Structu
I,. ,
CHAPTER I
DEFLECTIONS OF STRUCTURES
1.1 Introduction
A rigid body moves slightly when it is subjected to load or strained
due to any other reason such as change in temperature, shrinkage or creep
of the material of construction.
The displacements of variou s points from their original positions are
called dejlectioTls. In a broader sense, deflections comprise linear displa
cements as well as angular rotations.
Resistance of a structural element to deflection is termed stiffness.
Stiffness of a structure is of no less importance than its strength. This is
because an excessive deflection of a structure may impair its proper fun
ction. For example, excessive deflection of floor beams may cause cracking
of the plaster and produce drainage problems and excessive deflection
of a frame in a building may damage the exterior curtain walls and
inte rior partitions.
Not only is a knowledge of the deflections important for reasons as
those mentioned above, but also because it forms the basis of the analysis
of statical1y indeterminate structures. 'When the number of equations
of eq uilibrium together with any condition equations available from
particular datails of construction (section 2.4" Part I) is not sufficient
to determine all the external reactions of a structure and the internal forces
and moments in its component members, resort is made to compatibility
I
conditions . These conditions which are based on displacements and
rotations provide the additional number of equations required for the
analysis.
I
There are several methods for computing deflections. Of these
methods" the following are the most useful a nd widely used and therefore
will be considered in detail in this chapter.
I. The double integration method.
2. The momentarea method.
~
2
Part I
Classical Methods of BeaDl Deflections
+x
Elastic curve
+y
Fig. I.l

R
I
= ~/[l
dx2
+ (~.)2]~
\dx
J.l
3
cly
where R is the radius of curvature at any point on the ;beam, y and
dx
are the deHcction and the slope of the elastic curve at that point respect
From equation 8.12 (Part I), the expression relating the curvature
to the applied moment is :
I M
1.3
R EI
r
4
(a)
O.S19L I
(Ll
Fig . 1.2
Solution: The reactions arc first found and are as indicated in Fig. 1.2a.
The bending moment at any section along the beam at a distance x from
a is given by :
wLx wx 3
M     
6 6L
5
d'y I (WLx WX 3)
dx 2 =  E1 6  6L
Integrating twice,
4
dy
 1 (WLx2
 wx
 
dx E1 12 24L
I (wLx3 wx' )
Y =  E1 \ 3s  120L + Ax + B
0 =   1 (WL4
   wL'+AL+B)
E1 36 120L
7wL3
B = o and A = 
360
wx 4
dy
Therefore   =   1 (WLx2
     7WL3)

, dx E1 12 24 L 360
centrated end load as shown in Fig. 1.3a. Determine the slope and deflec
tion equations, and hence find the slope and deflection at the free end.
Fig. 1.3
Integrating twice,
dy
dx
=.!.... (Lx
EI
_ x' +
2
A)
(~.
3
y = :1  x6 + Ax + B)
The two boundary conditions needed to determine the constants A and
B are :
dy
   o and y = 0 at x = 0
dx
P P
o 
EI
(0  0 + A) and 0= 
EI
(OO+O+B)
A OandB = O
Therefore, dy =...!:...
dx EI
(Lx _ ~)
2
y = :1 (~2 x; ) _
7
a" =( dY)
dx b
= ~ (L' _
EI
L')
2
= PL'
2EI
~)~f_M. _ __
L
 14\
(b)
Fig. 1.4
Solution: The reactions are first found and are as indicated in Fig. 1.4a.
The bending moment at any section at a distanc... x from a is given by :
M=(Mo M:)
Applying equation 1.5,
d2 _1_ (M _ M.,x)
y
dx'
=
EI 0 L
Integrating twice,
~ = ~I
(M.,x  ~~2 + A)
y
1(M.,x2 M.,x3
=lli 261:"""+ Ax +B
)
The constants A and B are found from the two boundary conditions :
y = 0 at x = 0 and y = 0 at x = L
8
2
I
O=(OO+O+B)andO=  I (MoL L2 +AL+B)
  _ M o
EI EI 2 6
MoL
B o and A=   
3
dy
Therefore,   _
dx
_1_ (M.x
EI
Mox2 _
2L
MoL)
3
_ _ I (MoX2 _ Mox3 _ MoLX)
Y  EI 2 6 L 3
The maximum deflection, Ymax ' occurs at the point where the slope
a
=
( dx
dY)

a
=  
MoL
3 E~
and a" = (~)
dx b

MoL
6EI
The elastic curve of the beam is S!l(lWn in Fig. l.4b.
9
0
(I b
Pb 0 I b Po
L L L
Fig. 1.5
Solution: The reactions are first found and are as indicated. Unlike the
preceding examples, the bending moment has two different equations
to apply to parts ac and be of the beam. Thcrcfore~ moment equations are
found for each part and the integrations arc carried o ut separately. Not~
that in writing the moment equations the same coordinate axes arc used
although a solution is also possible by taking two origins, onc at each end.
of the beam, but this may lead to confusion in the signs adopted.
Part ac.. x <a
Pb
M= x (a)
L
d 2y Pbx
  = (b)
dx 2 LEI
dy Pbx 2
 = +A (e)
dx 2LEI
Pbx'
y     + Ax+B
6LEI
(d)
10
Four constants;A, B, C, and D appear in the two sets of equations. The
boundaries provide two conditions only,
y = 0 at x 0 (i)
y=o at x = L (ii)
The other two conditions required are obtained from the continuity
of the elastic curve, i.e. at point c the slope and deflection are the same
whether they are obtained from the expressions of part ac or those of part
cb. Mathematically,
dy = dy
at x = a, at x = a (iii)
dx dx
at x = a, y y at x = a (iv)
From condition (i) and equation (d), B = O. From condition (iii) and
equations (c) and (g), and noting that x = a, A = C. From condition (iv)
and equations (d) and (h) and noting that x = a, B = 0 and A = C,
D = o. From condition (ii) and equation (h), and noting that D = 0
Pb
and (Ira) = b, C =  (L2_b 2) .
6EIL
Substituting the value of the constants of integration thus determine.d
into equations (c), (d), (g) and (h), the required expressions for the slope
and deflection are obtained.
Part ac
dy Pb
  (L2 _ b2 _ 3 x 2) (i)
dx 6 ElL
Pbx
y =   (L2 _ b2 _ x 2) (i)
6 ElL
Part cb
y = 
Pb [L
6 ElL
  (x 
b
a)3 + (L2 _ b 2) xx 3 ] (I)
For a > b, the maximum deflection will occur in the left part to
which equations (i) and Ul apply. By equating the right hand side of
equation (i) to zero, the position of the point of maximum deflection is
located. .
x = ~ (L2 _ b 2)/3
Substituting this value of x into equation U) the maximum deflection
is obtained.
11
Pb 31
= (L2 _ b2) 2
9 J 3EIL
For a centrally loaded beam} the maximum deflection occurs at the
centre and its value is obtained by substituting x=b=L/2 into equation(j).
PL3
Ymu = 48 EI
Mo
(al a b
Mo a b Mo
L L L
Y,~I
(bl
I~ ~
Fig. 1.6
M x3
y __0_ +Ax + B (d)
6 ElL
12
2
=
d y
dx2 r: Mo)

1 (MoX
EI (f)
~ = __1_( Mx Mx)
2
o _ +e (g)
dx EI 2L 0
equations (d) and (h) and noting the relation between A and e and that
M a2
B = 0, D =. 2~1 . Also from condition (ii) and equation (h),
Moa
and A = EI
Substituting the values of these constants into equations (c), (d), (g) and
(h) the required expressions for the slope and deflection are obtained.
Part ac,
dy Mo [
dx 6 ElL 6aL3 (a' + x2 )  2 L' ] (i)
Mox [
y= 6 ElL 6aL  3 a'  x2  2 L' ] (j)
.~
Part cb
dy Mo [
dx
=
6 ElL
6 xL  3 (a 2 + x 2)  2 L' ] (k)
13
Ib_
_....J.. _ O.5L _ I c
L
Ole,
Fig. 1.7
dy P (L  x)'
+A (c)
dx 4 EI
P (L  x)3
y= + Ax + B (d)
12 EI
Part be, x > L/2
M   P (L  x) {e)
d 2y P (L  x)
(f)
dx 2 EI
dy P (L  x)'
+C (g)
dx 2 EI
P (L  x)3
y= 6EI +Cx+D (h)
Part ab,
dy P (L  x)2 PL2
+ (i)
dx 4 EI 4 EI
P (L  x)3 2
PL x
y +    PL' (j)
12 EI 4 EI 12 EI
Part be, """
dy P(L  x)2 5 PL2
+ (k)
dx 2 EI 16 EI
15
P (L _ x) 3 5 PL 2x
(1)
y=
6 EI 16 EI +
The slope and deflection at the free end are found by substituting
x = L in equations (k) and (1) respectively. Thus,
Q o = (ddxY)c = ~
16 EI
5 PL' PL' 3 PL3
Yo = 16 EI 8 EI !6Er'
The elastic curve of the beam is shown in Fig. 1.7 h.
It will be noticed from the previous examples that the double inte
gration method provides expressions for the slope and deflection from
which the slope and deflection at any point along the beam length may
be determined. The position and value of maximum deflection are also
readily obtainable. The method is useful in simple cases of prismatic
members where the bending moment along the entire length of the beam
may be expressed by a single equation. When this is not the case~
the mathematical solution becomes too involved and it is advisable to
use another more suitable method.
x,
x,
0 11 21 x
~
"', Y,
"', t
Am B.M.D.
r Y
Fig. 1.8
16
S dx
s 1
M
EI
dx
(~)'(~:)2 ~S
M
EI dx 1.6
Since small deflections are being dealt with... a study of equation 1.6
1.7
where al and a2 are ,the slopes of the tangents to the elastic curve at
points 1 and 2 and Am is the area of the B.M.D. between these two points.
17
"The change in slope, expressed in radians, between any two points on the elastic
_ .. 1 M
&UTVe IS C'i1,UU, to the net area of the   diagram between these two points".
EI
Multiplying both sides of equation 1.5 by x and integrating,
2 2
d2y Mx
S dx
2xdx
S EI
dx
[x(::)y]: =s Mx
EI
dx
A study of this equation in conjunction with Fig. 1.8 shows that the
left hand side represents the vertical intercept through the origin between
the tangents to. the elastic curve at points I and 2. This distance is called
the tangential deviation. Also, integrating the product of the elemental
M
I
area of the EI diagram, and the distance x gives the moment of
M
the area of the EI diagram between the limi ts chosen about the
Am
Tangential deviation EI x",
1.9
where Am is the area of the B.M.D. and Je,n, as shown in Fig. 1.8" is the
M
distance between the centroid of the EI diagram and the origin.
18
A
between point' I and 2 about roint I; YI2 = E~ XI (Fig. 1.9a).
,.
E. curve E_curve
2
\ Y21
B_MD
x2 ..J
(a.) (b)
Fig_ 1.9
"The deflection of any point relative to the tangent at another point on the elastic
curve is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments qf the area qf the
M .
  dtagram hetween these two points ahout the point where the deflection is
EI
desired" .
M
In the solution of ordinary problems, the EI diagram consists of
triangles, rectangles and parabolas whose areas and centroids are easily
obtainable and the application of the two momentarea theorems to the
r
19
(2) The deflections at various poi nts generally call for the calculation
of the deflection at some point with respect to the tangent at another,
together with simple relations based on similar triangles.
+ B.M.D.
E curve
E.curve
(a) :7 (b)
Fig LID
Conversely, it will be below the tangent if the moment of the area of the
'.
20
M t of the
EI diagra m is negativ e (Fig. I.Il b). The sign of tbe momen
M .
area of the  diagra m corresp onds to the sign of the B.M.D
EI
(al (bl
Fig. 1.11
L
,
p u..........
(bl
e.'=3 n
3
(c) "'. J....\
Fig. 1.12

The
Soluti on: The B.M.D . is first drawn and is as shown in Fig. 1.12b.
equal to the
change in slope of the elastic curve betwee n points a and b is
M lar casc.:o
area of the  diagra m betwee n a and h. In this particu
EI
21
this represents the slope at the free end as it is known that the tangent at
the fixed end has zero slope. Thus"
PL2 PL2
o_ "'b = _ _I (PL X L) =
EI 2 2EI 2EI
The positive sign indicates that the tangent to the elastic curve rotates
clockwise.
The deflection at point b with respect to the tangent at point a .. which
in this particular case is the actual deflection, can he found by taking
Yb = _ _1_ ( PL 2 X 2 L) = _ PL3
EI 2 3 3 EI
The negative sign indicates that point b deflects below the tangent
at a, i.e. downwards .
The elastic curve is shown in Fig. 1.12 c.
ExaDlple 1.8 Determine the slope and the deflection at the free end of a .
cantilever of constant EI and loaded by a uniformly distributed load as
shown in Fig. l.l3 a.
w
(a) lR:dJ:!IIIID:ITL:ITIIIID:rrq: b
2
(bl
wI:
2 r
'=.. 11
4 4
,"", .i
I
(el
Fig. l.l3
= y,
Solution: The B.M.D. is first drawn and is as shown in Fig. 1.13 b. The
r
calculations are carried out as in the lpreviolls example as follows:
wL'
[ 6 EI
[
22
The positive sign indicates that the tangent to the elastic curve rotates
clockwise.
I (I wL2 3 L) wL<
Yb =  EI 3 X L X 2 X 4 =  8 EI
w
(a) ! ! I I
(b)
lL~
16
0<,
(e)
Y,
Fig. 1.14
Yba =
I (2 L wL2 L) wL
EI 3 X 8 X 2' = 24 EI
4
,
I
I!
I
I 23
Yba WL3
aa = L  24Ei' (i)
where Yca is the tangential deviation of point c with respect to the tangent
at point a, which according to the second momentarea theorem and with
reference to Fig. 1.14 b is given by :
Yea =
(2
I
El 3" X
L
2" X
wL2
8"" X
3
8 X
L)
2" =
wL
4
128 EI
(iii)
Example 1.10 For the beam shown in Fig. 1.15 a, calculate the deflection
under the load and the maximum deflection if EI = 2500 m 2t.
41
(a) or x 'd
c b
t  6m   I3m
9m
(b)
(e) 0<,
~k~~~
Y,.
Fig . 1.15
Solution: Referring to Figs. 1.15 band c which show the B.M.D. and a
sketch o f the elastic curve,
24
144
Yha EI
(24 X 5 + 12 x 2) EI
144
Q
a 9 EI 
EI16
I 48
Yc ~ 6 Q
a  Yca ~ EI (6 x 16  24 x 2)
EI
48
2500 x 100 ~ 1.92 em.
E~ (~ x2)
16 2x 2 /3 x ~ J 24 ~ 4.89 m.
_ I ( 16 X 4.89  2 X 4.89 2 X
4.89)

52
~ 
EI 3 3 EI
52
 X 100 2.08 em.
2500
(a)
11
EI
(b)
x
dx
(c)
Fig. l.l6
b
J
MdX
=   (L  xl
EI
a
a. = Y~a = LI JMdX
Er (L  xl
a
Mdx
EI
1M E(d,agram" .
I
,
26
M
The  diagram when used as load is referred to as elastic load, and
EI
hence the name . The corresponding load functions are elastic reaction, elastic
shearing force and elastic hending moment for the ordinary reaction, shearing
force and bending moment respectively.
load, the sign conventions used for ordinary load still hold. In other
words, if the elastic S.F.D. and elastic B.M.D. are plotted in the usual
way, a positive elastic shearing force means a positive slope of the tangent
to the elastic curve, i.e., a clockwise rotation of the tangent with respect
to its original position and conversely a negative elastic shearing force
means a negative slope, i.e. an anticlockwise rotation of the tangent with
respect to its or ginal position. Likewise, a positive elastic bending moment
indicates a positive deflection (downward) and a negative elast:c bending
moment indicates a negative deflection (upward).
1.7 Applications to the elasticload method (analytical solution)
A number of numerical examples are given below to illustrate the
application and range of usefulness of the elasticload method. It should
be emphasized that the method is applicable to any endsupported beam;
simple span, the endsupported span of an over han sing beam or a single
span of a continuous beam.
Example I." Using the elasticload method find the deflection at point
C of the simple beam shown in Fig. 1.17a. Also, locate the po;ition and
4
t
CI
Bm
(b)
r. I
I r.
f
v.;
4 x 8
WJ = 16 m 2 t at 2.67 m. from a
2
2 X 2
W2 =  = 2 m 2t at 4.6.7 m. from a
2
W3 = 2 X 6 = 12 m 2 t at 5 m. from a
6 X 2
w. =    = 6m 2 t at 6.67 m. from a
2
1: Y 0 = 16 + 2 + 12 + 6  19  r.
ra  17 m 2 t.
I ( 4) 46.67
Y, = EI 17 X 4  16 X 3" = Er
Now in order to avoid confusion, it is advisable to express the bending
rigidity EI in mt units. Thus,
46.67
y, X 100 = 1.78 em.
2625
19  6  6 (x  2)  0.5 (x  2)2 = 0
x2 + 8x  46 = 0 , x = 3.874 m.
Taking moments about d,
3
I( 6 X 1.874 2 0.5 X 1.87 )
Ymax   19x3.874 6x2.54I  
EI 2 3
46.8
=  X 100  1.79 em.
2625
.
29
15 3m_+1.S 2
+
675 3m! 3m!
w,
(bl
I
W2 W3 4.Sm!
4ml
"
"
'
Fig. 1.18
Solution: The B.M.Do .. drawn in parts" is shown in Fig. 1.18 h. The cor
responding elastic reactions at support a are as indicated.
ra ~ 6.75 + 9  4 ~ 11.75 m 2 t
3 X 1.5
w, 2.25 m 2 t at 0.5 m. from c
2
2 1.5 2
~x 15X
8 ~ 0.28m 2 t at 0.75 m. from c
3 .
30
3.375 x 1.5
w,  2.53 m't at 0.5 m. from c
2
x 1.5
 0 .75 m't at 0.5 m. from c
2
I
y, = EI (i 1.75 X 1.5  2.25 X 0.5  0.28 X 0.75
 2.53 X 0.5 + 0.75 X 0.5)
15.375
 X 100 = 0.615 cm.
2500
It should be noticed that the B.M.D. is drawn in parts for the sole
reason of facili tating the calculation of the elastic loads and reactions.
Also, particular attention should be paid to the fact that the elastic reac
tions considered should be only those due to the elastic load between the
two supports.
mt
(b) 16
+
12.3 W. w.
3
(c)   
I
I +
r,=O I r,
16
Fig. 1.19
31
I
20 X 3 , 4 X 3
= 30 m t, W2 = 6 m"
2 2
16 X 3
16 X 3 = 48 m't, \"14 = 24 m't
2
I W,
12.3 X 9
''' = _ 55.35 m't
2
t W6
3 X
=  = 
9
13.5 m"
I
2
Noting that the elastic reaction at the fixed support ra '= 0,
fb =
30 + 6 + 48 + 24  55.35  13.5 = 39.15 m't
I I
y, = El (39.15X 324xl + 3 x3x 1.5 +
3.1 X 3
2
111.6
x l) = El
~ 111.6
= _ _ X 100 = 0.93 em.
12000
E:s:am.ple 1.14 Determine the deflection at point e in span be of the con~
tinuou, beam shown in Fig. 1.20 a if EI = 2500 m'1.
d
6m_~~
32
10 X 2
10 m 2t at 4.67 m. from b
2
3.56  2.44
X 6 =  3.36 m 2t. at 4 m. from b.
2
I
y, EI (7.12 X 210 X 0.67 + 3.18 X 2x I +
3.56 3.18 4 14.48 14.48
2
X2x)
3
= EI = 2500 X 100 = 0.58cm~
In such cases, the elastic shearing force and elastic bending moment
diagrams, which in effect arc the slope diagram and the elastic curve of
the beam, are obtained graphically in a manner similar to that used in
determining the ordinary S.F. and B.M.Ds. (Section 3. 9, Part 1. Briefly,
M
however, the  diagram is divided into a number of strips, the areas
EI
of these strips arc calculated and plotted into a force polygon. A pole
at a known distance H is chosen and the corresponding link polygon
is drawn. This link polygon will touch the e~astic curve at points corre
sponding to the ends of strips. The closing link which determines the
33
datum line from which the deflections are to be measured is found from
the displacement conditions at the supports. For an endsupported beam,
the closing link is found by joining the projection of the two support points
on their corresponding links. The closed link pol ygon represents then
the elastic curve and the deflection at any point is the vertical intercept
of the link polygon measu red to the linear scale times the polar distance
H to the clasticload scale. A ray in the polar diagram parallel to the clos
i ng link defines the clastic rcactiOll'i. The elastic shearing force diagram
or the slope diagram is found by direct projection of the elastic loads on
their corresponding lines of action. The procedures arc illustrated in
Fig. 1.21.
M._D,agram
EI
h
r.
Slop .. diagram
w, 0
ki
Etas tic curve
r, W
~
L H J
Fig. 1.21
The scale of the slope diagram is the same as that of the elastic load.
Since th e latter is dimensionless, the slope is also dimensionless. This is
in agreement with the units of the radian angle in which Jthe slope
is expressed.
The scale of the elastic curve is made up as follows:
Linear scale X polar distance H X elastic load scale.
Since as mentioned above the elasticload is dimensionless the unit of
deflection is that of length as it should be.
34
8M 0
Ela!;lic curve
Fig. 1.22
M
If instead of USIng the diagram the area of the B.M.D. is
EI
considered as elastic loading, the diagrams derived from it will represent
respectively the slope and deflection each multiplied by EI. For example,
if at point c the vertical intercept in the deflection diagram is y then the
actual deflection is given by :
H (EI scale)
r
36
(al
t=4mL 2
tt lr 4 2
b
L.5. ,lem~200em
j j
~)1ft1r
8m. E.L.S, 1em~10 ntt
E1.5. ,I em~1000 m2 t
r. 4 12 14 6rrfl r.
~I:::,
K G
r.
(e) !\
\
~
r
r.
~
;:{l'
0
(d)
~x~3.9_
~  
'~ ~
EI
(el
J
. t
:...~
v/
y ~ 1.6
Fig. 1.23
Solution: The B.M.D. is divided into four strips. The area of each strip
is as indicated in Fig. 1.23 b. The polar diagram is shown in Fig. 1.23 c.
The scales used are :
10
for slope, I em.    ~ 3.8 X 10 3 rad .
2625
200 X 10
for deflection, 1 em. =      2 em.
1000
The slope and deflection diagrams are plotted in the manner described
previously and are as shown in Figs. 1.23 e and d respectively. The el
astic curve of the beam (the deflection diagram on a horizontal base lir:e)
may be obtained by drawing another link polygon corresponding to 0'
as pole; 0' being on the same level as the point that defines the elastic
reactions on the force polygon.
From Fig. 1.23 d, this point lies at a distance = l.95 em. from support
a, and the vertical intercept measures 0.9 cm. Thus,
1.95 X 200
= 3.9 m. from a
100
It is seen that the position and value of the maximum deflection are
very nearly the same as those obtained previously by the analytical method
(Example 1.I1).
r
38
L.5. ,1em=150 em
E.L.5.,lem=5m't
5.5 E1.5. ,1 em=1000 m' t
2.9 6.9 5.5 i.9 2.2 4m' t
2.9
y=0.3
(d) J...'
0
6.91=====::7
(e)
Fig. 1.24
Solution: The B.M.D. is first drawn and then divided into strips. The
individua l areas of these strips a re shown in Fig. 1.24 b. The polar
diagram and the corresponding elas tic curve are shown in Figs. 1.24c and
d respectively. The scales used are:
Linear Scale.. em. = 150 em .
Elas ticload Scale, em. = 5 m 2t.
EI Scale, em. = 1000 m 2 t .
Thus, the deflection scale is made up as follows :
150 X 5
I em. = 0.75 em.
1000
From the elastic curve in Fig. 1.24 b, the ordinates at points c and dare
0.9 and 0.3 em. respectively. Thus,
Yo = 0.9 X 0.75 0.675 em . (downward)
Yd = 0.3 X 0.75 0.225 em. (upward)
39
{ (n teLahingle t
rj.fO , y/O
Fig. 1.25
41
~'4
a
l""O b
~ir:R:"""*'"c a
a ___*b______7c~~d a b d
Ok: K
b o",c_ _ _7:d
:&: r 1i.
d o~eJ.J.
:&: ..a
STAT INDET BEAMS
~~O_ __ _ _~~b O~_ __ _ 7~
O'___ _ _"b
a b c d
~O b
A
c
:;;a:
d
Fig. 1.26
the other hand have unstable conjugate beams. Nevertheless, the method
is. still applicable to t hem, and the unstable conjugate beams are always in
M
equilibrium under the applied   diagram of the real beam.
EI
The sign conventions used in the conjugate beam method are the same
as those given in the elasticload method, i.c. elastic loads on the conjugate
beam are downward if the B.M.D. of the corresponding real beam is posi
tive. . positive shearing force in the conjugate beam results in a clockwise
rotation of the tangent to the elastic curve, and positive bending moment
in the conjugate beam indicates downward deflection.
21 21
HIm
( a) a
3 'I 3m
I
(b) 19.5 nl 1
(c) 4.5ml
.
3
Fig. 1.27
43
I 2x3
y, = EI (9.5x3+ 2 X 1
2
x3x4.5x
3 a3 X3  3x3
2  xl)
The positive sign indicates that the tangent to the elastic curve at a
rotates clockwise.
1.5 1.5
ad = =  =  0.0006 rad.
EI 2500
The negative sign indicates that the tangent to the elastic curve at d
rotates anticlockwise.
(b)
I
I.... 8mt 14.5
Fig. 1.28
44
Solution : The elastic loading and the reactions of the corresponding con
jugate beam are shown in Fig. 1.28 h.
Let the point of zero elastic shear be at a distance x to the right of c.
4 X 2 2 X I 2xl
Q, = 4.5 +~ + 2  2 = 0, x = 3.08 m.
I(
Y..", = 
EI
4.5 X 3.08 + 4x2
2 X 4.41 + 2xI
2  X 4.75
Exam.ple 1.19 Calculate the slopes at the intermediate hinge c and the
maximum deflection along the beam shown in Fig. 1.29 a if EI =
6000 mIt.
(b)
6.75
Fig. 1.29
2.25 X 1.5
Qd = + 2 + 1.6875 m 2t.
1.6875
a,1 =   = 0.28 X 10 3 rad. (clockwise)
6000
Q" = 7.3 + 1.6875 = 8.9875 mIt.
8.9875
a" =   = 1.5 X 10 3 rad. (clockwise)
6000
45
2
I ( 6.75 X 3.46 3.46)
Ym .. = 
EI
1.6875 X 4.46 + 7.3 X 3.46 
4.5 X 2
x 3
22.5 22.5
=  =   X 100 = 0.375 em . (downward)
EI 6000
Example 1.20 Determine the maximum deflection in each span of the con
tinuous beam shown in Fig. 1.30a if EI = 2500 m 2t.
b 17.5t c d
(a)~====6m__=:;A~
~=4+12:;:;Al<;:_
:;:c. _67~
3.56
2.44
(b) l====::::::::::===+~}~=:::::::::=1
+
6.82.
(c)
2.44m't 3.56
10mt
Fig. 1.30
2.44 x x
Qx=  2.44 +  6 X "2 = 0
2.44 X 6
Q b=  2 .44 +  4.88
2
8.2 X 100
 =  0.328 em., i.e. 0.328 em. (upward)
2500
I,
I
r
47
futaDlple 1.21 Determine the deflection and the slope to the left of
I
hinge d, the maximum deflection in span be and the deflection at the
free end e of the beam shown in Fig. 1.3 1a if EI ~ 2000 m't.
41 bt
I (a )
d b
111m
L3.J.3 6m
Gmt
3
(b)
+ +
4.5
6mt
6
(c) a
(d)
Fig. 1.31
adl ~ _ 1_ (6 X 6 _ 6 X 6) ~ 0
EI 2 2
which means that the tangent to the elastic curve just to the left of
d remains horizontal.
48
Yd = _1_ (~ X ~ X 6  ~ x ~) = ~
EI \ 2 2 2 EI
18
= 2000 x 100 = 0.9 em. (downward)
Referring to Fig. 1.31d which shows the elastic loads on span be,
3 X 6 ) 3
x6x4.Sx3  3x6x3   X 2 =
2 EI
WI = 3 x / EI, w2 = x 2 /4 EI,
2x 3 IS x 2 + 36 x  36 = 0 , x = 4.3 m.
3
1 [ 4.3 3 4.3 (3 X 4.3 2 4.3 )
Yr = Ymax =   3 X 4.3   X  
EI 12 2 2 4
4.3 4.3 4.3 2 4.3] 4.2
X 3 + 3 X 4.3 X """2 + ; X =  EI 3
4.2 X 100
 =  0.21 em., i.e. 0.21 em. (upward)
2000
Referring again to Fig. 1.31 d, and taking moments about point b for
the elastic loads on span be,
1 (2 3X6)
QC=6EI 3 x 6 x4.SX33X 6 x 3   X 4
2
=Ei6
Deflection at the free end e
1 ( 6 X 2 2 ) 20
Y. = EI 6 x~2 +n 
2
X 3 X 2 = EI
20
=   X 100 = 1 em. (downward)
2000
49
a
tV! Ll2 rLl2
+
w
A
l
b S= p@
c 48EI
PI?
()(a=0I6'16EI
~
II _wL4 wI!
~
I I I I I I I I I
b8EI ()(b= 6EI
L
~a t I) _ pt.l
b3EI
PL2
()(b= 2EI
I L ~
Table Ll
3
3X 3 )
100 = 1.57 cm.
50
a = S Mdx
EI'
y =SXMdX
EI
a = _I
EI
5 Mdx
y = 15EI
xMdX 1.10
which means that the slope is represented by the area of the B.M.D. and
the deflection by the moment of this area" each divided by EL
If" however, I is not constant the expressions in equation 1.10 for the
slope a nd the deflection become:
a = 15
E
Mdx =
I
15 ~Mdx
EI, I
1.11
y = _I jXMdx = _1_
E I EI,
S~ I
xMdx
1    
51
Solution: The B.M.D. under the given case of loading is shown in Fig.
1.32 b. Taking the smaller value of the moment of inertia as 1p the modi
fied B.M.D. will be as shown in Fig. 1.32 c. Using the moment
area method, the maximum deflection is equal to the tangential deviation
of point a from a tangent at point c. For ease of calculation the modified
B.M.D. is divided into the regular parts indicated. Thus..
3 PL3
256 E1,
ZI
1/2 I LIZ
~
(b)
p~ p~
8 .M.D.
p~

