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Issue #14 - June 2008


full circle






Full Circle magazine is not affiliated with or endorsed by Canonical Ltd.

What Not To Type & Man Pages p.06

full circle
Create a Plug 'n' Play Zone p.08
Server Series - Part 6 p.12
GIMP - Part 3 p.14
Put Photos On Your iPod p.17 : Excited in India p.19
First Impressions Last p.21
: JVC Mini Reloaded p.23
: Soren Hansen p.26
P.08 P.12 p.30
: Space Games p.34
P.14 P.17 P.26 P.34

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magazine by name ('full circle magazine') and the URL (but not attribute the article(s) in any way that
suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you must distribute the
resulting work under the same, similar or a compatible license.

This magazine was created using :

Many people are hesitant to switch to Linux, because they fear

having to learn and use text commands to accomplish tasks, instead
of interacting soley with a mouse-driven graphical user interface.
Although modern Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu, can be run
without the need for typing commands, simple-to-learn and easy-to-
use commands often make even novice's tasks easier to accomplish
than could be done with the mouse. As one reader (Cibby) points out
in a letter (page 31), using DOS commands on PCs back in the (good?)
old days was no big deal. So, why fear Linux commands?
Starting this month we want to dispel the myth of the difficult Ubuntu is a complete operating
system that is perfect for laptops,
command line. In , Robert Clipsham is starting desktops and servers. Whether at
off by telling you the basics, how to get help in the command line, home, school or work Ubuntu
and, most importantly, what not to type in the command line! From contains all the applications you'll
next month, he will start discussing the easy, and probably most used, ever need including word processor,
commands - working his way up to the more difficult and esoteric ones. email application and web browser.

Our series continues, and David Lamb wants You do not pay any
to know what you would like him to discuss in the future, so please licensing fees. You can download,
drop him an email. His email address is at the end of his article. use and share Ubuntu with your
friends, family, school or business
Enjoy the issue and keep in touch! for absolutely nothing.
Once installed, your system is ready
to use with a full set of productivity,
internet, drawing and graphics
Editor, Full Circle Magazine applications, and games.

Ubuntu 8.04 vs. Fedora 9
NEWS Feel free to email news stories
Please include a source URL.

Ubuntu Team Readies for 8.04.1 Microsoft Extends Windows XP Life,

With Ubuntu 8.04.1 is scheduled to be
released on July 3. Ubuntu 8.04.1 is not
Microsoft’s new
a new release but an updated CD image
Vista operating
so that users trying Ubuntu 8.04 for the
system hasn’t been
first time only have to download the CD
that warmly
image and not all the updates that have
received thus far
been released since the original 8.04
and many
release. Those updates are included in
individuals and
the CD image to be released on July 3.
large corporations
For developers this means that have opted to stick
with Windows XP.
Microsoft had
declared that sales of Windows XP had to
halt on June 30th.
Microsoft has decided that it will extend the
life of Windows XP and allow it to be sold
until June 2010 with a major caveat. The OS
team said today.
can only be sold on cheap desktops. A
similar announcement was made in April
allowing the XP OS to be sold on cheap
This change will allow the XP OS to be used
on machines like the cheap E-box from Asus
while it is being used on the Eee as well.
The move is viewed widely as an attempt to Source:
keep Linux from becoming the OS of choice
Source: for low cost machines.

Linux vs. OS X vs. Vista vs. XP
NEWS Whether it's because of Vista's
confusing array of versions, its hefty
hardware requirements, its driver
Ubuntu Server receives positive KDE Community Announces Second issues or its invasive security features,

reviews Beta Release of KDE 4.1

users are resisting the upgrade to Vista
and considering other options, from
Mac OS X to Linux to just sticking with
I can tell you up front that Ubuntu The KDE Windows XP, thank you very much.
Server gets high marks for its corporate Community is
support; easy backups, installs and proud to announce Each [of our experts] is positive that
upgrades; documentation, and more. the second beta his operating system is the best and
release of KDE 4.1. will try his hardest to convince you of
So I set out to find some IT pros who that -- and is not above taking a few
Beta 2 is aimed at
could talk about Ubuntu Server, which swipes at the competition. These are
testers, community
wasn’t hard. I just asked, “ not rational, disengaged reviews; these
members and enthusiasts in order to
” in a newsletter. Here are are opinionated essays meant to sway
identify bugs and regressions, so that 4.1
some respondents’ views of Ubuntu your point of view.
can fully replace KDE 3 for end users. KDE
Server, both positive and not-so-positive.
4.1 beta 2 is available as binary packages When you've read all the arguments,
In the past, Linux has gotten dinged for for a wide range of platforms, and as source you make the call by voting in our
poor corporate-level support; but packages. KDE 4.1 is due for final release in reader poll -- and of course we
Canonical Ltd. — Ubuntu’s corporate late July 2008. welcome your own arguments in the
parent — got support right with comments area as well.
After one month has passed since the
Ubuntu’s Long Term Support (LTS),
feature freeze on the KDE 4.1 branch, the Source:
according to Jim Read, an IT
KDE hackers have been working on
administrator for a financial institution.
polishing the new features, desktop
integration, and documenting and
Read said. If he
translating the packages. Several bugfixing
changed support providers, he’d have to
sessions have been held and squashed bugs
do major system reconstruction, but LTS
in the beta software. While there are still
6.06 hasn’t given him a reason to
bugs left that need to be fixed until the
consider a change.
release, KDE 4.1 Beta2 shapes up nicely.
Source: Testing and feedback on this release is appreciated and needed to make KDE 4.1 a

everything that comes after the
COMMAND AND CONQUER command - for example, in the
two commands above, you are
Written by Robert Clipsham
passing one argument - the
command name. To navigate the

