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## Subtract Expanded Algorithm (Whole - Group

Math and Guided Math)
CCSS or State Standards:
3.NBT.2 Fluently add and 10/25/17 Day 1
subtract within 1000 using
strategies and algorithms 8:30 9:10 (40
based on place value, minutes) Whole Group
properties of operations, and Math
or/ the relationship between
addition and subtraction. 9:10 - 9:40 (30
minutes) Guided Math
Resources and Materials:
Review of Notes

Worksheet

(can be attached)

## Objective: I can: Solve 3-digit addition problems using an expanded

What students will know and be able to do algorithm. (Understand and Apply)
stated in student friendly language (use
Blooms and DOK levels for higher level
thinking objectives)

Essential Question(s): How can you break large addition problems into smaller ones?
Over-arching questions of the lesson that will (Topical)
indicate student understanding of
concepts/skills What is it you want the
students to learn/know? Why? How can you use appropriate tools strategically? (Over-Arching)

## Can you construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of

others? (Over-Arching)

## Reason abstractly and quantitatively? (Over-Arching)

Inclusion Activity: Review place number with place number book: use 538
Describe an activity that will ensure that all Ask: what place value is the 5, 3, 8 in?
students and their voices are included at the
beginning of the lesson.

## Sequence of Activities: Whole Group Math:

Provide an overview of the flow of the lesson.
Should also include estimates of
pacing/timing. 1. Write 243 + 179 on board
2. Explain that each digit in each number can be broken down
by thinking about place value of each number
3. Make a Hundred column:
Underline or bold the hundred value of each number
Place Value of 243 = 200
Place Value of 179 = 100
Add 200 + 100 = 300 *
Star 300 so that the students know this is an important
number to keep track of
4. Make a Tens column:
Underline or bold the tens value of each number
Place Value of 243 = 40
Place Value of 179 = 70
Add 40 + 70 = 110 *
Star 110 so that the students know this is an important
number to keep track of
5. Makes a Ones column:
Underline or bold the ones value of each number
Place Value of 243 = 3
Place Value of 179 = 9
Add 3 + 9 = 12 *
Star 12 so that the students know this is an important
number to keep track of
6. Add the sum of all the places
Look for starred numbers
300 + 110 + 12 = 422
7. Complete the same steps with 375 + 412, breaking the large
number into smaller numbers using place value categories:
hundreds, tens, ones
Students should follow along in their notebooks
Do thumbs up, thumbs down between every place
value
Discuss accordingly if students have a thumbs down

1. Courtney
2. Issyo
3. Jayden
4. Ryan

1. Lionel
2. Olivia
3. Taya
4. Josiah
5. Landen

1. Sophia
2. Chelsea
3. Lily
4. Roy
5. Maverick
6. Sydney
7. Dawson
8. Riley
9. Cole
10. Cecily

## *** NOTE: The students who were carefully chosen to work

independently were chosen because they are capable of working on
own. This does not mean that they will understand the concept 100%
every time. However, be careful to help them too much because they
often just want to get it done quick and easy, expecting the answer to
be given to them. If this begins to be the case, encourage them to try
the first three on their own and then check in again.)

## Go over answers as a class. Write problem on board and ask for

volunteers to show their work and answer the problem

## After each solving of equation (done by student in front of class on

overhead) have students give thumbs up or thumbs down if they
agree or disagree.

If student(s) disagree, discuss what they did versus what should have
happened.

Instructional Strategies:
Research-based strategies to help students Scaffolding

## Visual Graphic Organizer attached to Worksheet

Assessment: Formative:
List both formative and summative Thumbs up, thumbs down
assessments that you will use to assess student
understanding. Formative assessments are
given during instruction (check for Monitoring in groups
understanding), summative are after
completion of instruction (how will you grade
quiz, test, project, paper, presentation, Summative:
demonstration, etc.).
To come at end of unit.
Differentiation:
Describe who will need additional or different Separate Dawon and Josiahs desks so that they cannot kick each
support during this lesson, and how you will
support them. Differentiated instruction could other under the desks during Whole-Group Math.
include testing accommodations, preferential
seating, segmented assignments, a copy of the
teachers notes, assignment notebook, peer Working in guided small groups by tiers.
tutors, etc.