(c) f .
16"t 8
,
f8
I
Modified B.M.D
(d)
E . curvE'
Fig. 1.33

Solution: The R.M.D. of the beam under the given case of loading is .
shown in Fig. 1.33 b . Choosing I as I" the modified B.M.D. will be as
shown in Fig. 1.33 c. Using the momentarea method,
Example 1.25 Resolve the problem in example 1.23(Fig. 1.32) using the
elasticload metbod.
Solution: Referring to Fig. 1.32 c which shows the modified R.M.D.,
PL' PL' PL' 5 PL'
r. rb ~ 64 + ~ + 128 ~ \28
Yc
I (5 PL' L
X PL" X~ L
PL' X ...!: _ PL' X I 2)
E1, 128 2 64 3 64 8 128
3 PL3
256 EI,
Example 1.26 For the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 1.34 a, calculate
the deflections at points c and d if the moment of inertia varies as
indicated. I I ~ 2I2 ~ 12000 cm 4, E ~ 2000 tfcm' .
53
3t 6t 61
(a) a~__~__~d~____~__~________ t__,{D
f
I
I
15 f, 15+2 I,
3m 15
t
( bJ
I
...
225
+
9 9
! (cJ
l,
t
5 +
9 9
9 rrtt
(d) a b
L75
1725
6.75
6.75 27 6.75
Fig. 1.34
So'ution : The B.M.D. is shown in Fig. f .34 b. T aking I, = I" the modi
fied B.M.D. will be as shown in Fig. 1.34 c. The conjugate bea m and the
e astic loads are shown in Fig. 1.34 d . The elastic reactions indicated are
calcula ted below .
L M. 0 = 6.75 X I + 27 X 3 + 6.75 X 5  9 X 2 rb X 6
b
I
6
(6.75 + 31 + 33 .75  13) = 17.25 tn 2 [ (upward)
(a)4r_I_I_I_"~~11111 T ";"~
a'IIIJJCL[IIIJ~2=t/cm~11]J:C[IIJ~b~[[IIIJ3'C
I; IIJ
l
12m I
0..1
( b) 8
8
16m I 12
B
(e)
 ; ;  .    16
'~   ,
(d) a ~=+ ::::~),k=~~
6(b
2133 32m'! Fig. 1.35
55
Solution: The B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 1.35 b. Taki ng 21 = I" the modi
fie~ B.M.D. will be as shown in Fig. 1.35 c. The conjugate beam and
the elastic loa ds are as shown in Fig. 1. 35d. The elastic reactions indicated
are calculated below.
b
LMb
a
o= 6r. +4 X 2/3 + 16 X 121.33 X 48 X 4/31.33 X I
f
I
ra 13.11 m 2 t. (upward)
13.11
=   = 0.0065rad. (clockwise)
EI, 2000
me = 19.55
y, X 100 0.98 cm. (downward)
EI, 2000
Solution: The beam is divided into four strips. The values of the moments
of inertia at the ends of these strips have been calculated and are as indi
cated. The moment of inertia between the ends of strips is assumed to
vary linearly. The B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 1.36 b. Taking I, =128 X 10 4
cm., the modified B.M.D. will be as shown in Fig. 1.36 c. The elastic
loads indicated are calc"Ilated below.
18 X 0.75
Wl= 6.75m 2 t_ at 2.75 m.from b
2
20.2 X 0.75
W2 = 7.6 m 2 t. at 2.5 m. from b.
2
w, = W2 = 7.6 m 2t. at 2 m. from b.
56
3m 61
(a)
'0
$1
.0
'$1
l{) "
'0
..."
K
l{)
N
CD "
K M
~
II
co II>
N co .!l "
;; "
18 mt
(t)
~
w,
18
/
/ I
(e) / I /
/ I / /
/ I / /
a~ ____ ~ ____ ~ ____ ~ __ ~b
Fig . 1.36
21.3 x 0.75
W4 = 8 m 2t. at 1.75 m. from h.
2
Ws = W4  8 m 2 t. at 1.25 m. from h.
18.45 x 0.75
\V6 = 6.9 m 2 t. at 1 m. from h.
2
W7 
w.  6.9 m 2t. at 0.5 m. from h.
51.75
=25600
 2.02 X 10 3 rad. (clockwise)
57
I
Yb = EI
, (6.75 x 2.75 + 7.6 X 2.5 + 7.6 X 2 +8 X 1.75
Example 1.29 Find graphically the clastic curve of the beam shown in
f Fig. 1.37a due to the given case of loading. Indicate the values of the
maximum positive and maximum negative deflections. The moments of
inertia, in m4., at the various locations are as indicated. E = 210 tfcm2.
(')O~,I~'
Ul<D Q <DlS
00M MO'
Od....;;ll).oo
rr _\I a ~
0
7.5 , 1 1 5 m
a
7.5
I
,~
f
(b)
55 42.5 108 35 6
29 35 90 80 108
90
29
I
...  E I ,  
(c )
Fig. 1.37
58
as shown
Solutio n; Taking I, = 0.55 m', the modifie d B.M.D . will be
ted and located at the
in Fig. 1.37 b. The elastic loads have been calcula
centroi ds of individ ual strips as shown.
defor
(2) The angle betwee n membe rs meetin g at a rigid joint before
mation remain s the same after deform ation.
by
(3) The deflect ed shape of a membe r in a frame is defined
For exampl e, a membe r free of
the elastic loading along its length.
59
(4) Since the elastic curve ofa member is flat" the length ofa deflected
member is assumed to remain unchanged after bending . Thus if onc end
of a member moves some displacement along the member the other
end will move the same displacement.
Since no new theory is involved, the method for computing frame
deflections is best introduced by a number of examples.
4t Gmt
/ c
+
a
> L.L3
1
4m
0<,
0<,
bJ \
(a) (b)
! xJ
Fig. 1.38
Solution: The B.M.D. and a sketch of the elastic curve are shown in
Fig. 1.38 b. Using the elasticload method,
nc =
I (6X3)
EI 2 =
9
2500 (anticlockwise)
Example 1.31 For the frame in Fig. 1.38 a, find the horizontal displace
ment at support b due to a unit horizontal load acting there as indicated
in Fig. 1.39 a.
60
4mt
a c
6
...11 4m
(a)
lx,;lxL
(b) 1 x, L
Fig. 1.39
Solution: The B.M.D. and a sketch of the elastic curve of the frame are
shown in Fig. 1.39 b.
1(4 X 6 2 ) 8
n, =  EI  2 X s = 2500 ,i.e. 0.0032 rad. (clockwise)
21.33 X 100
 2500
0.85 cm.
(a)
18
21
31.5
a 0<.
(b) (e)
I Fig. 1.40
Solution : The B.M.D. and the clastic loads are shown in Fig. 1.40 b. A
study of the elastic. curve in Fig. 1.40 c shows that neither c nor d can
move vertically and that they can only move horizontally. Also the hori
zontal displacement is the same for both joints. Applying the elasticload
method to member cd, and by taking moments about c,
1 36
ad ~ 
6&
(54 X 1.5 + 4 .5 X 2 + 31.5 X 4) =
&
= ~
25000
= 1.44 X 10' rad. (antidockwise)
l
By taking momepts about d,
I 54
a
=   (31.5 X
6 EI
2 + 4.5 X 4 + 54 X 4.5)
EI
~
54
=    = 2.16 X 10 3 rad. (clockwise)
25000
I
62
Applyi ng
Since joint c is rigid, membe r ac will rotate the same angle nc.
the momen tarea method to membe r ac,
+ 18 ; 4.5 )
a  a = _1_ (18 X 1.5
a C EI
I 121.5
a, = EI (27 + 40.5 + 54)
EI
121.5
4.86 X 10 3 rad. (clockwise)
25000
a.
where xca is the deflect ion at c with respect to the tangen t at
I
x, = Xd =  [6 X 121.5  (18 X 1.5 X 1.5/2 + 18 X 2.25 X 3)]
EI
587.25 587.25
  =   X 100 = 2.35 em . (to the right)
EI 25000
angle ad "
Since joint d is rigid, membe r db will rotate anticlockwise an
t. Thus,
Furthe r, since membe r db is free of momen ts, it will remain straigh
x b =xd+ 4ad
= 2.35 + 4 (1.44 X 10 3) 100 = 2.93 em. (to the right )
at point d
ExaJD ple 1.33 Find the horizontal and vertica l displac ements
of the frame shown in Fig. 1.41 a. EI = 20000 m 2t.
x.
211m
16m!
r
b c
! 3m
6 d~
a
~ 4mJ
(a l
16
( bl (el
Fig. 1.41
63
Solution: The B.M.D. is first drawn and will be as shown in Fig. 1.41 h.
From this diagram and noting the displacement conditions at the fixed
support, the elastic curve shown in Fig. 1.41c may be sketched.
I
" .  "b =    (16 X 6)
t EI
_I_(~X 4 X 16 X
3
x 4)= 64 X 100 0.32 em.
EI 3 4 20000
"b"c= _ _
EI
I_(~X4X
3
16)=~
3 EI
117.33
"c =
EI
300 X 117.33
x2 = 300 "c = = 1.76cm. (to the left)
20000
The formula for computing the shear deflection will be first derived . .
and then a number of standard cases worked out. In each case the
64
The variation of the shear stress on the section will be first neglected.
The shear stress q will thus be assumed as given by :
.1
L dx l
Fig. 1.42
Due to the positive shearing force indicated, the right face of the element
will slide downwards witb respect to the left face an amount dy,. The
shear strain y is given by :
dy,
y= 1.13
dx
Also, the shear strain y is related to the shear stress q through Hook's
law,
q
y= 1.14
G
This is the differential equation of the elastic cu rve which when integrated
will give the d eflection due to shear Ys of any point along the beam. The
resulting constant o f integration is found, as usual, fr.om the displacement
boundary conditions .
.  SQdX 1.16
},  GA
y, 
_ S"QdX
GA 1.18
,
where At = A/k is a reduced crosssectional area, equal to 5Aj6 for
rectangular sections, 0.9 A for circular sections, 2A/3 for hollow circular
sections and the area of the web for Isections.
In a member of uniform section, a study of equation 1.18 shows that
its right hand side represents the area of the S.F.D. divided by the shear
rigidity GA,.
As an example on the derivation of the shear shape factor. the rect
angu lar section is considered. The proced ure is to find the internal strain
energy and then equate it to the external work done~' t Q d ys'
~
tilY'd
J l
"I Q
J
d
[.
dx J
.J
Lbl
Fig. 1.43
'.
66
q Q [""2
= 2I (d)2 _y2] 1.19
Since the strain energy due to shear per unit volume is q 2J2G" the strain
energy per elemental volume = b dy dx is :
q 2b
dU =  dxdy
2G
bQ2 (d)2 2
dU = 8 GP [""2  y2] dx dy
dU 
dU=~(Q2dX) 1.20
5 2 GA
dy, ~ (QdX)
5 GA
Ys = ~
5
S Qdx
GA
1.21
A comparison between equations 1.17 and 1.21 yields the value of the
shear shape factor, and it is seen that it is equal to 6/5 for rectangular
crosssections.
67
Pt wllm
~ ~
II ! [ I
,,
I
P
L
P wL
L
+ +
Ca} (b)
Fig. 1.44
Solution : The S.F.Ds. for the two cases of loading are as shown in Fig.
1.44. In case (a),
k JQdX = kPL
Y,
GA GA
PL3
Ym =
3 EI
Ym PL3 / kPL
= 10 G (~r
Y, 3 EI GA 3 E d
(~r
G 4
For = 0.4, Ym
E Y, 3
kwL2
In case (b), Y, 
2GA
wL4
Ym 
8 EI
~ (~r
Ym 5

Y, 2
For
G
E
0.4 , Yro = (~r
Y, d
wtlm
I ! I !
f' L 't
P12 t,4 wLl2
+ +
L__ 'P/2 wU2
(a) (b)
Fig . 1.45
Solution: The S.F.Ds. for the two cases of loading are as shown in Fig.
1.45. In both cases the maximum deflection occurs at midspan .
kPL PL3
In case (a), y, and Ym 
4GA 48 EI
In case (b), y, kC X
wL X ~) = kwL2
GA 2 2 2 8 GA
5wL4
and Ym 384 EI
I. 16 lliustrative exatnples
In the following, a number' of illustrative examples is solved utiljsing
the methods presented in the previous sections for deflection computation .
The student is advised to solve these examples independently and then
check his results against those given . There are three possible sources
of confusion . These are:

69
Further the student should notice that the solution of a single problem
is frequently sim plified by the use of morc than one mcthod for deflection
computations.
0.
51
l
I~'
_ 1m 1
Fig. 1.46
70
Solution: For the equal angle used, the principal axes u and v
make angles of 45 with the legs of the section. Also., from the tables for
standard steel sections Iu = 161 cm 4 and Iv = 43 cm 4 .
Resolving the applied load into. two. components along the principal axes,
each component will be of magnitude P/../2'. Referring to. Fig. l.46c, .
PL3 0 .5 (100) 3
Yu = = 1.38 cm.
3 J 2 EI. 3 J 2 X 2000 X 43
PL3 0.5 (100)3
y" = 0.37 cm.
3 J 2 EIu 3 J 2 X 2000 X 161
y = J 1.38 2 + 0.37 2 = 1.43 cm.
0.37
tan a = yv I yu = 1.38
 = 0.2671 a = 15
The deflection at the free end makes an angle f1 with the vertical axis
where fJ = 45  15 = 30
d 4t
6m
b
1'i 2
JI
1
(a)
=::::::::
~
(b) B M.D.
~,
Fig. 1.47
71
Yd = Yo = y, + y,
Using the elasticload method,
ab
_1_
= EI (~X
3 2
6X6) 12
EI
(anticloekwise)
200 X 12
y, = 200 nb = = 0.8 em . (upward)
3000
24 24 . .
ao = I.e.  (anttcloekwlse)
EI EI
150 X 24
150 no = 1.2 em. (to the left)
3000
_1_
EI
(6 X 1.5. X I
2 )
=
4.5x100
3000
= 0.15 em. (to the left)
lt1m3 3
L a
I
b 3 3
6m ~ (b) load D.
(a)
=l t I=x2
x
4.5k\rH.4.5 ()(o
~;:=:~
0(0
13.5mt
(d) Elastic Curve
(c) 8.M.D.
Fig. 1.48
Solution: The water in the tank will produce a uniformly distributed load
on the base of the tank of intensity = 3t/m. In the same time the hydro
static pressure will produce a uniformly varing load on the walls of the
tank. The load intensity varies from zero at the water level to a maximum
value of 3t/m at the base of the tank. The load distribution on the sides
of the tank is thus as shown in Fig. 1.4B b. The corresponding B.M.D.
is shown in Fig. 1.48 c. From this diagram and a knowledgf of the SUP4
porting conditions" the deformed shape of tne tank may be sketched and
will be as shown in Fig. 1.48 d. Referring to this figure, the change in the
tank width = 2x.
Using the elastic~load method,
aa = _1_
El2
(..!.. X 3x13.5 
3
4.5 X 3)
13.5
El2
(clockwise)
300 X 13.5
= 0 .9 em. (to the right)
4500
Using th e momentarea method and noting the properties of area of the
third degree parabola; A = 3/4 ab, y= 4/5 b from top,
I (3 4 ) 24.3
x2 = Ell 4 X 4.5 Y :: >: ""5 X 3 = Ell
24.3 X 100
= 0.81 em. (to the left)
3000
73
12
a
1.6 tim J 12
e
I 3 L 3 m _
1.8
25.2ml
(a) (b) B.M.D.
lYtlXfh
a b .)'l Y.
ra
..... ,.."
 ,/
,/
,/
/.
:ru
rb
3.6 3.6
19.8 37.8
(e) EIGsfu toads (d)Elasie Curve
Fig. 1.49
Solution: The B.M.D. is first drawn and will be as shown in Fig. 1.49b.
The elastic loads on span ab are shown in Fig. 1.49 e. A sketch of the de
formed shape of the structure is shown in Fig. 1.49 d.
I 29.4
r
= 6 EI
(3.6 X 1.5 + 37.8 X 2 + 19.8 X 4 + 3.6 X 4.5) = EI
I 35.4
rb    (3.6
6ID
X 1.5 + 19.8 X 2 + 37.8 X 4 + 3.6 X 4.5) =  
EI
74
I. 17 Introduction
The method of virtual work, which is sometimes referred to as the unit
load method, is very useful in determining deflections of structures. It
is most general in that it is applicable to all types of structures; beams,
frames, arches, trusses and composite structures and that it is used to deter
mine load as well as noload deflections such as those resulting from
temperature change, creep or flow of the material of construction and
fabrication errors.
F r           ,   , F
~ 1...
I. L W
Fig. 1.50
f
E
1.23
and for a member subject to an axial force, the stress is uniform and given
by:
F
f 1.24
A
From equations. l.23 and 1.24, the total change in length dS is given by :
FL
dS = 1.25
EA
(b) Deformation due to bending moment, M
If an element of a member dx long is subjected to a constant bending
moment M" the end crosssections will undergo a rotation da as shown
in Fig. 1.51.
Referring to this figure, the rotation da which is equal to the change
in slope of the elastic curve in length dx is readi ly .obtainable from the
first momentarea theorem. Thus,
Mdx
da = 1.26
EI
dx
Fig. 1.51
Fig. 1.52
dy, q
y =  =  1.27
dx G
Assuming the shear stress to be uniform"
Q
q 1.28
A
Combining equations. 1.27 and 1.28,
Qdx
dy, = GA 1.29
If the variation of the shear stress across the section is taken into considera
tion, the relative slide is given by :
Qdx
dy, = GA 1.30
,
where At is a reduced crosssectional area and depends on the shape of
the section (section 1.15).
t( f)0 Ldx1
Fig. 1.53
P,
p.
(a) Pload system
Fig. 1.54
(a)
( b)
(c)
."
(d)
11
/
/
ti lIh
Fig. 1.55
system consists of a unit couple or two equal and opposite loads normal to
the truss member, each of value of unity divided by the member length
as shown in Fig. I.SSe. This follows from the previous case. If two opposite
horizontal unit loads are applied atjoinls band b', the resulting displace
ment will he the relative horizontal displacement between the two joints.
This displacement when divided by the length of the member h will give
its rotation. The same result could be obtained directly by selecting the
QIoad system as consisting of two equal opposite loads each of value
of ljh.
L A F, F,FoL
Member Fo
A

     
  
     
     
 I: F,FoL
A
Table 1.2
to that of the unit load. Further, if as usual the member forces are
expressed in tons, the modulus of elasticity E in t fem 2 and the
crosssectional area A in em 2.. the unit of the displacement is similar to
that used in expressing the member length L.
Solution: The F.forces are shown in Fig. 1.56 b. The Qload system
for calculating the vertical deflection at joint c consists of a unit vertical
load applied there. . and the corresponding member forces are readily
obtainable from F I = F./24. The QIoad system for determining the

'$6' 0 _~'O
o 0.35 ,<). 0 0
0 0 0
0.94
11
(c) F,'Forcps
Fig \.56
relative displacement of joints c and e' along line ee', together with the
corresponding member forces (Ft lforces) are shown in Fig. 1.56 c. The
calculations are presented in Table 1.3.
84
The negative sign indicates that the assumed direction for the displacement
of e' relative to c is incorrect and that the two j oints move away from
each other.
Exan1ple 1.4 1 For the t r uss shown in Fig. 1.57a, calculate the vertical
deflection at joint c and the horizontal displacement at the roller support
b. All tension members are 10 em 2 and all compression members are
16 em" in area. E = 2000 t/cm".
85
"0 0 0
0
,\(J 'l . 6,
11
lOt
lOt
(clF~Forces
(al (bl F:Forcel;
0 I
Fig. 1.57
Solution: Since Land E are constant for all the members, and the cross
sectional area is decided by the type of stress in the member, the calcula
tion may be presented as in Table 104.
0.725 X 250
0.091 em (to the left)
2000
86
ExaDlple 1.42 For the truss shown in Fig. 1.58 a,calculate the horizontal
and vertical displacements at joint c. The applied load P is such that all
terrsion rtre:rnbers are stressed to I t/tm2 and all compression members
are stressed (0 0.6 tJem 2. E = 2000 tJem 2.
1t
e
o 2.33
(b) F,Forces
Fig. 1.58
Solution: In this case there is no need for calculating the member forces
due to the applied load as the change in length of the truss members, dS..
can be calculated directly from d8 = fLJE where fe = 0.6 tJem 2 and
ft = 1 tfem 2. The calculations are presented in Table 1.5. Zero members
under the given case of loading have been omitted.
Member
Length Type of fo F, F',
foF,L foF',L
m. stress fa tJem 2 t. t.
ad 4 + 1 +2.33 +1.33 9.32 5.32
df 4.236 + 1 +1.41 +1.88 5.91> 8.00
fg 2 + 1 +1.00 +1.33 2.00 2.66
ge 2 + 1 +1.00 +1.33 2.00 2.66
be 4   0.6  1.00 2.33 2.40 5.6:1
eh 2.5   0.6 0 1.67 0 2.50
he 2.5  0.6 0 1.67 0 2.50
ef 3  0.6 1.00  1.33 1.80 2.40
ed 3   0.6 0 1.33 0 2.40
bd 5  0.6 1.67 0 5.00 0
Table 1.5 28.48 34.04
The Frforces are due to a unit from left to right load at c as shown
in Fig. 1.58 b, while the F'Iforces are due to a unit downward load at
c as shown in Fig. 1.58 c.
The value of the horizontal displacement at joint cc' is obtained
from dividing the sum of all the values in column foF lL by E.
28.48 X 100
3. = = 1.42 em. (to the right)
2000
87
21 21 21 21 21 21
c " ci
~~~~~~~~~
f' ti 4t
f
4
L
2 c d E'
.. Via 4 x4=16 m
(a)
2 2 2 2
o
It
o \) 1t
(d) Ii  ForcE's
Fig. 1.59
"
88
Solution: The Foforces indicated in Fig. 1.5gb are the member forces
due to the applied loads. The F Iforces are the member forces due to a
unit horizontal lefttaright load acting at b as indicated in Fig. 1.59 c,
while the F'tforces are those due to a unit downward load acting at e
as shown in Fig. 1.59 d. Since both E and L/A are constant for all the
members, summations :E FIFo and k.F'lFo are first found and then the
results multiplied by L/EA to obtain the required displacements. The
calculations are presented in Table 1.6.
ca 2 J 5 /3 0 0 0 0
ad +4 J5/3 + J5/2 0 3.33 0
de +6 +ll/B +1/2 B.25 3
ef +6 +1O/B +1 7.50 6
fb +4 +9/B +1/2 4.50 2
cia' 0 0 0 0 0
a'd' 2 3/B 1/2 0.75 I
die' 2 1/4 I 0.50 2
e'f' 0  l iB  1/2 0 0
f'b' +4 0 0 0 0
cc'  2 0 0 0 0
aa'  20/3 3/8  1/2 2.50 3.33
dd ' 2 + l /B  1/2 0.25 I
ee' 0 + I /B + 1/2 0 0
If' +2 + I /B + 1/2 0.25 I
bb' 2 0 0 0 0
ca' +4J2/3 0 0 0 0
a'd + !OJ 2/ 3 +3J2/B + J2/2 2.50 3.33
d'a 0  J2/B + .j2j2 0 0
e'f  J2i2  J2/B J2i 2 0.50 2
f'b 4 J 2  J2/B  y f 2 / 2 1.00 4
31.33 2B.66
Table 1.6

31.33 X 6
b 2000
0.094 em. (to the right)
2B.66 X 6
S = 0.086 em. (downward)
2000
89
Example I ..... For the truss shown in Fig . 1.60, calculate the relative
horizontal displacement between joints c and e. Assume L/A= 8 cm 1
for all the members and E = 2000 tlcm 2.
1t
I
l.Sm
e'
l d
11
e
t>
2 l 2 4m 4
Fig. 1.60
Member F. F, F,F.
ac + 5 0 0
cd +7.08 1.25 8.85
de +2.85  1.14 3.05
eb 0 0 0
a'e' 3.33 0 0
c'd' 5.42 +1.25 ~.75
d'e' 5.70 +1.14 ~.10
e'b' 2.85 0 0
aa' 2 0 0
cc' 1.25 +0 .75 0.94
dd ' +5.25 1.125 5.90
ee'  I +0.375 D.37
bb'  I 0 0
a'c +1.67 0 0
c'd D.33  I +0.33
de' +2.67 I 2 .67
eb' +2.67 0 0
34.30
Table 1.7
90
34.3 X 8
Oce =  =  0.14 em.
2000
The negative sign indicates that points c and e move away from each
other.
I where the summations in either equations 1.40 or 1.41 are carried out
only for members suffering from a change in length. dS is considered
positive if the member is fabricated longer than its geometrical length
and vice versa.
Deflections due to other noload effects such as creep or flow of the
material of construction may be calculated in a similar manner.
t (0C)
Member F, (t) L (em.) d8 = a,tL F,d8
I
4m
LQ~~~~~~~~~~__~,
e f 9
6.3 =18 m
Fig. 1.61
Member F, a F,a
ac' 5{8 +1 5{8
c'd' 3{4 +1 3{4
die' 9{8 +1 9{8
5{2
Table 1.9
5
2
+ 5 em.
The positive sign indicates tha t the camber is in the direction assumed
fo r the unit load, i.e. upwards. The calculated value of the camber
happens to be the required value. If this were not the case, the actual
increase in the length of the chosen members would be found by proportion.
Member F, a F,",
ac {).375 I 0.375
cd {).375  I 0.375
de 0.750 I 0.750
1.500
Table I.IO
8. ~ 2 X 1.5 ~ 3 cm.
w
I I I
,I
( 0 ) P Iood sys tem
~~~c~~
(b)Q  Iood system
r ~
F g . 1.62
The unit load causes 3: set of internal straining actions along the beam
length. These straining actions, which generally consist of N.F., S.F. and
B.M., are denoted by N bQI and M 1 ; the subscript 1 refers to the unit
load.
94
(2) The PIoad system is added to the beam already loaded by the
unit load. The PIoad system produces another set of straining actions
No,Qo and Mo. The corresponding deformations in an element of the
beam dx long arc found from equations 1.25, 1.30 and 1.26.
Nodx Q"d", = Mod"
d8 = EA dy, = GA da EI 1.42
,
Also} the Pload system causes external displacements of the various points
along the beam length including point c where the unit load is placed.
This displacement is denoted by 0c'
(3) Assuming that the unit load to be the original load and that the
PIoad system to be the source producing the virtual displacement then,
total external virtual work = 1 X 0c
and since the work done by a force is equal to the value of the force times
the displacement through which the force moves and the work done by
a moment is equal to the value of the moment fmes the angle, in radians,
through which the moment rotates, the internal virtual work in an element
of length dx is given by :
Wi = f ,d8
N + SQ,dY, +SM,da
where the integration is carried out over the entire length of the beam.
Equating the external virtual work to the internal virtual work,
I X 80 = J f J
N,d8 + Q,dy, + M,da
I X 80 =
J J
may be expressed as :
N~ EA
S
Nodx
+ Qodx
Q, GA, + M,
Modx
Er 1.44
11
d
a a b
(a ) (b)
c
II It
l
I a b
f a
,
I (c)
"
(d)
~
...t 1 mt
t  
11
c
11
c(:
I
I
a
( .. )
b
~
a
(f)
l
F
Fig. 1.63
~
96
Ix a
c
~
j M
I
Modx
 
EI 1.47
y
M, 0
01_ x
Fig_ 1.64
f M,Modx = k f xModx
A liltle thought ~ill show thatf xModx is equal to the first moment
orthe area under the Mo diagram about the yaxis; Aox. Thus,
S M,Modx = kA;
but x ~,
I
!
Mod iagram.
The final sign of the integral is positive if both the Mo and the M I 
diagrams have the same sign, otherwise it is negative.
It may be noticed that the form of the integral considered differs from
r' that usually encount~red in the deflection problems;
l
I
98
j MIM..dx'SN1NOdx
EI EA'
S QIQodXandfTITodX by the rigidities El,
GA, GJ
FA, GAr and GJ. This creates no problem in the case of prismatic
members as the deflection is simply obtained by dividing the result
of the graphical multiplication by the appropriate rigidity. If the
section of a member varies along its length but remains constant along
parts of this length, such as the case in stepped columns for instance" equa
tion 1.48 still holds provided that it is applied to individual lengths of
constant crosssection. If, however, the section varies from point to point
along the member length, the suggested method does not apply. In order
to overcome this difficulty,the length of the nonprismatic member is divi
ded into increments, each assumed of constant crosssection. This approxi
mation is usually permissible and the degree of accuracy of the result
increases as the number of increments considered increases.
As an example on graphical multiplication, consider a member of
constant crosssection, length L and let the Mo and MJdiagrams be as
sbown in Fig. 1.65.
parabola 1h
   t_'""r
~: I b
M,.O.
c
   ~
d
I L .1
Fig. 1.65
For ease of calculations, both the Mo and Mrdiagrams ar divided
into regular parts whose areas and centroids may be easily determined
as shown.
J J
M1M0dx
A special form of
2
= Lh
3
(C+d)
 aL (2C d) + bL
2 + 3 +
23 2(2d
3+3c)