he command line may seem knowing what you're typing in! If you man pages, use the up and down
daunting at first, but, once are about to type a command, and arrows (or pg up, pg down if
mastered, you won't know you do not know what it does, DO you're impatient!), then q to quit.
how you lived without it. This NOT run it. I'm not saying that you
need to know fully what everything man man
month I will introduce you to your
new best friend, and show you you type in does, as that would take This will give you an overview
how to stay safe. years of learning commands you of how to use 'man' itself. The
may use only once or twice. There first thing that will probably
To meet your new friend, go to are a few ways of finding out what a strike you is a big complex blob
Applications > Accessories > command does. The easiest one is to of text. If you look at it carefully,
Terminal (in GNOME), or K > type: you will see it isn't as
System > Konsole (in KDE). Upon
whatis <command> complicated as it looks. Anything
opening a terminal, you will see:
in square brackets [] is optional,
username@computer-name:~$ This will search all the manual (or so, if you ignore them, you will
man) pages for the command, and see 'man', 'man -l file', 'man -k
This means that you are logged return a brief description of it. This regexp' and 'man -f page'. Each
into the command line - with isn't always useful though, and of these accepts a different set
<username> on <computer- doesn't describe commands in full. A of arguments which are shown in
name>. The :~$ shows that you better way is: the brackets. While this is useful,
are in your home directory (~), it doesn't actually tell you what
and that you are logged in as a man <command>
the options do. This is explained
non-root user ($). If you aren't too further down the page. If you
Unlike the 'whatis' tool, 'man' will
sure what this means, don't worry follow the page, you will see the
give you access to the full man
- it will be explained later in this typical layout of a man page. You
page(s), and allow you to see its
article or in later articles. will notice there is a lot of
description, any options/arguments it
The first step to command line accepts, and some examples of how information here, which you
safety is, believe it or not, to use the command. An argument is probably don't need to read. The

"OPTIONS" section will probably therefore anything that is run as the what you expect the command
be of most use, as it gives you a root user is potentially dangerous. to do, so you may need to do
list of what each option does - for This does not mean that sudo is a some research before you run it.
example -L <locale> or -- bad thing though. It can be incredibly
locale=<locale> will allow you to useful at times, because it minimizes There are combinations of
view the man pages in languages the chances of messing up and commands and modifiers that
other than your default locale. typing a wrong command as root, by should not be run as they may
That will explain most of the having you add 'sudo' at the start of damage the system, the main
relevant or useful sections of man each command. Anything that you one being: 'rm -rf'. It will remove
pages; however, there is a lot run with sudo should be run with critical system files. If you would
more information in there than I care, and make sure you know what like to find out more about what
have shown you here. it does first! not to type then visit:
There is another more The next thing you should be ement.php?a=54. I know it
advanced way of getting help: aware of is command line options. sounds scary, but it's better to
'info'. However, that is unlikely to These manipulate the way a raise, in advance, awareness of
be useful to you at this stage. If command works, for example: what not to run.
you want to find out more about
man -k PDF
it, type "?" when viewing an info
page to find out how to navigate Rather than displaying the 'man'
them. 'man info' may also be page for the PDF command (as you
useful. might expect), it will list all
commands connected in any way to
Now that you know how to
PDF. See how the addition of '-k' has
figure out what commands do, it
modified the output of the man
would be good to know some
command? Other modifiers allow
commands and other things you
users to send the output of one
should be aware of. The first of
program to another, append contents
these is 'sudo'. This will run the is a self
to the end of a file, run an
command that follows after it as confessed geek, whose hobbies
application in the background, and
the root user. In case you don't include: programming/scripting,
many other things. Just note that
know, the root user has unlimited chatting on IRC and not writing
when you see a symbol that you his articles on time.
power over the system, and
don't recognize, it may be changing

Written by Roger Wheatley

ne of the things I dislike is 2) Personally, I needed a way that It’s a simple 3-step process.
reinstalling any operating Ubuntu could install itself while I go
system over, and over, and do something else. A user plugs their laptop into
over again. After a while, it one of the two ports (pictured
Side note: During today’s project, I left), and boot off the network.
becomes boring and inconvenient
realized that this would be a great Go away, come back later, and
when you have a hot idea you
feature for a school, a computer lab, it’s all done. Voilà!
want to try out. One of the things
a computer hobby group, and even a
I enjoy doing is to try out new Also, you can see that they
business or laptop repair shop. If any
ways, ideas or Linux packages. have the option for a Gutsy
of you use this idea, please let me
Often this means starting from a install (7.10), and soon - I’ve not
know as I’d love to see it! ;-)
clean system, or having to set that up yet, probably over
reinstall because I made mistakes The idea? I created my very own the weekend - a Hardy install
and trashed an existing system. “Ubuntu Linux Plug ‘N Play Zone”! (8.04). The picture above is how
The point? Well, for one it’s a I’ll leave the “Zone” for now. (I
great learning environment for didn’t want to write on the wall,
me, it helps my friends who have so I put an old plastic sign over
switched or are considering a the plug, and wrote on the
switch, and it gives me plastic with a marker. Easy to
information I can share for free - enhance and change later). How
and that helps everyone! is this done? Ahhh... Not as hard
Today is not any different - as one might think, Grasshopper.
actually I’m pretty excited about For this to work properly, we
this topic!!! Here’s the scenario: need a DHCP server on a
1) I wanted an easy way for separate network (subnet). We
friends to migrate to Linux (I’m also need a TFTP server, and, of
using Ubuntu). course, client laptops (or PCs)

that can netboot. Netboot is when
the BIOS is configured to boot off Source:
the network card. Last year, I
posted “30 Dollars, 30 Minutes, 1
Because the first port is Gutsy
Nice Fileserver”, and that’s the
(7.10), we need to get the
unit I wiped clean and used for
netboot files for it. It’s easy to get
this project. We can begin by
via wget, like this:
installing Gutsy (7.10) on the
system. Create a directory if it’s not
already there:
Note: Look farther down to the
IP addresses. Ensure that your cd /var/lib
server is using a static IP address
within your subnet, and make a mkdir /tftpboot
note of this IP. The first time I did Use wget to download the
this, I messed up and used the tarball into /source.
wrong address.
atftpd is: cd /var/lib/tftpboot
After this, here are the steps I
took: wget
Note: Instead of typing “sudo” untu/dists/gutsy/main/instal
all the time, we can “sudo su” ler-
(become root) and then don’t Source:
have to keep using the sudo
command. docindex/atftp-man-2.html
Note: For Hardy (8.04) the
The first thing we need to do is atftp is:
command is:
grab some packages:
apt-get update apt-get
install dnsmasq atftpd atftp untu/dists/hardy/main/instal
dnsmasq is: ler-

