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Designation: A802 95 (Reapproved 2010)2

Standard Practice for


Steel Castings, Surface Acceptance Standards, Visual
Examination1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A802; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.

1 NOTEFootnote 2 was editorially corrected in June 2011.


2 NOTEDual designation was removed in April 2015.

1. Scope 2.1.1.1 veins, nraised, narrow, linear ridges that form


1.1 This practice covers the acceptance criteria for the upon cracking of the sand mold or core due to expansion of
surface inspection of steel castings by visual examination. Four sand and the resulting mold or core stresses during filling of the
levels of acceptance standards are provided. mold with liquid steel.
2.1.1.2 rat tails, nlong, narrow, linear depressions or
1.2 Acceptance levels utilize Steel Castings Research and small steps occurring on a casting surface. Rat tails form as a
Trade Association (SCRATA)2 graded reference comparators result of sand expansion and minor buckling of the mold
for the visual determination of surface texture, surface surface during filling of the mold with liquid metal.
roughness, and surface discontinuities described as follows: 2.1.1.3 scab, na raised, rough area on a casting that
Acceptance levels usually consists of a crust of metal covering a layer of sand.
ASurface Texture Sometimes, a scab consists of a raised, rough area of essen-
BNonmetallic Inclusions tially solid metal on the surface of a casting.
CGas Porosity 2.1.2 external chills:
DSolidification Discontinuities 2.1.2.1 external chills, nusually metal blocks, or graphite
ESand Expansion Discontinuities and carbon blocks, that are incorporated into the mold to
FMetal Inserts locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification.
GThermally Cut Surfaces Brackets have the same purpose but represent an integral part
HMechanically Prepared Surfaces of the casting. Brackets are produced by providing suitable
JWelded Surfaces cavities in the mold or core. External chills may produce flat
1.3 Descriptions of terms related to casting discontinuities spots and edges (raised areas or depressions) on the casting
are in Section 2. surface. Brackets merely change the casting appearance due to
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the their presence. Brackets may be removed or allowed to remain
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the on the casting.
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 2.1.2.2 parting line and core print fins, nthin projections
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- of excess metal at the parting plane between mold halves or
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. core and mold. Causes are improper closing of the mold,
insufficient weighting or clamping of the mold for pouring, or
2. Terminology uneven pattern surfaces at the matching locations. Core print
2.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: fins are usually caused by improper dimensions of core prints
2.1.1 expansion discontinuities: of the pattern or core box, by rough placement of cores in a soft
mold, or by inadequately secured cores.
2.1.3 fusion discontinuities:
1
This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, 2.1.3.1 wrinkles, nelongated, smooth depressions of the
Stainless Steel and Related Alloysand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.18 on Castings. casting surface, frequently appearing in closely spaced groups.
Current edition approved Oct. 1, 2010. Published December 2010. Originally Wrinkles result from irregularities of the liquid metal flow in
approved in 1982. Last previous edition approved in 2006 as A802/ the mold cavity, frequently associated with low temperature,
A802M 95 (2006). DOI: 10.1520/A0802-95R10E02.
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and are distinguished from the more severe phenomenon of
Available from Castings Technology International, Advanced Manufacturing
Park, Brunel Way, Rotherham, S60 5WG, South Yorkshire, England. http:// laps, folds, or cold shuts where the casting surface is actually
www.castingstechnology.com. folded over.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