~ I>
Q
  
r= _
Q 1 
L
 b
Fig . 1.66
S
fM 2 dx =
I
On reduction,
11233233
 ( 2a + b ) + 
M M dx = aL  + a )
bL (2b
The sign of the product ab depends on the relative signs of a and h. Thus,
referring to Fig. 1.67 b which shows a possible M,diagram, and applying
equation 1.48,
;
J Mfd x = ~ (a
2
+ b
2
 ab)
Fig. J .67
Exanlple 1.47 Using the method of virtual work, ca lculate the vertical
deflections at points c and d a nd the rotation at point b of the overhanging
beam shown in Fig. 1.68a if EI = 4000 m 2 t.
Solution: The Mo.D . due to the applied loads is shown in Fig. 1.68 b.
The Q Ioad systems for the determination of the vertical deflectiops at
c and d and the rotation at b, and the corresponding B.M . Ds .~ are shown
succession in Figs. L68c, d and e.
3, =
S M1ModX
5.625
 =
EI
5.625

= 

1 [
EI
X

100
1.5 X 6
2
1.5
X 
2
+ 2 (1.5
EI 4000
3d =
j M'IModX
EI
1.125
=  1[1.5
EI

3
1.125 X 100
X 1.5
26
+ X
3
2
1.5 
3x6 1.5]
 x 
2 2
Q
b
= J M,"Modx = _1 [3 X6 x 0.5 _ 1.5 x 6 X ~]
E1 EI 2 2 3
1.5
EI
Exantple 1.48 For the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 1.69 a, calculate
the vertical deflections at points f and g, the ro tation at point e and the
relative rotation at hinge g if EI = 50000 m 21.
(a)
,,'
(I) M, D. >i""=::::::+4+t=~'
+
1.5
Fig. 1.69
Solution: The Mo.D. due to the applied loads is shown in Fig. 1.69 b.
The Q~load systems for the required deflections ,'and rotations and the
corresponding B.M.Ds. are shown in succession in Figs. 1.69cf.
102
0, =
j M tM
odx
EI
=1
EI
[ 2 (2x6x36xx
3
5
8
337.5 337.5
  =  X 100 = 0.675 em. (downward)
EI 50000
M'tMOdX =
a
=
S EI

1 [7.5 X 3
EI 2
x 2
3

2

X
X
3
12
3 X 12 (2
+  X
X 36
2
X
3
1.5] = 
7.5 + 15)
229.5

3
3 EI
229.5 X 100
=''....:. = 0.459 em. (upward)
50000
a = SMt"Modx = _1_ [ _ 15 X 3 X 1 _ 15 X 6X ~+ 15 X 6X 1
EI EI 2 2 3 2 2
+ 7.5 2X 3 2
X  X
3
0.5 + 0.5 X
2
12 (2
 X 7.5
3
+1 )
 X 15
3
2 1] 68.25 63.25
  X 12 X 36 X  X 0.5 =  
3 2 EI 50000
= 1.365 X 103 rad., i.e. 1.365 X 1O 3 rad. (clockwise)
a = SMi"Modx =
1 [15 X 6
EI  2  X 0.5 
7.5 X 3 (2
 2 ;; X 1.5 +1 X ;;
1)
EI
1.5 X 12 (2
2 3
 X 7.5 +1
 X 15) 
3
15 X 6
2
X 
1
3
+ 32 X 12 X 36 X 
1.5] 118.5 118.5
2
. 3
=  =   = 2.37x 10 rad.
EI 50000
211m
c b
4 41
t
4m
16ml
16
I 16 +
36 3ml
(b) Mo D (e) M, D.
121 0.51
[ u 16
(c) No.D.
t 0.5
(t) N,.D.
121 05 t
+ + +
j
12 0.5

4
(d) a".D. (g) Q,.D.
Fig. 1.70
r Solution: The B.M.,N.F. and S.F.Ds. due to the applied loads are as
shown in succession in Figs. I. 70 b  d. The corresponding diagrams
l
104
5 ?
A, =  X 1800 = 1500 em  GA, = 80 X 1500 = 120000 t.
6
I 56
=  ( 12 X 4 X 0.5 + 16 X 4 X 0.5) = 
EA EA
56 X 100
::==
360000
= 0.015 em.
6) ~
S Q,Qodl
GA,
= _1 [2 (12 X
GA,
36 X \00
2
X 0.5] =
GA,
0.03 em
120000
+
16 X5 ( 4 + 32 X 2.2) + 2 X 5 X 4 ( 6.2 + 4)] = 
541.3

2 3 , 2 EI
541.3
=    X 100 =  2.7 em ., i.e . 2.7 em. (to theright)
20000
105
2 tIm
I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I
!
3m 3
I
~
4
+2.4
b.1
L a t
L4 4mJ f
(a) (b) ~.D.
6.2mt
O.Smt
/
"
0
t
1mt
(c)MtD. l (d)M;.D.
Fig. 1.71
211m
21 c +
1 6 LSI .25 36
Lb
I.. 6 L 6 m4. 3 j
(a)
(b) Mo D.
11 1m!
1m!
+
3
,
(e) M,D.
Fig. 1.72
Solution: The Mo.D. due to the applied loads is shown in Fig. 1.72b. The
M1 .D. due to a unit vertical load at c is shown in Fig. 1.72 CJ and the
M'I.D. d ue to two opposite unit couples is shown in Fig. 1.72d. Consider
ing I = I" EI, = 125000 X 2000 X 104 = 25000 m't.
8e =
S +
MIMO d l l [ 2 7 X 6
EI = EI,
27 + 45)
2 X 2 
3 12 (27
2
3" X 6 X 2.25 X 1.5
+ 45)
+2 2
(
1 2 12 X 3
X
2 2
X 
3
5 2
X 6 X 36 X  X 3   X 12 X 36 X 3
~ I +  36 X 6
X 2 X 
I ]
8 3 2 2 1.5
= 454.5 = 454.5 100 = 1.82 em . (downward)
EI, 25000 X
co = JM' IModl = _ 1
_ [27 X 6 X ~_ ~ X 6 X 2.25 X ~+~ (27 + 45)
e EI EI, 2 3 3 2 I 2
~ I
X 12 X I 
2
 X 12 X 36 X
3
I
2
 + 36 2X 6 2
X  X
3
1.5I ]=
169.5
EI,
169.5 3
=   = 6.78 X 10 rad.
25000
107
There are some structures, however, in which some parts are subjected
mainly to bending strains while others are subjected to axial strains only.
Such structures are called composite structures and in computing their
deflections the effect of both the axial and bending strains should be
considered.
The expression for deflection may be stated as :
1.49
J
M,Modl
I X 8c = + 1.50
EI
where 3c is the deflection component desired at any point c, Ml and F t
represent the bending moments and axial forces in the various members
of the structure as a result of an appropriate QIoad system, and Mo and
F 0 are, as before, the bending moments and axial forces due to the applied
loads.
Esample 1.52 For the.trussed beam shown in Fig. 1.73 a, calculate the
vertical deflection at point c taking the effect of thrust in beam acb into
consideration. E = 2000 tfcm'.
For beam ab, I = 37000 em' and A = 132 cm'.
For ties, A = 36 em' and struts A = 28 em'.
Solution: The forces in the link members Fo, the bending moment diagram
Mo.D., and the normal force diagram, No.D., due to the applied loads
r
are as shown in Fig. 1.72 b. The corresponding values F" M,.D. and
N,.D. due to a unit vertical load at c are shown in Fig. 1.73 c.
108
I 211m
2~~i""'@""~
rt 4 L 4 I4ml 4 .J
(al
211m
~r
2ml
 ~
.~
2
M,.D.
321 32 21
I I I j
NoD. NrD.
(bl (el
Member
L A F, Fo F,FoL
cm. cm 2 t. t. A
ad 447 36 + ..j5 + 16..j5 993
de 800 36 +2 + 32 1422
eb 447 36 + ..j5 + 16..jS 923
dd' 200 28 I  16 114
ee' 200 28 I  16 114
Table l.ll 3566
109
F,FoL 3566
L  =  = 1.783 em.
EA, 2000
N ,Nodx = 2 X 32 X 16 X 100 = 0.388 em .
8c
S
=
EA 2
1.730
264000
+ 1.783 + 0.388 = 3.901 em. (downward)
Es:a.m.ple 1.53 A structu~e consists of a con tinuous member abc hinged
4
'J3
9t
4m
(a)
4
r b
L 13m 1
a
51.t
Yo.....

7.2t 24.6t
:v
( b) 14.4 28.8mt
N
en
7.21
24.6
19.2~ ~D. 124.6 NO'D.
267t
1.L
~
.....
,q>
", .
(c) 2 4mt I
....
to
N
1t
1/
2.67~ F,.D. 2.67 MfD.
Fig. 1.74
lIO
Sc
~ J M,Modl
EI +
:E F,FoL
EA, +
f N,Nodl
EA2
The contribution of the axial strains in the link members to the deflection
at c is calculated in Table 1.12.
L F, Fo
Member F,FoL
cm. t. t.
Table 1.12
F,FoL 69120
..,
:E ~ ~ 1.38 cm.
EA, 2000 X 25
j NtNodl
EA2
2.67 X 24.6 X 800
2000 X 250
~ O.II cm.
211m
f
3
1
6m
Q b
I.... 6m 6 I
(a )
F, =3 1
F. =121
r
t (c) M, .~Ds.
Fig. 1.75
Solution: The bending moment diagram Mo.D. and the force in the
tie Fo due to the applied loads are shown in Fig. 1.75b. The correspond
ing values due to a unit horizontal load at b are shown in Fig. 1.75c.
ab =
J M,Modl
EI
I
F,FoL
+E~
20000 (2 X
2
3""
X 6.72 X 9 X 3) 100
3 X 12 X 12 X 100
2000 X 20
 1.21  1.08   2.29 cm. i.e. 2.29 em. (to the right)
Notice that the contribution of the elongation in the tie to the total
deflection at b amounts to 47%.
112
2 21 (c) M,,~.Ds.
Fig. 1.76
Solution: The bending mement diagram, Mo.D ... and the forces in the
the link members Fo due to the applied loads are shown in" Fig. 1.76 h.
The corresponding values due to two opposite unit loads at joints e and
f are shown in Fig. 1.76 c.
MIMod! FIFoL
EA
8" =
SpJ  + L
O<,l,dx
n
0<' d.
I I
~~2 I ~'TI
I, I,
do, .1 h \ Y
  do , h
 1
'2
lh{Zl 12 j~
~ f d. I I ~ fdx I
OC, '2dx
I
0<, '.dx
(a) (b)
Fig. 1.77
The relative rotation of the two crosssection.. da, is easily found from
the geometry of the deformed element and is given by :
3, = SM, a, C2 ~ t, ) dx + j a, C' ; t2 )
N, dx 1.53
3, = L a, ( t2 ~ t, ) J M, dx + La, (t, ; t2 ) S N, dx
A little thought will show that S M,dx and J N,dx represent the areas
... 1.54
where the summations in equation 1.54 include all the members which
are exposed to temperature changes.
When the crosssections of the member under consideration is unsym
tr + t2
metrical with respect to the centroidal axis the term '"=" in
2
y is the distance of the centroidal axis from the top fiber as indicated in
Fig. l.77b.
The signs of the integrals in equation 1.53 or the products in equation
1.54 are positive if the thermal strains are similar to those produced by
the corresponding straining actions due to the unit load, otherwise they
are negative.
115
r
4m
6
La b
8 8m <
(a)
10m\
2/(5\
(e) M,.D.
(b) N,.D.
Fig. 1.78
116
8.96 + 0.08
+ I X 10' ( 20 ; 10)
The frame has a uniform section of depth 50 em., at = I X 10'.' " ::.
117
r
4m
L
I
a
1 Bm
I
L 8m
(a)
J
8ml
0.5 t 0.5 4
+1
11 ~o. s 11 ~0 . 5
( b )N,.D.
to.s (c) M,.D.
Fig. 1.79
Solution: The normal force diagram N I.D. and the bending moment
diagram MJ.D . due to a unit horizontal load at a are shown in Figs. 1.7gb
and c respectively.
In case a, the first term in equation 1.54 will vanish. Thus,
So = I X 10 ' X 20 (0.5 X 4  0.5 X 8 _ . I X 8) 100
=  0.2 em., i.e . 0.2 em (to the left)
So =
20
I X 10' X  
(4 X4+ 6 X
8X8)
8 +  2  100
0.5 2
= 3.5 em. (to th~ right)
U8
4m
I
6
b
I 6 i ' (a) 12 m
6 ~,mt
1~":)'
\
( /
1/4{13 t 1/4/10
Fig. 1.80 J
Solution: Referring to Fig. 1.80b and c which show the N,.D. and the
M1.D. due to two opposite unit couples applied at c,
= 1 X 10' X 8 ( J'
I
X 2
J13 + JI  X
4 13 4 10
l " a) ~a
~
l 2
d o }       b*""c
1_ _ _ 4m _..c;;06:a0"".0  2 J
1t!
(b) ~~I_~o~.J
!0.51 t1.51
(c) Gto.251 ):*t,
ml
10.251
Fig. 1.81
Exalllple 1.60 For the frame shown in Fig. 1.79 a, calculate the horizontal
displacement at the roller support a due to a downwmd displacement at
support b equal to 0.8 em. accompanied by a horizontal outward displa
cement there equal to 0.6 em.
Part 3
1.31 Introduction
If the deflect ion at a single joint o f a tfUSS in a speci fied direction is
required, then the method of virtual work already described is the most
suitable. However, if displacements at all or a number of j oin ts arc
required, as is the case in many st ructural problems, a grap hi cal method
known as the displacement diagram method, is morc a dva ntageous to
the method of virtual work. As will be shown subsequently, the graphi cal
method is easily carried out once the changes i n length of individual truss
members arc found. The change in length of a member is given by
Under load, d B = FL/EA 1.56
Due to temperature change, dS = at t L 1. 57
Due to fabrication error a, dS = a 1.58
Due to fabrication error fJL, do = fJL 1.59
~~ ____________~ti
(b)
c,
(c )Williot diagram
Fig. 1.82
Fig . 1.82 a are greatly exaggerated. If the changes in length, which are
extremely small relative to the original lengths of the members were
plotted to the same scale as the truss, the deformed truss would almost
coinside with its original undcrformcd shape and it would be practically
impossible to measure.. to any acceptable degree of accuracy, the displace
ments of the joints.
Now, this same cause which makes the graphical method impracticable,
ofrers the key to a method that permi ts the drawing of the changes in
length of the members to any convenient scale separately from the truss.
Since the main difficulty arises from the fact that the changes in length
arc vcry small in comparison to the original lengths of the members, then
for all practical purposes the tangents to the arcs may be substi tuted for
the arcs a nd thus ends c in members ac and bc may be assumed to move
perpendicular to members ac and bc respectively. The deflected position
of joint c is thus determined and the deformed shape of the truss is as in
dicated in dashed lines in Fig. 1.82 b. It may scem that thc deflected posi
tion of joint c in Fig. 1.82 a diffcrs from that in Fig. 1.82 b but
this is mainly due to the exaggerated scale used in representing the changes
in length of the members.
As arcs about centres of rotation are substituted QY normals to the
original directions of the members it is no longer necessary to draw the
members of the truss and it is possible to obtain relative joint deflections
by a simplified diagram involving only the changes in length and the
normals to the original directions of the members. Making use of this
fact the change in length may be represented to any convenient scale.
Such a displacement diagram is called the Williot diagram after the French
engineer who suggested it and is shown in Fig. 1.82 c. The procedure of
plotting the Williot diagram for the given truss is as follows:
A member which remains fixed in direction after deformai.ion and a
point, at either end of the chosen member, which is assumed to be fixed
in position are chosen. In this example member ab is fixed in direction
and end a is fixed in position. Denoting the points in the Williot diagram
by dashed letters of the corresponding truss joints, point a' is established
first at a convenient location on the tracing paper. Since ab remains fixed
in direction, joint b moves horizontally to the right relative to a (ab being
in tensi~n) and dBab is drawn horizontally to the right of a to a chosen
convenient scale. This dB is shown in Fig. 1.82c as vector ab'. Next.
123
point c' which corresponds to th e rema ining joint c of tri a ngle abc in th e
truss is determined. Since member'ac is in tension .. end C of t his m ember
will move away r ela tive to a along a line p ar a llel to ac a s indica
ted by vector a'et Similarly~ since member be is in compression, end c
of this m ember will move towards the pre located point h' along a line
parallel to be as indicated by vector b'C2o Point c' is finally found by draw
ing perpendicula rs to members a c and be a s shown in Fig. 1.82c. Vectors
a'b' and a'e' thus represent the deflections of joints band c relative to
joint a . And since in this particular example joint a is actually fixed in
position. . and member ab remains horizontal after d eforma tion, these
vectors represent the absolute deflections at these joints. Of course, the
lengths of these vectors should be measured to the same scale as tha t used
in representing the dSvalues.
The same procedure ca n be applied to simple trusses with any number
of joints provided that the actual position of one end ofa member in the
deformed truss relative to its other end is known. Consider, for example,
the truss shown in Fig. 1.83 a.
r x.
Id .  P,
C c.
CK~~~~~~I
I, P
o
(a)
Fig. 1.83
h does not rotate during deformation. Either end of this memb r may
be assumed to be fixed in position, and here joint c has been chos fi.
P, r. P, P,
fk~~g~~~~~~~
,
a
b
(a)
f, 1\
a, '
,'/
'.
Fig. 1.84
2h' which represents this displacement to the chosen scale is plotted. Point
h' is established by plotting vectors h/b 1 and c'b 2 representing the shor
tening and elongation of members bh and cb respectively, and finding
the point of intersection of the normals to these vectors through hi and
l
b 2 The same procedure is repeated until point a is located. The Williot
diagram for the left half of the truss is shown in Fig. 1.84 b. The deformed
shape of the whole truss is shown in Fig. 1.84 c. Since the truss is
symmetrical and symmetrically loaded, the deformed shape of the right
half would be in a corresponding position to the right of the centreline.
In the actual truss, joint a, not joint c, is fixed in position, This creates
no problem since the displacements given by the Williot diagram are
relative. Thus, the absolute true deflections are determined by measuring
126
from point a' in the Williot diagram to the other points representing the
rest at the joints. The vertical deflection at joint c, for instance.. is the
measured distance Yr;; shown in Fig. 1.84 c. Also, the horizontal displace
ment at joint e is the measured distance xe where point e' in the Williot
diagram is symmetrically opposite to point a'.
For example, consider the truss in the previous example, which is repro
duced in Fig . 1.85 a . In this case,joint a is known to bc fixed in posilion
and computing the absolute displacement at joint b thus provides the
only additional information necessary to determine the actual relative
positions of ends a and b of member abo The absolute displacement at
joint b is the resultant of the displacements along member ab and per
pendicular to it. The first displaccmrnt component is simply the change
in length of member ab (already calculated) while the latter may be
calculated by the method of virtual work. In so doing, only a set of forces
FI due to a unit vertical load at b need to be ealcuated; the Fosystem
of forces having been already computed during the usual course of the
analY!:iis.
" 127
P, P,
[ (a)
h'
(b) Winie! diagram
c
Fig. 1.85
Referring to Fig. 1.85 h .. point a' in the Williot diagram is first establi
shed then. point h' is located to its right by an amount equal to the elonga
tion of member ab, d8 ab and downward by the calculated vertical deOec
tion at joint b'Yb ' Points a' and b' thus located, point ' is determined next
and the Williot diagram is completed in the usual manner. It is noticed
that the joint displacements thus determined are identical to those
obtained in the previous example.
It should be emphasized that no restriction is imposed on this method
in that it can be appl ied to tfusses where no symmetry in shape or load
exists.
ExaJnple 1.61 Draw the Williot diagram for the truss shown in Fig. 1.86 a
and state the actual deflection at joint d. The relative areas orthe various
members are as i ndieated. E = 2000 tlem 2, A = 25 em 2.
1
2A 151 151
Gm A
A A A 3
e
A J
L_l<c'
_ll_ 4 m J
(al
(blWilliol diagram
Fig. 1.86
Solution: The forces in the truss members arc found and the changes in
length dS orthe various members are worked out in JTable 1.13.
L A F
Member E dS
em. cm. 2 t.
Example 1.62 Draw the Williot diagram for the truss shown in Fig.
1.87a if under the given loading struts are stressed to 0.8 t/cm 2 and ties
to 1.2 tlcm 2. State the vertical deflection at joint c and the horizontal
displacement at joint e. E = 2000 t/cm.2
t.
I,
"'1 9
p
h
p p
j
c
p
(al
'"
Fig. 1.87 f
"
Member ab bc fg gh af bg ch fb bh
       
L cm. 400 400 400 400 300 300 300 500 500
F/A t/cm 2 0 +1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 +1.2 +1.2 0.8
, dB cm. 0 +0.240.16 0.16 0.12\0.12 +0.18 +0.3 0.2
Table 1.14
\
130
Point e'
in the Williot diagram is located symmetrical1y opposite to a',
and hence by measurement"
Xc ~ 1/2 ~ 0.5 cm (to the right)
Exatnple 1.63 Draw the Williot diagram for the symmetrical truss shown
in Fig. 1.88 a due to a unit horizontal load at point 12 as indicated.
Dimension and state the values of the vertical deflection atjoinl 6 and the
horizontal displacement at the roller support 12. Assume L/A = 5 cm 1
for all mem bers and E ~ 2000 tlem 2
(a)
...
if
y.
100 dbValues ,.
x12/2_+_____ '1212
(b) Willio! diagram
Fig. 1.88
Solution: The forces in the truss members due to the applied load are
calculated and listed in Table 1.15. Since L/A and E are constant
L
for all the members then dS is proportional to F and the vlaue
EA
131
ImemberI12113/23/24134/45 ~13615615~~/
1 Ft . +1.581.581.50+1.801.80 +2 ro 3 01+210
Table l.l5
Member 67 remains fixed in direction and point 6 is assumed fixed
in position. The corresponding Williot diagram, drawn with member
EA
deformations =  d8values, will be as shown in Fig. 1.8Sb. The
4L
displacement scale is thus made up as follows:
4L 4x5
I em. (measured) =  =   = 0.01 em.
EA 2000
Point 12' in the Williot diagram will be symmetrically opposite to
point 1'. The vertical deflection at the various joints are to be measured
from the line joining points I' and 12', while the horizontal displacements
are to be measured from point I' which represents the hinged support in
the truss. Thus,
Y6 2.9 X 0.01 = 0.029 em. (upward)
Xu = 2 (7.5 X 0.01) = 0.15 em. (to the left)
Esample 1.64 Draw a properly oriented Williot diagram for the truss
shown in Fig. 1.89 a. Indicate the vertical deflections at joints 6 and 8.
Assume L/A = 4 cm 1 and E = 2000 t/cm 2 .
~ "'6""_ 8
8
8
,I
Y7 r
y.
lot 3
Io
8
4
'fa 4.51.1
~o
L I 4x4=16 m
(a)
(b)WilIiot diagram
Fig. 1.89
132
Solution: In this case joint a is truely fixed in position, and since member
a7 has a zero force, computing the vertical deflection at joint 7'Y7' provides
the remaining information necessary to locate the true position of joint
7 relative to joint a. This is done by the method of virtual work. The com
putations are presented in Table 1.16. The PO lforces are those due to
a unit downward vertical load at joint 7.
Member Fo 10 3 d8 FI FIFo
L 4
Y, = EA L FIFo = 2000 X 96.42 = 0.193 cm. (downward)
Example 1.65 If each of the top chord members of the roof truss shown
in Fig. 1.90 a is fabricated Icm. longer and the bottom chord members
1.5 em. shorter than their corresponding geometrical lengths: plot the
shape of the bottom chord in the absence of load.
C'~l a~d~h
1 1 I 1   4 x 3 =12 m      ' 1
~ (al
Y,=Y
5""""~ JJ
83 9.3cm 8.3
(c)
a'
(b) Willie! diagram
Fig. 1.90
The deflected shape of the bottom chord is thus as shown in Fig. 1.90c.
e" e'
/I
/1
/ 1
h"f ~d"
I'
1 " 1
1 ' I
g"t   ~d" c,.
1
1/1
I /
/1
I
.'
t
,
l b"
I
" I
, I
i \L
. ..b'
a" a,a
(el Mohr diagram (f) WilliotMohr diagram
Fig. 1.91
136
dy x
and 1.61
dx y
Equations 1.60 and 1.61 and other similar sets of geometrical
relationships that could be found for other joints indicate that the
rotational displacements of the various joints are proportional to their
corresponding radial distances from the centre of rotation a and in a
direction perpendicular to them.
This has suggested a purely graphical method for the determination
of the displacements due to rotation.
In Fig. 1.91e, the truss is drawn with a base line a" e" eq ual to D. (in
Fig. 1.91 b) and geometrically similar to the actual truss and also with
all its members making an angle 90 with corresponding members in the
actual truss. It can be proved that the displacements of the various joints
due to rotation are equal to the distances between similarly identified
points to the centre of rotation a labelled a" in this diagram .
It will be required to prove that g"a" is perpendicular to line ag and
that g"a" is equal to ag times the angle of rotation dEL
Since triangle a"g"c" (in Fig. 1.91e) is similar to triangle agc
(in Fig. 1.91a), angle g"a"c" = angle gae, and since a"e" is perpendic
ular to ac, g"a" is perpendicular to ago
Also, from similarity of the two figures in Figs. 1.91a and 1.91e,
a" gil ag
 = 
a" e" ae
a" e" 6
but   = =d8
ae L
then a" g" = ag de
and thus the required is proved .
The diagram shown In Fig. 1.91e is called Mo hr diagram after the
German engineer Otto Mohr who first suggested it.
If the M ohr diagram in Fig. 1.91e is superimposed on the Williot
diagram shown in Fig. 1.91 b, the diagram shown in Fig. 1.91f is obtained.
This diagram is known as the WilliotMohr diagram. The total displace
ment at any joint is the vector sum oftne displacements due to rotation and
deformation. The former is measured from the doubledashed point in
1
137
the Mohr diagram to the fixed point a" (also labelled aiL while the
latter is measured from the fixed point to the singledashed point in the
Williot diagram. In other words, the magnitude and direction of the
total displacement at a joint may be found directly by measurement from
the doubledashed points to the similarly identified singledashed points_
This is indicated in Fig_ 1.91f for joint d.
If a joint other than the hinge a had been chosen as the fixed point,
a Williat diagram could still be drawn. The deformed truss is then trans
lated as a whole so that point a' in the deformed truss coinsides with its
original position a. This corresponds to measuring the deformation dis
placement of any joint from point a' to the singledashed point in the Wil
liat diagram similarly labelled as the joint in question. The rest of the
procedure is the same as explained before.
f _ g h
P, P,
(a)
Fig. 1.92
This is because member ch assumed fixed in Fig. 1.92 rotates less than
member ab assumed fixed in Fig . 1.91. In the extreme case, when the
138
point representing the roUer support and parallel to its path of movement.
(3) After determining the base line, theMohr diagram is obtained
by drawing a structure similar to the given truss. The ratio of similarity
is determined by the length of the base line and the corresponding length
in the actual truss. Further, the position of the structure in the Mohr
diagram should be such that it may move to a position parallel and similar
to the original truss when rotated through an angle of 90.
x
II
/ I
d
/ I
d~ __
\
b
~1
Cal 2
a fixed point
ad fixed direction
CblWiHiotMohr diagram
Fig. 1.93
f' f"
+ e
(a)
a fixed point
ac fix'e d direction
b'
(b) WilliotMohr diagraM Fig. 1.94
//'\,
b.
/ I
f'
/ 11\
~:01:_:_"ie,;~
d
CJl
1.5m
0.5
3 ol2
/ I
/ (a)
c'(~ ,
I / \ a fixed point
I /
/ ab fixed direction
151( I
" I,
I
(b) WiUiot  Mohr diagram
d'
Fig. 1.95
141
I diagram.
4m
4
b b c
~ 3x3
0'0
=9 m
(a)
3J
j'
I Of
f'
: fiXl'd point
C9 fiXl'd dirl'ction
Fig. 1.96
The student should pay particular attention to how the base line is
determined in each of the exaroples presented above. He is also advised
to resketch the given displacement diagrams independently making the
same assumptions given for the chosen fixed points and fixed directions.
He will also do good if he sketches the displacement diagrams making his
own assumptions for the fixed points and fixed directions.
Exan.ple 1.70 For the truss shown in Fig. 1.97a draw the WilliotMohr
diagram, and then sketch the deflected shape of the bottom chord indi
cating the values of the vertical deflections at the panel points on
the sketch. E = 2000 t/cm' and L/A = 4 cm' for all the members.
B
Ii
8 8
8
r 41 '" 4
4.5.LJ
~~a~~7~~8~~~~~
 4.1\04=16 m
r=:::::::J::;:_L.I
. (al
~
0.19 0.23 0.1gem
(e)
20 doValues
(b)WiHiotMohr diagram
Fig. 1.97
Exalllple 1.71 For the truss shownin Fig. 1.98 a, draw the WilliotMohr
diagram indicating the value of the horizontal displacement at the roller
support b and check the value thus obtained analytically. E = 2000 tfem'
and LfA = 2.5 cm 1 for all the members.
21 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 41
1
4
L
~ I
a
4x4:16m
(a)
5'
10'
100 doValues
(b) Williol Mohr diagram 3'
Fig. 1.98
144
Solution: The forces in the members due to the applied loads and the
corresponding dSvalues are presented in Table 1.17. These are all what
is necessary to construct the Williot~Mohr diagram shown in Fig. 1.98 h.
This diagram is drawn with member deformations = 100 dSvalues and
assuming joint 8 fixed in position and member 83 fixed in direction.