But remember, to do this with After a few tries, and a bit of
Hardy (or any other Linux Googling, I found the correct way to invoke-rc.d dnsmasq restart
platform), make sure the port is do this. I was putting the wrong
being served by another Dnsmasq After it’s successfully
numbers in first time around. It was
on another subnet. If not, then the restarted, make sure the firewall
an easy mistake to fix.
wrong version of Linux might be is not blocking. I didn’t check
installed. Note: The small (cheap) router that that, and it took me a while - and
I used defaults to the 192 network, a bit of Googling - to find the fix.
Now untar: so I just left it at the default. You can If your firewall is interfering, you
change it to match your own subnet! can modify this script to your
tar -zxf netboot.tar.gz &&
chown -R nobody:nobody dhcp-range=,,6h #!/bin/bash
The chown directive is saying
“Change the ownership of dhcp- # flush all chains
everything recursively to Nobody”. boot=pxelinux.0,
iptables -F
Now we need to set up the dhcp-option=3,
DHCP/DNS configuration (for #delete the chains
Dnsmasq). The following dhcp-option=6,
iptables -X
information is needed: Here is what the lines correspond
# set the default policy
1) What IP address range to to: dhcp-boot=pxelinux.0 is the IP
for each of the pre-defined
give laptops being plugged into address of the server.
chains and pipe to /dev/null
the “Zone”. is the default gateway address.
is the DNS address. dhcp- iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
2) The default gateway (that's range is the pool of IP addresses
usually your router, the point for being leased out to connecting iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
external access to the Internet). laptops. Only a very few are iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
available as I only have one port per
3) The IP address of the server iptables -t mangle -F
subnet. The 6h means to lease out
that's going to provide Linux to 2>/dev/null
the IP addresses for 6 hours.
the laptops.
Now that I finally had the correct iptables -t mangle -X
4) The DNS address (should be 2>/dev/null
addresses configured, I restarted like
the same as the server's address).

iptables -t nat -F The response should show UDP This was a fun, exciting
2>/dev/null port 67. project. Hopefully, some of you
can use this information to help
iptables -t nat -X Side note: Netstat command is
you. As I mentioned, this would
2>/dev/null here:
be great for schools, a computer
Original script and idea from lab or lab projects, a computer
netstat.htm hobby group, and even a
r_ubuntu_using_iptables via 3) What about iptables, are they business or laptop repair shop.
Creative Commons Attribution- really turned off? Either way, please let me know.
Share Alike 3.0 License.
iptables -L It’s really cool to just plug-and-
As you can see from the above go in the plug and play zone!
link, we can further create a iptables -L -t nat
customized start/stop feature. iptables -L -t mangle
After a lot of Googling, I found
there are tons of iptables The first command says “list the
resources out there! active rules”. The second says “list
the nat (Network Address
Now, set your laptop (or PC) Translation) tables”, and the third
BIOS to enable booting off the says “list the mangle tables”.
network (PXE). If it works, you're
good to go, and your Plug ‘N Play Side note: To learn more about
Zone is live! :) iptables and ”mangle”, read here:
If there is trouble, try the e.aspx?p=19626
4) Is atftpd listening on a port? (It’s
1) Check your /var/log/syslog supposed to be on port 69):
for issues.
netstat -nulp | grep atftpd
2) Is dnsmasq even listening? (I
learned that network boots use Again, the response should show a
bootp through port 67). Is port 67 UDP port, and it should be 69.
working? Use this command:
netstat -nulp | grep '67.*dnsmasq

Written by Daniel Lamb
SERVER - Part 6

ow we can start setting up
email on our server. I
suggest using IMAP and
SMTP for sending and receiving
email. You should have installed
Postfix and Dovecot. You still need
to install fetchmail - which will
collect any email not received by
SMTP. To collect emails by SMTP,
you need to set up an MX record
(read more about this here
_records_for_incoming_smtp_email Authentication And Encryption", put
sudo apt-get install
_traffic.htm) with the provider of a tick in the box to "Allow
your domain name - it forwards connections from same network",
emails to your home IP address. and "Allow connections from this Now, open up "Fetchmail Mail
You need to forward SMTP through system" under the heading "SMTP retrieval" (Fig.1 above) in
the firewall on your router to the relaying restrictions". In the Dovecot Webmin, and click on "..." and
IP address of your server - to do IMAP/POP3 server menu, click on "Add Fetchmail server for user".
this, refer to your user manual for Mail Files, and change the radio
button option under Mail file location Fill in the box for "Server
your router/firewall.
to “Inbox in ~/Maildir, folders in name", add a username and
The only changes you will need password (which will be supplied
to make in the Postfix by your ISP or your web site
configuration is under Local If you have any other email that provider), and choose which
Delivery: change "Home-relative needs to be picked up via POP3, you local users you want the email to
pathname of user mailbox file" to should now install fetchmail by be distributed to.
Maildir, and under "SMTP typing:

One item which should have
been configured previously is
DNS - to set this up, click on Bind
DNS in Webmin. Click on "Create
master zone". Enter the domain
into the "Domain name /
network" box. For the master
server, type in the domain name
as well. Enter a suitable email
address in the appropriate box.
Type in the IP address of the
server (the external IP address
provided by your ISP) and finally,
click "Create".

Add any users who are

permitted to access the system -
these are users who can access
email, samba shares and so on.
You can now install
(right), which will allow you to owns and runs
view webmail and also connect to and is based in
Perth, Scotland. He is also
shared calendars and shared
involved in a number of open
contacts. To install , source projects such as
open a console and type: ,
and .
sudo apt-get install
We will deal with configuring He is also a committed Leeds
for next month. United fan.

Written by Ronnie Tucker

n the previous article, I showed will affect only the selected region.
how to alter the colors of an This helpful method is, however, not
entire image. Now, I'll describe very good for precise selections.
how to alter selected parts of an
image, while leaving the rest
untouched. This is done using the
selection tools (below).