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A802 95 (2010)2
2.1.3.2 laps, folds, and cold shuts, ninterchangeable removed during the cleaning process of pressure blasting.
terms to describe the appearance of the casting surface that is Surface discontinuities left by these inclusions are referred to
actually folded over. They develop due to low temperature, by the inclusion type that caused their formation:
unfavorable flow conditions caused by oxide films, or combi- 2.1.8.1 Ceroxides cause depressions on the surface of the
nations thereof. casting by displacement of molten metal. Ceroxides consist of
2.1.3.3 misrun, nan incompletely formed casting, due to a mixture of low-melting oxides and partially fused sand. The
only partial filling of the mold cavity when the liquid metal crater-like appearance of the casting surface depression is
solidifies prematurely. The resulting casting appearance is typical.
characterized by rounded edges, for a mild degree of misrun. 2.1.8.2 Depressions on the casting surface caused by slag
Irregular, malformed edges of more severe misruns, and not are similar to those caused by ceroxides. They differ by a more
fully formed castings, are characteristic. Frequently, misruns rounded appearance of the depression and do not exhibit the
are associated with such discontinuities as wrinkles or laps and crater-like appearance of ceroxides.
folds, or both. 2.1.8.3 Depressions caused by sand are similar to those of
2.1.4 gas porosity, na concave discontinuity in castings ceroxides and slag. Their appearance may, at times, more
due to the evolution of gas, either from the solidifying metal or closely reflect the granular nature of the sand.
the surrounding mold. 2.1.9 shrinkage under risers and gates, and revealed by
2.1.5 inserts: machining, na shrinkage void is a discontinuity in castings
2.1.5.1 chaplets, nmetallic (steel) devices used to main- due to the lack of available liquid feed metal during solidifi-
tain the spacing between the core and the mold. Low liquid cation contraction. Riser removal and machining may reveal
metal temperature and unfavorable flow conditions in the mold shrinkage that extends from the interior of the casting to the
may produce insufficient fusion and cause irregular contact near surface area.
areas on the casting surface. 2.1.10 surface texture, ncast surfaces have a multi-
2.1.5.2 internal chills, nmetallic (steel) devices used to directional lay, without the uniform sequence of ridges and
locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification. valleys of machined surfaces.
Incomplete fusion due to low liquid steel temperatures and 2.1.11 welding:
prevailing flow conditions may produce irregularities of the 2.1.11.1 weld undercuts, nnarrow elongated depressions
surface similar to those that may be associated with chaplets. that border the weld contour and result from improper welding
2.1.6 linear discontinuities, nelongated discontinuities conditions or inadequate control of welding operations.
are considered linear if their length equals or exceeds three 2.1.11.2 weld spatter, nweld metal droplets that solidified
times the width. against and adhere to the component being welded.
2.1.6.1 cracks, n cold and hot, less jagged, sometimes
straight ruptures that occur after solidification of the casting, 3. Ordering Information
due to excessive strain. Sometimes cracks are referred to as
3.1 The inquiry and order should specify the following
cold, hot, or heat treat-cracks to indicate the condition of the
information:
castings, or the operation during which the cracks occur.
3.1.1 Acceptance LevelMore than one acceptance level
2.1.6.2 hot tears, njagged ruptures in castings that occur
may be specified for different surfaces of the same casting (see
during the final stages of solidification, while there is still some
Section 4),
liquid in the interdendritic spaces, or shortly after solidification
3.1.2 If any types of discontinuities are unacceptable,
is complete.
2.1.7 metal removal marks, nflame cutting and air carbon- 3.1.3 Extent of casting surfaces to be examined, and
arc cutting produce parallel grooves in the cut-off area. Finer 3.1.4 Number of castings to be examined.
marks are produced with the abrasive cut-off wheel and
grinding. 4. Acceptance Standards
2.1.8 nonmetallic inclusions, ncasting surface inclusions 4.1 Levels of acceptance for visual inspection are listed in
such as ceroxides, slag, and sand are partially or completely Table 1.

TABLE 1 Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria


Surface Feature Level I Level II Level III Level IV

Surface texture A1 A2 A3 A4
Nonmetallic inclusions B1 B2 B4 B5
Gas porosity C2 C1 C3 C4
Fusion discontinuities . . .A D1 D2 D5
Expansion discontinuities . . .A . . .A E3 E5
Inserts . . .A . . .A F1 F3
Metal removal marks:
Thermal G1 G2 G3 G5
Mechanical H1 H3 H4 H5
Welds J1 J2 J3 J5
A
No reference comparator plate is available for this surface feature and level.

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A802 95 (2010)2
4.2 Surface discontinuities not covered in Practice A802/ 5. Keywords
A802M shall be a matter of agreement between the purchaser 5.1 steel castings; surface acceptance standards; visual
and the manufacturer.

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