준기술 104 . PUSCH used when multiplexed with data 4-11 bits Linear block codes No Aperiodic reporting When requested by eNB Always on PUSCH Up to 64 bits RM coding or tail-biting CC Yes.

UL L1/L2 control signaling on PUCCH  The reasons for locating PUCCH resources at the edges of the spectrum   To maximize frequency diversity To retain single-carrier property Format 1: length-12 orthogonal phase rotation sequence + length-4 orthogonal cover Format 2: length-12 orthogonal phase rotation sequence  Multiple UEs can share the same PUCCH resource block     PUCCH is never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH from the same UE 2 consecutive PUCCH slots in Time-Frequency Hopping at the slot boundary LTE/MIMO 표준기술 105 .

12 36. 6*. 4 12. 18*. 4 * Typical value with 6 different rotations (choosing every second cyclic shift)    PUCCH Format 2/2a/2b is located at the outermost RBs of system BW ACK/NACK for persistently scheduled PDSCH and SRI are located next ACK/NACK for dynamically scheduled PDSCH are located innermost RBs 106 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . 6*.PUCCH Formats PUCCH format 1 1a 1b 2 2a 2b Modulation scheme N/A BPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK+BPSK QPSK+QPSK Number of bits per subframe N/A 1 2 20 21 22 Usage SR ACK/NACK ACK/NACK CQI CQI + ACK/NACK CQI + ACK/NACK Multiplexing capacity (UE/RB) 36. 12 12. 12 36. 18*. 18*. 4 12. 6*.

and then it modulates the rotated length-12 sequence. Resource consumption of one channel-status report is 3x of HARQ acknowledgement LTE/MIMO 표준기술 107 .   Reference signals also employ one orthogonal cover sequence PUCCH capacity: up to 3 x 12 = 36 different UEs per each cell-specific sequence (assuming all 12 rotations being available  Practically.)  Format 2   5 symbols are modulated by QPSK after being multiplied by a phase rotated length-12 cell specific sequence. only 6 rotations.PUCCH Resource Mapping  Format 1   4 symbols are modulated by BPSK/QPSK BPSK/QPSK symbol is multiplied by a length-4 orthogonal cover sequence (a length-3 orthogonal cover when there is SRS).

PUCCH Format1 Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 108 .

PUCCH Format2 Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 109 .

UL L1/L2 control signaling on PUSCH LTE/MIMO 표준기술 110 .

PUSCH Processing LTE/MIMO 표준기술 111 .

5 ms 6 x {(512+2048) x Ts} = 0.3-1.l  N  Ts where N = 2048   Check with numbers in Table 5.UL SC-FDMA Signal Generation  This section applies to all uplink physical signals and physical channels except the physical random access channel SC-FDMA parameters 0  t  N CP.5 ms LTE/MIMO 표준기술 112 .2.   {(160+2048) x Ts} + 6 x {(144+2048) x Ts} = 0.

Inter-cell Interference Randomization   Two types of PUSCH frequency hopping   Subband-based hopping according to cell-specific hopping patterns Hopping based on explicit hopping information in the scheduling grant LTE/MIMO 표준기술 113 .PUSCH Frequency Hopping  PUSCH transmission  Localized transmission w/o frequency hopping  Frequency Selective Scheduling Gain Localized transmission with “frequency hopping”  Frequency Diversity Gain.

the overall UL BW corresponds to 50 RBs and there are a total of 4 subbands. The remaining 6 RBs are used for PUCCH transmission.Hopping based on cell-specific patterns  Subbands are defined  In 10 MHz BW case.  The resource defined by a scheduling grant (VRBs) is not the actual set of RBs for transmission. The resource to use for transmission (PRBs) is the resource provided in the scheduling grant “shifted” a number of subbands according to a cell-specific hopping pattern. LTE/MIMO 표준기술 114 . each consisting of 11 RBs.

More on hopping w/ cell-specific patterns  Example for predefined hopping for PUSCH with 20 RBs and M=4 (subband hopping + mirroring) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 115 .

Hopping based on explicit information   Explicit hopping information provided in the scheduling grant is about the “offset” of the resource in the second slot. +1/4. the offset is always half of BW 2 bits in scheduling grant One of the combinations indicate that hopping should be based on cell-specific hopping patterns Three remaining combinations indicate hopping of 1/2. relative to the resource in the first slot Selection b/w hopping based on cell-specific hopping patterns or hopping based on explicit information can be done dynamically.  Cell BW less than 50 RBs   1 bit in scheduling grant indicating to specify which scheme is to be used When hopping based on explicit information is selected. and -1/4 of BW  Cell BS equal or larger than 50 RBs    LTE/MIMO 표준기술 116 .