From left to right, the first two

buttons select a rectangle or an Next is the color-selection tool.
oval, respectively (hold Shift for a Next is a fuzzy selection. When a It is similar to the fuzzy
perfect circle). The third button dot is clicked, this selection enlarges selection, so lets move on to the
opens a free-selection tool for until it encounters a different color. last (for now): the scissor
outlining selected portions on an The enlargement can be fine-tuned selection tool. This is more
image. Try it. Click the icon, then by editing the Threshold number in precise than the freehand tool
left click your mouse, hold it, and the tool options (below the icons). discussed above, but it only
draw around an item. When you By holding down Shift, more colors works well on items with definite
release the mouse button, you'll can be selected to widen the outlines. The method is this:
see a region selection. Once a click to start selecting, and put a
selected for selection has been point on the outline; click again
manipulation made, further to put another point further
(right). modifications along the item's outline; the
apply to it alone scissor tool then tries to
Now, all (right). determine the item's perimeter
modifications (above); continue clicking on the

image's outline; more added clicks tool to open it. Then, click around the on either side of it (below left).
(and points) increase the outline of the desired selection, as
selection's precision; the last click was done with the scissor tool. But
should be back at the starting unlike the scissor tool, the first point
point. Before committing to a can not be re-clicked as the last of
selection, any of the points can be the points to close the selection -- so
clicked and dragged to fine-tune just click near it. Don't worry if a
the outline. point is slightly out of place. After
inserting all the points, any point can
To create the actual selection, Each point can have two lines
be clicked and moved into place
click inside the completed loop coming from it to form a curve
(shown below). (above right). So, click on the
point, hold down Ctrl, and drag
out the second line. Now you will
have a curve.
The initial point can still be
moved, but clicking and
dragging a box at the end of a
line can fine tune a curve, or
create a curve leading in (or out)
from a point, or form a straight
line on the other side -- this
latter was useful in the present
To remove a selection, go to the example where the steps meet
menu and click Select > None. the doorway.
Now, the points can be edited to
But how do you make produce nice curves between them. When all the points are in
a precise selection? Pen Hold down the Ctrl key, click on a place, and the curves are
tool (icon shown left). point (keep the mouse button down) satisfactory, tell GIMP to select
and move your mouse. A line will the area. To do this, click the
The pen tool permits more then come out from that point and a Paths tab (beside your Layers
precise curve creation than does curve will begin forming between the tab). If it's not there, display it
the scissor tool. First, click the pen chosen point and one of the points by clicking Dialogues > Paths.

The just-
created path
is shown in
even more
miniature in
precision is
the Paths
needed when
tab. Right
click on its
selections. The
name and
zoom tools are
very handy for this. At the bottom of
the image window is a drop-down
To hide the path to work on the menu (above) that gives quick
selection, or to show it again, access to a variety of settings for Don't forget to combine tools.
click the eye icon. zooming in or out of images. For instance, to select a piece of
an image, zoom in first, then go
The Zoom tool (left) is also for the tool of your choice.
accessible from the toolbox
on the left.
With the Zoom tool, clicking on an
image will zoom in (holding Ctrl and
clicking will zoom out). In addition,
holding a click permits drawing a box
around just a portion of an image
(below) for zooming (above right).

Combining the selection tools

with the color-correction items
is Editor of
can be amazingly powerful, magazine, a proud Kubuntu
especially if all that is needed is user, and part-time artist whose
to color-correct family photos or gallery of work can be seen at
holiday snaps.

Written by Jonny McCullagh

or several years, various novice, I canceled this dialog and
iPod models have supported went in search of GPixPod's
storing and viewing photos. configuration in Edit > Preferences.
However, Apple does not support In the preferences dialog (Figure 2), I
Linux users with its iTunes could see that GPixPod was looking
software. Thankfully, Flavio for an iPod mounted at /mnt/ipod -
Gargiulo has come to the rescue which did not exist on my system.
with GPixPod. Changing the 'iPod mountpoint' to
the actual iPod device connected to
the computer solved the problem of
( is an the missing iPod Photo Database.
elegant tool for managing photos The GPixPod
on an iPod, but, I hit a brick wall Preferences showing the
when I first started using it. incorrect iPod mount point.
GPixPod is available from the
universe repository, and is easy to After choosing your connected
install using your favorite iPod in the Preferences dialog,
package manager. After GPixPod will prompt you to
installation, GPixPod is available create a Photo Database for
from the Applications > Graphics storing details about your
menu. albums and photos.

When you first open GPixPod,

you will probably be greeted with GPixPod
a slightly daunting dialog (Figure can
1) asking for an iPod Photo create
GPixPod will ask for an
Database. This database resides your iPod
iPod Photo Database when opened.
on your iPod. As a confused iPod Photo Database.

: Don't forget to 'Save'
any new albums and photos.

GPixPod showing a Full Resolution photo

Once you create the iPod Photo to the iPod until you click the 'Save'
Database, using GPixPod is button.
wonderfully simple. New photo
GPixPod is an essential tool for
albums can be created using the
Ubuntu iPod users, once you
'Add Album' button on the main
overcome the iPod Photo Database
toolbar, and photos can be added
from your computer to the iPod
using the 'Add Photos' button. The : Choosing the real
one potential snag here is that the mounted iPod from the
albums and photos are not saved Preferences menu.

Written by Juergen Kissmann and Amy Bassett

restaurants, commercial units, and inspired drive to take risks and
ould you imagine India
cultural spaces for art and music. truly experiment.
without Ubuntu? In
Auroville, we couldn't, Auroville was started with one (of Why is Blue Light excited
especially those of us at Blue several) stated intention: “Auroville about Ubuntu? The Ubuntu
Light. Auroville is a small belongs to humanity as a whole”. For community is easily accessible
international township where those of us who make Auroville our and highly responsive. Over the
2,000 people from all over the home, it is natural that some of us past two years, the support we
world live and work together. We recognize a kindred vibration received for solving our
have all the usual amenities of a between the ideals of Auroville and problems was beyond
small town: schools, those of Open Source. What we care expectations. Being a mixed
administrative offices, services, about is community, collaboration, group of IT professionals and self-
housing communities, libraries, research and development, and an taught computer enthusiasts

