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Earth leakage protection

Why choose earth leakage protection?

An insulation fault, whatever its cause, is a danger


for:

Human life: electrocution


Equipment: fire
Availability of electrical power: power cut

The protection of persons against the effects


of electric current is primordial
Risks for persons
Danger for human life
electrocution

Current I flow time The gravity of an electric shock


ms 10000

5000
A B C 1 C2 C3 depends on the following factors:
2000
Current value
1000

500 Time it remains in the human body


1 2 3 4
200
Path it takes through the human body
100
Current form
50

20
Impedance of the human body
10
0,1 0,2 0,5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 5001000 2000
When a current in excess of 30 mA flows
500010000 mA
Current flowing through the body Is
through part of the human body, the
person is in danger if this current is not
1 Unperceived 3 Reversible effects : muscular contraction
interrupted in a relatively short time.
2 Perceived 4 Possible irreversible effects
Risks for persons
Danger for human life
electrocution (cont.)

2 types of contact are dangerous:

Direct contact:
Contact of persons or animals with live conductors
(phase or neutral) or with live pieces of equipment

Indirect contact:
Contact of persons or animals with exposed
conductive parts which become accidentally live
following an insulation fault.
Risks for equipment
Danger for equipment
fire

A fire may have serious consequences for people and


equipment.

The danger of fire is all the greater the higher the fault
current. It increases in relation to the degree of fire
or explosion hazard in the premises.
Risks for availability of
Electrical power
Danger for availability of electrical power
power cuts

This is an increasing danger

The consequences may be:

Danger relating to the safety of persons


(no power to safety equipment, no lighting, etc)

Financial hazards (production losses)

Damage to installations.
Earthing arrangement
Where should a residual current device be
installed?
According to the installations earthing
arrangement, a residual current device
(RCD) is necessary:

Earthing arrangement

Device TT IT TN

RCD ( ) ( )

PIM

Circuit-breaker
Earthing arrangement
TT earthing arrangement

TT earthed neutral
Definition
The neutral point of the LV
transformer is directly connected
to an earth electrode

The exposed conductive parts of


the installation are connected to
an electrically separate earth
electrode.

Consequences
Tripping each group of
equipment must occur on the first
fault

Use of one residual current


device for.
Earthing arrangement
IT earthing arrangement

IT isolated neutral Definition


The neutral point of the LV transformer is isolated or is
connected to the earth via a high impedance
CPI
The exposed conductive parts of the loads are connected by
the PE conductor to a common earth electrode or to separate
earth electrodes.

Consequences
The appearance of the first insulation fault does not present a
danger for persons

The appearance of the second insulation fault is dangerous


and necessitated tripping. A permanent insulation monitor
(PIM) must be installed at the incoming end of the installation

A residual current device MUST be install on all outgoing feeders


whose exposed conductive parts are not connected to the same
earth electrode.
Earthing arrangement
TN earthing arrangement

TN neutral earthing arrangement Definition


TN-C system
The neutral point of the LV transformer is directly connected
to an earth electrode
PEN
The exposed conductive parts of the installation are
connected to the same earth electrode by the PE.

Available in 3 different arrangements


TN-S system TN-C
TN-S
N
PE
TN-C-S

Consequences
Protection is provided by the circuit-breaker
An accurate calculation of loop impedance is required in order
to guarantee tripping on an insulation fault
A residual current device makes calculation unnecessary, in
particular when changes to the installation are made.
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection The principle of Multi 9 earth leakage protection

Measurement of the sum of currents flowing through


the conductors of a circuit

Opening of the contacts of the residual current


Opening
device if this vectorial sum exceeds a specific value:

The sensitivity I n: 10 mA, 30 mA, 300 mA, etc


Detection Measurement
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection Choice criteria
continuity of supply

instantaneous

selective
Discrimination
A A A A
A m m m m
0
A fault downstream from RCD
m 0 0 0 0
30 10 30 50 30

B causes RCD B only to trip

Current-based discrimination
sensitity band Il

instantaneous
(horizontal)

Total discrimination
(vertical)

Partial discrimination
0,030 0,100 0,300 0,500 3000 current
In
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection
Choice criteria
continuity of supply (cont.)

Current-based discrimination: circuit selection

The installation is divided into several circuit


groups

Each group is protected by an RCD suited to the


potential dangers of the circuit: only the faulty
circuit is de-energized.
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection
Choice criteria
continuity of supply (cont.)

Total discrimination
A
1000 mA In the event of a fault, only the faulty circuit is
S types de-energized

Combination of time-graded and current-based


B discrimination
300 mA 30 mA
I n A > 2I n B
Tt A > Tt B + Tf B
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection
Choice criteria
continuity of supply (cont.)

Partial discrimination

500 mA A fault leads to the installation being partially or totally


S type de-energized

Total discrimination between devices A and D

Discrimination not ensured between circuits


A and B , A et C , C et F
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection
Choice criteria
network characteristics

The level of network pollution determines the choice of RCD

Standard network: AC Class

Network with presence of pulsating DC components: A Class

Network with presence of pure DC components: B Class

For unstable systems : network disturbed by atmospheric


overvoltages (lightning), motor starting, high power
energizations, etc: Si type RCD

In case of installations located in aggressive environments


(chemical pollution, humidity): SiE type RCD

All these devices benefit from a high level of immunity to transient currents
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection Multi 9 switchgear
RCCB - ID residual current circuit-breaker
Pole: 2P or 4P
Rating: 16 to 125 A
Sensitivity: 10 mA to 500 mA
Instantaneous, selective, time delay

The DPN vigi residual current device


Pole: Ph + N
Rating: 1 to 40 A
Sensitivity: 30 mA and 300 mA
Instantaneous

The vigi C60, vigi C120 and NG125 earth leakage


modules
Pole: 2P, 3P or 4P
Sensitivity: 30 mA to 1 A
Instantaneous, selective, time delay.
Multi 9 earth leakage
protection RCCB - ID residual current circuit-breaker
the auxiliaries (common with C60/C120/DPN)

C120

C60

OF SD OF + SD MN MN s MNX ID
MX + OF OF.S

MX MSU

Auxiliary/circuit-breaker assembling clipping


- immediate OF.S
- no tools required
- no cable DPN
Specific design for comb busbars use
OF SD: test possible without power.