Member
F 10 3 dS F, 10 3F,dS
t. em. t.
12 0 0 0 0
23 2  2.5  0.375 + 0.94
34 2  2.5 0.25 + 0.625
45 0 0 0.125 0
56 +4 +5 0 0
7a 1.5  1.87 0 0
a 8 +3 +3.75 +1.12 + 4.2
89 +6 +7.5 +1.375 +10.3
910 +6 +7.5 +1.25 + 9.4
IOb +4 +5 + 1.125 + 5.62
17 2 2.5 0 0
2a 6.7 8.35  0.375 + 3.13
38 2 2.5 +0.125  0.31
49 0 0 +0.125 0
510 +2 +2 .5 +0.125 + 0.31
6b 2 2.5 0 0
27 +1.9 +2.37 0 0
28 +4.7 +5.85 +0.53 + 0.31
39 0 0 0.177 0
410 2.8 3.5 0.177 + 0.62
5b 5.7 7. 12 0.177 + 1.26
39.195
Table 1.17
The F,forces presented in column (4) of Table 1.17 are the member
forces due to a unit horizontallefttoright load. The last column repre
sents 10 3 F ,dSvalues, which when summed and :divided by 10' will give
the horizontal displacement required. Thus,
39.1 95
Xb =  = 0.039 em. (to the right)
10 3
0.2 d
f '0
,c;:,."'<..~
'0 .<$
3m ~ or 0 .c;:,'), N
Cl
t
3 \!?
b
.015
,~~
.02 h
9 .0.05
~ a
4.4 :16m
(al
r X,
4 dbValues
(blWiliiotMohr diagram
Kid'
Fig. 1.99
Solution: The required WilliotMohr diagram drawn to scale 1 em. =
0.25 em. is shown in Fig. 1.99 b. The absolute displacement at roller f is
represented by vector f"f'. Its horizontal and vertical components are:
Xc = 3.1 X 0.25 = 0.78 em. (to the right)
Yc = 1.55 X 0.25 = 0.39 em. (upward)
146
Part 4
Influence Lines of Displacements
Fig. 1.100
where Mo and Mm are the bending moments due to a unit load acting at
points nand m respectively. Thus,
8mn = 8um 1.62
147
The example used for developing the theorem has been a simple beam
but it is applicable to frames, trusses or any linearly elastic structure. Also,
the theorem need not be restricted to linear displacements and may be
extended to include rotational displacements. This will be considered
later on in chapter 2.
For purpose of review, if the curve shown in Fig. 1.101 is the influence
line for the deflection at point c, then ordinate Yl is the deflection at point
c when a unit load is placed at 1 and Y2 is the deflection at c due to unit
load at2, etc. It follows that if a unit load is placed at a sufficient number of
positions along the beam and in each case the deflection at c is calculated
then these values form the ordinates to the influence line for the
deflection at point c.
a r I r ~
b
f~
c 2
Y,!
I.L Y,
3L='".
Fig. l.lOI
148
Consider for example the cantilever shown in Fig. 1.102a.. and suppose
that the influence line for the deflection at the free end b is required.
(b)
I.L. y.
Fig. 1.102
Fig. 1.102 b shows the elastic curve of the cantilever due to the case of
loading indicated. Now if a unit load is placed on the cantilever at an
arbitrarily chosen point such as c, it is known from the reciprocal theorem
that the vertical deflection at b when the unit load is at c, Ybc.J is the same
as the vertical deflection at c when the unit load is at b, Yeb' By definition,
however, Ybc represents an ordinate to the influence line for Yb" Since
point c on the cantilever has been arbitrarily chosen, the influence
line for the deflection at point b is the same as the elastic curve of the can~
tilever due to placing a unit load at b.
The elastic curve is usually determined graphically but may also be
obtained by any of the analytical methods for beam deflections presented
in part I of this chapter.
As a second example, consider the truss shown in Fig. 1.103 a where
the load iJ; assumed to move on the top chord, and let the influence line
for the deflection at joint c be required. The deflected shape of the loaded
chord of the truss due to a unit load placed at c is shown in Fig. 1.103 h.
As in the previous example, when the unit load is at a joint such as d the
deflection at c,YcdJ will be the same as the deflection at d when the unit
load is at c,ydc. Thus, the deflected shape of the loaded chord of the truss,
shown in Fig. 1.103 b, represents the influence line for the deflection at
joint c. Such deflected shape is best obtained graphically by the use of
displacement diagrams.
~
I 149
I
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1.103
From the previous two examples, the following rule may be deduced:
(a)
~
ma 6m
(t l.L.o o \
0.062 I
0.225
0.456
0.12 em
Fig. 1.104
Solution: "The required influence line is the elastic curve due to a unit
load applied at b. The equation of this elastic curve has already been
found in example 1.2 and is reproduced below.
150
Y = (3 Lx2 _ x 3)
6 EI
x 100
at x  1.5 m., y = (3 x 6 X 1.5 2 _ 1.5 3 ) = 0.C62em.
6 x 10000
1 X 100
at x 3 m., y (3 X 6 X 32  3 3 ) = 0.225 em.
6 X 10000
1 X 100
at x = 4.5 m., y (3 x 6 x 4.5 2  4.5 3) = 0:456 em.
6 X 10000
1 X 100
at x = 6 ro., Y= (3 X 6 X 6 2  6 3) = 0.72 em.
6 X 10000
These ordinates are indicated on the influence line for the deflection
at b shown in Fig. 1.104 b.
lal
~
(b)l.L.oc
~ 0.183
;;;5
0.267
0.183 em
Fig. 1.105
Solution: The required influence line is the elastic curve of the beam due
to a unit load applied at point c. This elastic curve may be found graphi
cally using the elasticload method as explained in section 1.8. Alterna
tively, the equation of the elastic curve may he derived using the double
integration method. Since the beam is symmetrically loaded, the equation
of only one half of the beam needs be derived. This has been done for the
left half of the beam and the equation is as follows:
1
y =  (3L 2x  4x 3 )
12EI
1 X 100
at x 2 m., y (3x 8 2 X 24 X 2 3) = 0.183cm.
12 X 16:J00
1 X 100 2
at x 4 m., Y 12 X 16000 (3 X 8 X 44 X 4 3) = 0.267cm.
151
ce
The ordinates at all the panel points are indicat ed on the influen
line for the deflect ion at point c shown in Fig. 1.105 b.
at point c
EsaIDp le 1.75 Construct the influen ce line for the deflection
of inertia
on the nonprismatic beam shown in Fig. 1.106 a. The momen t
2
varies as indicat ed and E = 210 tfcm .
(a) c
q~ ~
~i
a~ ~ III
a
I~
Odd ~dd
a 0
_ II
E
1 75
.
III
15m
r ....
75,
en a a a to
N
v
C! 0 0 0 a ...,
N
[5Y' =c:tJ
Fig. 1.106
to a unit
Solutio n: The require d influen ce line is the elastic curve due
graphic ally in
load applied at point c. This has already been found
uced
examp le 1.29 (Fig. 1.37) using the elasticload method and is reprod
influen ce
on a horizon tal base line in Fig. 1.IC6 h. The ordina tes to the
line, in centim eters, are indicat ed at points spaced at 3.75 m.
ement
ExaDlple 1.76 Constr uct the influen ce line for the horizon tal displac
16000 m 2 t.
at the roller suppor t b of the frame shown in Fig. 1.107 a. EI=
4 4mt
8m
(a) (b) B.M.D.
lY ~0.2
0.2cm
(c) I.L. Oh
Fig. 1.107
152
Solution: The required influence line is the elastic curve of the loaded part
of the frame due to a unit horizontal load applied at b. The corresponding
B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 1.107 b. Since part cd is subjected to a uniform
elastic load of intensity M/EI = 4/16000, its elastic curve will assume a
Solution: The ordinates of the required influence line are identical to the
vertical deflections at points c, d, c, f and g due to a uni$ horizontal
load applied at b. These deflections can best be found gral'hically by the
method of clasticload described in section 1.8. The B.M.D. due to a
unit horizontal load at b and the corresponding elastic loads are shown
in Fig. 1.108 b . It should be noted that the elastic loads act on the axis of
the arch at the centroids of the segments of the B.M.D. The polar diagram
with a polar distance equal to EI = 40000 m 2 t is shown in Fig. 1. 108 c.
The corresponding link polygon is shown in Fig. 1.108 d.
6mt
5.5 5.5
(b) 6.M.D.
9.4
9.4
20.2
23
O'?_ _ l
23
(d l link Polygon
20.2
9.4
2
40000m t I
Fig. 1.108
These ordinates are indicated on the influence line for the horizontal
displacement at support b shown in Fig. 1.108e. The negative sign indica
tes that for any vertical downward load on the arch, support b will move
outwards.
154
H P
Ha n m k
al~~ ____~~__~~__~~____J
C d e
v v v
50 d6Values
Fig. !.l09
Table 1.18
rgk7~~~_*~k
(a)
f
12 m  :o:::t="' 9
0.011 em
(e)J.L.6, k===I~~~.1=___..,_~
+
K:
1/
~f" 0.074 em
fK 1
I " I ..
1 ~~
/ , ,
i"k I
1, 1/ i'
1 '1/.,
I / 1C
nK t I
1' I
>tb"
I
~'l~r h~.Ja' 
175 d6Values
j'
f(b)WiUiolMohr diagram
"'_ _ _ __ _....Jk'
Fig. l.1I0
157
Solution: The member forces due to a unit downward load at f arc listed
in Table 1.19. Since L/EA is constant foraH the truss members, the
member deformations, d3, are proportional to the member forces. The
constant of proportionality, L/EA, may be included in tl)~ scale used for
drawing the displacement diagram.
Member gh hi IJ jk ab bc ce ef ga kf
Force +0.75 +2.25 +2.0 0 0 1.5 1.25  I +'0.75 0
Member gb bh hc ci Ie OJ jf cd de
Force 1 .06 + 1.06 1.06{).IS+0. 1B1.41 + 1.411.241.24
Table 1.19
The vertical deflections at the panel points gk of the loaded chord.
due to a unit load at f form the ordinates of the required influence line.
By measurement,
3rk  12.9/175 = 0.074 cm. (downward)
These main ordinates are indicated on the influence line for the verti
cal deflection at f shown in Fig. 1.1l0 c. The negative sign indicates that
as the load moves between g and i the displacement at f is upward.
ExaD1ple 1.80 If load is transmitted to the lower chord of the truss shown
in Fig. 1.111a, construct the influence line for the horizontal displacem
ent at the roller support b . L/A = 4 cm 1 and E = 2000 t/cm 2
Solution: The member forces due to a unit horizontal load at b are listed
in Table 1.20. Since L/EA is constant for all the truss members, the d3 
values are proportional to the member forces. The constant L/EA may
be included in the scale used for drawing the displacement diagram.
L
1
f
,
ISS
J 5 7 9 11 13
.
(a)
1~1
6m
18m 10
y
0013 0.022 0.023 0.014 em
(d I.L.~
______ ..,... I  I J="
~ 0.036 0.05B
14'
.... 1
\r.,.p;;~:::; ..
(....
I
I
I .... )/12
I .... "" I
,"1
K I
I ')I!
" I _
I .... :>t6'
k I
I 2
iC .... '"
I
....
I .... /
.... I
.....
6
4"
/
175 doValues K. . ....
I
( b)Williot Mohr diagram I .... ""
14
Fig. 1.111
159
Mcmb er 13 35 57 79 911 !l 13 92 24 46 68
Mcmber 810 1012 1214 aI 12 23 34 45 56 67
Memb cr 78 89 910 1O!l !l12 1213 1314 b8 bolO
Table 1.20
Assu ming point 7 to remain fixed in position and 76 fixed in direction,
the res ulting WilliotMohr diagram, drawn with member deformations
= 175 do  values, is shown in Fig. 1.111 h.
The vertical deflections at panel points a14 will then form the ordin
ates of the required influence line. By measurement..
S2 2.35Jl75 = ~ 0.013 cm.
S, 3.8/175 =  0.022 cm.
S. = 4/175 = ~ 0.023 cm.
Ss = 2.45Jl75 ~ 0.014 cm.
160
(I) Using the double integration method, derive the equation of the
elastic curve of the cantilever shown in Fig. 1.112. Determine the slope
and deflection at the free end if. EI = 4000 m 2t.
(2) Using the double integration method, derive the equation of the
elastic curve of the beam shown in Fig. 1.1I3. Determine the maximum
deflection and compare its value to the deflection at mid span. EI =
5000 m 2 t.
(3), (4) Using the double integration method, derive the equation
of the elastic curve of each of the beams in Figs. lo1I4 and lo1l5.
Determine the slopes at the supports and the maximum deflection
if I = 7500 em' and E = 2000 tfem 2 .
C6mi)G~6mi0
Fig. lo1l4 Fig. lo1I5
(5) Using the double integration method, derive the equation of the
elastic curve of the cantilever shown in Fig. 1.116. Determine the slope
and the deflection at the free end.
Sine curve W
~ 6r1111~b
~ c
L
AI
>
r~/~
161
(6) Using the double integration method .. derive the expressions for
the slope and the deflection along the beam shown in Fig. 1.117, then
find the slopes at the supports and the deflection at the mid point c.
(7) , (8) Using the double integration method, derive the expressions
for the slope and the deflection along each of the beams in Figs. 1.118
and I. II 9, then find the slopes at the supports and the deflection at point c.
Mo
K;)b
"1.
3
~ 11.3 # 2L
""3
Fig. 1.118 Fig. 1.119
(9), (10) Using the double integration method, resolve problems (I)
and (5) if the moment of inertia of half the beam nearer to the fixed
end is doubled.
(1 1) (16) Using the momentarea method, resolve problems (I)  (4),
(7) and (8).
(17) Using the momentarea method" find the rotation and deflection
at the free end of the cantilever shown in Fig. 1.120 if EI = 5000 m 2t.
What will be the percentage reduction in these values if:
(18) Using the momentarea method find the deflection at mid span
of the beam shown in Fig. 1.121 ifE = 200 t/cm 2 and 1= 6x lOS cm 4
What will this deflection be if the moment of inertia of the middle half
of the beam is doubled?
(19) Using the momentarea method, calculate the deflection at
the mid point of span ab and the deflection at point C of the beam shown
in Fig. 1.122 if EI = 7500 m"t.
162
1.SP
Ll3
4tl 12 t lt1m
21
~
Q Q
n c d c
I 4 m 1. 2 ..j... 3 < l3m.....L 3
Fig. 1.126 Fig. l.l27
(29) Using the elastic  load method, calculate the deflection at the
mid point of each span of the continuous beam shown in Fig. 1.128
if Y b = Y c = 0.575 P and EI is uniform.
Q b ted '"'~
~ L<
(30) Using the clastic load method, calculate the deflection at the
mid point of each span of the continuous beam shown in Fig. 1.129 if
Mb = Me = wL2/1O and EI is uniform.
(31) Calculate the deflection at the mid point of the fixed beam shown
in Fig. 1.130 if M. = Mb =  wL'/12. Comp,"e this deflection to its
corresponding value in a simple beam.
2t
~
~a '"
I! I I I!! I j ~
!b~
1.5tJm .12.5
a b
~L I 8m 2J
Fig. 1.130 Fig. 1.131
(32) Find the position and calculate the value of the maximum deflec
tion in span ab of the beam shown in Fig. 1.131 if M. =  13 m.t. and
EI = 10000 m 2 t.
A 1 121~21J
I 6m f 3 + 3
t 16t 31
e
1
21 21
I
L 4
L::,.
I 4 Inl 4
bO
+ t. ...J
Fig. 1.134
1 21 101 21 1 :1
~3 f 3 l3m __ 3
I~I
+ 3 l 3 l
I
<
Fig. 1.135
164
,
assumed to be double that of the vertical sides (1 2 ) . I, ~ 2 12 ~ 300000
em 4 and E 200 tJcm 2 .
2.5 Water t
3 Water
1 t/m 3
L L 1 t/m 3
f.4m ~1 !    6 m J 1 l
Fig. 1.136 Fig. 1.137
3
Water
1 tlm3 Water
r 3
L 1 tlm 3
~
1.5
4m 6m
1.5
I
Fig. 1.138 Fig. 1.139
(48) Using the conjugate beam method, calculate the deflection at the
mid point of span ab and hinge d of the beam shown in,Fig. 1.140. Find
also the slope at points a, b, c and just to the left and just to the right of
hinge d if EI = 2500 m 2t. Indicate the calculated values on a sketch of
the elastic curve.
211m
a
I 6m
Fig. 1.140
(49) Using the conjugate beam method, calculate the deflections and
slopes at a sufficient number of points along the beam shown in Fig. 1.141
to allow a proper sketch of its elastic curve. EI = 2500 m 2t.
165
..6:1 3
Fig. 1.1 41
ons
(50),(5 1) Using the conj ugate beam method , calcula te the deflecti
beams in
and slopes at a sufficient numbe r of points on each of the
curve.
Figs 1.142 and 1.143 to allow a proper sketch of the elastic
EI = 6000 m 21.
curve.
Indicat e th e calcula ted values on a ncat sketch of the elastic
Fig. 1.142
211m
~~~LIIII~~I~ICf5fI!~=!cC~I~iIJCI[III~~,~bLI2III!:':r::!::~[I~I!I!~~=C~c
Fig. 1.143
in
(52) , (53) Calcula te the magnit ude of the load P acting as shown
on.
Figs. 1.144 and 1.145 such t hat point c will have zero deflecti
" 20~~
~ 60cm 1
~ 3m '=
Fig. 1.144 Fig. 1.145
on at
(54) Using the conjug ate beam method , calcula te the deflecti
d of the
the mid point of span .hc and the deflect ion and slope at point
1.146 if Y = 31. and
statical ly indeter minate beam shown i n Fig. b
EI = 8000 m 2t .
166
(55) Using the conjugate beam method, calculate the deflection at the
mid points of spans ab and be and the deflection and slope at d of the
beam shown in Fig. 1.147 if Mb ~  6.33 m.l., Y a ~ 3.12 t and
EI ~10000 m 2 1.
Fig. l.l47
211m 211m
b c 31
I c d
2
4
6m~ l 6m
b
111m 111m
b c
dl b cr 3
4
a d 1m
4m 21 L3mi 3
' 0.51
Fig. l.l50 Fig. l.l51
167
3
a
9m
aJ1
14m
(62) Calculate the shear deflection at the free end of the cantilever
shown in Fig. 1.112 ifit is made of S.I.B. No. 34. G = 800 t/cm 2 .
(64) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the horizontal and
vertical displacements at joint C of the truss shown in Fig. 1. 154. Assume
L/A = 5 cm 1 fo r all the m embers and E = 2000 t/cm 2
(67) Using the method of virtual work, caiculate the vertical displace
Inents at joints c and d of the truss shown in Fig. 1.157. For all tension
members A = 30 em 2 and for all compression members A = 50 em 2 and
E = 2000 tfem 2.
(68),(69) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the relative dis~
placement between joints c and d and the displacement at the roller sup
port b of each of the trussesshown in Figs. 1.158 and 1.159. Assume LfA
JO cm1 for all the members and E = 2000 tfem 2
41 4 4t 4
5 3 4 4
:r Q
c
e
4x4=16m
d
b
1 51 1'5 21
. f
\5
1Ci Q
c
6x2=12m
2
(70) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displace
ment at joint c and the relative di~p~acement between joints d and e of
"the truss shown in Fig. 1.160. Assume L /A = 10 cm 1 for all the members
and E = 2000 tfcm 2.
169
10 10 10 10 101
r 4x2=8m "j ' 41
51
d 1.5
3m t1.5
t
5
d '
1
6m
J.
4.3=12m
(71) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the horizontal displa
cement at joint e and the relative displacement between joints c and d
of the truss shown in Fig. 1.161. Assume LjA = 15 cm 1 for all the
members and E = 2000 tjem 2
(72) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displace
ment at joint c and the displacement at the roller support b of the truss
shown in Fig. 1.162 . Assume LjA = 6 cm 1 for all the members and
E = 2000 tjcm 2
121
~r~~~~.~~
3F "' ...J(
3m
(73) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displace
ments at joints c and d of the truss shown in Fig. 1.163. Assume LjA =
8 em 1 for all the members and E = 2000 tjcm 2
I
,
,
I
170
3 6 61
d c f
6m
a t5 .l
I 2x6 =12 .;;:;::;:~_ _ 4x6 =24m
Fig. 1.163
(74) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displa
cement at joint c and the displacement at the roller support b of the truss
shown in Fig. 1.164. Assume L/A ~ 8 cm~l for all the members and E
2000 t/em 2 .
3D
2~,~~,,~~~~ ,3m
i
16m 10m
Fig. 1.164
(75) Link ce' of the truss shown in Fig. 1.165 is provided with a turn
buckle to adjust its length . Calculate the adjustment that should be made
in order to balance out the vertical displacement at joint b due to
the applied load. Assume L/A ~ \0 em~ 1 for all the members and E ~
2000 t/em 2
6m
~ka'~~c~
3
~a~__~~~~~~~~~~~b
~_ _ 4x3 =12m _ _1_ 2x3=6
61
Fig. 1.165
171
(101) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the ,three displace
ment components at point d of the frame shown in Fig. 1.166 if EI =
10000 m 2 t.
211m
1.51/m
b c
~1
I
4m
.
l{)
c
1
6m
, a 1 ci
~3r
d a
~ 3......L4mJ 0,51 6 I6m
Fig. 1.166 Fig, 1.167
(102) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical dis
placement and the relative rotation at the intermediate hinge c of the
threehinged frame shown in Fig. 1.167 if EI = 25000 m 2 t.
(103) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the horizontal dis
placement at the roller support b of the frame shown in Fig. 1.168 taking
into account the effect of axial and shear deformations.
What is the percentage error if this effect is neglected? A = 200 cm 2J
A, = 80 em 2, I = 100000 em', E = 2000 tfcm 2 and G = 800 tfem 2.
5 2 tim
e
~
21 , 21
d I ~
2
6m b I
La L.. 4 L4 mL 4
J 5 +5m
Fig. 1.168 Fig. 1.169
(104) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the horizontal and
vertical displacements at point e of the frame shown in Fig. 1.169 if I
1750000 em' and E = 200 tfcm 2.
,.l! t
211m
a\i;=Iiifu:::r::o+~ i ~ 3L? N
3 2.4 ~
~ 6m _,,~2
Fig. 1.170
b
f Lab
L.....4ml3 .21
Fig. 1.171
(111) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the relative displa
cement between the ends of member ac of the frame shown in Fig. 1.172
if EI = 67500 m 21.
Check your results by calculating the displacements at points a and
c separately.
2t 2t1m 2t1m
I I ! II II !
31
c 41 b c r
6m t d
e1
3
L a
6m 8m
L8m
L b
I 21
L a
~ 6 6m
J
5
(112) Using the method of virtual work, calculatc the vertical displa
cement at point d and the relative displacement between the ends
of member cd or the frame shown in Fig. 1.173 if lab = Ier = 10000 m 2 t.,
Ibe = led = rd. = 30000 m 2t and E = 2000 tjcm 2.
10 lOt
10
5.5 6m
3.5
I I
6x4 =24m
Fig. 1.174
(114) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the absolute displa
cement at joint d of the composite structure shown in Fig. 1.175. For
column abe I = 15000 cm 4, for truss members LjA = 10 cm I and
E = 2000 tjern 2.
0.51 2.251
c
r 1
b 4.5
2.25
t
2
r
2
d 3
4m
41;
i
4m
a ~3X1.5=4.5J
Fig. 1.175
c a
,.,.,}
Fig. 1.176
(115) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical dis
placement at joint d of the structure shown in Fig. 1.176. For column
ab I = 1500 cm 4 , for the link be LjA =10 cmI, for the truss members
LjA = 15 cm I and E = 2000,tjcrn 2 .
(116) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the relative displa
cement between joints g and h, and joints e and f of the trussed frame
shown in Fig. 1.177. For columns aec and bfd I = 36000 crn 4, for truss
members LjA = IOcrn I and E = 2000 tj=2.
175
6
3
b b
3 I 3 m l I 6m_..i_ 6 <
(117) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displace
ment and the relative rotation at the intermediate hinge c of the frame
with a tie shown in Fig. 1. I 78. For frame members EI = 6000 m 2 t , for
tie de L/A = 20 cm1 and E = 2000 tlcm 2.
(liS) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displa
cement and the relative rotation at the intermediate hinge C of the trussed
beam shown in Fig. 1.179. For beam ab EI = 20000 m 2 t, for all struts
L/A = 10 cm I , for all ties L/A = 20 cm I and E = 2000 t/cm 2 .
211m
r~!!!!!!!g!!!!!!!~
~ 4 dl 4 4m Ie 4 l
Fig. 1.179
10 lOt 10
10 10
c
~ _ _ _ 6x4=24m _____~:r
Fig. I.IS0
176
(120) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the rotation at sup
port b and the horizontal displacement at point c of the structure shown
in Fig. 1.181. For column bc I = 20000 cm" for bracing members LfA
18 cm~l and E = 2000 tfcm 2
6 61 6
r c
2m,.
2m
t .
a tU ~ a
L1.5~
...... 3<4m~4 ,3
Fig. 1.181 Fig. 1.182
_/"'
(121) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displa . " ' __
~
(122) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the vertical displace
ment at joint c and the relative displacement between joints d and e of
the trussed frame shown in Fig. 1.183. For columns EI = 12000 m2t,
for truss members LfA = 25 cm~1 and E = 2000 tfcm 2.
2 2 1 c 1
3m 1m
T
'"
a 6
a b j
14x4=16m _ _I
Fig. 1.183
(123) Using the method of virtual work, calculate the absolute dis
dlacement at joint d of the structure shown in Fig. 1.184. For column
177
ac 1 = 32250 cm', for tie bc LfA = 25 cm I, for truss members L/A =
15 CIl)l and E = 2000 tfcm 2
II by 1.5 cm.
9
10 10
, 31 1
2m
4 "
2m
~, 'i
t
4m
2
~,
2
di
2
La
< 11. 5!1.s::i \2x2=4 I
91
d
r
3m
~,
I 4
Fig. 1.188
 J
Fig. 1.189
179
ftit11 'I~~k.:h
8 81 8 41
13
41
m
2 3 5 1 41
h g f
I
3m
I c d
~
~ 4x3=12m
1.5 1.51
7m
k1
!,,+~:.....c~...J?..Jn "*3
3
...i
31
= __4x3=12m
Fig. l.I98 Fig. l.I99
~ .1
1.5
I
H
v
8x 3= 24 m _ _ _" _ _=<
r Fig. 1.200
Il
25t 6m
L 12m
Fig. 1.201
9
182
Note: An influence line is not complete unless all the critical ordinates and signs are
clearly indicated.
(167) Draw the influence line for the deflection at the free end of a
cantilever 4 m. long if the load is transmitted to it at quarter points. EI
8000 m 2t.
(168) Draw the influence line for the deflection at the end of the over
hang in an overhanging beam of span length = 8 m and overhang length=
= 2m. The load is transmitted to the beam at panel points spaced at 2m.
and EI ~ 10000 m 2t.
(169) ,(170) Disregarding the loads indicated, draw the influence line
for the deflection at the overhanging end of each of the beams in Figs
1.134 and 1.135. EI ~ 10000 m 2t.
(171),{l72) Each of the two beams in Figs. 1.202 and 1.203 is braced
by a system oflink members as shown. Assuming that member cd is cut
along its length .. draw the influence line for the relative displacement be
tween the ends of the cut member. EI (for beam ab) ~ 40000 m 2t.
a b
[E ~ Vd
LLll_ ____~~ . 11~1~. _ _ _ __
'c 6x 3 = 18 m _
Fig. 1.202
c d
5x5:25m
Fig. 1.203
(l73), (174) Draw the influence line for the displacement/at the roller
support b of each of the frames in Figs. 1.204 and 1.205 if the load is trans
mitted to the frames at panel points spaced at 3m and EI ~ 25000 m 2t.
183
r
Gm
t
La 1
Gm
La b b ~
~ 12 m I 3+ 31 L9m I 3f
Fig. 1.204 Fig. 1.205
U
(175),{I76) Draw the influence line for the relative rotation at the
intermediate hinge c of each of the frames in Figs. 1.206 and 1.207 if the
load is transmitted to the frames at panel points spaced at 3m and EI =
25000 m 2 t.
I r c r
La
c
1
~
6m 6m
La b b ~
I 12m 3, 3J 19m 13.;
l
Fig. 1.206 Fig. 1.207
(177) Draw the influence line for the vertical displacement at joint
c of the truss shown in Fig. 1.208. Calculate then the extreme values of
the displacement at c if the truss is subjected to a panel D.L. = 6t
and L.L. = 10 t. Assume LjA = 10 cm 1 and E = 2000 tjcm 2
}m (1)
~/SZSZT'\Z~
f 3x8=24m ~ 2x6=12 ~
Fig. 1.208
(178) Draw the influence line for the vertical displacement at JOInt
c of the truss shown in Fig. 1.209. Assume LjA = 6 cm 1 and E = 2000
tjcm 2
'
184
1 LI,':....L..,,
4
k 2x4=8   t     3x4=12 m _ _<
Fig. 1.209
.L
1m
d
r
4
~~__+__*c~~__~
3
19k____~~______~____~~______~b
4x6=24m
Fig. 1.210
CHAPTER 2
2.1 Introduction
A statically indeterminate structure is one which cannot be analysed
by the application of the equations of statics alone. There are two main
types of statical indeterminancy;cxternal related to the external reactions,
and internal concerned with the internal straining actions in the various
members of the structure. At this stage, the student should be quite famil~
iar with the criteria ofstabilitY3staticai determinancy and indeterminancy.
For a useful discussion on the subject, the student is referred to sections
2.6, 4.2 and 5.3 of Part l.
l The method of analysis presented in this chapter will be referred to
as the method of consistent deformations, although it is also known
r in other names such as the unit load method" flexibility method"
(a)
4~: II ICons!.
II Ii II
El
~b
14 L
Fig. 2. 1
Let the vertical reaction component at end b be chosen as the redund
a n t. When t his reaction i s temporarily removed, the remaining structure
is the cantilever shown in Fig. 2. lh. This stable and statically determin
a te structure which h as resulted after the removal of the r edundant is
called the main system. Under the given load, end b in the main system
will deflect vertically an amount abO as indicated in Fig. 2.lb . The cor
rect value of the redunda n t reaction at poi n t b X I is the value necessary
to b ri ng this point back to its original position of zero deflection. Under
187
the action of XI, point b in the main system will deflect vertically some
I flections at point b in the main system due to the applied load and the
asyet unknown redundant reaction must be zero. Mathematically, this
condition may be expressed as :
t SbO + X, Sbl = 0
I
I
2.1
I Sbl
I
The beam in Fig. 2.1a may have been made equally stable and
statically determinate by introducing a hinge at end a. The main system
will then be the simple beam shown in Fig. 2.1d, and the redundant X',
is chosen as the fixing moment at end a of the beam. Under the applied
load, the tangent to the elastic curve at point a will rotate an angle aaO'
The correct value of X't is the moment necessary to bring the tangent
to the elastiC curve at this point back to its original position of zero slope.
If the rotation at point a in the main system due to a unit moment acting
there is aa 1 as indicated in Fig. 2.le, then the condition that the slope
to the elastic curve at end a of the given beam is zero may be expressed
mathematically as :
aao + X'I aat = 0
r
189
Referring to Fig. 2.2a, the reactions of the given beam are given by :
~ Ya = wL 83 5
wL (l) = S wL (upward)
r Ma
 WL2
2
3 wL2