## Review of Notes : as example, take home to show parents

Summary, Integration and Review lesson by breaking down I Can Statement: Students solve
Reflection: 3-digit addition problems using an expanded algorithm.
List the way that you will bring students
together to integrate and reflect on their
learning from this lesson

Subtract Digit Numbers (Whole-Group Math
and Guided Math)
CCSS or State Standards:
subtract within 1000 using 10/26/17 Day 2
strategies and algorithms
based on place value, 8:30 9:10 (40
properties of operations, minutes) Whole Group
and/or the relationship
between addition and 9:10 9:40 (30
subtraction. minutes) Guided Math

## Resources and Materials:

Place Value Blocks
worksheet
(can be attached)

## Objective: I can: Add 3-digit numbers using place value blocks or

What students will know and be able to do pictures and record the results using the standard addition
stated in student friendly language (use
Blooms and DOK levels for higher level algorithm. (Application)
thinking objectives)

Essential Question(s): How can you use place value understanding and properties of
Over-arching questions of the lesson that will operation to perform multi-digit arithmetic? (Over-Arching)
indicate student understanding of
concepts/skills What is it you want the
students to learn/know? Why? How can you use base place value to add 3-digit numbers? (Topical)

## Inclusion Activity: Hand out place value blocks.

Describe an activity that will ensure that all Review place value blocks. How much is each value? Draw your
students and their voices are included at the
beginning of the lesson. own (without detail): a box (100), skinny rectangle (10), and small
box (1)

## Sequence of Activities: Whole Group Math

Provide an overview of the flow of the lesson.
Should also include estimates of
pacing/timing. 1. Write 143 + 285 onto overhead.
2. Model with place value blocks. Show 143 with 1 hundred
block, 4 ten blocks, and 3 single blocks. Show 285 with 2
hundred blocks, 8 ten blocks, and 5 single blocks.
3. Regroup: IF ABOVE 9, THEN REGROUP, IF BETWEEN
0-9, THEN DO NOT REGROUP
regroup as it is between 0-9)
Regroup tens Count them = 12 (Must regroup
because above 9. Take 10 of the ten place value
blocks and exchange them with 1 hundred block. Will
have 2 extra 10 value blocks.)
Regroup hundreds, including the new one from the
previous regroup Count them = 4 (Nothing to
regroup as it is between 0-9)
Add place value blocks: 4 hundreds + 2 tens + 8 ones
= 428
4. Do another example.
5. Write 148 + 276 onto overhead
6. Have students follow along with groups with their own place
value blocks: Just modeling, do not regroup yet
7. Have adult helpers travel around, observing and assisting
when necessary through remainder of lesson
8. Scaffold what you did with place value blocks: Show 148
with 1 hundred place value block and 4 ten value blocks and
8 single blocks. Show 276 with 2 hundred place value blocks
and 7 ten value blocks and 6 single blocks
9. Have students regroup, starting with ones
10. Scaffold for students: Count ones = 14 (Regroup because
over 9. Exchange 10 one blocks with 1 ten value block.
Should have 4 single blocks left over.
11. Have students regroup with tens
12. Scaffold for students after a minute: Count ten place value
blocks = 12 (Regroup because over 9. Exchange 10 ten place
value blocks with 1 hundred block. Should have 2 ten value
blocks left over.)
13. Have students regroup with hundreds
14. Scaffold for students after a minute: Count hundred place
value blocks = 4 (Do not regroup because between 0 and 9)
16. Scaffold for students: Add blocks 4 hundreds + 2 tens + 4
ones = 424
17. Show model without blocks: draw hundred block, ten block,
one block (for when you do not have blocks on hand to use)
Transition: Introduce three groups designated with myself, co-
teacher, and paraprofessional and independent group Guided
Math Lesson

5. Courtney
6. Issyo

6. Lionel
7. Olivia
8. Jayden
9. Ryan

10. Taya
11. Josiah
12. Landen

11. Sophia
12. Chelsea
13. Lily
14. Roy
15. Maverick
16. Sydney
17. Dawson
18. Riley
19. Cole
20. Cecily

## Students are to complete the worksheet with designated instructor or

on their own if that is their designated area

Must use both drawing model strategy and place value blocks to find

## Must show work of drawing model if that is the chosen strategy on

work paper (will be stapled to worksheet)