with unreliable and inconsistent reduce maintenance costs.
availability of information through Another is small office/home
conventional channels, access to office (SoHo) set-ups. We're
the online community for support especially interested in assisting
is very important to us. Another the development of an Ubuntu
reason why we choose Ubuntu is SoHo server, as this would meet
that it is a solid and secure all our needs, and provide quick
platform that will provide the type and easy server set-ups in our
of computing environment that community. Also, we're
we want in Auroville for our interested in researching
schools and services. groupware solutions to improve
Furthermore, as in many countries the Blue Light team our team-oriented working
with limited resources, low-cost or environments.
free software provides us with
discussion about how the entire We're already a living,
needed alternatives to costly
service may move to a Linux-based, laughing and learning part of the
proprietary products. With Hardy
Open Source system. global Open Source community.
Heron as the next long-term-
We look forward to sprouting and
supported (LTS) version, we are Who is Blue Light anyway? Over nurturing an organic, Auroville
ready to continue our Ubuntu the last year, a highly-motivated home-grown Ubuntu community
adventure in our working group of individuals came together as well.
environments. to create a concrete framework to
move the community services to Interested in Ubuntu and Auroville?
In 2006, a food and sundry- Take a look:
items distribution center was set Ubuntu. We call ourselves Blue Light
You are encouraged to write to us at
up. It opened with various Linux Open Source Service and Research
distributions - leading ultimately Center or, for short, Blue Light. We
to Ubuntu. Then, two schools welcome those who want to
made the decision to migrate to experience Auroville - while
Linux, one of which runs a thin researching and implementing Open
client network. Now, certain Source solutions in the community.
aspects of our community-wide One research area is thin client set-
financial services are undergoing ups because, with the thin client, we
migration, and there is a can use low-end hardware and

Written by Jim DeBroux

ur IT person introduced me The install went flawlessly. I was my needs very well.
to Ubuntu in the late immediately impressed. There were
some issues here and there, but, for Then 6.10 (Edgy) came out. I
Spring or early Summer of
the most part, tried to do the upgrade, but that
2006. He had requested one
everything worked. was a
Ubuntu CD - and got 25 - so he
When I had a mistake.
offered me one. I refused at first,
problem, the Everything
thinking that Linux was not for
answers were on the
me. After all, I was wedded to
easily found on the Ubuntu
Windows, and was developing
Ubuntu forums, drive got
Windows programs in Visual C++
and when I could corrupted. I
for our lab. Eventually, I took it
not find the answer went back
because I had had some
there, all I had to to Windows
experience with open source
do was ask and and
software (I was using Firefox,
someone on the downloaded
Thunderbird and GIMP) and was
forum was willing the .iso for
curious about Linux.
and able to help Edgy and
I did nothing with the CD at me through to a resolution. installed from scratch.
first, but, sometime in the Fortunately, I had all of my data
Summer, I decided to try the live I was having fun with my computer backed up. I have since learned
version of Ubuntu. I was very again. I was productive to the point that it is wise to have /home on
interested in what I saw, so I went of having extra time to play around. I a separate partition, as this
to the official Ubuntu website to also experimented with lots of makes updating/upgrading much
learn more. I learned that I software, even trying different simpler. I have since become
wanted to try 6.06 (Dapper). I versions of Ubuntu (e.g. Kubuntu and addicted to upgrading.
requested a free CD through Xubuntu). I still booted into Windows
ShipIt. It arrived in about two occasionally for some tasks, but, This might have been the end
weeks instead of the promised overall, found Linux served most of of the story but for two things:
The first is that my wife's work well with GIMP. VirtualBox handles the next
computer needed an upgrade. I Ubuntu upgrade. If all goes well,
The second is VirtualBox. Issue #5
installed a “lower end” the Windows hard drive will be
of “Full Circle Magazine”
motherboard and dual-core 64-bit reformatted for
had a wonderful article
I'm just an old
CPU. Win2K would not install, as Ubuntu's exclusive
about VirtualBox. I never
the necessary 64-bit drivers were use.
not available. Panic time: she
had much success with UNIX girl...
VMWare, so I didn't have A couple of final
needed a word processor to finish
much hope here either. comments. Ubuntu
her masters degree. Windows XP
But, to my surprise, VirtualBox is very easy to install - it's the
64-bit was an option but we didn't
works, and works well for me. I easiest OS to install that I've
want to spend money on a new
installed Win2K in my virtual come across. Anyone who says it
OS. So I installed Ubuntu 7.04
machine and I was just blown away. I is more difficult to install than
(Feisty) on her “new” computer. It
have also used it for checking out Windows has probably never
worked. She has adapted quite
different installed Windows from scratch
well to
flavors of on a “clean” machine. For
Ubuntu and someone who is completely new
g and other
Linux. When to and unfamiliar with
software. She
my wife saw computers (e.g. my dad), I would
can also
it, she recommend Ubuntu as the OS of
handle the
requested choice. The maintenance is
terminal (if
that Windows minimal, the dangers of viruses
be installed and malware are minimal, and it
because, as
that way on has a much more appealing
she puts it,
her computer. appearance than Windows.
“I'm just an
I did the
old UNIX girl”
install for her,
(she used to
including the
do 3D
animation on
drivers for her printer, so now she
Unix computers). The only real
can at least perform some of the
problem is the driver for her
maintenance that the printer
printer. It is somewhat
requires. I will wait to see how
inadequate, and doesn't seem to

Written by Robin Catling

round December 2005, I
decided I had to take action
before the heavy Dell 5150
laptop I was lugging around did
permanent damage to my spine.
My final candidate for an ultra-
lightweight, fully-functional, mini
notebook was the JVC MP-XV841.
Extremely compact at 9.2 by 7.0
by 1.5 inches, it’s lightweight at
3.2 pounds, and not much bigger
than a hardback book. The
delivery specs (below) were better
than the laptop I was using daily.
The 1GHz Centrino processor
didn't set the world on fire even
then, but how much horsepower
do you really need for a mobile
office? Okay, the computer is The JVC 'mini'. Back in the good old days before ASUS EEE's.
eccentric, and it compromises in
strange ways. It has an external
clip-on battery; but the good news The tight, cramped keyboard -- which is extremely bright, pin-
is that this means four hours despite having all the keys in the sharp, and, in a widescreen
between charges. The VGA right places -- is just a fraction too format of 1024x600, plays DVDs
connector is on an external port small for easy typing; long work is perfectly using the built-in
replicator, along with a four-port broken up by regular trips to the DVD/CD-RW combo drive. It has
USB hub. There's no Bluetooth. Delete key. However, for such a small manual playback controls along
machine it has a fantastic screen the front edge, a volume

