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UT Tables

The following tables have been reproduced from the print versions of the
Ultrasonic Testing Programmed Instruction series.

Volume 1
Table 2.1: Wave velocity values for selected materials at room temperature.
Wave velocity (m/s)
Material Density (g/cm3)
Longitudinal Shear
Air 0.0012 333

Acrylic (PlexiglasTM) 1.18 2670 1120

Aluminum 2.7 2.8 6250. 6350 3100

Brass 8.1 4370 2100

Bronze 8.86 3530 2230

Copper 8.9 4660 2260

Glass (normal) 2.51 5770 3430

Glass (heat resistant) 2.23 5570 3440

Gold 19.3 3240 1200

Inconel alloy 8.25 5720 3020

Iron, cast 7.2 3500 5600 2200 3200

Iron, electrolytic 7.9 5960 3220

Lead 11.4 2160 700

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) 7.65 3791

Magnesium 1.74 5740 3080

Nickel 8.8 5630 2960

Platinum 21.45 3960 1670

Quartz 2.65 5730

Silver 10.5 3600 1590

Stainless steel 7.67 8.03 5660. 7390 2990. 3120

Steel 7.8 5850 3230

Tin 7.5 3320 1670

Titanium 4.54 6100 3120

Tungsten 19.1 5460 2620

Water 1.00 1479

Zinc 7.1 4170 2410

Zirconium 6.49 4310 1960


Table 2.2: Critical angles in immersion testing; first medium is water (V = 1.49 mm/s).
First Second Wave velocity (mm/s)
Test Material
critical angle critical angle Longitudinal Shear
Aluminum 17ST 14 29 6.25 3.10

Beryllium 7 10 12.80 8.71

Brass 20 45 4.37 2.10

Copper 19 41 4.66 2.26

Glass, plate 15 26 5.77 3.43

Lead 44 2.16 0.70

Steel 15 27 5.85 3.23

Stainless 302 15 29 5.66 3.12

Tungsten 17 31 5.18 2.87

Table 2.3: Critical angles in contact testing; first medium is plastic (V = 2.67 mm/s).
First Second Wave velocity (mm/s)
Test Material
critical angle critical angle Longitudinal Shear
Aluminum 17ST 25 59 6.25 3.10

Beryllium 12 18 12.80 8.71

Brass 38 4.37 2.10

Copper 35 4.66 2.26

Glass, plate 28 51 5.77 3.43

Lead 2.16 0.70

Steel 27 56 5.85 3.23

Stainless 302 28 59 5.66 3.12

Tungsten 31 68 5.18 2.87

Table 3.1: Selected piezoelectric material properties. T = transmitting; R = receiving; T R = total


efficiency.
Efficiency Critical
Impedance Density
Material temperature
T R TR (Mrayl) (g/cm3)
(C)
Quartz (x cut) 1 1 1 15.2 576 2.65
PZT5 (lead zirconate 70 0.21 14.6 33 193365 7.5
titanate)
BaTi (barium titanate) 8.4 31.2 115150 5.4

PMN (lead metaniobate) 32 20.5 550 6.2


LSH (lithium sulfate 6.9 2.0
hydrate)
LN (lithium niobate) 2.8 0.54 1.51 34 4.64
PVDF (polyvinylidene 6.9 1.35 9.3 4.1 165180 1.76
fluoride)
Table 3.2: Beam spread in steel.
Transducer diameter mm (in.)
Frequency (MHz) mm (in.)
9.53 (0.375) 12.7 (0.5) 49.53 (1.95) 64.52 (2.54)
1 5.81 (0.2287) 48 10 34 21 52 16 13

2.25 2.59 (0.102) 19 23 14 25 9 33 7 9

5 1.16 (0.0457) 8 34 6 25 4 16 3 12

Volume 2

Table 3.1: Welding process and typical discontinuity types.


Discontinuity Type

Penetration
Incomplete

Undercut
Tungsten
Welding Process

Inclusion

Inclusion
Porosity
Lack of
Fusion
Cracks

Slag
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

Submerged arc welding (SAW)

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

Flux-cored arc welding self shielded (FCAW-S)

Flux-cored arc welding gas shielded (FCAW-G)

Table 5.1: Common practice of sensor selection in TOFD tests.