## If independent workers begin to ask questions, write on board: If

between 0-9, do NOT regroup. If above 9, REGROUP. (NOTE:
The students who were carefully chosen to work independently were
chosen because they are capable of working on own. This does not
mean that they will understand the concept 100% every time.
However, be careful to help them too much because they often just
want to get it done quick and easy, expecting the answer to be given
to them. If this begins to be the case, encourage them to try the first
three on their own and then check in again.)
When finished: Use a variety of recognition techniques:
1. Volunteering (raised hands): Ask for volunteers to come and
show their work
2. Surveying: Everyone shares a response at once through a
thumbs up or thumbs down to show if they agree or disagree
3. Round Robin: Students share what they agree or disagree
with

Clean up. Put worksheets and loose paper in math folders. Put
blocks away.

## Instructional Strategies: Scaffolding

Research-based strategies to help students
Variety of Discussion Strategies
Assessment: Formative:
List both formative and summative Monitoring tables to check if students are following along
assessments that you will use to assess student
understanding. Formative assessments are
given during instruction (check for Thumbs up, thumbs down
understanding), summative are after
completion of instruction (how will you grade
quiz, test, project, paper, presentation,
demonstration, etc.).
Summative:
To come at end of unit.

Differentiation: Preferential seating: Switch Dawson with Adrianna for the lesson
Describe who will need additional or different
support during this lesson, and how you will
support them. Differentiated instruction could Guided Groups based off of tiers
include testing accommodations, preferential
seating, segmented assignments, a copy of the
teachers notes, assignment notebook, peer
tutors, etc.

Summary, Integration and Students discuss with partners how they used place value blocks and
List the way that you will bring students that should be looked for is regrouping and moving values if
together to integrate and reflect on their
learning from this lesson above 9

Subtract Numbers (Whole Group and
Guided Math)
CCSS or State Standards: 10/27/17 Day 3
subtract within 1000 using 8:30 9:10 (40 minutes)
strategies and algorithms Whole Group Math
based on place value,
properties of operations, 9:10 9:40 (30 minutes)
and/or the relationship Group Math
subtraction.

## Resources and Materials:

Michigan Real World Application
Place Value Blocks (just in case)
Problems for Game

(can be attached)

## Objective: I can: Add 3-digit numbers using paper-and-pencil methods

What students will know and be able to do and use addition to solve problems.
stated in student friendly language (use
Blooms and DOK levels for higher level
thinking objectives)

Essential Question(s): How can you use addition to solve problems? (Topical)
Over-arching questions of the lesson that will
indicate student understanding of
concepts/skills What is it you want the How to reason abstractly and quantitatively? (Over-Arching)
students to learn/know? Why?

Arching)

## Inclusion Activity: On the overhead, show the following:

Describe an activity that will ensure that all Michigan Real World Application
students and their voices are included at the
beginning of the lesson.
After this lesson, we will be able to answer this and learn how many
miles it will take to go from St. Johns to Mackinac City.

## Therefore, we can expect that our answer will be about or close to

250. We will come back to this.

## Sequence of Activities: Whole Group Math

Provide an overview of the flow of the lesson.
Should also include estimates of
pacing/timing. 1. Step 1: Add the ones and then regroup.
(From Michigan problem)
161
+ 47
_______
Add the ones = 8 (Do not have to regroup because less than
9)
Add the tens = 10 (Have to regroup because more than 9)
Regroup 10 tens = 1 hundred and 0 tens
Add the hundreds = 2 (Do not have to regroup because less
than 9)
They drove 208 miles in total
Refer back to Inclusion Activity we got 210
Were we reasonably close? Yes! Only 2 away.

## Remind the students of when we regrouped with the blocks.

This is just like that! But with columns.

minutes

## Have students show thumbs up or down

down where they get confused

## Team One Anarah, Maverick

Team Two Dawson, Chelsea
Team Three Sydney, Roy
Team Five Issyo, Josiah
Team Six Jayden, Lionel
Team Seven Courtney, Sophia
Team Eight Cole, Riley
Team Nine Kristina, Cecily
Team Ten Taya, Ryan

1. Have them sit together with one marker board, tissue, and
marker per group. They are to take turns writing on board
and holding up.
2. Show 3 digit addition problem(s) one at a time from
Problems for Game
3. Give groups three minutes to answer using strategy learned
in class
4. Designated writer holds up answer
come show what they did to get their correct answer
6. Give groups 30 seconds to discuss what they did right or
wrong
7. Repeat.