SwL(L) =   8 
WL2
i.c.   (antidockwise)
I 8
~
I =
3
Xl =  wL, i.c.
3wL
(upward)
8 8
(
With reference to Fig. 2.2 b, thc final S.F.D. for the given beam
is obtained by superimposing the Qodiagram and the QJdiagram times
( 3wLj8) .
Similarly, with reference to Fig. 2.2 c, the final B.M.D. is obtained
by superimposing the Modiagram and the MIdiagram times (  3wLj8).
Qo and Modiagrams are the S.F. and B.M.Ds. of the chosen main
system due to the applied loads; Xl being zero. Also, QJ and Mt diagrams
are the S.F. and B.M.Ds. of the main system due to the case of loading
XI = 1.
(As an exercise., the student is recommended to calculate the reactions
and draw the S.F. and B.M .Ds. for the same beam using the simple beam
main system and its corresponding value of the redundant.)
As a second example, consider a beam continuous over three supports
as shown in Fig. 2.3a.. and suppose that it is required to calculate its
reactions under the given: case of loading.
The beam is statically indeterminate to the first degree. The simple
beam shown in Fig. 2.3b may be chosen as a main system. Under the
given uniformly distri buted load point b will deflect vertically an amount
3 bO = 5w (2L) 4j384El = 5 wL 4/24 EI. Duder the unit vertical load
indicated in Fig. 2.3 c, point b will deflect an amount 3bl = 1 (2 L)3j48 El
=L 3/6 EI. The correct value of the redundant X" which in effect is the
vertical reaction at support b ..may be obtained from the condition that the
deflection at b in the given beam must be zero. Thus,
3bO + XI 3bl = 0
XI
3 bO
= a:;= 24EI
5WL4j 6El
L3
= 4
5wL
X,=O
(b)
&.0
(el
~
r=1
&"
~
(d)
~ ==
f =:j ~D
( e)
\ l==J
Fig. 2.3
The overhanging beam shown in Fig. 2.3d could have been chosen as a
main system and the vertical reaction at c as the redundant X' I' Under the
given uniformly distributed load, point c will deflect an amount i\o which
is best found by the conjugate beam method; 3,0= wL 4/4 EI. Under the
unit vertical load indicated in Fig. 2.3e, point c will deflect an amount
Sci which is again best found by the conjugate beam method;
ScI = 2L3j3EI. The reaction at c X'I is the force necessary to bring point
c back to its original position of zero deflection. The following super
position equation expresses this condition.
3'0 + X', 3" = 0
X' _ _ 3,0 __
,  001  4 EI
WL4/23 La _
EI 
_ 3 wL
8' ,.e.
3wL
  (upward)
8
3wL 5wL
From statics, Y a = 8 (upward) and Y b = 4 (upward)
From the above two examples, it may be seen that there are more
than one way to reduce a given statically indeterminate structure to a
191
stable and statically determinate one, i .e., there are more than one pos
sible main system. One main system, however, may prove to be better
than the others as it leads to a quicker solution . In the first example con
, sidered, there is a little preference between the two main systems chosen.
In the second example,the overhanging beam main system is not as simple
as the simple beam main system as the calculations of the deflection coef
ficients DcQ and 0CI are more involved than those of DbO and Obi'
a) Linear displacements
Consider the linearly elastic structure shown in Fig. 2.4. Let 8mn
be the displacement at point m in direction m'm" due to a load P
acting at point n in direction n'n"Fig. 2.4 a. Also let 80m be the
displacement at point n in direction n'n" due to an equal load P acting
at point m in direction m'm"Fig. 2.4 h. These displacements may be
found independently by the application of the method of virtual work.
Thus, considering bending strains only,
=S
1)
rno
=
S
MnM'm dl
EI
and 1)
nm
M,.,M' n dl
EI
ni
p
(al
\m ./'  ; n
,
\m
p J
n
m /"  00m
(bl
Y'/\m'
1
n" :>
Fig. 2.4
or
Hence, 8mn =
S n m and
EI
=
S
n
EI
2.4
i.e. the displacement at point m in a direction m'm" due to a load P acting
at some other point n in direction u/n", is equal to the displacement at
point n in the direction n'n" due to an equal load P acting at point m in
the direction m'm".
b) Angular displacements
Referring to the linearly elastic body shown in Fig. 2.5, let a mn be
the rotation at point m due to a moment M applied at n  Fig. 2.5a, and
let nnm be the rotation at point n due to an equal moment M acting at
point mFig. 2.5 b . Applying the method of virtual work,
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2.5
. MM' M' dI
Hence,
or
aUlD =
J n
EI
m and
=J 2.5
i.e. the rotation at point m (measured in the sense of a moment acting at
m) due to a m o ment acting at some other point D, is equal to the rotation
at n (measured in the sense of the moment at n) due to an equal moment
acting at m.
c) Linear and angular d isplacements
Referring to Fig. 2.6, let 8mn be the linear dispiacement at point m
in a direction m'm" due to a moment M acting at point n in the sense
indicated in Fig. 2.6a, and let anm be the angular displacement at
point n in the sense chosen for M due to a load P acting at m in the
direction m/m"Fig. 2.6b. Applying the method ofvirlual work,
3
mn
=J MnM'm
EI
dI
and a
om
= S Mm M 'n dl
EI
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2.6
f
M' M' dl M'm M in dl
Hence, Smn = M n m and
EI EI
2.6
~
a 6}bC
b 
0",
Equal
1m!
1> 0
b
1 mt
Ct Equal
Fig. 2.7
~1'1
..\\_{.2
(al ~!~
Ll.J1L1~~'='
Wl.
I :o:::o::I?S\4
iDl
(b)~
~ , lx'=O 1 I ",.0
\~~_l~&,~o~____~&~JO~''~
'0 1
Fig. 2.9
Consider first the cantilever main system in Fig. 2.9 b. The redundants
chosen are the moment and the vertical reaction components at end 2.
These and the corresponding deflection components are indicated in Figs.
2.9 c and d . Using the momentarea method or the conjugate beam me
thod, the displacement components are easily obtained and are as follows :
Pa 2 (3b + 2a) Pa 2
azo =
6 EI 2 EI
L2 L
a21 
2 EI EI
L3 L2

3 EI
a22 
2 EI
199
The deflection conditions that must be satisfied in the given structure are:
a,  a,o + x I a21 + x, an 0
0.2 0.20 + XJ 0.21 + X 2 0.22 0
Substituting the displacement components in these two equations and
solving them simultaneously, the following values of the redundants are
obtained.
Pa 2 b Pa 2 (L + 2b)
XI   and X, =
L2 L3
The negative sign indicates that X 2 acts in an opposite direction to that
assumed, i .e. upwards. The remainder of the reaction components may
be obtained from the equations of equilibrium.
Consider next the simple beam main system shown in Fig. 2.9 e. The
redundants chosen are the moments at both ends. These and the corres
ponding deflection components. . which are best found by the elasticload
method, afC in~icated in Figs. 2.9 f and g.
Pab Pab
0.10 = (a 2 + 3ab + 2b 2) alo =   (b 2+3ab+2a 2)
6 EIL2 6 ElL2
L L
all all
3 EI 6 EI
L L
ail = a2l =
6 EI 3EI
(Notice the amount of labour that may be saved by applying Maxwell's
theorem on one hand and by making use of the symmetry of the structure
and loading on the other). The deflection conditions that must be
satisfied in the glven beam are:
al alO + X' I all + X', a" 0
a2 a,o + X'I a21 + X', an 0
l
L2
The negative signs ind~cate that both X ' 1 and X'2 act in directions
opposite to those assumed.
These values are consistent with those obtained usmg the cantilever
mai n system.
200
inertia within individual spans is constant, and ,the beams are free of
intermediate hinges. This is because in such cases a solution by the method
of equation of three moments or the moment distribution method is
generally easier.
ExalDple 2.1 Find the reactions and draw the S.F. and B.M.Ds for the
continuous beam shown in Fig. 2.10a if it has constant EI.
(a) o 61t
~ 3 J
6 9
( b)
(d)
8/3 ml
(e) M,.D.
6.9
6
(f) Reoclion'j's'_ _ _'_ _ _,,_.....1_ _ _I
1.76 t 1.84
7.16 7.16 t
(g)S.F.D.
1.76 1 76 +
1.84 1.84
4.24 4.24
7.44
(h) 8.M.D.
+ +
S.28mt 5.52
Fig. 2.10
205
Fig.2.10d shows the elastic curve of the main system due to XI = It.
and the corresponding Mt.D. is shown in Fig. 2.10e.
Using again the elasticload method and with reference to Fig. 2.10e,
Ws  1/2 X 8/3 X 6 = 8 at 6.8 m. from b.
W6 1/2 X 8/3 X 4.8 = 6.4 at 3.2 m. from b.
LMb = 0 = r. X 10.8  8 X 6.8  6.4 X 3.2
fa = 6.9
EI8 cl = 6.9 X 6  8 X 2 = 25.4
8 291 .
XI   co =   =  11.4 t, I.e. 11.4 t. (upward)
8cl 25.4
Having thus found the value of the vertical reaction at c, the rest of the
reactions can be found from the equations of statics and are as indicated
in Fig. 2.10 f. The resulting S.F. and B.M.Ds. are shown in Figs. 2.10 g
l and h respectively.
6t 9t
b
(a)
3 3m 3
(b)M .0
0
+ +
9mt 10.125
5/8
(e) M,.O
7.44 mt 10.125
Fig. 2.11
206
aco ~J MtMo dx
EI
_I_(~
EI 2
X

1
2
+
10.125 X 3
2
x
2
3
x
5
8
1O.125x 1.8 ~) ~ 26.7
+ X
2 4 EI
~S M~dx
~:I
4.8
act 12+   xP ) ~ 3.6
EI (: X 3 EI
26.7
X't ~   ~ 7.44 m.t.
3.6
Having thus found the value of the redundant moment, the fi nal B.M.D.
is easily obtained by superimposing the Mo.D.to the Mt.D. times 7.44.The
result is shown in Fig. 2 .11 d, and it is seen that it is identical to that pre
viously found in Fig. 2.10 h.
Exan>ple 2.2 Determine the reactions and draw the S.F. and B.M.Ds.
for the beam considered in the example 2.1 due to a settlement of2.56 cm.
at support c. EI ~ 2000 m 2t.
1.11
(dlB.M . Qf.,==~
+
5.34
(el
2.56cm
(f)t.(D. '"""o~
+
4.6mt
Fig. 2.12
2.56
Hence, Xl =  = 2 t. (downward)
1.28
The reactions at supports a and b are found from statics. . and the cor
responding S.F. and B.M.Ds. will be as shown in Figs. 2.12 c and d.
as a main. system .. and the vertical reaction at b as the redundant X' I'
From the geometry of the deft.ected shape of the chosen main system,point b
will have a vertical deflection of2.56x 10.8/6=4.608 cm. (downward) . X',
is the force necessary to bring point b back to its original position of zero
deflection.. If the vertical deflection at point b due to a unit load acting
there as indicated in Fig. 2.12 f is 8bl then the following superposition
equation may be written.
=s M~dx EI
= _I
EI
(~3 X 4.8 2
4.8
+ 3 X 4.8
2) =82.944

EI
82.944
X 100 4.147 cm.
2000
4.608
Hence, X', =   = 1.11 t. (upward)
4.147
This is consistent with the value obtained from the first main system.
A comparison between the two solutions given above shows that the
first solution is easier since in the second the displacement at support b
due to settlement of support c had to be calculated first. This may be done
from the geometry of the deflected beam or by the application of equation
1.55. This, is why whenever support movements are involved it is advan
tageous to select the redundants at the supports where movements are
expected. It is repreated that while it is preferable and generally easier
to do so, it is not necessary as demonstrated by this example.
Esanlple 2.3 Calculate the reactions and draw the B.M.D. for the conti
nuous beam shown in Fig. 2.13a. The moment of inertia varies as indicated.
.'   
I
I 209
I
3 L 3 3m ___ 3 i 3 1 3
1 I _ 21 L I I
/
(b)MoD. I, +
I
36 36
w2
60 , 60mt
I W, W3 W.
I W, w. ~ 4.5 m.t.
r
;
(c)M,.D.
X,=1t
20.85
3 3
+ +
(d) B.M.D.
7.05 5.11 mt 5.11 7.05
Fig. 2.13
ExaDlple 2.4 Draw the B.M. and S.F.Ds. for the statically indeterminate
beam shown in Fig. 2.14 a. The moment of inertia varies as indicated.
51
(a)
3
(c) MrD.
9mt X=1t
1
w. W, w7
18 18mt
(d)B.M.D.
+
9
9
6
(e)S.F.D.
+ +
9 9
Fig. 2.14
211
I
w( = 2(2E1,) E1, ' W2= 2(2EI,) = E1: W, = 2E1, EI,
81 X 3 121.5 81 X 3 121.5 153 X 3 229.5
w.=  
~
w
El ' 5  2EI t
=  , W6 =
2EI, r EI, 2EI, E1,
i
Applying the moment  area method,
I
3(0 = 
E1,
(13.5 X I + 27 X 2 + 54 X 4 + 121.5 X 5 + 121.5 X 7
3577.5
+ 229.5 X 8) =  
EI,
I 238.5
3((= 
EI,
(2.25 X 2 +9 X 5 + 27 X 7)
EI,
3577.5 EI,
X( =EI
,
X
238.5
+ 15 t.
L Y = 0 = Yo  9  9  6 + 15, Yo = 9 t. (upward)
L Mo = 0 = Mo9 x3  9x6 + 15x9, Mo = 18 m.t. (anti clockwise)
Now that the reactions are known the B.M.D. may be drawn from
the first principles or from the relationship, M = Mo + XtMto The
final B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 2.14d, and the S.F.D. is shown in
Fig. 2.14 e.
E,.ample 2.5 Draw the B.M. and S.F.Ds for the continuous beam shown
in Fig. LI5a if E1 is constant.
212
HIm
(a)
b c
6m
3t
111m
(b)
6 6
(e)
6mt 6
(t)B.M.D
3 3
2.5
(9)5.F.0
+ + +
1 1
3.5
Fig. 2.15
redundant is found from the condition that the slope a t the fixed support
in the original beam is zero; aa o + X I Q.al = 0
Applying the conjugate beam method and referring to Fig. 2.15 e,
the rotatians Q.ao and aat may be easily calculated and the result will
be as follows :
16.5 2.75
I
aoo = +F;I and aat =
~" E1 +
Hence, XI 16.5/2.75 =  6m.t.
The final B.M.D. and S.F.D. aTC obtained in the usual manner and
are as shown in Figs. 2.15 f and g.
(0)
12mt
G
tx;=o
+
l 4.5
. tX; =1t 3
I t
t
I
Gmt
Fig. 2.16
!I
=SM1ModX = (~x l~3
,
~
8
dO
99
E1
_1
E12
12x 3 x5)
x6x4.5x 1 . 5 
2
E1
ll"
214
=SM2 J X =_1 (~ x
d
S
d
J
EI EI 3 6 2 +  3 x3 2 + 6 2
X3) = 99
3 3 EI
Hence X'l = 99/99 = It.
which is consistent with the value obtained from the main system chosen
previously.
3
(a)
~=~1~:V~~___~~2~7~~__~i!_____(_b)_M
_O_D_l_8_m
_t1!
1 (C)M,.D.
(~ml
91 151 (d) 61
rtrm~1  +       1
\ l0:33 I t0.33 I (e) 01
~5.55ml
\ t062 I la.621 (I) of
Fig . 2.17
215
M
a o =JM I odx=_1 [(9+3)27 x _I _(18 X 9)_1 ]=54
EI EI 2 2 2 3 EI
a I
=S M
2,
dx = _I
EI EI
(...!!..
3
X 12)=..2
EI
54
Hence, X, =   =  18 m.t., i.e. 18 m.t. (anticlockwise)
3
3 3
a.1 = EI = 5000 = 6 X 10 4 rad. (clockwise)
1.8 X 10 3
Hence, X 1 :':=:;
4 3 m. t. (clockwise)
6x10
3.33 X 10 3
Hence, X" I   5.55 m.t. (clockwise)
6x 10 4
4m
3m
(al
X,=11
o .413
413P
(e) F,.D.
(b) F;,D
Fig. 2.18
217
Solution: There is one member more tha n needed for a stable and stati
cally determinate truss. Hence, the truss is statically indeterminate to te
Member Fo F, F, Fo F,2 F
t ac 0
I + 4/3 0 16/9 +0.545 P
l cd
db
0
4 P/3
+1
+4/3
0
16 P/9
I
16/9
+0.410
0.788
P
P
t ab
ad
0
+5 P/3
+1
5/3
0
 25 P/9
I
25/9
+0.410
+0.985
P
P
[,
f
bc 0 5/3 0
41 P/9
25/9
100/9
0.685 P
I Table 2.1
,~ Since, as assumed, LjEA is constant for all the members,
and 8" = L/EA LF, 2
810 41 P 9
Hence, X,    =  X  = 0.41 P
8" 9 100
Once the force in the redundant member cd is known) the forces in
the remaining members may be found from the superposition relation
ship; F=Fo+F, X" and will be as given in the last column of Table 2.1.
Example 2.B : Calculate the forces in the members of the steel truss shown
in Fig. 2.19a. The crosssectional areas (in em 2) are as indicated .
(b ) Fa.D. ( C)F,.D.
Fig. 2.1 9
Table 2.2

I
!
t
I
,
13.33 43.63
219
r,
I Hence, XI = 
E

abO
abl
and 8" =
= 
13.33
 
43.63

E
0.305 t.
i
The negative sign of Xl indicates that member cd is in compression. The
final forces in the members, given in the last column of the table,
are obtained from the superposition relationship, F= Fo + Fl XI' For
example, the final force in member ab is given by :
Fab =  4  0.33 ( 0.305) =  3.9 t.
Example 2.9 Find the forces in the members of the twohinged truss
shown in Fig. 2.20 a. The crosssectional areas (in em. 2 ) are as indicated.
15 t
50 e 50 a
25 em'
3 75 75
~50 f
50
b
1.4m 4 ~
(al
t 10
1St
10
t 15 o
! .12.5 .12.5 1.25 115
~
t 7.5 7.5 .0.75 .0.75
I
0 0 1.25 1.25
,t
r
Fig. 2.20
f
220
A pos
Solutio n: The truss is statically indeter minate to the first degree.
by ToileT.
a
sible main system may be obtaine d by replaci ng the hinge at b
at h, and
The redund ant XI is then the horizon tal reactio n compo nent
is found from the conditi on: SbO +
X,S., = O.
i
The Foforce and F,forc es are shown in Figs. 2.20 band c respect
vely. The calcula tions are presen ted in Table 2.3.
Mem L A Fo Fj F,FoL F,2L
F
ber cm. cm 2 t. t. ;;;: ;\
ac 600 50  7.5 +0. 75 67.5 + 6.75 2.3
ce 400 50 10 + 1 SO + 8 2.9
ed 400 50 10 + 1 SO + 8 2.9
db 600 50  7.5 + 0.75 67.5 + 6.75 2.3
cf 500 75 +12.5  1.25 104 +10,4 +3.65
fb 500 75 0 1.25 0 +10.4 S.85
df 500 75 +12.5  1.25  104 +10.4 +3.65
fa 500 75 0  1.25 0 +10.4 S.85
ef 300 25 15 0 0 0 15
503 +71.1
Table 2.3
(a)
241
Fig. 2.21
A pos
Solutio n: The truss is statical ly indeter minate to the first degree.
suppor t. The
sible main system may be obtained by removing the central
is found
redund ant X I is then the vertica l reactio n at support d J and
from the conditi on: SdO +
X, Sd' = o. The Foforces due to the applied
shown in
load and the F Iforces due to a unit downw ard load at d are
221
I X,=1t
~
Fig. 2.21
Member Fo FI FIFo F 12
605.75
XI  19.77 t. i.e. 19.77t. (upward)
30.63
The forces in the members of the truss are found from the relationship,
F = Fo + XIF I . Thus,
Fie = + 20  19.77 X 5/8 + 7.7 t.
Fkd = + 32  19.77 X 2  7.5 t.
Fer = + 18  19.77 X 9/8  4.2 t.
Alternative solution: Another possible main system may he obtained by
cutting member kd at any section along its length. The main system thus
consists of two simple trusses as shown in Fig. 2.22. The redundat XI'
is the force in the cut member. The Foforces due to the applied load and
the F Iforces due to a unit tensile force in member kd are shown in Figs.
2.22 a and b respectively. The calculations are presented in Table 2.5.
All the members having zero force have been omitted.
k
(b)F,.D
.3/16 _9/16
114 114
Fig. 2.22
223
bg of the
Exatnp le 2." C,lcula te the forces in membe rs fg and
truss shown in Fig. 2.23a. L{EA is assume d constan t.
21 f 9 h
t
(a) 3m
La
> 4 b
6I
4 c
61
4t4
21 17
,,;,,0
"v.. .6
!
/
8.625 0 9.375
0.81
XI =l
0.6 0.6 0 0 0
(c) ~.D .1
0 0.8 0 0
0.81
(d) F,.D
0 0 0.6 0
0 0 0.8 0
Fig. 2.23
224
8,. + X, 8 + X 2 8'2 ~ 0
11
82 + X, 82 , + X 2 822 ~ 0
These two equations comprise SIX displacements. From Maxwell's
theorem of reciprocal displacements, 3 12 = 821 and from symmetry
8 11 = 822 , Thus, the number of displacements to be calculated is
reduced to four only; 810' 3 1 b 8 12 and 820 , The calculations for these dis
placements are presented in Table 2.6 and with reference to Figs. 2.33 bd.
Mem
ber
F. F, F2 F,F. ,
F 2 F,F> F 2F.
ab +13.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
be +13.5 {l.8 0 10.8 +0.64 0 0
cd +12.5 0 {l.8 0 0 0  10
de +12 .5 0 0 0 0 0 0
af 14.375 0 0 0 0 0 0
fg  17 {l.8 0 +13.6 +0.64 0 0
gh 17 0 {l.8 0 0 0 +13.6
he 15.625 0 0
bf
gc
+6
0
0
{l.6
D.6
0
{l.6
 3.6
+0.36
+0.36
0
+0.36
0
0
hd +6 0 {l.6 0 0 0  3.6
fc + 4.375 0 + 4.375 0
he
gb
+ 5.625
+1
0 +1
0
0
0
+1
0 + 5.652
0
gd 0
+1
0 +1 0
+1
0 0 . 0
+3.575 +4.00 +0.36 +5.625
Table 2.6
\
225
Esam.ple 2.12 Calcul ate the reactio ns of the continu ous truss shown
in
Fig. 2.24a if L/EA is assume d constan t.
~m ~1'CI~r7r<:I
:r~'/
SVN[\;:~'V;>r~
9~ ~ '
Ii >4. 4=16" , 1,6m
(a)
I 16ml
)
~:
~~ZG
A
I (b)Main system No.1
Zero membe
, rs
15 o
(c) Main system No.2 (fo.D.)
(d) F,. O.
(e) '20.
Fig. 2.24
the other suggested main system and compare the relative ease of the two
solutions.
The values of the redundants X', and X' 2 are obtained from the
simultaneous solution of the two superposition equations :
Since L/EA values are the same for all the members, these equations
may be expressed as :
L F,F 2 = + 0.86
L F2, = + 6.28 from symmetry.
Exatnple 2.13 Find the reactions and the forces in members ab, bf, cf and
cd of the truss shown in Fig. 2 .25a. LjEA is assumed constant.
2t 21
d
I
..., <D
Sm m

'"
=:2'>lc'l_I' 2 0
(a ) (b) Fa.D.
o 0 o 0
o
o 0
(c) F,.D (d) F,.D.
Fig. 2.25
and cutting member eb at any section along its length. The redundants
Xl and X 2 are thus the force in member be and the horizontal reaction
at g. These can be obtained from the two superposition equations:
a lO + X, all + X2 a 12 = 0
agO + X, agI + X2 a g = 0
Since L/EA values are the same for all the members, these equations
may be expressed as :
k F,Fo + XI k F2, + X, k F,F, = 0
k F,Fo + XI k F2FI + X. k F2. = 0
With reference to Figs. 2.25 b  d,
k F ,Fo = (0.25) (3 .75) +
(0.95)(0.93) +(0.95)(13.8) +(1) (4.75)
=
0.94 + 8.8  13.1  4.75 =  8.1 I
k F', = 0.25 2 + 0.95' X 2 + I' X 2 + 0.45'
= 0.06 + 1.8 + 2 + 0.2 = + 4.06
The final reactions and member forces are found from the expression,
F = Fo + F,X, + F 2X 2 and are follows:
X. = 6 + 0 (2.2)  I (3.32) = 2.68 t. (to the left)
Ya 6.25 t. (downward)
Y. 6.25 t. (upward)
X.  X. = 3.32 t. (to the left)
Fab  + 6.5 + 0 (2.2) + 1 (3.32) = + 9.82 t.
X,=1t
a'k~
(a) ( b) (c)
Fig. 2.26
Consider, for example, the truss shown in Fig. 2.26 a and suppose that
member ad is fabricated too long by an amount a. A possible main system
may be obtained by assuming that member ad is cut. In the absence of
load there will be a lap = a at the cut section as shown in Fig. 2.26 b. The
redundant XI indicated in Fig. 2.26c) which is the force in the cut member)
is found from the condition: Olf + Xl all = 0
where 8 tl has the same meaning as before) and 8lf is the relative displa
cement at the ends of the cut member due to fabrication error. For the
particular case considered) and for the main system chosen) 8 1r = + a.
In general 8lf is calculated from equation lAO; 8lf = :E aFt. Fora truss
statically indeterminate to the n dgree) the superposition equations become:
Xl all + X, aI, + Xn Oln + Olf = 0
Xl 0'1 + X, 022 + Xn o'n + 02f = 0
2.11
Fig. 2.27
Consider, for example, the twohinged truss shown in Fig. 2.27a and
suppose that the top chord members are subjected to a temperature
change. A possible main system may be obtained by replacing the hinge
support at b by a roller. Due to temperature change point b will move
a displacement 3It and the redundant XI which is the horizontal reaction
component at b is found from the condition: 31~ + Xl 811 = 0
where 3 11 has the same meaning as before and SIt is the horizontal
displacement at b due to temperature change.
Displacements due to temperature changes are easily found from
equation 1.39; 81t = L Fl at tL
For a truss which is statically indeterminate to the n degree.. the
snpersitation equations become:
changes in the chosen main system at the points where the redundants
XI J X 2, .... . ... . . Xn act and in their direction and sense.
(a)
2
x, (b) X2
Fig. 2.28
are indicated in their assumed positive direction in Fig, 2.28 h. The cor
responding forced displacements Sis will thus be:
Ots =  3 em. and 821 = + I em. not  4 em; and  1 em. as one
might be lead to think.
Exatnple 2.14 Find the forces in members ac, cd and be of the ,truss shown
in Fig. 2.29a if members cd and be were fabricated short and member ad
long by the amounts indicated. E = 2000 tlcm 2 and A = 20 cm 2 for all
the members.
Ci<=~O",.5~c~m~jd
f '0
~ .
I
4
.4/3 .4/3
.,
h...3m
(al (b)~.D.
Fig. 2.29
F2(L 2 ( 25 16 4800
~ EA =EA 1 X300+ g X 500+ X 400 ) = 
9 EA
4800
0.12 em.
2000x20
233
I
XI =    = 8.33 t.
0.12.
F,d = XI = 8.33 t. +
F" 8.33 (4/3) = 11.11 t.
F., = 8.33 (5/3) =  13.89 t.
ExalDple 2.15 Calculate the force in member ce ofthe truss shown in Fig.
2.S0a due to a rise in temperature in the top chord members of 30C. For
all the members, L/A = 8 cm 1 and E = 2000t/cm 2. a, = I X 1Q'/"C.
d'
I
1.5
I
1.5
c'
d
e'
~ar'7c~~~~~~
1.5
UJ
~I__ 4m 4
(al
",~r <. 27
'l... 'l..'"
(~. 1.125' "
I 1 "1:::;
c   t e'
.0.75 'k"
",.
d I.//.
:l
.0.375
c",_... X, =1 t _~e
(bl F,.D
Fig. 2.30
F2 L 8
8" = :1 =   (0.752+ 1.252 X2 + 1.142 X 2+0.3752+12X3+1.125!)
EA 2000
= 0.0428 cm.
0.24
XI = Fe =     = 
c 0.0428
5.6 t.
w h h
r
h
+
> L '
Cal (blMO.D
Fig. 2.31
010 + XI 0" = 0,
The displacements 010 and 0" are best calculated by the method
S
of virtual work expressed as 8 10 =
f MIModl and
EI
S11 =
has the advantage that the complex nature of the deflected shape
M2d]
_ 1_
EI
. This
wL 3 h
8
10 = SMIModl = _ _ I (2L X wL2 X h) =
EI EI 3 8 12 EI
X 
h L
+, X
2h3 3Lh2+
3h 2 = ':'::::
3 3 ) 3EI
WL3
, XI
4(2h2 + 3Lh)
E>aunple 2.16 Draw the B.M.D. for the twohinged frame shown in Fig.
2.32 a if EI is assumed constant.
211m
I! I I I I I I I
I
4m
tB
La b
6 ...h12m
(a)
15.45ml
4 .712
IB t 18
(c) M,.o (d) 8 .M.0.
Fig. 2.32
Using the method of virtual work and with reference to Figs. 2.32 b
and c which show the Mo.D. and the M,.D. respectively,
8bo =
j M,Modl
EI
=   1 [(72
EI
X 7.2)
2
[10.67 + 2x 7.2 X 9 x 10
3
+( 72 X 12.64)
2
2
3
] 11083.2
1O.67+  xI2.64x36xlO ="  
EI
r 
2~7
ad
= S M2,dl
EI
I [8 4 7.2 ( 4 +1+  2 )
=EI 3 X 9 X 2 +  39 3
12.64 16.32
+ (
1+4 + 2 ) ]=
3 3 3 EI
252.2
X'I =  15.45 m. t.
16.32
238
Exa.nple 2.17 Calculate the r eactions and draw the B.M.D. for the frame
shown in Fig. 2.34 a. EI is assumed constan t.
28
211m
21
c +
0
16ml
6m
L a
6
L
L 8m
(a)
b
d
6 8
1.06
4.235
xx6+20x2x7+
4~2
2
2
6+x
2 3 2 3
676.95
EI
=JM.2 dl = _I
EI EI 3
(~x
62 +
3
~
(6'+8 2 +6x8)
3
+~x
8')
637.33
EI
0 676.96
x. =  
637.33
=  1.06 t., i.e. 1.06 t. (to the left)
0
The remaining reactions are found from the equations of equilibrium
and the final B.M.D. is drawn in the usual manner. The result is shown
in Fig. 2.34 d.
Exunple 2.18 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.35a. EI
is assumed constant.
11
,', 2 _
~"paDo~2jtj/miIII~__2ji~~=~O~r__6~ ~14~~
3
L6m_~b2f
(a)
,rx,=lmt
l,r + 3mt
9t
(c)M,.D. (d)FinaI8.M.D.
Fig. 2.35
240
~aO =s M,Mo dl
EI
1(2 x6x9x  
EI 3
1
2
6 X 6 x~) = 12
2 3 EI
=SM,2 EI
dl = _I
EI
(~
3
X
x, naO 12 . ..
=   =  =  6 m.t., '.e. 6 m.t. (antIclockWlse)
aal 2
The final B.M.D. is found by superimposing the Mo.D. to the M,.D.
times (6) . The resulting diagram is shown in Fig. 2.35 d.
Exa.nple 2.19 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.36 a. EI
is assumed constant.
I
6m
h
6_
c:
L a b l C
\...... 8 48mL 8
/\, (a)
,<:;)~
~%
+ 4.52X 6 2
x
3
X
2 )
= 234

EI
I (6 6
=f = 
EI

3
x2 2 +\0
'1
\0X
x22 +
3
2
+ 63 X 22 + 38 X 8
2)320
=
EI
XI =~=~ = 0.73t.
ad 320
The final B.M.D. is best found from the first principles and will be as
shown in Fig. 2.36 d.
Esa.nple 2.20 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.37a. EI
is assumed constant.
Him 111m
I I I I 1 I r I I I I I I I I I I " r I II I II I~=O
I I I
r
c
2
r
6",
lab a
I~J. 6 16 In l 31 "" "
(a) (b)
=0
+
4O.5mt 10mt 16.5mt
(c) M,,D. (d)M,D. (e) Final B.M.D.
Fig. 2.37
242
M,Mo dl
'0 =f EI
1
EI
(1
 X 6.3 X 18 X 3 X 2
3
3 40.5 + 18
4
2
+ 18 X 2 X + X 3 X 4 
2 3
2207
X 3 X 1.12 X 4 + 40.5 X 6 X 7 =  __
) EI
(~ 2
=J _ _ _
EI 3
X 22 +
3
(22+ 4 2 +2 x4)
+.2.. (3 X 4 2) + ~ (4 2 + \0 2 + 4 X 10))
3 3
387
EI
5.7t.
Exam.ple 2.21 Find the reactions and draw the B.M.D. for the frame
shown in Fig. 2.38a. EI is assumed constant.
I
2
111m
c
i 4m
a b c' J
' 6m 6 ~
(a)
16mt
+
+
4.5
, (b) Mo.D
r 6.32Srn
x2=ot
7.02
X=11
+ +
6mt
;.
":J
+
1.76 0.61
Figures 2.38 bd show the Mo.D., the M,.D. and the M 2.D. Referring
to these figures and using the method of virtual work,
_1_( 18 X 6 2 2
x X 6 +  x6 X 4.5x3
EI 2 3 3
18 X 6 594
+ 2 EI
3b,=jM:dl
EI
= _ 1_ (2 X
EI
~X6'+...!.
3 3
X 3 X 6 2)
360
EI
3
00
J M2
M
EI
O dl _1_ ( 18 X 6
EI 2
X 2) = IE08
1
108
 EI J from Maxwell's theorem
R = Ro + X,R, + X 2R 2. Thus,
X. 6  1.83 X 1 4.17 1. (to the left)
Y. 3  1 X 0.61 2.39 t. (downward)
Xb 0+1 X 1.83  1.83 t. (to the left)
Yb 3  2 X 0.61  1.78 t. (upward)
Yo X 2 = 0.61 1. (upward)
The final B.M.D. may now be determined from the first principles and
will be as shown in Fig. 2.38 e.
,0
245
E"aDlple 20n Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.39a. EI
is assumed constant.
2t1m
I I! ! ' , ' I I ! II I I I
6m
a
I, '" 16m
___ b~"4 jl
I (a)
! 48
~ 64mt
48
(C)M,.D.
41.4 mt
6
I 25.4
b25.6 30.6
(d) M,.D (e) Final B.M.D.
Fig. 2.39
Figs. 2.39 bd show the Mo.D., the MI.D. and the M 2.D. respectively.
Referring to these figures and using the method of virtual workJ
 _1_
EI
[2 (_1_3 X 8~54 X 64 X
+ 6 X 64 X 6 + 6 X 48 X 6]
4851.92
EI
=j Midi
EI
=2(6
EI 3
(3 2 + 92 + 8.54
3 X 9) +   X
3
519.24
EI
= S MIM2 dl
EI
_ 0
M,Mo dl I ( I
YeO
S"" =
3
EI

EI
64 X 6 X 8  
3
X 8.54 X 64
768
EI
Yel
J M,MI dl
EI
o
Ye'
J Mi dl
1132.24
EI EI
 x3x8 2 + 
2 (6
3
8.X
3
58
42)
EI
Exunple 2.23 Find the reactions of the frame shown in Fig. 2.40a if the
moment of inertia varies as indicated .
r
6m _ _. .:.6:...4ml
L
2
F
4
21
c
LL8m .1 ~~2J 34 ml
8ml 4(2
(c) M,.D. (d, M,.D.
Fig. 2.40
= S MIMO dl
EI
_1_ ( __1_ x 10 X 64 X _3_ X 8 x _l
EI, 3 4 5
 64 x 2 x 8 X _I  34 x 4 x 8 X _I ) = _ 1312
2 2 EI,
= S_M~;d;I_
EI
_EI,1(_12 X 10 x 8 x _2_ x 8 x
3
.!...
5
+~ x 3 X 8 2 X _I ) = 234.66
3 2 E~
= _ _ 1 [(2J"2+4J'Z)4X8X _I ]
EI, 2 2
67.9
EI, EI,
M,Mo dl I [ 2 X 30 ( '  2 J I
=s EI =
+ (2 J2
EI,
+ 4
 2 V 2 +3