jogwheel, brightness controls, and 40GB hard drive, but the ultra- learned to punch a sheet of
a keyboard lock under the screen. compact size of the JVC was clearly cardboard to hold and label the
There’s even a button for the most challenging part of the engine bolts, so I did the same
surround sound. exercise. More so than most laptops, with a sheet of paper to hold and
it wasn't designed with user identify the thirty seven
By the time I purchased my JVC, upgrades in mind. My research found mismatched screws. In half an
it had been out for about eighteen a single Web page of instructions, hour, I had the whole thing laid
months, so the original (even compiled by a couple of brave souls out across the table. If I hadn't
more) outrageous price had who had succeeded in upgrading built desktop PCs for myself and
dropped by half. I bought one for their machines. I learned that the family for years, I probably
£639 (~$1100), and carried it entire machine needed to be wouldn't have tried it. I didn't
around client sites for a year or disassembled, since the hard drive is take photos -- it was too
so. It caught everyone's attention. the largest internal component and distressing! While I had the JVC
everything else bolts in around it. in pieces, I upgraded its memory
-- both slots, 512MB apiece,
Time passed. Eventually, I which gave me a 1GB machine.
bought another Dell dual-core Jeweller's screwdrivers -- check; The 120GB drive went in and I
laptop with Vista Ultimate, lived magnifying glass -- check; courage in reassembled it with only one
with it for six hideous weeks, and hand -- check. The disassembly took screw left over. I'm still not sure
replaced the entire hard drive and me back to when I did my own car how that happened.
operating system in favor of mechanics for lack of money. I had
Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty). That was my
moment of conversion. As a Linux-
I had used the Gutsy Live CD
watcher for several years, I knew
for various installs already, so I
its potential, but this time I was
knew it worked, but you know
sold on it. Another idea soon
how laptops, especially those of
formed, but I didn't act on it until
a certain age, have
Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy) was
unpredictable combinations of
released. Then I began the
hardware and firmware. I
resurrection of the JVC.
needn't have worried. Ubuntu
It took some planning. I had installed almost flawlessly: it
always intended to upgrade the recognized the on-board

802.11g wireless straight off the recognises the Ricoh in my other
bat, connected to my router laptop!
and...welcome 'JVC-Gutsy' to the
Four months on, suddenly Intel Centrino 1Ghz
Web! Packages were updated,
everyone is talking about the Asus 512MB memory
themes and bookmarks were
Eee PC (below) as a full-spec Linux 40GB hard drive
applied, and graphics were
pocket PC. For the price, there's no DVD/CD-RW
configured -- job done. 8.9inch TFT
question they've done a stand-out
Intel Extreme Graphics 2 (64MB RAM)
job. But for my money, my little JVC
Intel PRO/Wireless 802.11b/g
is simply a pocket battleship. I still 2 x USB2 sockets
For reasons best known to me take it to client sites and into coffee SD card reader
and my accountant, we maintain shops, and it still gets everyone's IEEE-1394/Firewire port
my company accounts on an attention. 10/100 Ethernet
ancient version of Quicken. For V.90 modem
that, I need a Windows machine PC Card slot
and that's what I've got; I Windows XP Professional
installed VMware Server with my
Windows XP as client. The on-
screen real estate is limited but
the performance is more than 1GB memory
fine. I work with a minimalist 120GB hard drive
desktop anyway, so creating a Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy).
single Gnome panel was second
nature. I currently use the Nimbus
theme from Open Solaris, which is
clean and highly legible. At most
tasks, the JVC exceeds
expectations, although I wouldn't
try to redesign my Web sites Robin Catling occasionally earns
without my external monitor money as a project manager, business
analyst and technical trainer. He also
plugged in. The only thing that coaches fencing in the New Forest,
still doesn't work is the Ricoh SD Hampshire, England.
card reader -- although Ubuntu

Taken from

Behind MOTU is a site which features interviews with those who are known as 'Masters of the Universe' (MOTU). They are the volunteer
army of package maintainers that look after the Universe and Multiverse software repositories.

distributions on it. I knew nothing for other packages during Breezy

about the various distros, so I just as well, but Launchpad doesn’t
went with whatever they had put on have that on record.
the first disk, which was Slackware.
After a few years, I switched to
RedHat, then Debian (around 2000, I
think), and now finally Ubuntu.
Being a Debian user before, it
took a bit of reading to work out
the differences between Debian
I’ve been running Ubuntu since a few and Ubuntu, and while reading up
months after Hoary came out. on what the different components
Nørresundby, Denmark
(main, restricted, universe, and
multiverse) were for, I also read
about the MOTU team, etc. I had
I’ve been involved in free software previously worked on some
for quite a few years now, so it felt packages used internally in the
natural to take active part in the company I used to work for, and I
development of the distribution I also contributed a couple of
I started running Linux back in used, and so I got involved pretty packages to Debian (for which I
1996, I believe. I bought a CD set much right away. I had my first self- never found a sponsor, though),
called “Infomagic “LINUX made package included in Breezy a so the technical bits of packaging
Developer’s Resource CD-ROM” - few months later, and I’m quite sure I weren’t that alien to me.
which had a few different must have contributed a few patches

found myself patching the kernel, If you’ve ever been pulled into a
and I needed to make a tiny change project using XML, you’ll know
to module-init-tools as well. I think I what this is all about.
I love hanging out in the Ubuntu
stared at my two-line patch for 5
IRC channels :) People are
minutes trying to convince myself it
friendly, helpful, and we have lots
wouldn’t break anything. AFAIK, it
of fun. The presence of all the
hasn’t. Yet. Sleep.
more experienced people is also
an infinite source of inspiration to
Oh yes, plenty! We’re discussing a lot
of different things here at UDS. You realise of course, you’ve
Integration into existing networks is forced me to clean my office,
going to be a big thing, simplifying now, don’t you?
Just realise that it’s really not that
various system management use
hard. We’re a friendly bunch, and
cases, virtualisation. It’s a bit too
even the smallest contribution is
soon to say what
very welcome. You don’t have to
we’ll actually be
start out with packaging a new
doing, but there’s
complex package.
certainly a lot of
ideas, and I’m really
excited about the
Ubuntu server edition.