## (No prize just the knowledge gained during the game )

Instructional Strategies:
Research-based strategies to help students Teams-Games-Tournaments

Assessment: Formative:
List both formative and summative Thumbs up, thumbs down
assessments that you will use to assess student
understanding. Formative assessments are Monitoring/Listening
given during instruction (check for Checking of each problem during game
understanding), summative are after
completion of instruction (how will you grade
quiz, test, project, paper, presentation, Summative:
demonstration, etc.).
To come at end of unit.

## Differentiation: Tiered groups for guided math game

Describe who will need additional or different
support during this lesson, and how you will
support them. Differentiated instruction could Rotate Ryans desk so that it faces the overhead and away from
include testing accommodations, preferential Landen.
seating, segmented assignments, a copy of the
teachers notes, assignment notebook, peer
tutors, etc.

## Summary, Integration and Clean up.

Reflection:
List the way that you will bring students
together to integrate and reflect on their
learning from this lesson
Subtract Numbers (Whole Group and Guided
Math) 10/30/17 Day 4
CCSS or State Standards:
3.NBT.2 Fluently add and 8:30 9:10 (40 minutes)
subtract within 1000 using Whole Group Math
strategies and algorithms
based on place value, 9:10 9:40 (30 minutes)
properties of operations, Group Math
and/or the relationship
subtraction.

## Worksheet for Guided Math

Stations to print

## Student example of Guided Math

work

(can be attached)

## Objective: I can: Add 3 or more 2 and/or 3-digit numbers using paper

What students will know and be able to do and pencil methods and use addition to solve problems.
stated in student friendly language (use
Blooms and DOK levels for higher level (Remember and Apply)
thinking objectives)

## I can: Draw a picture to solve a problem. (Analyze)

Essential Question(s): How can you reason abstractly and quantitatively? (Over arching)
Over-arching questions of the lesson that will
indicate student understanding of
concepts/skills What is it you want the Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning? (Over
students to learn/know? Why? arching)

(Topical)

## How can information in a problem be shown using a picture and

used to solve the problem. (Topical)

Inclusion Activity: Tell a story. You are visiting Mt. Rushmore *YAY!* And you
want to measure the size of President Washingtons head but
Describe an activity that will ensure that all heres the problem *GASP* Your tape measure isnt long enough
students and their voices are included at the
beginning of the lesson. to measure all of President Washingtons head at once.

## Possible answers: measure two or three times, measure the mouth to

the nose and then measure nose to eyes, measure separately

## Sequence of Activities: Whole Group Math:

Provide an overview of the flow of the lesson.
Should also include estimates of
pacing/timing. 1. Lets divide his face into three parts Discuss (strategy)
How should we divide his face? Think-Share with partner
2. Answer: Chin to nose, nose to eyes, eyes to forehead (could
have switched up a couple of them, but as a class, do what is
mentioned so that it is all the same)
4. Numbers for each are:
Chin to nose: 20 feet
Nose to eyes: 21 feet
5. Write numbers on marker board on top of each other to add
6. Draw model to the right of it: three boxes attached with
number in each. Line above from start to finish with ? Feet
in all
7. Line up ones, tens, and hundreds.
10. In all, Washingtons face is ____ feet long. (Answer: 60)

New problem:

## 1. Find 137 + 155 + 18

2. Have students follow along in math notebooks
3. Write these steps on board (Do not have to write in
notebooks)
4. Line up ones, tens, hundreds
8. Where do we have to regroup?
9. Total?
10. Students do problem in notebooks.
11. Give them three minutes (plus minus time, just observe. Who
is still working?
12. Students share with table partner.
13. Bring attention back to front of room.
14. Students follow along while teacher shows how to solve
problem.
15. Thumbs up, thumbs down.
16. Thumbs down where did they get lost? Ask them! Discuss
as class.
17. Have students draw model of their work.