5kHz) 64 preamble sequences for each cell  64 random access opportunities per PRACH resource Sequence부분은 길이 839의 Z-C sequence로 구성 (format #4는 길이 139)  Phase modulation: Due to the ideal auto-correlation property.PRACH     PRACH는 RA 과정에서 단말이 기지국으로 전송하는 preamble이다 6RB를 차지하며 부반송파 간격은 1.25kHz (format #4는 7. there is no intra-cell interference from multiple random access attempt using preambles derived from the same Z-C root sequence. Higher layers control the preamble format  Five types of preamble formats to accommodate a wide range of scenarios   넓은 반경의 셀 환경과 같이 시간 지연이 긴 경우  SINR이 낮은 상황을 고려하여 sequence repetition  SINR이 낮은 상황을 고려하여 sequence repetition  TDD 모드용 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 117 .

Different Preamble Formats LTE/MIMO 표준기술 118 .

PRACH Location LTE/MIMO 표준기술 119 .

UL 16QAM SC-FDMA LTE/MIMO 표준기술 120 .

LTE Cell Search .

SS can be with UE-transparent transmit antenna scheme (e. TSTD.g. CDD) Primary SS (PSS) and Secondary SS (SSS)  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 122 .Synchronization Signals  504 unique physical-layer cell identities   168 unique physical-layer cell-identity groups (0~167) 3 physical-layer identity within physical-layer cell-identity group (0~2)  SS is using single antenna port However. PVS.

. n  0.....32. PSS is mapped to the last OFDM symbol in slots 0 and 10  No need to know CP length  The sequence is mapped to REs (6 RBs) according to ak . DL RB N RB N sc k  n  31  .1...61   Cell ID detection within a cell ID group (3 hypotheses) Half-frame timing detection (Repeat the same sequence twice) 123 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 .61  For frame structure type 1.30 n  31.l  d n .. 2 DL l  N symb  1.Primary Synchronization Signal  The sequence used for the primary synchronization signal is generated from a frequencydomain Zadoff-Chu sequence (Length-62)   j un( n 1) 63  e d u (n)   u ( n 1)(n  2) e  j 63  n  0.....

Secondary Synchronization Signal  The sequence used for the second synchronization signal is an interleaved concatenation of two length-31 binary sequences (X and Y) The concatenated sequence is scrambled with a scrambling sequence given by PSS The combination of two length-31 sequences defining SSS differs between slot 0 (SSS1) and slot 10 (SSS2) according to ( s0m0 ) (n)c0 n  in subframe 0  d ( 2n)   ( m ) s1 1 (n)c0 n  in subframe 5  ( ( s1 m1 ) (n)c1 n z1 m0 ) n  in subframe 0  d (2n  1)   ( m ) (m ) s0 0 (n)c1 n z1 1 n  in subframe 5       where 0  n  30 Blind detection of CP-length (2 FFT operations are needed) The same antenna port as for the primary sync signal Mapped to 6 RBs LTE/MIMO 표준기술 124 .

Structure of SSS LTE/MIMO 표준기술 125 .

Synchronization Signals – cont’d   Cell ID group detection (the set of valid combination of X and Y for SSS are 168) Frame boundary detection (the m-sequences X and Y are swapped b/w SSS1 and SSS2) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 126 .

etc…) PDCCH reception LTE/MIMO 표준기술 SIB acquisition within PDSCH 127 .LTE Cell Search Primary SS Symbol timing acquisition Frequency synchronization Cell ID detection within a cell group ID (3 hypotheses) Half-frame boundary detection Secondary SS Cell group ID detection (168 hypotheses) Frame boundary detection (2 hypotheses) CP-length detection (2 hypotheses) Check Cell ID with cell-specific RS BCH 40ms BCH period timing detection eNB # of tx antenna detection MIB acquisition (Operation BW. SFN.

(cf) WCDMA Cell Search Procedure Terminal power on Detect strongest PSCH Get slot synch from P-SCH Get PICH code group info from S-SCH 8 PN codes per group. 64 code groups have 512 PN codes in total. Get PN code info by evaluating all 8 PN codes in code group Get system info from PCCPCH Wait while monitoring SCCPCH LTE/MIMO 표준기술 128 .

4 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 129 .LTE Cell Search – cont’d* PSS/SSS. RACH 3 1. BCH.

LTE Performance .

the normalized FDD and TDD performance is indeed similar. and the percentage figure to the right represents the accumulated impact of the features combined. The differences are due to the TDD guard period. It is seen that in both downlink and uplink. and the slightly longer channel-quality-feedback delays for TDD 131  LTE/MIMO 표준기술 . the UpPTS.Spectral Efficiency per Features [15]  The percentage figure to the left represents the individual feature impact.

7% 0. Wiley.9% 2.5% (+) LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * Harri Holma and Antti Toskala.4 MHz GB overhead Freq.2% 45% (+)  Uplink 1.0% 20% (+) 8. LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access.Relative Efficiency of Different LTE BW*  Downlink 1. domain scheduling gain 6 23% 2.7% 13.1% 1.0% 20% (+) 5 MHz 25 10% 0.2% 0.5% (+) 8.0% 17.6% 35% (+) 10 MHz 50 10% 0.0% 22.5% 5% (+) 3 MHz 15 10% 1.3% 0.4 MHz RB GB overhead BCH overhead SCH overhead Freq.5% (+) 3 MHz 10% 5 MHz 10% 10 MHz 10% 20 MHz 10% PUCCH overhead 16.3% 40% (+) 20 MHz 100 10% 0.3% 10% (+) 8. 2009 132 . domain scheduling gain 23% 2.