There is one that

Well, personally, I’ve felt that [it]
cracks me up every
requires a more holistic view of
Ubuntu. A lot of the stuff I’ve
worked on in universe was “safe”
to fiddle around with. Nothing
huge would break if it didn’t work
out as planned. Recently, I’ve

Written by Emma Jane Hogbin

kind of external recognition. This they are receiving their

may include anything from the motivational paycheck. Being
karma points in Launchpad to peer aware of each person’s habits
recognition for having contributed a will also help you to spot
useful patch. potential burn-out. Although
recruiting new volunteers can be
Within your project’s team, you a solution to losing people from
need to create an environment your project, retaining happy
where volunteers feel supported, volunteers is the key to success.
valued and welcome. Volunteers give
up their free time to contribute to a The commitment to making
project. They will only be motivated change happen is ongoing.
to stay with the project as long as Review your progress on a

n this final installment of the project satisfies a need of theirs. regular basis. Make sure you are
“Making Change Happen”, we Make sure the work is fun (yes, setting goals, creating action
take a look at volunteer debugging code is fun for some items, designating areas of
retention. people). Take every opportunity to responsibility, evaluating
applaud competence and any other progress and retaining your
The world of open source trait you value. Offer feedback on volunteers. I look forward to
software relies almost entirely on work that is done by your volunteers, reading about your continued
volunteer contributions. All but be aware of the kind of feedback success.
behavior is motivated, and you are giving - you may want to
different volunteers will have give constructive criticism privately. builds and
unique reasons to work on a supports on-line communities
project. For some people, it is Keep track of the people--not just using open source software. She
enough to have the satisfaction of the code that is contributed. Identify lives in rural Canada and
a job well done; however, most the motivating behavior for each of chronicles her adventures at
volunteers will also need some your core volunteers, and make sure

UBUNTU YOUTH The future of open source is in the young people of today; that's
why this corner of the magazine is for young people or simply
Written by Andrew Harris those who are young at heart.

oming to Ubuntu, you may
find it hard to really break
in to the group. You may
feel that you want to do
something for the community, but
you don't know how. I had similar Above: - there's always some way to help the community.
feelings when I came to the FOSS
I had heard of all the wonderful meeting place for the Phoenix Linux to program. When you become
things about the open source User Group in a more remote part of proficient at it, try fixing bugs in
philosophy. I loved the idea of Phoenix, and I was immediately your favorite open source
helping your neighbor and sharing accepted into the group. projects. All projects have bugs,
your work freely. But I felt and all bugs need fixing.
Try getting your friends to try out
powerless whenever I thought of Linux. That is how we got where we I hope you feel inspired to help
advancing it or helping to make it are today. After all, you don't see a out. Perhaps you will be the next
better. In reality, the only thing lot of Ubuntu commercials on Mark Shuttleworth or Linus
stopping me was myself. Here's television, do you? You never know Torvalds!
how you too can become involved how much even one person who
in open source. decides to get involved can change
First, find other Linux people things for the better. is, in a
around you, like a local LUG or nutshell, a geek. He enjoys Linux,
If you really want to get involved, Open Source, the fine arts, and
LoCo team. Attend their meetings start coding. Mike Saunders recently programming. If you follow his
and learn as much as you can. had an excellent series on advice then you too will be
When they need volunteers, then programming in addicted to knetwalk. Andrew will
find out how you can help. When I magazine, and there are thousands be speaking at this year's Ubuntu
was getting into Linux, I set up a Live and hopes to see you there.
of books and resources on learning

LETTERS Every month we like to publish some of the emails we receive. If you would like to
submit a letter for publication, compliment or complaint, please email it to: PLEASE NOTE: some letters may be edited for space reasons.


'm a regular reader of Full Writer of Letter of the Month wins
two metal Ubuntu case badges!
Circle Magazine, and I just

wanted to say 'great job'.
must comment on your
Something that is desperately excellent magazine. I wanted to most recent magazine there
needed though, is some kind of make a small booklet, and there was . I already
tutorial on getting wireless was the article in on had that ISO image burnt to a
working. I've been trying to get how to use . Perfect! I had disk but didn't really
my wireless working now for 18 also been looking for a program to understand how to use it. I
months. Sometimes it works, and make an image of my operating thought I had to go to the
sometimes it doesn't. It comes systems. I tried but had command line, make a backup
off as this giant "black box" that to keep remembering the correct directory and so on. In that
no one really seems to path, even wrote it down to no excellent article I learned that
understand, even how-to pages avail. A few months ago I is not the case. Thanks for the
are more: "I tried this and it purchased articles on every day apps. It
worked" rather than a good guide. (which will do both Windows and helps to get more out of them.
Linux) I am a 99.9% Linux user but Keep up the good work!
From different cards, to NDIS occasionally need a program in
wrapper vs. native drivers, to that "other" system. Then in your
WEP, WPA, TKIP, etc., it all
becomes a blur very quickly.

Full Circle should write about have just read my first issue of Fiesty. I have been looking for a
this as many people have Full Circle (#12) and I'm hooked. Ubuntu-specific magazine for a
problems with it. What a publication! I'm a 67-year- while. I'll probably download all
old convertee from Windows and the back issues to get myself
need the info in this magazine. My caught up. Keep up the good
Ed: wife and I both have Ubuntu work.
installed. I have Hardy and she has

read Full Circle for the first line, I've been promoted to the
time today, finding it on
When I was a kid, owner, and I like it. I greet
Google, looking for a we used DOS and problems with optimism because
comparison between Ubuntu and it was no big deal... the community invariably has a
Mint. solution or, at least, a one-google-
search answer.
An enjoyable, optimistic
magazine! I especially liked the letter is this: people are often How can I go back to being a
article written by a 12-year-old, hesitant to step into Linux systems user?
and the HowTos. because of all the tinkering and
command-line activity. My argument
My experience with Linux has is that this is a GOOD thing.
been one of revelation. I'm in

research, in engineering, and by When I was a kid, we used DOS,
egarding your Top5 and
default, we seem to all run and it was no big deal to hit the
games, I was really amazed
Windows, mostly because the command line. Sure, it was ugly, but
with Kenta Cho's games -
application software is all written it gave you a sense of ownership.
for Windows. Now, when someone uses a new cyu/index_e.html - such as
Windows machine, look at their faces , and
I switched to Ubuntu last year
when something goes wrong . All are available
at the needling insistence of a few
(especially in Vista!) - it's one of from the Hardy repository. These
IT friends - and I never looked
defeat, of utter perplexity. Can't play games are the most addictive I
back. Between the open-source
this DVD. Can't play these music could find in the Ubuntu repository.
software and Wine, there's almost
no need for me to go scrounging files. Can't save here. Using Windows Other interesting games were
around in my Windows partition transforms you from an owner of a from -
anymore, except for a few games. machine to merely a user - which is
exactly where Microsoft likes you to - another Japanese programmer.
And when I do - what a grisly be. Put trust in their hands, and let He coded and .
mess. Downloading software, them guide you through this prickly- Very minimalistic yet addictive
extracting it, installing it - then pear maze. games.
being left with a rotting detritus of
its left-behinds. With Ubuntu and the command