## Last problem: Critical Thinking Problem

1. 483 + 259 + 142 ____ = 989 (Missing number = 105)
2. Have students draw model
3. Share with partner
4. Teacher walk around the monitor Scaffold with questions:
what piece of information are we missing? Are we looking
for the total? Will we be adding or subtracting? Both?
5. Ask student to come up and show their model
6. Classmates agree or disagree? Thumbs up or thumbs down.
7. Thumbs down, what did you do differently? Vocal or come
up and show.
8. (If wrong, make sure to show right work)
9. Now solve in notebooks.
subtract to find missing piece.
11. Share with partner.
12. Check your work: Add 483 + 259 + 142 + 105 = 989. Does it
equal 105?
13. Teacher picks student to come up and show what they did.
14. Agree or disagree?
15. Thumbs down, what did they do differently?
16. Teacher agrees or disagrees (show right work in need be)
17. Ask questions such as did you regroup? Did you remember
to carry?

## Transition into Guided Math

This pdf has the images of the following items to print off and cut
out: Stations

On the bean table in front, set out a necklace, coat, and Chrome
book. With sticky notes, put \$105 on the necklace, \$158 on the coat,
and \$421 on the chrome book. On a scrap piece of paper (from back
cabinet) write Station Number 1. Set this next to these items.

On the front carpet, set out a bus ticket, shoes, and hotel reservation
card. With sticky notes, put \$152 on the bus ticket, \$173 on the
shoes, and \$248 on the hotel reservation card. On a scrap piece of
paper (from back cabinet) write Station Number 2. Set this next to
these items.

In the back corner on the floor next to the bathrooms, set out another
chrome book, textbook, and autographed baseball card. With sticky
notes, put \$421 on the Chromebook, \$268 on the textbook, and \$129
on the autographed baseball card. On a scrap piece of paper (from
back cabinet) write Station Number 3. Set this next to these items.

In the back carpeted area next to the reading nook, set out an ipod,
plane ticket, and skateboard. With sticky notes, write \$567 on the
ipod, \$238 on the plane ticket, and \$169 on the skateboard. On a
scrap piece of paper (from back cabinet) write Station Number 4. Set
this next to these items.

Up front next to the teachers desk on the carpet, set out a gift card,
camera, and used car. With sticky notes, write \$100 on the gift card,
\$284 on the camera, and \$937 on the used car. On a scrap piece of
paper (from back cabinet) write Station Number 5. Set this next to
these items.

## 1. Divide into teams based off of tiers:

Team one: Anarah, Maverick, Dawson, Chelsea
(Start at Station 1)
Team two: Sydney, Roy, Lily, Adrianne (Start at
Station 2)
Team three: Issyo, Josiah, Sophia, Riley (Start at
Station 3)
Team four: Josiah, Cecily, Jayden, Lionel, Kristie
(Start at Station 4)
Team five: Courtney, Cole, Taya, Ryan, Olivia (Start
at Station 5)
2. Show Student Example as scaffolding. Student example of
Guided Math work Go over directions. Hand out worksheet
to each station. Worksheet for Guided Math. Each student
gets one. They are all expected to do work and share what
they did.
3. Use a timer to keep track of time. Each station time is five
minutes. Then they must switch, even if not done.
4. Teacher and Parapro are expected to walk around and
monitor.
5. At 9:30, ask groups to clean up their station. They can all go
in trash.
show their work for stations.
7. Students: thumbs up or thumbs down? If thumbs down,
where do you disagree? Where did you get lost?

## Instructional Strategies: Discussion Think and Share

Research-based strategies to help students
Direct Instruction Modeling, directed, guided, independent

## Circle of Knowledge Students share ideas in small groups at

stations

Assessment: Formative:
List both formative and summative
assessments that you will use to assess student
understanding. Formative assessments are Thumbs up, thumbs down
given during instruction (check for
understanding), summative are after
completion of instruction (how will you grade Monitoring, listening
quiz, test, project, paper, presentation,
demonstration, etc.).
Summative:

## Differentiation: Tiered groups

Describe who will need additional or different
support during this lesson, and how you will
support them. Differentiated instruction could Student example of Guided Math work
include testing accommodations, preferential
seating, segmented assignments, a copy of the
teachers notes, assignment notebook, peer
tutors, etc.