2009 133 . Wiley. LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access.SE Relative to 10MHz LTE* LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * Harri Holma and Antti Toskala.

2009 134 .4 x 1. OFDM with freq. Rake receiver is assumed in R6. most HSDPA terminals have an EQ that removes most intra-cell interference. Frequency domain scheduling is possible in OFDM system.15 x 1. The dual carrier HSDPA can get part of the frequency domain scheduling gain. Wiley. LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access.7 x 1. HSDPA R7 includes MIMO. The gain is relative to single antenna BS transmission. The interference rejection combining works better in OFDM system with long symbols. domain EQ Freq.LTE DL Efficiency Benefit over R6 HSDPA in Macro Cells* LTE Benefit Gain Up to +70% depending on the multi-path profile Explanation HSDPA suffers from intra-cell interference fro the Rake receiver.0x LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. 1.1 +10% =3. but not in single carrier HSDPA. However. domain packet scheduling +40% MIMO Inter-cell interference rejection combining Total +15% No MIMO defined in HSDPA R6.

Wiley. LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access.SE of HSPA and LTE* LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. 2009 135 .

 LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. and therefore the dynamic scheduler cannot fully exploit the PDSCH capacity as there are not enough CCEs to schedule the unused PRBs.9 Dynamic scheduler w/o bundling DL Dynamic scheduler with bundling Semi-persistent scheduler Dynamic scheduler UL Semi-persistent scheduler  AMR 7.LTE (5 MHz) Voice Capacity* AMR 5. VoIP with semi-persistent scheduler is not limited by the control channel resources. LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access.95 AMR 12.2 210 400 430 230 320 210 370 320 210 240 210 410 470 230 410 VoIP with dynamic scheduler is limited by the available PDCCH resources. Wiley. but is limited by the PDSCH resources. 2009 136 .

Summary .

Aug. “3GPP LTE & LTE-Advanced System”.LTE Frame & Slot Structure LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 윤상보 (삼성). 제5차 차세대이동통신 단기강좌. 2008 138 .

DL Frame Structure Type 1* LTE/MIMO 표준기술 139 .

UL Frame Structure Type 1* 1 RB LTE/MIMO 표준기술 140 .

E-UTRA UE Capabilities* LTE/MIMO 표준기술 * 3GPP TS 36.0. E-UTRA. Release 8. June 2009 141 . V8. UE Radio Access Capabilities.4.306.

Final Message* * Signals Ahead LTE/MIMO 표준기술 142 .

pdf LTE/MIMO 표준기술 143 .40. 2009 [12] Erik Dahlman. and Ye (Geoffrey) Li. and David J. “Latest Results from the LSTI. April 2002 [7] Hyung G. and Matthew Baker.” Feb. Falconer. et al. The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice. Sep. Myung.. “Single Carrier FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission”.Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation”. 2009 [14] Stefania Sesia. Goodman.lstiforum. OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications. Mag. and Mattias Wahlqvist (Ericsson). 2007 [11] 이상근. Ylva Jading. “The LTE Link-Layer Design. Live Webinar. AT&T Labs – Research [5] Richard van Nee and Ramjee Prasad. Michael Meyer.4. LTE. “Concepts of 3GPP LTE”. Wiley. IEEE Communications Magazine. Hannes Ekstrom. 2008 [13] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. 홍릉과학출판사. 2006 [8] 오민석 (LGE). Wiley. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for wireless channels”. Stefan Parkvall.” IEEE Commun. “Frequency domain equialization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems. April 2009 [16] Anna Larmo. April 2009 [17] LSTI. Cimini Jr. 쉽게 설명한 3G/4G 이동통신 시스템 (2nd edition). “3GPP LTE PHY Layer Specification and Technology”.org [2] Hannes Ekströ m. 제4차 차세대이동통신 단기강좌. “LTE: The Evolution of Mobile Broadband. et al.References [1] 3GPP homepage: www. KRnet 2007. 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband (2nd edition). 여운영. et al. Jonas Karlsson. 2009.3gpp. IEEE VTC 2006 [4] Leonard J. March 2006 [3] Erik Dahlman.” IEEE Communication Magazine. Feb. 2009 [15] David Astély. no. vol. Magnus Lundevall. “The 3G Long-Term Evolution . Sep. 2008 [10] Moray Rumney (Agilent). et al. June 29 2007 [9] 김학성 (LGE). Junsung Lim. Jonas Karlsson. LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access. “Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution”.” IEEE Commun.com/file/news/Latest_LSTI_Results_Feb09_v1. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine. 조봉열. Artech House Publishers [6] D. Mag. Anders Furuskär. Johan Torsner. Anders Furuskar. http://www. and Stefan Parkvall (Ericsson). Issam Toufik. “3GPP LTE”. Academic Press.

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