J"2) 4 X 34 X 2] =
2)
264.1
3
2 2 EI,
 
EI,
Substituting these values in the superposItIon equations and solving
them simultaneously, XI = 7.2 t. (upward) and X, = 5.5. t. (u pward)
The remaining reaction components are found from statics and are as
follows:
Xc 3.9 t. (to the right)
Yc  19.9 t. (upward)
Me = 7.6 m.t. (clockwise)
Particular attention should be paid to the manner in which the vary
ing moment of inertia is handled. One value of I, not necessarily but
preferably one of the given values, is chosen as a reference value It and
all the other values of I are expressed in terms of it. This is done by divid
ing each term in the expressions for the displacements by its corresponding
value of I and multiplying it by Ir If this is done, the actual values of
the various moments of inertia need not be known.
249
EsaDlple 1.14 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.41a. EI
r is assumed constant.
6 61
t
l. 3
d
t
I
t
6m
14 14
b
~4 141
(a)
I
Fig. 2.41
8.0 + XI 8. 1 + X 2 8. 2 = 0
Y'o + XI Y.I + X 2 Y.2 = 0
Referring to Figs. 2.41 b  d, and using the method of virtual work,
8. 0 = S = I
EI
(24 X 5 (6
2
+ I ) ) =420

EI
M,M, dl
EI EI
(5 X6 X 2 + 32X5 2
(
3
x4)
\
3 X 5 I 4)) = _ 300
+6x 5 x6+   (4 + 
2 3 EI
M,Mo dl
Y.o
=J EI
300
 I (5 X 24 (4 +  2
EI 2 3
X 4)1 ) = 400
I EI
Y., = Sa2
EI
from Maxwell's theorem
Y., Mi dl
=5 213.3
EI
 I (5
EI
 x4 2 + 5 (4 2 + 8 2 + 4
3 3
X 8) )
EI
The final B.M.D. of one half of the frame is shown in Fig. 2.4Ie.
EXaIIlple 2.25 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.42a if
the moment of inertia varies as indicated.
r
r 41
~ 6m
21
8m =1=21
(a)
6 6mt
6 6mt
+
16
L:)~.J L_~
X,=1t
..._    '
(b)MDX,=O (c )M,.D
o
6
1 1
1.71
I I 8.29mt
X,=1mt
~~+
0.43
1 + 1
(d)M,.D. (e)Final B M 0
Fig. 2.42
The Mo.D., the M" D. and the M 2 J;!. are shown in Figs. 2.42 bd.
Referring to these figures and considering I = Ip then by using the method
of virtual work,
252
810
= J M,M.dl = 
EI
I I
\ (6 x 8 x 6  
EI,
2
3
I )
x 8 x 16 x 6)
4
56
EI,
Mi dl
8 11
=J 216
EI
I ( (x3x6
=
EI,
8
3
I + 2 ( 6 x 6 2 )1 )
2) 
4 3

EI,
8'2
= S M,M 2 dl
EI
= _1_ ( (6 x 8 X I) _I + 2 (I X 6 X 3) I)
EI, 4
48
 
EI,
a,. = S M 2M.dl 
EI EI,
(6 X8X 1)1( ~ x 8 x 16x 1) +)

9.33
EI,
M 2M, dl 48
all
=s EI
8'2 
EI,
a'2 = S Ml dl
EI
 I ( (8 X I x I )  I + 2 (6 X I X I) I
EI, 2
I ) 18
+ (8 X I X 1) = 
4 EI,
Having thus determined the straining actions at the cut section, the
B.M.D . for the entire frame may be obtained from the first principles
and will be as shown in Fig. 2.42 e.
253
Esaoaple 1.26 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.43a. EI
is assumed constant.
III I I I I I I I I
.
~d
6m
L a
b
L 7 I 7 +7m  .4
' 7.J
(a)
12.3mt X =0
. ~. 1~?
r===~
'_....19
Lc) M.O
I
29.74mt
7
+
mt
X.=1t
7
(d)M O. , (e)Rnal B.M.D.
Fig. 2.43
The Mo.D., the MI .D. and the M 2.D. are shown in Figs. 2.43 bod.
Referring to these figures and using the method of virtual work. .
OcO
=JMIModl =   I
EI EI
C
 X 7.6 X 49 X3
3 4
X 3)
279
  E1
Oc2
= SMI M 2 dl
EI = ~I [C; 252
9) 6 X 7] =  E1

= M2 Mo dl = _  I ((x7X49xx7)
I 3) 600
EI EI 3 4 EI
J
252
= 0 2=   from Maxwell's theorem.
c E1
M~dl + 63 X 3 72
) 408
0d2=
S ~
EI
=
EI
Example 2.27 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.44 a. The
moment of inertia varies as indicated.
the continuity of the elast ic curve; the relative horizontal and vertical
displacements and rotation being zero at the cut secti on. T hese cond itions
are expressed as :
4t X3=
d
r
C
21 X,=O
6m ! +
12mt
12 m
(a) (b) MoD.
6 t 6m t
+
X,=1t 6
~x,=1t
+
6 6
6 6mt
(e) M,.D. (d) M,.D.
r; X3=lmt
! lm t
+ 1
+
1.14
8eo = J M, M., dl
EI
= _ _1_ (6 x 6 x 12)=
EI 2
216
EI
8 e, = J _M
;E",,~;dl_ = :1 (: x 6 2
) = :
8e2 = J M, M 2 dl = 0
EI
8e, = J M,M, dl
EI
_~( 6 x 6 x
EI 2
I) =
36
EI
'Ycl = 8t2 = 0
l'
e2
= JMi
EI
dl
= _ 2_
EI
(~
3
x 6 2 X _1 +~ X
2 3
3 X 6 2)= 504
EI
_JM2 M,dl = 0
Yc>  EI
"cO ~ J M, Mo dl
EI
= 
I
EI
(12 X 6 X I)
72
EI
36
e,
8   EI
a e2 = 'Yc3 = 0
2 (l X 6 X I) + (I X 12 X I) 2 I) 18
= EI
The final B.M.D. may now be drawn from the first principles and
will be as shown in Fig. 2.44 f.
It should be pointed out that this frame and similar problems can be
solved by other simpler methods which will be dealt with later on in this
book.
X,
L
Fig. 2.45
8 + X, 811 = 0
"
where 8. t has the same meaning as before, and Sit is the horizontal dis
placement at point 1 due to temperature change.
258
r
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.46
0bb Ob2, jlbi and 'YbZ have the same meaning as before. Obt and jlbt
are the horizontal and vertical displacem( nts at point b due to
temperature change and may be obtained by the application of equation
1.54 or more readily by considering the geometry of the expanded frame.
Thus referring to Fig. 2.46 b,
Sbt = at t L a n d Yb, ~ at t (hi  h 2 )
It should be noticed that the directions assumed for the rerlunrlants
follow those of the temperature displacements. Consequently, a positive
value for a redundant indicates tllat it acts in the assumed direction and
vice versa.
Xl 0" + X 2 012 +
Xl 021 + X 2 022 +
where olsJ 82u . 0ns are the forced displacements due to support
movements at the locations where the redundants XI" X 2 , Xn act
and in their sense and direction.
2 z
(a) (e)
Fig. 2.47
C onsider for example the frame shown in Fig. 2.47a, and let it
be r equired to find the reactions du e to a vertical downward settlement =
a and a clockwise r otation = b at th e right support 1.
The best main system for the purpose a t hand i s obtained by fr eeing
support 1 as shown in Fig. 2.47h. Referring to this figure, t h e
superposi t ion equations are:
X l 0" + X 2 0 12 + X, 0" = 0
Xl Yll + X 2 Yl2 + X,Y13 a
X I al l + X2 a l2 + X 3 a l3  b
Esunple 2.28 For the frame in problem 2. 17 (Fig. 2.34), find the reac
tions due to :
a) a uniform rise in temperature in part ce of 20C.
b) a horizontal outward displacement of I em. at support a .
c) a vertical settlement of 2 em. at support h .
". = I X IO'/"C. and E1 = 20000 m 2.t.
r
6
l8m
Q31
8 0.05 0.31
0.08
0.0125 t
0.0125 O.08t
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.48
,
Solution: The frame is statically indeterminate to the first degree.
A pomble main system may be obtained hy replacing t he hinge a t a by
a roller.
(a) Reactions due to rise in temperature.
,
I
i.
261
X, ~  0.16
0.05 t. (to the right)
3a , 3.2
The remaining reaction components are found from statics and are
as indicated in Fig. 2.48a.
b ) Reactions due to horizontal outward movement at a,
The redundant X'I' which is again chosen as the horizontal reaction
component at a, due to a horizontal outward movement at a is found from
the condition: X'I Sal = Sas Thus,
 I
X'I =  =  0.31 t., i.e. 0.31 t. (to the left)
3.2
The remaining reactions are easily foum! from statics and are as indica
ted in Fig. 2 A8b.
c) Reactions due to vertical settlement at h.
The most suitable main system for the evaluation of the effect of
settlement at support b is obtained by replacing the hinge at b by a
vertical roller as shown in Fjg. 2.49a. The redundant X" I' which is the
vertical reaction at b, is found from the condition: X"I Sbl = SbS.
24mt
a 4 0.16
4t 0.16t
X:=l~
004
tl 004!
(0)1'01,0 (e )
Fig. 2.49
262
10200
= 20000 X 100= 51 cm. (downward)
2
Hence, X", =  = 0.04 t. (downward)
51
The remaining reactions are found from statics and are as indicated
in Fig. 2.490.
W. 0 = I X 8  0.25 X 2
8a = 0.5 em. (to the right)
and the redundant at a is found from the condition:8as +X'" 18.1=0 Thus,
0.5
X"', =   =  0.16 t i.e. 0.16 t. (to the left)
2.96
which is consistent with the value obtained before using the other main
system.
Exanaple 2.29 For the frame in problem 2.18 (Fig. 2.35), draw the B.M.D.
in the absence of load if the fixed support rotates clockwise an angle of
0.003 rad. EI = 5000 m 2 t.
Solution: The main system adopted in example 2.18, i.e. that obtained
by replacing the fixed support at a by a hinge, is the system best suited for
the purpose at hand.
a" X, = 0.003
a.1 has already been calculated in example 2.18 and is given by :
0.003
H ence, X, = 4= 7.5 m.t. (clockwise)
4 X 10
It is interesting to note that the positive moment at a produced by a
clockwise rotation of the fixed support = 0.003 rad. offsets the negative
moment developed there due to the applied load.
Exan>ple 2.30 Calculate the reactions of the frame in problem 2.22 (Fig.
2.39) in the absence of load if the indoor temperature drops 30C while
the outdoor temperature rises] DOC . T he frame has a uniform symmetrical
section 50 em. deep, at _ I X IO ' I"C. a nd EI = 25000 m'.t.
81m t
b
a
(a) NrD. ( b) M.!:).
F ig. 2. 50
519 519
=  =   X 100 = 2.076 cm.
EI 25000
264
40 8.54 x 3 3 +9 )
x x
50
2(
2
+ 2
 x 6 100
0 .082
Henee,X,=    =  0.04 t.
2.076
From statics"
Ya Yb = 0
X. 0.04 t. (to the left)
Xb 0.04 t. (to the right)
M. Mb =  C.36 m.t.
"an.ple 2.31 Find the forces in the link members. and draw the B.M.D.
for beam ab of the trussed beam shown in Fig. 2.51a. For beam ab, A =
120 em 2, I = 30000 em 4 and E = 2000 tfem 2. For link members,
A, = 20 em 2 and E = 2000 t fem 2 .
1.5 tim
(a)~4m
r ~ 14J1
1.5t/m
4 4 ! 4
1I2t 1/2
~:;:S~t:~~
':0 I~I
48mt
(b) Mn. t;;.Os (c) M,., F,.Os.
Fig. 2.51
where 3 refers to the relative displacement at the ends of the cut member.
Figs. 2.51 band c show the forces and moments in the chosen main
.ystem due to the applied loads and due to the case of loading X, = I.
Referring to these figures and using the method of virtual work,
266
=J M,M.dl
EI
=_2 (~X EI 3
5
8 x 48 X
8
960
=    X 100 = 16cm.
J
6000
J
2
M2 dl F2L N dl
8"  ~
'+1:'+'
EA, EA
=~(~X EI 3
3 2 )+ _ 1
EA,
[4(~)2X5+IX8]+
8
_1 (16X~X~)
EA 2 2
48 15.81 4)
= ( 6000 + 40000 + 240000 100
= 0.8 + 0.0395 + 0.0017 = 0.8412 em.
16
Hence, X, =  = 19.0 t. (tension)
0.8412
The forces in the link members are readily obtainable from the relation
ship: F = F,X,. Similarly, the final B.M.D. is obtained from the super
position relationship: M = Mo + MIX, . The result is shown in Figs.
2.52 a and b respectively.
9mt
Fig. 2.52
M =  = wL2
8
1.5 X 8"
8
= 12 m.t.
X;=O X;=1 m!
8 lifo 1i6J
~'Il"
.~
1m!
+ +
12 12m!
(a) Mo.,No.'~.Os. (b) Ml.,Nr'~ .Os.
Fig. 2.53
Figs. 2.53 a and b show the forces and moments in the chosen main
system due to the applied loads and due to the case of loading X', = I.
Referring to these figures and using the method of virtual work"
SN,Nodl
a", =
J M,Modl
~
EI
(~ X 8
+ 1:
F,FoL
EA, +
~) = 6000
EA
f
1:
M,Modl
EI
F,FoL =
=_
EI 3
L [~X l6X8+4(~X
X 12 X
2
64 X 100 = _
10) 5] = 84.3340000
X 100 =
1.067
0.211
EA, EA, 3 24
J N,Nodl
EA
I ( I )
= EA 8 X X 16 =
21.33 X 100
6240000 = 0.009
J
a.o =  1.067 + 0.211 + 0.009 =  0.847
M~dl
a., =
~(~ X I
J EI +
FiL
1: EA ,+
N:dl
EA
J Midl
~=
EI EI 3
FiL
1:   = _ I [ 4 (5)
 25 +
2) = 16xlOO =0.089
3 X 6000
( ~) 2
8 ]
= 1.756 X 100 = 0.0044
EA, EA, 24 3 40000
[(~)"
J a., N:dl =_1
EA EA 6
X 16] = 4 X 100
9 X 240000
= 0.089 + 0.0044 + 0.000 = 0.0934
=0.000
 0.847
X', = 
0.0934
= 9 m.t. +
The positive sign indicates that the moment at e acts in the assumed
268
direction. This is consistent with the value obtained from the first, and
obviously simpler, main system.
36
61 61
~o~ ____~c~______~b
f~
1.5
L<>::e:
t.:. 2 m _I'd_ o
(a)
2 2mt
6 61
)(,=1
1187t
8.85 14.7 8.85
.4/3 (d)
(c) M, .. F,.Os
18.3ml
121 12
+
+
2.8 2.8 5.7
(e) S.F.O (llS.M.O
Fig. 2.54
Figs. 2.54 band e show the forces and moments due to the applied loads
and due to the case ofloading X, = I. Referring to these figures: and
using the method of virtual work,
~'o
=
=
SM,MOdl
112
EI
EI =
=
112 X 100
4000
I [2X2
EI 2
= 2.S em.'
X
2
3 X 12 +
(12 + 36)
2
= ~In X3X2'+~X2']+~~J(ir+Gr+12]
10.67 X 100
+ IS 50
X  = 0.266 + 0.050 = 0.316 em.
4000 2000 9
2.S
Hence, X, =   =  S.S5t. i.e. S.S5t. (tension)
0.316
The free body diagram together with the S.F. and B.M.Ds. are shown
10 Figs. 2.54 d,e and f.
Alternative solution:
Q
+
6/5mt
.31
e 0 415
(a) M<f.~.DS. (b) M,., 'i.Ds.
Fig. 2,55
8,. =
J M,M. dl
67.2
EI
= _   X 100 = 
=
1 [12 X 2
EI
1.68 em.
2 X
2 6
3" X 5+ 24 X 2 X
6]
5
4000
270
=j ill"" + MidI L

EA
1;
F2
I
= ~I
1
n 0)"+ i or]+ ~J or+ (;)"+
x x 3
18
12]
= 
4000
X 3.84 X 100 + 2000
 X 2 = 0.096 + 0.018 = 0.114 em.
, 1.68
Hence, X 1=   =
0.114
+ 14.7 t.
Exa.nple 2.33 Draw the B.M.D. for the frame shown in Fig. 2.56 a. For
frame EI = 20000 m 2t. and for tie EA = 40000 t.
j I
b
~6m I 6 ..l
(a)
7.6B
F, =31 F=B.161
(d) 8.M.D.
Fig. 2.56
The Mo.D. and the force in link member de due to the applied
loads are shown in Fig. 2.56 h. The corresponding values due to a
unit horizontal load at b are shown in Fig. 2.S6c. Referring to these
figures and using the method of virtual work,
~bO
=j  100(
20000
2
2X  x 6.72x9x3)
3
3 x 12 X 1200
40000
1.21  1.08 =  2.29 em.
 2.29
Hence, X 1 = 1.28 t. (to the left)
1.796
The final B.M.D . and the force in tie de are found by superposition and
are as indicated in Fig. 2.56 d.

(b)M,..F,.Ds.
Fig. 2.57
where 8 refers to the relative displacement between the cut ends of the
link.
272
The Mo.D. due to the applied loads and the M,.D. due to the case of
loading X,' = I are shown in Figs. 2.57 a and b re:optttively. Referring
to these figures and using the method of virtual work,>
M~dl 1 L _ :I..:OO
8"
=J EI +
X
EA
.:......:X
20000
I X 1200
 6 X 22
..:.....:2:...,(
3'
6.72
+  x2 2)
3
+ 40000
 0.17 + 0.03
= 0.2 em.
1.632
Hence, X', =  ....:..:.:..:.::. 8.16 t.
0.2
Example 2.34 Find the reactions and the force in the tie cd ofthe frame
shown in Fig. :1.58 a. For tie EA = 10000 t. and for frame EI = 20000
m 2t.
8. 0 + X, 0., + X 2 8. 2 0
8xo + X, 8x ' + X 2 tx2  0
273
,
3
1c d
6m
r La b
I I 4 I 6 m I 4 '
(al
.,3 m t
(clM,.D.
Fig. 2.58
The Mo.D., the M,.D. and the M 2.D. a re shown in Figs. 2.58 b, c and
d respectively.
Referring to these figures and using the method of virtual work. .
8. 0 = J M,Mo dl
El
4480
= _ _1_(
El
5 X 40 (6 + 2) 2 + 40 X 8 X 9)
2
El
M'dl 1 ( 6 (6 2 ) 2 +  5
8.,
=s I
El
= 
El 3 3
(6 2 + 9 2 + 6 x 9) 2
I + 9 X 8 X 9) = 1362
El
=S
I
I
8. 2

M,M2dl
336
El
El
_1 ( 5 X 3
El 2 (6 + 2) 2 + 3 X 8 X 9)
M2MO dl
8,0
=f 1360
El
=   1(5
El
X 40
2
X 2 X 2 + 40 X 8 x 3)

El
274
336
   from Maxwell's theorem
EI
=J + IxL= _
EA EI
(23 (3)2X2 +8X3X3)
I X 16 102 16
+ EA = Ef+EA
134
EI
! w tim
r (a)
1I2 c I Ll2~"
wL2J12
I +
I (c)M,.O .
wL2/B
1t
+
LIB
I (d)M;O
Ll2
~
Ll4
1t
_ _ _ _...:: ::"L  j
1t
+
Ll4
Fig. 2.59
j 
_2_[
EI
wL2
12
X~(~~)
2 S S
2 L wL2
+"3 X"'2 X s a X4" a ]
(5 L L)
wL 4
384EI
is rather
The proced ure describ ed above, althoug h quite permiss ible"
minate
compli cated as it involve s the analysi s of the given statical ly indeter
a unit load
beam twice; once under the given load and anothe r under
r method "
placed at the point where the deflecti on is require d. Anothe
displac ements
and a much simple r one, is sugges ted by the fact that the
corresp on
of the given statical ly indeter minate beam are identic al to their
by the applied
ding values in any chosen main system when acted upon
momen ts..
loads and the redund ant reactio ns, and Of interna l forces or
they may be
simulta neously . Theref ore, once the redund ants are found,
276
considered as external loads on the chosen main system and the required
deflection is found in the usual manner by placing a unit load on
the chosen main system. To generalize, any main system other than that
used in the analysis of the statically indeterminate structure may serve
the purpose. This is because while the final B.M.D. under the given case
of IOl.ding is unique, the main system used in the analysis is arbitrarily
chosen.
As an application to the above statement, consider the main system
shown in Fig. 2.59 d.
__1_ ( wL2 L L 2 L
xx X
EI 12 2 4 3 2
wL2 3 L) wL4
x 8
X 
8
X
2 = 384EI
f
Consider next the main system shown in Fig. 2.59 e.
1.1!
6
J
' 8 ml 4 l 4 <
(b)M, D.
Fig. 2.60
(
I Solution: The final B.M.D. of the frame under the given case ofloading
has already been found in example. 2.24 (Fig. 2.41). This is considered
as the Mo.D. and is reproduced in Fig. 2.60 a. The best main system for
277
8
d
= S M,Mo dl = ' _1_ ( _ 3.89x6 x...!.x 6 _ 3.89X5 5
EI EI 2 3 2
x
+5.33X5 x4 _5.57X5 xl +5.33X5 X2)
2 2 2
29.28 29.28
==    X 100=1.46cm. i.e. 1.46 cm.(to the left)
EI 2000
S:.lution : Furces Fo in the truss m:::mbers under the given case of loading
are readily obtainable from example 2.10 (Fig. 2.21), and are as given
in the second column of Table 2.7.
8
(83.24)= 0.332 cm. (downward)
2000
which is identical to the value obtained above by applying a unit load to
the original statically indeterminate truss.
Member F. F,F. F,' F,' F. Member F. F,F. ,
F' F,'F.
ah  7.8 2.54 5/12 + 3.24 gn +2 .3 +0. 22 0 0
hi 9.2 3.:4 1/2 + 4.60 nm +2.8 +0.33 0 0
ij 18.4 14.10 I + 18.40 ml +5.6 +1.30 0 0
jk + 6.7 1.87 0 0 Ik +6.7 +1.87 0 0
ab + 4.6 0.88 +1/4 + 1.1 5 gf 1.4 +0 .08 0 0
be +13 .8 7.93 +3/4 + 10.35 fe 4.2 +0.73 0 0
cd + 5.1 1.08 +1/2 + 2.55 ed 6.9 +1.98 0 0
bh + 7.7 2.47 +5/12 + 3.20 fn 2.3 +0.22 0 0
bi  7.7 2.47 5/12 + 3.20 fm +2.3 +0.22 0 0
ie + 7.7 2.47 +5/12 + 3.20 me 2.3 +0.22 0 0
ej +22.3 20.80 +5/6 + 18.60 el +2.3 +0.22 0 0
jd 17.7 13.05 5/6 +14.75 Id +2.3 +0 .22 0 0
kd  7.5 2.28 0
83,09 83 .24
Table 2.7
279
(al ~a
I L
(bll.l.6b I
(cll.L. Xl
, Fig. 2.61
where 8b1 is the vertical deflection at b due to a unit vertical load applied
there, which is also the ordinate 8bb ,tO the influence line for Sb .
Since point c W3.S arbitrarily chosen, it follows that the influence line
for the reaction at b is obtained by dividing the ordinates to the influence
line for the deflection at b by 8bb This influence line is shown in
Fig. 2.6Ic.
(a)
(c) I. L. X k.c:~/::/'1
b'<\fb
Fig. 2.62
(
L
I
f
i 281
I
is the influen ce line for the redund ant X. This influen ce line is shown
in Fig. 2.62 c.
It ml.y be stated, therefo re, that the influen ce li ne for any redund
ant
X is similar to the deflect ion curve drawn for the structu re when
X equals
unity. The values of the ordina tes are those of the deflect ion
curvc, each
r divided by the displac ement at the point where X acts and in
its directio n
I
I
for the same case of loading ; X = 1.
The commo n proced ure is to obtain the deflect ion curve of the
structu re
graphic ally while the displac ement at the point of applica
tion of the
redund ant is determ ined analyti cally. The method of elastic
load is us
ually used in the case of structu res which afC mainly subject ed
to bendin g
momen ts, and the displac ement diagram s are used in the case
of trusses.
To this point the constru ction of influen ce lines has been limited
to
redund ants. The constru ction of influen ce lines for other load
functio ns,
howeve r, creats no real problem as once the influen ce line for
the redund 
ant is constru cted, the influen ce line for any other desired load
functio n
is easily found by applyin g the superpo sition relation ship
Examp le 2.37 Constr uct the influen ce lines for the reactio ns at
suppor ts
a and c of the continu ous truss shown in Fig. 2.63a. Also constru
ct the
influen ce line for the force in membe r 23 and find the extrem
e values of
this force if the truss is subject ed to a uniform ly distribu ted
dead load,
g = .4 tim and live load w = 8 tim. L/A = 2.5 cm 1 and E =
2000t/cm. 2
282
L
1....
4m
~al~~5~~~6~~~~~~~
~ 3x 6:18 _..:!:=_
(a)
1 2
/ /~
\ / 4
\Zj
a/ \ ~
a'___ _
10.5 5 6 'X: (
( b)
' 65
0.0376 em
(d ) 1.L. 6 c
(f) I.L. Yo
1.5( I.L.X)
2m ! (e)Wil Iiot Diagra m
(g )l. L. r:;3 250 dova lues
0.8 !
0.2 0.15
Fig. 2.63
degree. A
Solutio n: The given truss is staticaHy indeter minate to the first
t at c.
possible main system may be obtained by removing the roller suppor
t
,
I 283
t
The member forces and deformations due to X It. are presented in
Table 2.8.
I Table 2.8
~, 2.63 c . Indicated on this figure are the displacements at the panel points,
which represent the ordinates of the influence line for Be shown in Fig.
2.63 d. The influence line for X is obtained by dividing each of these
ordinates by Set . The result is shown in Fig. 2 .63 c. The influence line
t for the reaction at a, shown Fig. 2 .63 f, is obtained from the relationship:
1.L. Y = 1.L.Yo + Y t (1.L. X); Y t = 0.5. Similarly, the influence line
for the force in member 23 is obtained from the superposition relationship:
1.L. F=1.L. Fo+F t (I.L.x); F t =  1.5 The result is shown in Fig. 2.63 g
and the same influence line drawn on a horizontal base~line is shown in
Fig. 2.63 h. Referring to this figure,
I = 16.8
2
t.
0.35 X 6 0.35+0.8
2
0.8 X 0.6)
! M., negative F 23 (due to L.L.)=8 ( 2 + 2 x6+   
2
=45.6t.
I I
The extreme values are: + 2.4t. and 50 t.
ExaDlple 2.38 If load is transmitted to the lower chord of the truss shown
Fig. 2.64 a, construct the influence lines for the horizontal reaction at support
b and the force in member 5  7. L/A = 4 cm 1 and E = 2000 tlcm 2.
(a)
0..0.58 em.
(e )l.l. X
0..194 0..328 0.343 0..20.9
+ I
0..666 t.
I.l. Fa "(l.l.X)
(d) l. L. ~1 1"""'=='""'...:1
0..876 20/9
(e 1I.l. ~ i'=_l'.l_.l.:::::"..OCT_,_11
1.0.67 t
Fig. 2.64
The LL. for X is t hus as shown in Fig. 2.64 c . T he LL. for FL7
Exall1ple 2.39 Ifload is transm itted to the lower chord of the threechord
truss shown in Fig. 2.65a, construct the influence lines for the forces in
members 14 and 512 . The crosssectional area of all the verticals and
diagonals 14, 4 5, 58 and 89 = 100 em 2, and the crosssectional area
of the remaining members = 200 cm 2 . E = 2000 tlcm 2.
I
J
12
13
3m
"
t 5 7 9
t 6 8
~rl
1      5x 6=30 m   _  ' = ,
tal 2T
12 024
r
~.
11
3 5
a~*2~~4~~~6~8~'ln~4b
13
7 9
a
(b)
t
(d) l.L X(I.L r;;11)
3.35(J.L.X)
Fig. 2.65
at any section along its length, and the redundant X is then the force in
this member. The member forces and deformations due to X = It are
presented in Table 2.9
. 
287
c n d
r
3
La 6m
I 9m
(a)
4
6mt
3
10.5
1
13.5
I
16.5
I
(b)M, .D.
16.5
i
I 0.20
t
+
13."1~0
(d)l.L. 6 b
0.34cm
10.
(e) l.L. X
0.252 t
2.25
........ .........
.
\
0.38
Fig. 2.66
288
270
f_1_
EI
270
EI 3 3
62 + 3 X
3
Exan>ple 2.41 If load is transmitted to the arch with a tie shown in Fig.
2.67a at panel points ab, construct the influence line for the bending
moment at section n at the middle of panel cd. For arch EI = 40000 m 2t
and for tie A = 100 cm. 2 and E = 2100 tlcm 2.
~ jm~.
6X4=24m~
(a)
(e) I.L. X
4.5 I. L. Mo
/ 4.5(I.L.X )
/ + ~,..",.,===
(d) I. L. Mnf'_ _ _ _ _ _ _~
Fig. 2.67
(a)
(b)M,,'i. ""lE"Lt'.=~
~"."< 0.5 0.5 ...,:,~
(c)J.L.6
(d)J.L. X
(e)l.L. M~
( O I.L. M~
0.06
1.62 m t
Fig. 2.68
the relative displacement at the cut section is shown in Fig. 2.68 c. This
is obtained analytically using the method of elasticload.
I (3X6 ) 18
r. = EI 2 +3 X 3 = EI
I ( 3 X 6 ) 90 90 X 100
0. = or =  18 X 6    X 2 =  = 0.225 cm.
EI 2 EI 4{)000
f
M,2dl 1 xL F,2 L
o11
 EI
+   + :1;
EAb EA
= ~ [2 (~ X 3 2) + 6 X 3 X 3] + I X 1800
4{)0()() 3 2000 X 300
Exunple 2.43 Construct the i nfluence line for the moment a t section
D at the middle of the Bow String Girder shown in Fig. 2.69 a. For girder
I = 200000 em', for vertica l link members A = 30 em" and for the
remaining link members A = 60 em". E = 2100 t/cm".
l~~dl
e' ,
3m b
4. X=1 t4 . 5
3 m t ,.
(b) 11,.0 .
(d) I.L X
18.75
I.l.M ~J~ _4.5 CI.L X)
7.5 V I
~
(e)
0)55 0.155
Fig. 2.69
j M,2 dl
= 
EI
I(5
EI
2 X_
3
5
(3)2 + 2 X (3 2 +4.5 2 +3x4.5) +5x4.5 2
3
)
2 75 275
=  =   X 100 = 0.655 CID.
EI 42000
2t1m
d
c
+ 2 + I. m I
Fig. 2.70
~o r 8
"
Ttlm
I 1I I I
1; 3'1d
6m
~ 3 I 3 I 3
Fig. 2.71
3 '
2t1m 111m
Fig. 2.72
Fig. 2.73
~"m rOt
~~lllml
~
1i I'~ 21
3 +3m _ ._ 3 + 3 <
n 1 ~
Fig. 2.74
~
I ,r 21r' 1m
~' l~~ r I
"'
3x3= 9 m 3x3= 9 m
~ (
Fig. 2.75
295
of the
(7)  (12) State the degree of statical indder minan cy of each
method
beamsi B Figs. 2.762.81, then draw the S.F. and B.M. Ds. using the
of consistent deformations.
141 1S t
1St 2 tim "
~!!I!!!~
:a
a
l 2 _ 2 + L m l 2 <
c
L l
Fig. 2.76
lSt/m "
2 I 3m  I
Fig. 2.77
SII lSI
~ 21 1 21 ~
I 3 13 m..I 3l
Fig. 2.79
~
I
O! I I '2/
3t1m
I! I I
3 3 I Sm ,
. +
Fig. 2.8\
296
(i3) Draw the B.M.D. for the beam in Fig.2.70 in the absence ofload
if EI = 5000 m 2t and,
(14) Draw the B.M.D. for the beam in Fig.2.71 in the absence ofload
if EI = 6000 m 2t and,
a) support c settles by 3 cm.,
b) support a has a clockwise rotational slip of 0.0025 rad.
(15),(16) Calculate the value of the redundant chosen for the analys
is of each of the beams in Figs.2.73 and 2.74 if in the absence of
load support b settles by 3 cm., I = 40000 cm 4 and E = 2000 t/em 2.
(17) Calculate the reactions of the beam in Fig. 2.76 in the absence
of load if support b settles by 4 cm. and EI = 5000 m 2 t.
(18)(22) For each of the beams in Figs 2 .772.81 write down the
deftection equations required to determine a chosen set of redundants due
to some arbitrary support movements in the absence of the applied loads.
(23) Calculate the reaction at c and the force in the member. of the
truss shown in Fig.2.B2 if all the members are made of the same material
and have the same crosssectional area.
~ L . L
2 6'
Fig. 2.82 Fig. 2.83
(24) Find the force in members be and bd of the truss shown in Fig.
2.83 if all the members are made of the same material and the cross
sectional area of the diagonals equals double that of the remaining
members.
297
(25),(26) Find the forces in the members of each of the trus..es shown
in Figs. 2.84 and 2.85 if L/EA is assumed COOOanL_
. 51
2
51
~~~~~~~ I
2
6 4
2 21
1
...
h_=.9 3 L _f_I
81 1 4x4:16m ~
(29) Calculate the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig.
,
2.88 if L/EA is assumed constant.
6m
i r:;;>IIEr~or*.~'
L~~~L~~~~d~
+__ 3X4: 24 _+__ 3x4:24 =
30t
Fig. 2.88
298
(30) Calculate the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig.
2.89 if all the members are made of the same material, and the eross
sectional area of the diagonals inclined at 45 = 30 em 2 and that of the
remaining members = 50 em 2.
(~~f~~~~~1~
I 6 12m
Fig. 2.89
6Y
(31) Calculate the forces in the members of the continuous truas
shown in Fig. 2.90 if L/EA is assumed constant.
Fig. 2.90
"I
3
t
3
41
t
51 J
I 2 ~3+ 5m +31
Fig. 2.91 Fig. 2.92
299
4 4 41
211 4 4' 1
1.5 2 2 2
+
1.5 e 2
+
d 1.5 c d 2
t5
Q b
,::;:::_ 6 x 2=12 m,_oof
1 Q
4x4:16m
1
Fig. 2.93 Fig. 2.94
r
(36),(37) Calculate the forces in the members of each of the trusses
shown in Figs. 2.95 and 2.96 if L/EA is assumed constant.
101
(40) Calculate the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig.
2.84 in the absence of load if each of the bottom chord members is fabri
cated I em. too short. L/A = 12 em I and E = 2000 t/em 2
(41) Calculate the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig.
2.88 in the absence of load if:
a) member cd is fabricated 4 em. too short,
b) each of the bottom chord members is fabricated I em. too short.
L/A = 6 cm I and E = 2000 t/em 2
(52) C~lculate the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig. 2.96
in the absence of load due to :
a) settlement of 3 cm. at support b,
b) settlement of 2 cm. at support a,
c) equal settlement at supports a and b of 2 em.
LfA = 8 em 1 and E = 2000 tfem".
(53) (62) Sketch two possible main systems for each of the frames
shown in Figs. 2.972.106, then using one of the suggested main systems
draw the RM.Ds. if the moment of inertia varies as indicated.
211m 211m
I I I ! 111111111111'.1
';;:Cl +__ 8 m
Fig. 2.97
r' ....... 6
Fig. 2.98
~i
12m_4
I
r
30\
I 2Q251
r
Sm 21
4\
\
t
1
4
r
31
4\
8
t 6 21
5
L J
1_ _ 12m
211m 21 2l
41 "1
1 "bo:ri1'i:5il/rmrno::t~ 2
~
E
6 a t
4
~
d 1%_'_ 8 m l 22 b
1   _ 8m _'::::;::::2J
Fig, 2.103 Fig. 2.104
211m
1.5t/m
f
S
c
(63)(70) Sketch two possible main systems for each of the frames
shown in Figs. 2.1072.114, then using oneof the suggested main
systems
draw the B.M.D s. if the momen t of inertia varies as indicat ed.
211m
I I II I I I , I I I Ii I I
d
c 20m 4
c T
112m~~t
a
12m '
Fig. 2.107 Fig. 2.108
J. , 211m
I I I I I I I I I I I Ii I I I
211m
~2
r
t4
4
5
t 1
Il
21 6
L 12m BY L
10 I
J
Fig. 2.109 Fig. 2.110
Fig. 2.l ll
211m
11111 11111 11111 11111 11111
1 illl'""1