## Summary, Integration and Checking work as class.

Reflection:
List the way that you will bring students
together to integrate and reflect on their
learning from this lesson
Unit: Using Place to Add and Lesson Title: Spooky Subtraction of Grade/Period: 3rd
Subtract 3-Digit Numbers (Whole Group and
Guided Math) 10/31/17 Day 5
CCSS or State Standards:
subtract within 1000 using
strategies and algorithms 8:30 9:10 (40 minutes)
based on place value, Whole Group Math
properties of operations,
and/or the relationship 9:10 9:40 (30 minutes)
subtraction.

## Resources and Materials:

Video to Subtract without and with
Regrouping

## Problems to show for Guided

Math

(can be attached)

## Objective: I can: Subtract 3-digit numbers using paper-and-pencil

What students will know and be able to do methods and use subtraction to solve problems.
stated in student friendly language (use
Blooms and DOK levels for higher level (Understand and Apply)
thinking objectives)

Essential Question(s): Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. (Over-
Over-arching questions of the lesson that will arching)
indicate student understanding of
concepts/skills What is it you want the
students to learn/know? Why?
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (Over-arching)

(Over-arching)

## Inclusion Activity: Graduated Mathematics Warm-Up

Describe an activity that will ensure that all Show the Graduated Warm-Up on overhead. In notebooks, have
students and their voices are included at the
beginning of the lesson. students copy each problem. Have them start with level one. Walk
around and monitor as they share with partners.

## Move on to level 2. Some may start to struggle. This is where the

sharing with partner may help students. Walk around and monitor.
Who is struggling?

## Wait to do level 3. Will do together at end of lesson.

Sequence of Activities:
Provide an overview of the flow of the lesson. Whole Group Math:
Should also include estimates of
pacing/timing.
1. Mike and Linda are playing a game. How many more points
does Mike have than Linda? Mike has 528 points and Linda
has 341 points.
2. Line up the points:
528
- 341
3. Have students follow along with eyes and ears.
4. Subtract the ones. 8 ones is greater than 1 so you do not
have to regroup. 8-1 = 7
5. Subtract he tens. Since 2 tens is less than 4 tens, you have to
regroup 1 hundred into 10 tens. Show this on the board. =8.
Make sure to show how you cross out the 2 and change it to
12. And change the 5 to a 4.
6. Subtract the hundreds. 4 hundreds 3 hundreds = 1 hundred
7. Total = 187.
8. Mike has 187 more points than Linda.

Another example:

1. Carl has 472 pumpkins in his pumpkin patch. Abby has 284
pumpkins in hers. How many more pumpkins does Carl have
than Abby?
2. Line up the number of pumpkins vertically.
3. Have students solve problem in math notebooks.
4. Monitor, give them about two minutes
5. Choose student who you saw got it right. Ask him or her to
come up and show what they did.
6. Have students show thumbs up or thumbs down.
7. If thumbs down, ask what they did differently. Clarify.
8. Ask questions, did you remember to regroup? Did you cross
off the numbers you used to regroup?

Last problem:
1. Refer back to the Graduated Mathematics Warm-Up
2. Have students solve in math notebooks
3. Ask a brave soul to come up and solve the problem from the
Graduated Difficulty, to show their work and discuss every
step
4. Any questions? Read body language. Who is confused?
Bored?

## 1. Show Problems to show for Guided Math on overhead.

2. In math notebooks, solve five problems of the regrouping in
ones place, 4 in the tens place, and 3 in hundreds.

Pull Courtney, Issyo, Cecily, and Taya up to bean table. Work with
them. Do not worry about problems. Choose one or two of each

## Instructional Strategies: Graduated Difficulty Mathematics Warm-Up

Research-based strategies to help students

Assessment: Formative:
List both formative and summative
assessments that you will use to assess student
understanding. Formative assessments are Monitoring
given during instruction (check for Graduated Difficulty Assignment
understanding), summative are after
completion of instruction (how will you grade
quiz, test, project, paper, presentation, Summative:
demonstration, etc.).
To come at end of unit

## Differentiation: Video to Subtract without and with Regrouping

Describe who will need additional or different
support during this lesson, and how you will
support them. Differentiated instruction could Segmented Assignment with Teacher
include testing accommodations, preferential
seating, segmented assignments, a copy of the
teachers notes, assignment notebook, peer
tutors, etc.
Summary, Integration and Put math notebooks away. Share with partner if you like adding or
Reflection: subtracting with 3 digit numbers and why.
List the way that you will bring students
together to integrate and reflect on their
learning from this lesson