Anyway, the focus of my

Q&A If you have Ubuntu-related questions, email them to:, and Tommy will answer them in a future issue.
Written by Tommy Alsemgeest

install it, you need to give the
option for the Live CD.
That should let you boot off the CD
and install Xubuntu. But, then you
have to edit your to get
that option to work every time:

Scroll down to near the bottom,

where your Xubuntu installation is

listed. Then add to the You've probably
end. downloaded the source for

This is, as you suggested, a KDE 4. It is much easier to
problem with Xubuntu
detecting a BIOS that is
older than the year 2000. There
Q install it using the Ubuntu
repositories. To install KDE 4:
Using your package manager,
are two ways to fix the problem.
add the following line to the
The easiest way is to update the
sources list and save:
BIOS. You can usually do this by

going to the manufacturer's This should be of help to
website, downloading a file, anyone trying to troubleshoot
rebooting, then going into the sound problems: To install KDE 4, install the
BIOS and telling the BIOS to package.
update from the file you
downloaded. oundTroubleshooting, and this might On next login, you will need to
be of help in your case: choose KDE4 from the login
The second way is to force manager.
Xubuntu to use your computer. To php?t=551615
Your chance to show the world your desktop or PC. Email your screenshots and
photos to: and include a brief paragraph about your
desktop, your PC's specs and any other interesting tidbits about your setup.

I'm using Xubuntu Gutsy - a really lightweight desktop. So light Here is pic of my clean desktop, running Ubuntu 7.10.
that my PC feels like a Ferrari!
GTK: Tuxido
The wallpaper's name is 'Black Nature', and it's from Metacity: Tuxido The calendar is the new Rainlendar. I was a Icons: Powered & ecqlipse 2
huge fan of Rainlendar when I was using Windows, and now we Wall: Hardwood Lights
have a .deb package for installing it on Ubuntu.
My computer, the General Lee, runs on an AMD Athlon 64 X2
I love my Xubuntu 7.10. At the moment, I don't need the fancy 3800+ with Corsair XMS2 PC6400 DDR2 1GB.
stuff of Compiz, and every Windows user I know says that my
incredible, efficient, beautiful and secure Xubuntu is amazing.

TOP5 SPACE GAMES Your monthly list of Linux games or applications
from the depths of the Internet. If you have an idea
for a list, please email:
Written by Andrew Min

Homepage: Homepage:

While not the most If you don't have
famous on this list, the RAM to run
AstroMenace is by AstroMenace, but
far one of the best still like a good old
games I've ever space shooter, give
played. It is, as you KSpaceDuel a try.
may have guessed, This KDE game is
a space shooter. In much less
this 3D space complicated than
scroller, you AstroMenace, but
navigate a ship through asteroids while destroying it's still lots of fun. Basically, you have two satellites
enemy ships. Sure, it sounds like just another side (one of which you control) orbiting around a sun. The
scroller; and it would be, except for the stunning 3D object of the game is to shoot the other player--
graphics. Now would be a good time to tell you that without crashing or getting hit. However, there's a lot
you need a super powerful graphics card and a ton of gravity and physics involved, which makes for a
of RAM. very challenging and fun game.
To install AstroMenace in Ubuntu, you'll need to add To install KSpaceDuel, install the
a new repository. Full instructions are available at package, available in the main repository. (scroll down
to the apt repository section). After that, install the
astromenace package.

Homepage: Homepage: Homepage:
Critical Mass is another really simple If you prefer turn-based strategy type games, If you like both strategy and shooter
shooter game, modeled after those old- yet still love the alien side of life, FreeOrion is games, Vega Strike is one of the most
time arcade space shooters found in a great option. It's a free turn-based strategy awesome games invented. You are a
malls and doctor's offices. The story is game based on Master of Orion. Basically, it's pilot in a very large galaxy with a host of
fairly basic: you've been overrun by an a space-based Civilization (or, if you're a free species (each with their own history) who
army of "critters", and you need to kill software lover, FreeCiv). As a nice bonus, the can do what you choose, be it trade,
them all. Dead easy, right? Well, those graphics look fairly good (especially for an pirate, or fight. Luckily, it's not all
critters are coming at you faster than open-source game). strategy. There's also the actual action,
any I've ever seen at the mall. which takes place in your cockpit in a
FreeOrion doesn't have any Ubuntu packages
view similar to a first person shooter.
To install Critical Mass, use the yet. There is an installer at
package in the universe There is a package called in
repositories. (latest.tar.gz). For install info read: the universe repositories. However, this version is rather outdated. You can try
using a Debian package at
I've created an Ubuntu package at:
has been a Linux addict
since he first installed openSuSE in data, but please note:
VMWare. Learn more about him at

Full Circle Team

- Rob Kerfia

We are always looking for new articles to include in Full Circle. For article guidelines, - Robert Clipsham
ideas, and for issue translation, please see our wiki:
Please email your articles to: Samuel Barratt Robert Clipsham
Daniel Cohen Philipp Höhn
Andrew Min Vid Ayer
If you would like to submit news, email it to: Andrew Min
HAVE YOUR SAY Mike Kennedy
Send your comments or Linux experiences to: Gord Campbell If you want to have your say on how Robert Orsino
Full Circle Magazine develops, please Matt Janeski
Hardware/software reviews should be sent to: attend our monthly IRC meeting. Matthew Holder David Haas
You can find our next Agenda at:
Questions for future interviews should go to:
We want input from you, the reader, to
Lists and desktop/PC photos should be help us make decisions that affect the
emailed to: magazine.
Next general meeting (all welcome):
at .
If you have questions, you can visit our forum: Meetings take place in the IRC channel
, which is on the server. Or you can use
our webIRC page which is at and it
Sunday 06th July. will allow you to interact with our IRC And our thanks go out to
channel from within your web browser. , the
Friday 25th July. and the many translation
teams around the world.