Bm ... . B
Fig. 2.112
303
21
21
,
"
t51/m
" 2
Q 21
1 I.
"
11.  I  I.rnJ
Fig. 2.113
8m
Fig.2.114
b
2r
(71)(75) Draw the B.M.D. for each of the frames shown in Figs.
2.1152.119 if the moment of inertia varies as indicated.
, 21 lOt
,
~
81 2
21
E
:::
iI. 1
11
I.
N
3t
I. 11m 211m 211m
~lllllllllillii"
,
1.5 ___
1..5
21
21
~ 2 ~6m1 6.  I { I l 8m
211
41
3! 1.5!
1
6
L 12m 6 i
Fig. 2.[19
L
1.5
r
1..5
I
3
l 6
~6m_I_
Fig. 2.120
6
b
L 9m
Fig. 2.121
305
I
in the absence of load due to :
a) a downward movement at support a of 2 cm."
b) an outward movement at support b = I em."
I = 80000 cm' and E = 210 t/cm 2
(92) Find the force in link cc' and calculate the reactions of beam
ab shown in Fig. 2.122 if EI for the beam = 4000 m 2t, area of the link
member = 10 em 2 and E = 2000 tlcm 2.
c ,.
~
r
lom 81 lom
211m
La ~ 1 b a !J
.f:i c M
~ 6m\.. 3 I 3t I 6
c
I 8m
(93) Draw the B.M. and S.F.Ds. for beam ab shown in Fig. 2.123 if
the area oflink cc' = 20 em', I of the beam = 40000 em 4 and E = 2000
tfern' .
If the beam was supported by a rigid support at c, what would be the
percentage change in the maximum negative hendin~ moment?
(94) Find the force in member bd and draw the B.M.D. for beams ab
and cd in Fig. 2.124. EI for each beam = 2500 m't, area of
member bd = 8 em' and E = 2000 tlem'.
"0 b
t 3m
111m ~
dl,<l'r....L4i
c 3 lJrn..fI e'
Gm 12 I2...l
Fig. 2.124 Fig. 2.125
(95) Find the force in link ec' and draw the S.F. and B.M.Ds. for beams
ac and de in Fig. 2.125 ifEI for each beam = 8000 m't, area oflink =
20 cm' and E = 2000 tlem'.
(96) Find the force in the wire rope ce' and draw the S.F. and B.M.Ds.
for beam ab shown in Fig. 2.126 if EI for the beam = 2000 m 't, area of
wire rope = 5 em' and E = 1400 tlcm'.
e
Gm~l
121
Fig. 2.126 Fig. 2.127
r
I (98) Draw the S.F. and B.M.Ds. for beam ab in the structure shown
307
in Fig. 2.128. For the beam EI = 10000 m 2 t, for the link members L/A
= 20 cm 1 and E = 2000 t/cm 2 .
21
25 25cm. 3m
10
20
10
20
~
3~3m 4m !. 2 2j1
8t 181
Fig. 2.128 Fig. 2.129
(99) Calculate the forces in the truss members and draw the S.F. and
B.M.Ds. for beam ab in the structure shown in Fig. 2.129. Areas of indio
vidual link members are as indicated) I for the beam = 2000 em 4 and
E = 2000 t/cm 2
(100),(101) Draw the N.F., S.F. and B.M.Ds. for each of the beams
in Figs. 2.130 and 2.131 if EI for each beam = 10000 m 2 t, L/A for li~k
members = 15 cm 1 and E = 2000 t/em 2
211m 211m
1~'I:Lim N~III1.~:VI'~
L2...i4ml.. 2  l  r L214m ' 2l2J
Fig. 2.130 Fig. 2.131
(102),(103) Draw the N.F., S.F. and B.M.Ds. for each of the frames
in Figs. 2.132 and 2.133 iffor the frame EI = 20000 m 2 tand for the tie
A = 20 cm 2 and E = 2000 t/em 2
1 I ,t ~ ,t/,n; I I I 1 1 1 [I1:1II::JIIIT::JJI=Li/I~mj'IITDIr:1r
IIJI
l Sm
~L!."<l>ti
6m
Fig. 2.134
(120) Ifload moves on the top chord of the truss shown in Fig. 2.135,
construct the influence lines for Y a, Y b and the forces in the three marked
members. LjEA is assumed constant.
3x4=12
Fig. 2.135
r
I 309
I
I
I (121) Ifload mmres from a to c on each of the trusses shown in Figs.
2.136 and 2.137, construct the influence lines for the reactions and the
forces in the three marked members. LfEA is assumed constant.
t
i
, I
~zS:ZVs:zsA
L3 I 2x6:12 I 2x6:12m 1 3J
Fig. 2.137
I
I
~j
Fig. 2.138
(123) If load moves on the top chord of the twohinged turss shown
in Fig. 2.139, construct the influence lines for the horizontal reaction and
the forces in the three marked members. L/EA is assumed constant.
310
~_ __ 6x3:16m
Fig. 2.139
(124) Ifload moves on the top chord ofthe truss shown in Fig. 2.140,
construct the influence lines for the reactions and the forces in the marked
members. L/EA is assumed constant.
~~~,,.~r~~~~~''
~_..0.1 3.
l3
_ _l_3x3=9 ~
Fig. 2.140
(125) Ifload moves on the top chord of the truss shown in Fig. 2.141,
construct the influence lines for the reactions and the forces in the marked
members. L/EA is assumed constant.
~~.~,~,~
1
,:;;:..._ _ _ 6x 4 =24 m
Fig. 2.141
(126) If load moves on the top chord of the truss shown in Fig. 2.142,
construct the influence lines for the forces in the four marked members.
L/EA is assumed constant.
!I
I
311
r fJ\CRVVl}
I Sxl.=2 0m 1
Fig. 2.142
in
(127) If load moves from a to b of the threec hord truss shown
marked
Fig. 2.143.1 constru ct the influen ce lines for the forces in the three
membe rs. L/EA is assume d constan t.
I 7.5
.l
shown
(128) If load moves on the top chord of the threec hord truss
the three
in Fig. 2.144) construct the influen ce lines for the forces in
marked membe rs. L{EA is assume d constan t.
6x3:2 4m
Fig. 2.144
 +1 d
Fig.
(129) If load is transm itted to the continu ous beam shown in
influen ce lines for the
2.145 at panel points spaced at 3 m J construct the
t.
reactions and the S.F. and B.M. at section d. EI = constan
312
a b a c
Fig. 2.146
Ji ' I r 9mi
e __~bT____4~P____~Cr~f
a~____O
J, ,I '>7i~"l
d
L 9 +4~ 16m
Fig. 2.147
4.51 ~ 9
(132) If the frame shown in Fig. 2.148 has constant bending rigidity
EI, construct the inftuence lines for the S.F. and B.M. at sections p,
b(Ieft), b(right) and b(below).
6m
L; J!
I 9 ~L:5ISm Il51 9 l
Fig. 2.148
313
(133) Ifload is. transmitted to the frame shown in Fig. 2.149 at panel
points spaced at 2 m, construct the influence lines for the reactions, S.F.
and B.M. at section p. The moment of inertia varies as indicated.
a c f d
3 I
I 5m L c'
(134) Ifload is transmitted to the arch with a tie shown in Fig. 2.150
at panel points a, I, 2J1 3, 4 and b, construct the influence lines for the force
t in the tie and the S.F. and B.M. at section p at the middle ofpanal 12.
For arch EI = 40000 mZtand fortieA = 100 ern" andE = 2000 tfem" .
2 3
5 x 4=20m
Fig. 2.150
(135) Ifload is transmitted to the arch with a tie shown in Fig . 2.1 51
at panel points a, 1,2,3,4,5 a nd b, construct the influence lines for the
force in the tie and the S.F. and B.M. at sections p and q a t the middle of
panels a I and 12 respectively. For arch EI = 50000 m't a nd for tie
A = 100 em" and E = 2000 tfem 2
3
=r I
2 4
q
t 5
IS.S6m
~
6x4=24m
,t F ig. 2. 151
314
in
(136)(139) Load is transm itted to each of the trussed beams shown
infiuen ce
Figs. 2.1522.155 at panel points spaced at 2m;' constru ct the
10000 m"t
fines for the N.F., S.F. and &M. <it ,ection p. For beam EI ""
and for link u',e~bers L/A = 15. cro and E = 2000 t/cm
1 2
shown
(140),(141) Load is transm itted to each of the trussed beams
ct the in
in Figs. 2."156 and 2.157 at panel points spaced at 2m, constru
beam,
fluence lines for the N.F., S.F. and B.M. at sections p and q. For
1 E 2000
EI= 90000 m't and for link membe rs L /A = 10 cm and
=
t/em 2.
fTA~b
~..j2+l.ml Fig. 2.156
" !2 +2 J
, ,
~
~m
~ f.
O.5B::.,=:::.::r::==.JFL*_I!L=:::~I~
11_ _ _ 3 X 1.=12 m =1 1= 2xl.=6 l
Fig. 2.157
r
CHAPTER 3
THE METHOD OF
THE EQ.UATION OF THREE MOMENTS
3.1 Introduction
A continuous beam is one of the most widely used type of statically
indeterminate structures. It is a beam spanning a relatively long opening
with a number of intermediate supports provided in order to reduce the
large moments that would otherwise develop.
There are several methods availabe for the analysis of statically in
determinate beams. Perhaps. . the most common of these is the method
of the equation of three moments which, as will be shown subsequently,
stems from the method of consistent deformations presented in chapter
2. An equation of three moments establishes the relationship betYfeen
the bending moments at three successive supports of the beam.
(I) the elastic curve of the beam is continuous; i.ew the beam has no
intermediate hinges;,
(2) the moment of inertia is constant within a single span.
o ~l
Fig. 3.1
Ca) 1 '2 2 ~J 3
r~
L
1 ~
(b) M,

3 _
Fig. 3.2
I tances of the centroids of these areas to the outer supports. Also" the
redundant bending moments are assumed positive.

1 ( w Xa + 
M,L"
X L'2 +M2L'2
  2 L12)
x  3.2
Y12 
EI'2 12 I 2 3 2 3
1 ( M2L23 2 L23 M3 L23 L23)
Y32 =  EI W23 X a2 +  2 X 3 +  2 X ""3 3.3
23
The negative sign of Y32 follows from the sign convention used in the
momentarea method.
Substituting from equations 3.2 and 3.3. into equation 3.1 and simplifying,
A careful study of the right hand side of equation 3.4 shows that it
represents six times the elastic reaction at support 2 if the spans on either
side, both considered as simply supported, were loaded with the M/I
diagram due to the applied loads on these spans. The sign convention
for the elastic reaction is the same as that used in the elasticload
method; i.e. the reactiol\:will be considered positive when it acts upwards.
Equation 3.4 may therefore be written as :
23 23
M, L'2
 + 2 M2 (L12
 + L ) + M3 L =  6 r2 3.5
1'2 1'2 123 123
~
I
I
~
318
where f2 in this case is the elastic reaction at support 2 with the simple
bending moment diagram on the spans on both "sides ()f this support as
loading.
Equations 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 represent three different forms of the equa
tion of three moments for support 2. Each represents the relationship
between the redundant moment M2 at support 2 and those at the supports
on its left and right . In general, an equation of three moments establishes
the relationship between the bending moments acting over three succes
sive sUPEorts; andhence the name.
A sufficient number of equations is obtained by writing equations of
three moments for all the intermediate supports. These equations, when
solved simultaneously, give the unknown values of the moments over the
supports. It should be noticed that at simply supported ends the bending
moments are known to be zero, and if an end span has an overhang, the
moment at the end support is determinate; i.e. it can be found from statics.
Further, a fixed end could be replaced by two supports having a span
between them of zero length. This is justified by the momentarea method
as such replacement is equivalent to the condition of zero slope at the
fixed end. Referring to Fig. 3.3a which shows a part of a continuous
beam with a fixed end, the relationship between M, and M, may be
obtained from the condition that the deflection at support 2 with respect
to a horizontal line through the fixed end is zero. Thus, from the moment
area second theorem,
I (
Y21 ~   w 12
EI
a, + M, 2LI2 2
X  LI2
3
+ M,2LI2 X
W12 al
2 M,L 12 ~  6  3.7
LI2
Replacing next the fixed end by two supports as shown in Fig. 3.3b,
and writing down the equation of three moments for support 1,
3.8
,
f
319
01 2
Lar
M,i    J
'42 1
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.3
Equations 3.7 and 3.8 are identical, and replacing a fixed end by two
supports as suggested is therefore justified .
Y' = M, M,
and ,
L"
The total reaction at an intermediate support is thus given by :
Y = (Y, + Y',) + (Y, + Y',)
"!
320
w l~ IPz
I
, I ! i
P
(
(a)
f L12 L23
(b)
G
t
M
l
M2 M3~
Simple beam reactions
M2
M
(c) 1
+ +
Fig 3.4
The B.M.D. may be constructed from the first principles OT, easier
still, by superimposing the free moments on the redundant moments.
Referring again to the two spans shown in Fig. 3.4, and assuming the
directions of the moments at the supports to be as indicated, the free and
the redundant moments drawn separately will be as presented in Fig. 3.40.
These two diagrams, when superimposed, give the final B.M.D. shown
in Fig. 3Ad.
321
33 IDastrative e:KaD1ples
The following examples will illustrate the method of analysis of
statically indeterminate beams using the equation of three moments and
the principles discussed in the preceding section. For further emphasis,
the procedures are summerised.
(I) A neat sketch of the beam indicating all the applied loads is made. If
an end is fixed, the fixed support is replaced by two simple supports
with zero span between them.
(2) All the supports of the beam including the two supports that replace
a fixed support, if any, are numbered from left to right.
(4) The equations of three moments for all the intermediate supports
are formed.
(5) All the equations are solved simultaneously for the unknown moments
at the supports.
(6) The final B.M.D. is obtained from the first principles or by superim
posing the simple beam moments on those due to the calculated
moments at the supports.
baJnple 3.1 For the continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.5 a, draw the
B.M. and S.F.Ds. The bending rigidity EI is constant throughout the
beam.
Solution: The simple B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 3.5 b. Since EI is constant,
form 3.6 of the equation of three moments may be used and the elastic
reaction is calculated from the simple B.M.D. alone. Thus, referring
to Fig. 3.5 b,
wi
(a) ~!!!! ! I I I I I I I
!I!:ttl
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
L L
( b)
+ +
WL2/8 w~/8
(d)
w W""~
wLl2 wLl2
~wLl8 WLl8t t
3wLl8 5wLl8
"
lOWLl8t
3wLl8 5WL/8~
(e)S.F.D~ I~
~I ~
=::.j 5w Ll8 3wl/B
Fig. 3.5
wL wL 3
Y O =Y2 =    =  wL (upward)
2 8 8
(upward)
The S.F.D. shown in Fig. 3.5e may be easily drawn by starting from
support 0 at an ordinate = + 3 wL/8 and decreasing linearly by an
amount of wL to 5wL/8 at support I, and then increasing abruptly
by 10 wL/8 to + 5wL/8 and again decreasing linerly between supports
I and 2 by an amount of wL to  3wL/8 at support 2.
Exan>ple 3.2 For the continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.6 a, draw the
B.M. and S.F.Ds. The bending rigidity EI is constant throughout the
beam.
r =
,
2(~X
2
PL X~)
4 2
= PL2
8
 6 r,
Mo = M2  0 and L o, = L'2 = L
4 M, L  6 X PL2/8 , M, =  3PL/16
The reactions are calculated with reference to Fig. 3.6 d, and are as
follows:
P I 3PL 5P
Yo = Y 2 =   
X16=i6 (upward)
2 L
324
Y = 2(
1
!2 + L~ X 3WL2) = II P
16 8 'upward)
The S.F.D. is drawn in the usual manner and is as shown in Fig. 3.6e.
P P
(a ) 2
l L
(b)
+ +
Pl/4 PL/4
3PlI16
5Pl/32 5P1I32
P 3Pl/16 P
(d)
~P/2~~~
13pn6
5pn6
3PI16t
l1PI16
t
t
lIP/8
lIPI16 llPI16
p!!:.pn~6!!''~i!!;16
(e)SF.QL__+~_+_~_4~
SPI16 SPI16
l1P/16 llPI16
Fig. 3.6
325
Es:alDple 3.3 For the continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.7 a, draw the
B.M. and S.F.Ds. The bending rigidity El is constant throughout the
beam. Find the position and value of the maximum positive moment in
each span.
.
w I
X' '1i
(a) I I I I ! I
L L
(b)
wL2/8 will8
3wL"/28 wL"/14
(c)BMD.
wet1l,
~~t~~'~~
w
(d)
wL
2 2 2
~ 3wL3wLt tWL WL~
28 28 28 26
j
llWL 17wL 15wL 13wL
28 28 28 28
~3~
lw1l28 15w1l28 13w1l28
(e)S.F.D. +
13wll28
17w1l28
Fig. 3.7
Therefore, there are two unknown support moments only which may be
obtained by writing the equations of three moments for supports 1
and 2.
326
The reactions are calculated with reference to Fig. 3.7 d, and are as
follows :
wL I 3 wL2 II wL
Yo = Y. =    X   =   (upward)
2 L 28 28
WL
Y, = Y, = ( 
2
+ L1 3 WL2) (WL 1 WL2)
X   +  +X
28 2 L 28
8 wL
=   (upward)
7
WL 1 WL2) 13 wL
Y2 = 2 (    X  =   (upward)
2 L 28 14
II wL II L W ( II L) 2
M .. =   X    = 0.077 wL2
x 28 28 2 28
Let the maximum positive moment in span 12 occur at a distance x
from 1 then,
15wL 15 L
Q =    wx = 0 , x =  = 0.536 L
28 28
15 wL 15 L w (15 L)2 3wL2 2
M..ax =~ X 282 28  2s = 0.037 wL
327
0.107w~
~ oonw'
f"'37~~1'''
I 0.077wL2
10.393l.J
10.536ll
Fig. 3.S
Esample 3.4 For the continuous beam of constant EJ shown in Fig. 3.9 a,
draw the B.M. and S.F.Ds .
2tJm
(a)
Sm
Sm
(b)
+
9 8 8ml
12
8
(dB.M.D.
S
8m 9 41
211m
1
SU~6
(d)
S 4
~
6.33 6.33 5
(e)S.F.D. + + 1
2.67 2.67 3 3
7.33
Fig. 3.9
328
r, 2
=  X 3 X 9
3
+ 6I [2X2
12 ( 4 + 2)
 + 4X2
3
12 X 2
3
r2 = I [2X
12 X 2 X 2 4 X 12 ( 2 4) ] +  +
e;
62323
+ ~ [ 8 2)] = 32 m 2t.
6
Y3 = 4  
= 3 t. (upward)
6
The S.F.D. is thus as shown in Fig. 3.9 e.
329
211m
(al
6m
(b)
+
a 9 mt
6.33
(cJB.M.D.f L
~2~.B:3~~~~='~~____~__~~t=~~
3mt
(d l I'~ _,
" 4 6
q
633
II
2 tim
II, II " 'p3mt
7.5
10.88 o.aat t055 055+
t312 4.BB 6.55 6.95
.~
11 431
.55t
""",",3.12 1.5 1.
(elS.F.O. L..:!+=++=::::"...,t=l
4.8B 4.881
5.45
Fig. 3.10
M, = 1.5 x 2 =  3 m.t.
1
r, =  x 4 X 8 = 8 m2t
2 2
I 4x8 I 2
r, =  x  
2 2 2
x 
3
+
x6x9 = 26 m 2 t.
The reactions are calculated with reference to Fig. 3.10 d, and are
as follows :
2 X 6 6.33 ' 3
Y3 = + 1.5  = 6.95 t. (upward)
2 6
.     
331
21
2.5m
II:=::II:o::J'::r~:i/mi:o::IIIfCI:I:q~
15
n
(a)
! 8m 2 J
m
I
(b'fK=:/1 !
12 mt
13m!
(e)
Fig. 3.Il
Solution: The key figure to the solution is shown in Fig. 3.11 b. The
fixed support is replaced by two simple supports with zero span between
them, the simple B.M.D. is drawn, and the bending moment M at support
1.5 X 22
2 is given by : M = 2 X 2.5  = + 2 m.t.
2
(Note that the determinate moment at support 2 is positive)
rl = '21(2'3 X 8 X 12 ) = 32 m 2 t.
...
2.4 3.6t tS.33 +
4
6.67 t
6.73ml
2.64
1.01
(d)B.M.O.
... ... ...
3.53ml 3.2 4.09 4.64
j)~ t5 f;)G
1.6 7.S
111m
(e)
3.8 3.6 4 3.st 1.25 1.25
Y2 =  I (4.5
2 + 3 X 4)  .
095  
X 7.5 1.01
.L 
6 6 ' 6
= 3.5  0.95  1.25 + 0.17 = 1.47 t . (upward)
Y, = ~5 _ I~l
= 1.250.17 = LOSt.
(
upward)
6 6
41 4t
2 tim
(a)
, 1 2
2.5  1 2.5 m_1 2.5 Ir'
(0)
10mt
+
16,,\1 14m! 16
11.51
8
6.5
(d l5.F.D. L_ +___'
.5::=...,=c_ _ _ _i
11.5
Fig. 3. 13
Exatnple 3.9 For the beam shown in Fig. 3.9 a (example 3.4), draw the
B.M. and S.F.Ds. ifthe moment of inertia varies as indicated in Fig.3.14a.
211m
(al
1:'
I ! ! ! !
(bl
+
9
12ml
B.05
6.1Bm!
Ct
~(;4
B.05ml 41
~6
211m
(d)
6 4
2
x 3 X 9 _ 1_ _I [2 X 12 (4 ~)
3 + 1.2 X 6 2 + 3
4 xI2 2 ]
+ 2 X 3"" X 4 = 34.67
I
 1.2 X6 [2;12 X ! x 2+ 4;12 (2++)]
+ +[8 ( 6 ; 2 )] 29.33
2M. (6 + _ 6 _ ) 1.2
+ M2 X _ 6_ = _ 6 X 34.67
1.2
22 M. + 5 M2 =  208 ( i)
M. ~
112
+ 2 M2 (~+~)+
112 123
M3 L"
123
=6r2
_ 6 _ M. + 2 M2 ( _ 6 _ + 6) =  6 X 29.33
1.2 I~
5 M. + 22 M2 =  176 (ii)
The reactions are calculated with reference to Fig. 3.14 d and are as
follows :
6 X 2 8.05
=.:.:...~ _   = 4.66 t. (upward)
2 6
Y, (
6 X
2
2+ S.05 )
6 +
(9 6 X 4
+
S.05 
6