Nominal wall Nominal frequency Element size in Recommended angle


thickness mm (in.) (MHz) transducer mm (in.) (degrees)

< 12 (0.47) 10 15 2 6 (0.08 0.25) 60 70

12 35 (0.5 1.4) 5 10 3 6 (0.125 0.25) 50 70

35 75 (1.4 3) 25 6 12 (0.25 0.5) 45 65

75 300 (3 12) 15 6 12 (0.25 0.5) 45 65


Table 6.1 (reproduced in part): ASTM standards on ultrasonic testing technology.

Standard Number Standard Title

E114-10 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Straight-Beam Contact Testing

Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic


E127-10
Standard Reference Blocks

E164-08 Standard Practice for Contact Ultrasonic Testing of Weldments

Table 6.2: ASTM standards on specific ultrasonic testing applications.

Standard Number Volume Standard Title

Standard Practice for Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and


ASTM A609/A609M-91(2007) 01.02 Martensitic Stainless Steel, Ultrasonic Examination Thereof
Standard Specification for Straight-Beam Ultrasonic
ASTM A435/A435M-90(2012) 01.04
Examination of Steel Plates
Standard Specification for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Examination
ASTM A577/A577M-90(2012) 01.04
of Steel Plates
Standard Specification for Straight-Beam Ultrasonic
ASTM A578/A578M-07(2012) 01.04 Examination of Rolled Steel Plates for Special Applications

ASTM A388/A388M-11 01.05 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Steel Forgings

Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic Steel


ASTM A745/A745M-12 01.05
Forgings
Standard Practice for Detection of Large Inclusions in Bearing
ASTM E588-03(2009) 01.05 Quality Steel by the Ultrasonic Method
Standard Test Method for Ultrasonic Inspection of Aluminum
ASTM B548-03(2009) 02.02 Alloy Plate for Pressure Vessels
Table 6.5: Section titles of ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code.
Section Number Section Title
I Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
II Materials

III Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components

IV Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers


V Nondestructive Examination
VI Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VII Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications
X Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
XII Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks

Table 6.6: Articles on ultrasonic testing in ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section V.
Section Number Article Number Article Title
Article 1 General Requirements

A Article 4 Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Welds

Article 5 Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Materials

B Article 23 Ultrasonic Standards


Table 6.8: Popular API standards and specifications related to nondestructive testing.
Standard or
Specification Title
Number
Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating of In-Service
ANSI/API 570
Piping Systems (includes addenda)

API Std 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities

API 653 Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction

ANSI/API Spec 5L Specification for Line Pipe

API 5CT Specification for Casting and Tubing

API Std 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks

API Std 650 Welded Tanks for Oil Storage

Ultrasonic and Magnetic Examination of Offshore Structural Fabrication and


API RP 2X Guidelines for Qualification of Technicians

Field Inspection of New Casing, Tubing, and Plain-end Drill Pipe, Seventh Edition,
API RP 5A5 (R2010) Includes Errata (2009)

Recommended Practice for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Pipe Imperfections, Second


API RP 5UE (R2010) Edition, Includes Addendum 1 (2009)

Recommended Practice for Inspection and Classification of Used Drill Stem Elements,
API RP 7G-2 First Edition (Identical Adoption of ISO 10407-2:2008), Includes Errata (2009)

Table 6.9: AWS D1 standard on structural welding.

Volume Number Title

D1.1/D1.1M Structural Welding Code Steel

D1.2/D1.2M Structural Welding Code Aluminum

D1.3/D1.3M Structural Welding Code Sheet Steel

D1.4/D1.4M Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel

D1.5/D1.5M Bridge Welding Code

D1.6/D1.6M Structural Welding Code Stainless Steel

D1.7/D1.7M Guide to Repair and Strengthening of Existing Structures

D1.8/D1.8M Structural Welding Code Seismic Supplement

D1.9/D1.9M Structural Welding Code Titanium