6.IS )
e:
13.65 t . (upward)
6.IS
Y3 = 4    = 2.97 t. (upward)
6
Esample 3.10 For the beam shown in Fig. 3.10 a (example 3.5) and
reproduced in Fig. 3.15 a, draw the B.M.D. if I'2 = 16 X 10 4 em'.
and 123 = 20 X 10 4 em4.
(a)
11.1 2 1 2 f t
(b)
+
+
8mt
9
6.15 mt
3
(c)B.MI.q.::
:..;,.".;:::;,L;~__r____,L=.:::::"_I
Fig. 3.15
t
f
338
Solution: Let 112 ~ I" 112 : 123 = 1 : 1.25. Referring to Fig. 3.15 b,
1 4 X 8
 x  ~8
2 2
2 M\ X 4 + M2 X 4 ~  6 X 8
2 M\ + M2 ~  12 ( i)
 6r2
4 M\ + 2 M2 (~+
1
~
1.25
) 3 X
6
1.25
 6 X 22.4
 30 (ii)
( a)
(b)
  
18
"

~
~
"
I (el "
I
" ./
" ./
+ '../
18
2 27ml
18 18m!
(d)BMD
+ +
9 9ml
18
9 9
61 6
+ +
(e )S.F.D.
6 6
9 9!
Fig. 3.16
the effect of span de on part ad of the beam has been found. From statics,
the action of part de on the rest of the beam = 6 t. (downward)
The bending moment at support b is therefore given by
Mb =  6 X 3 =  18 m.t.
The final B.M.D. and S.F.D. are therefore as shown in Figs. 3.16 d
and c.
(This problem has already been solved using the method of consistent
deformations, example 2.6. The student is advised to compare the relative
ease of the two solutions. Would a solution based on the equation of three
moments be possible if the intermediate hinge was introduced in span ab
instead of span be ?)
(a) 1 2 3
L2J
f L'2
f f
r  M2
 
M,
 
~ M)
(b)
;
,f
t
f
t
l
f
r Fig. 3.17
l The elastic curve of the beam is assumed as shown in Fig. 3.17 c. The
unknown support moments are again found from the compatibility
t condition: al a2
Y'2 + 8,  82 Yn  83 + 82 3.9
f
I Dividing the B.M.D. into triangles as shown in Fig. 3.17 b, and applying
! the momentarea second theorem,
Yn
= __1_ ( M2 L23 X 2L23 + M3 L 23 X L23) ... 3.11
El23 2 3 2 3
The negative sign for Y32 follows from the sign conventions used in the
momentarea method.
Substituting fmm equations 3.10 and 3.11 into equation 3.9 and
simplifying,
6E(8 2  8,+ 82  83 )
LI2 L 23
... 3.12
342
When the moment of inertia I is constant for all the spans equation 3.12
becomes:
Equations 3.12 and 3.13 represent two different forms of the equation of
three moments for support 2 for the moments induced in a continuous
beam due to settlements of supports.
It should be pointed out that if all the supports settle by the
same amount 8 1 = 82 = 83 .. = 8, the constant term in the
equations of three moments vanish, and consequently all the moments
will have zero value. In other words, if the beam sinks as a whole, no
additional moments will be induced in the beam. Only when there is a
differential settlement among the supports that additional moments
develop.
Ezam.ple 3.12 For the continuous beam shown in Fig. 3. 18 a, draw the
R.M. and S.F.Ds. if support I sinks by 1.5 cm. and the beam has a con
stant EI 4000 m 2t.
~ ._ 6 6m =F 6
2.92
4.6mt
~6 ~92
tC018076! rO9"0.9!
.
~0.490.4"'9l (e)
v
1.721" l. 43 t
kl.76 076 t 0.49 0.49
+ + (d)S.F'D

0.941 0.94
Fig. 3.18
.
343
Solution: There afe two unknown support moments. These may be deter
mined from the two equations of three moments for supports 1 and 2 . .
Since the bending rigidity is constant throughout the beam, form 3.13
of the equation of three moments is used.
8,  80 8,  82)
Mo 1.0, + 2 M, (Lo, + L 12 )+M2 LI2=6 EI ( + .:.!...~
L o, LI2
1.5  0 1.5  0)
2 M, (6 + 8) + M2 X 8 = 6 X 4000 ( 600 + 800
28 M, + 8 M2 = 105 (i)
Equation of three moments for support 2,
82 82
M, LI2 + 2 M2 (LI2 + L 23 )+ M, L23=6EI (   +  
0, 0,)
LI2 L23
0  1.5 00)
M, X 8 + 2 M2 (8 + 6) =6x4000 ( + 600
800
8 M, + 28 M, =  45 (ii)
The reactions are found in the usual manner. Referring to Fig. 3.18 c,
4.6
=  = 0.78 t. (upward)
6
2.92
Y,= 6
0.49 t. (downward)
!
344
This shows that the greater the value of EI or, to put it In general
terms, the greater the EI/L ratio for the spans, the greater are the moments
produced in the beam due to differential settlement.
ExalDple 3.13 For the continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.19 a J draw the
B.M. and S.F.Ds. if support 1 settles by 2 em., support 2 by 1 em., and
the end supports remain undisplaccd. The beam is made of steel (E =
2000 t/em 2 ), and its crosssection throughout is a S.LE. No. 38 (I =
24000 cm 4 ).
a 2 3 ( a)
6 8m 6
0..2
k:::::o""""'===~___l (b)B.M.O.
+
2.2 mt
0..367 0..367
+ 0..0.33 0..0.33
(d) S.F.O
j
0..3 0..31
Fig. 3.19
2.2
= 6 = 0.367 t. (upward)
0.2
Y, =   = 0.033 t. (downward)
6
,,
The S.F.D. is as shown in Fig. 3.19 d.
i
!
I
t
346
Esam.ple 3.14 For the continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.20 a, draw the
B.M. and S.F.Ds. due to the given loads. If support 2 settles by 1.2 cm.,
calculate the percentage increase in the B.M . at support I. EI = 5000 m 2t.
(a}
(b)
12 12 12 12ml
6.1mt 6
(c)B.M.D.
+ + +
6mt
l.St/m (d)
2)
6 6 4
10.62 t t 4.661 t
4.72 t
134 2 2
+ + 0.34 + (e)S.F.Q
2.66 2.66 4 41
7.28
Fig. 3.20
Solution: The simple B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 3.20 b. The elastic reactions
due to the applied loads are calculated with reference to this figure and
are as follows ;
2 I 12 + 4
r, ="3X4X I2 + i X 2 X 12 =32 +48=80m 2 t.
r, = 48 + (I8 X 2 + 36 X 5) X 1/9= 48 + 24 = 72 m 2 t.
(
,
347
2 M, X 20 + 12 M2 = 6 X 5000 ( a ;;0~2)
40 M, + 12 M2 =  30 (iii)
Equation of three moments for support 2,
1.2 1.2 )
12 M, + 2 X 21 M2 = 6 X 5000 ( 1200 + 900
I 12 M, + 42 M2 = 70
A simultaneous ~olution of equations (iii) and (iv) leads to :
(iv)
l
M, =  1.36 m.t. and M2 = 2.03 m .t.
1.36
Percentage increase in the moment at support = 10.2
 X 100 = 13.4%
348
is less than that in the corresponding series of simple beams) and also the
bending moment changes sign along the beam. Since the deflection is
mainly the integrated effect of the bending strains, a continu6us beam
system leads to a stiffer structure.
On the other hand, as illustrated by examples 3.l2, 3.l3 and 3.l4
continuous beams may be subjected to large additional moments if any
support settlement takes place whereas statically determinate beams are
not affected by such support movements. The moment due to settlement
may be large enough to change the sign of the bending moments due to
the given loading in some parts of the beam; a serious matter no doubt
for reinforced concrete structures where the tension side decides where
the main reinforcement is to be placed.
In a loaded continuous beam, two points of zero moment, called points
of inflection or contraflexture, usually occur in each span. If at these
(al
w
(b)
t L t, L J L
w
(el
t~~8'8' L'
I L I L L l
Fig. 3.2l
r 
349
(2) no more than two members are rigidly connected to a single joint.
b c b c
"
(a) (b)
b d
a c' d' f c
(e) (d)
Fig. 3.22
l
350
4\
211m
i e
%1
b 21
6m
t
l
I
a b
12mt
I 6 6ml
( a) ( b)
I 4t
211m
+ 14 t
r
I
30ml
3t
~ (e) B M.D.
141 (d) Free body diagram
r
14
14 141 + 1 3
3 3t 3
2t
L1I4 31
( ~) N.F.D. (IlS.F.D.
Fig . 3.23
Considering I Ir,
r. = +(~ X 6 X 36 + + X 6 X 12) = 90
E",aD1ple 3.16 Using the equation of three moments, draw the N.F., S.F.
and B.M.Ds. for the frame shown in Fig. 3.24a ifit has constant EI.
Solution : There are two unknown joint moments Mb and Me These
may be determined from the equations of three moments for joints band
c. The simple B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 3.24 b. Referring to this figure,
3 6
X
2
+ 32 X 4 X 24 = 9 + 64 = 73
2
 X 4 X 24 = 64
3
311m
c " b~O
9 + t 64
4t + 6ml 24mt
Q
~=== __ 8m
( a) ( b)
18.88
18.88mt
311m
3:12
13.061
0.875
(e) B.M.D.
10.921
10.92t
3.72 3.721
1 . 2
3.72
t bus found. The result is shown in Fig. 3.24 c. The freebody diagram
_ of the frame is shown in Fig. 3.24 d. From this diagram, it will be an easy
matter to construct the N .F. and S.F.Ds. shown in Figs. 3.24 e and f respe
ctively .
354
Example 3.17 For the frame of constant EI shown in Fig. 3.25 a, calcul
ate the reactions and draw the B.M.D.
2~
c d
I
4m
b
LLlQ 0_'_ _ 12 m
11~J
Ca)
I
,
+
8.4mt
,1
I
10.5t
(bJ (e) B.M 0
Fig. 3.25
Solution: There are four unknown joint moments :tvl a , Me,M d and Mb
but from symmetry', Ma Mb and Me = Md and one is left with two
=
unknown moments only which may be determined from the equations
of three moments for joints a and c.
Referring to Fig. 3.25 b which shows the simple R.M.D., the elastic reac
tions are calculated as follows:
2 M a+ M e =  6 (i)
Equation of three moments for joint c,
MaLae + 2 Me (Lac + Led) + MdLed =  6 rc
6 Ma + 2 Me (6 + 12) + 12 Me ~  6 X 75
M. + 8 Mc =  75 (ii)
Solving equations (i) and (ii) simultaneously,
M. ~ Mb ~ + 1.8 m.t. and Mc ~ Md =  9.6 m.t.
The final B.M.D. is obtained in the usual manner and is as shown in
Fig. 3.25 c. Indicated on the same figure are the reactions at support a.
Exam.ple 3.18 Using the equation of three moments, construct the B.M.D.
for the frame shown in Fig. 3.26 a if the moment of inertia varies
as indicated.
~( ~ ~
I
r
rb X 6 X 36 
I
,
,
356
21 2t 2t
2tfm
fe b 21 e
6m 1
a d
1=3 ~
12m
{al
"3J (bl
6
e b 6 e
+ +
36mt 36mt
(el (d)
18
12
";)"'"186:~'
12
hl +
18 mt
(e l (I) (g)B.M.D.
Fig. 3.26
6 Ma + 2 Mb (6 + 6) + Mb X 6 =  6 X 54
Ma + 5Mb =  54 (ii)
= ( 6X6
 2 2)
X31+ (2
3 x 6 X 3 6)1
2=84
2Ma X6+Mb X 6 =  6 x 6
2 Ma + Mb =  6 (iii)
6 Ma + 2 Mb X 12 + Mb X 6 =  6 X 84
(1)(5) Draw the B.M. and S.F.Ds. for each of the continuous beams
shown in Figs. 3.273.31. EI ~ constant.
211m
Xliii'!'
1.._ 6m
Fig. 3.28
211m
~IIIII!I
I 6m
Fig. 3.29
Fig. 3.30
~ " ,n'~" ,
I   6m
Fig. 3.31
it
'!
(6)(16) Dnw the B.M. and S.F.Ds. for each of the continuous beams
shown in Figs. 3.323.42. EI constant.
1.6 rim
Fig . 3.32
Fig . 3.33
359
Fig. 3.34
~Q ILt Ii
JLt c 12t
_
I 3 L3m~ 3 l 3 'zJ
Fig. 3.35
21
Fig. 3.36
1.5 11m
c
1_ _ 8 m l ~
Fig. 3.37
Fig. 3.38
1.5 t
%
~
2tl 12t
it O.Bt/m
I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~.l
Ifm2m
1212+2 I Bm 11J
Fig. 3.39
. E:
~
Lomt
~I"I!"I"~
:tt/m
~3 __ 3 I 8m I
Fig.3 .40
360
Fig. 3.41
Fig. 3.42
(17) The threespan continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.43 has a total
length of 3L. Determine the span lengths L 1, L2 and L} in terms of L
wLI2
so that M. = Mb = M
c
=   .
12
EI = constant.
Q
lSl/m
L ..
iC
I
!!"Ii
Bm ~I
Fig. 3.44
I 361
I (25)  (31) Determine the bending moments at the supports of the beams
in problems 1,2,6,7,8,9 and 11 in the absence of the applied loads due
to the following support movements:
41
L r===::i:1'i:"'mC=II;:J
r
6m
2
CIL
61 21
___11m
61
4 1 1
L L
"   4x3 ,, 12m l t._ _ 12m
1.5t1m 1.51/m
41 l
21 IS
I 1
4S
Fig. 3.47
8m
Fig. 3.48
,
r
2r
362
1.5 II m
lOt
21 21
2t1m 1 6m 1 211m
.I.
L.. 9 _'_ 3x4:12m I 9,
Fig. 3.51
2t I.t 4t 41 21
6m
r
8m
L 211m L.! 1.5 11m
61
I
3 ,
t 41
1.st/m
3m 3
4.1 Introduction
The method of elastic centre which was suggested by the German
engineer Carl Culman stems from the method of consistent deformations
and provides a simplified solution to a special type of structures. Its
application is limited to three times statically indeterminate single span
frames or arches and closed frames or rings. Although it is applicable to all
frames of the abovementioned type, yet it is best suited to the analysis of
frames which have an axis of symmetry such as those shown in Fig. 4.1.
r
t
rI
,
I,, " (a) " " (b) " " (e) "
I
!
'.i. .>..
(d) (e)
~
(f)
Fig. 4.1
The philosophy 'lfthe method lies in the fact that in general the analysis
I... of frames which are statically indeterminate to the third degree requires
the simultaneous solution of three equations if the method of consistent
deformations is used. Each of these equations generally contains all the
three unknown redundants. The method of elastic centre provides a means
r
I
363
364
(ai (b)
Fig. 4.2
A possible main system is shown in Fig. 4.2 b and the reclunrlants ,X,
Y and M are found from the usual deflection equations,
8. = 8,0 + X 8~l + Y 8'2 + M 8., = 0 4.1
Y. = Y,o + X Y.l + Y Y.2 + My., = 0 4.2
a. = a.o +X aaI + Y n a2 + M aa] = 0 4.3
Using the method of virtual work for the determination of the displa
cement coefficients and noting that the moments produced by unit values
of X, Y and M are in succession,
M l = y,M2 = x and M, = I, equations 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 may be
restated as :
S MlMOdl+XSM~dl
EI EI
+ ySXYdl + MS y
EI EI
...'!.! = 0 ... 4.4
yS M~dl + MS Xdl
S M2Modi + X {
EI J xydl +
EI EI EI
= 0 ... 4.5
S M'Modl+xS~+
EI EI
YS~+MSMldl=O
EI EI
r
365
J ~
XYdl = S EI = J ydA = 8. and fXdl JXdA = 8y
xydA =1"" JYdl Ei= r
4.7
Introducing the terms in equation 4.7 into equations 4.44.6,
S
M,Modl + X
EI lEI""
J
M!dl + I Y + 8 M = 0 ... 4.8
S
M,M O dl + X
EI IJfM!EIdl + I "" X 2
+ 8. X3 = 0 ... 4.14
S M3Modl+ X SMjdl = 0
EI 3 EI
... 4.19
Equation 4.19 yields directly the value of X3 and the values of X 2 and
Xl are obtained from the simultaneous solution of equations 4.17 and
4.18.
If further either axis x or axis y is an axis of symmetry, I:w:.y = 0 and
equations 4.17 and 4.18 reduce to:
and
S EI I EI J ' I EI EI
Example 4.1 Using the method ofelastic centre, calculate the reactions and
draw the B.M.D for the frame shown in Fig.4.3a (Note that this frame
has been previously analysed by the method of consistent deformations
in example 2.27 (Fig. 2.24).
Solution: The elastic centre will obviously be on the vertical line mid
way between the two columns. Considering I = If.' the distance y bet
ween the elastic centre and the top member will be :
y = 2 X 6 X 3 = 2 m.
2 X 6 + 0.5 X 12
I
367
I 12mt
I 21
6m I 1
l Q b
" 12
I... 12 m l
(a) (b) (c)MoD
n:T'~ '"
~ \:1tLl ~,]j
4 4 6 X2"lt 6
(d)M,.D. (e)M 2D.
Fig. 4.3
Referring to Figs. 4.3 cf, which show the Mo,D., the MI.D., the M 2 .D.
and the M,.D.,
~c1 SM~t = = E
I 2
 I J 2 : 6 (4 + 22_ 2 .X 4)+iXI2X 2X2]
72
EI,
~eO 72 .
XI =   =   = It., I.e. It. (to the left)
~el 72
432
= SM2M odl = _1_ (12 X 6 X 6) = 
YeO EI EI , EI,
Yeo 432 6 6
X2 =   =   =   t., i.e  t . (downward)
Ye2 504 7 .7
368
"co = SM 3M"dl =
EI
_1_ (12 x 6 x 1)
EJ.
72
EIr
"c3 = JM~dl EI
= _1_ (2 x 6 x 1 x 1 +! x 12 x 1 Xl=EJ.
EIr 2 )
18
3.14
1.14
3417
(a) (b) (dB.M.D.
Fig. 4.4
X" X 2 and X. are shown in their proper sense in Fig. 4.4a. Remember
ing that a force is equivalent to a force and a couple, the redundant reac>
tion components at a are easily found as follows :
X. = 1 t. (to the left), Y. = 6/7 t. (downward)
and M. = 4 + 1 X 4  6/7 X 6 = 2.86 m.t (anticIockwise)
The remaining reaction components may be found from statics and are
as indicated in Fig. 4.4 b. The final B.M.D. is shown in Fig. 4.4c.
Note that this diagram is identical to that previously obtained by the
application of the method of consistent deformations.
r,eu
41
L ~ 2m! 2
J~~l
2m . v ,,.'
T't ."C
12 4 4
(a) (b)t.\,.D. (e)M\D
6mt
6 tl
Jlrll 6
6 (d)MxD.
Fig. 4.5
369
2X 6 2
= JMfdl = _ 1 [ 3 I ,
(4 +22_2 X 4) + 2 x2xI2x2
EI EI, J
72
= 
EI,
3eo 72
XI =   =  = + It.
3d 72
Yc2 = f~dl
EI
= _ 1 [2 X 6X6X6+!.. X
EI, 2 3
E.
(6 2 + 6 2 _6 X 6)]
504
EI,
X2 =  Yeo = 432
 = + 6 t.
Ye2 504 7
72
a = JM1Modl = _ 1 (12 X 6 X I)
cO EI EI , EI,
f M~dl ~ 18
ac3 = = _1 (2 X I X 6 X I + X 12 X I X I = 
EI EIr 2 ) EI,
EsaJnpJe 4.2 Using the method of elastic centre, construct the B.M.D. of
the frame shown in Fig. 4.6a if EI = constant.
31
211m
r
5m
e
1
La 7m
L:~6m~~ii
(a)
31 x=3m
211m
2
32 5
(b) (e)MoD. (d)M,.D.
1ml
3
(e) Mz.D. (t)MJ.D. (g) B.M.D.
Fig. 4.6
Solution: The elastic centre is determined first. This is done with respect
to the beam and the right column as follows:
213.6
EI
+ 37 (2 2 + 52 _ 2 X 5) ] =  
EI
81.1
16.4
'Yet = 8c2 =   from Maxwell's theorem
EI
372
M2dl 1 [5.38 6
Yc2
J _2_",,_
EI EI
  (3"+5"+3x5)+ (32+323X3)
3 3
169
+ 7 X 3 X 3] = EI
a
co
= SM M 3 Odl. 1 [5.38 X 6 X
EI EI 2
I
1+.3 X6X36XI+32X7Xl]
312.1

EI
a I
c
= SMi dl
EI
= ..r.. (5.38 X 1 X 1 + 6 X 1 X I + 7 X I X 1)
EI
18.38
EI
Substituting these values in the deflection equations,
 213.6 + 81.1 XI + 16.4 X 2 = 0 (i )
 710 + 16.4X I + 169X2 = 0 ( ii)
312.1 + 18.38 X3 = 0 (iii)
I
l
Part 2
The Method of Colwnn Analogy
F
! 4.4 Introduction
The cJlumn analogy is a special method of analysis applicable to frames
of the oneIo:>p type and statically indeterminate up to and including the
third degree. Fig. 4.7 shows examples of such frames. The me~hod is
Fig. 4.7
y
b,p:JITIrr:qc
AI<l I x
d
"
a
Fig. 4.8a shows a frame of the type mentio ned in section 4.3, Fig.
4.8b
a possible main system and Fig. 4.8c the same frame but with
a rigidar tn
connec ting the assume d released end d to the elastic centre c
. The red un
dants are shown a s Xl , X z and Xl"
Denoti ng the momen ts created by the redund ants by Mi (the
sullix i
referring to the indeter minate momen ts), and the momen ts
produc ed by
the applied loads on the chosen main system by Mo. the final
bendin g
momen t at any section of the frame will be given by the algebra
ic sum
of Mo and M i  Thus,
. .. 4.20
where Mi is equal to the algebraic sum of the momen ts due
to X.., X 2
and Xl Thus, referri ng to Fig. 4.8c, and noting that the momen
ts pro
duced by unit values ofX 1, X and X3 are in succession Ml
2 = y, M 2 = x
and M, = I,
Mi = XI Y + X 2 X + X, . .. 4.21
A genera l solutio n may be obtaine d by expressing the conditi
ons of
deflection at c. Thus,
S
Mf dl
EI + X2
f M ,M 2 dl
EI
M,M,d l
+ X, EI
= 0 ... 4.22
f
Yc 
S M 2 M odi
EI + XI
fM 2 M , dl
EI + X 2
S Midi
IiI
M,Mo dl
+ X,
fS M2M ,dl
EI
0
.. . 4.23
a
c 
S EI +X I
fM,M , dl
EI +X 2
M,M 2 dl
EI
dl
+X
J SMi
p ; [  0 ... 4.24
j
2
MoXdl jXYdl dl X JXdl
JX + 0 ... 4.26
  +X  EI +X2 EI 'EI 
EI I
S S SdlEI
~
Mo dl Ydl xdl =0 4.27
S EI + XI EI + X 2 EI + X,
reference to
Following the notatio ns introdu ced in section 4.2 and with
the x and y axes,
I =s= oJ~ =sx =0
~= S~
A 'E
S
... 4.28a
EI I " EI
I S
2
X dl = I
EI ' '
SEI
2
y dl = I
x'
SXYd l = I
EI x, '" 4.28b
~ S
Modl = N SMOX dl= M
EI ' EI ' '
SMOY dl= M
EI x
.,. 4.29
I
t of
where N is the total area of the Mo/EI diagram , Mx the first momen
area about
this area about the xaxis and ~ the first momen t of the
the yaxis.
and
Substit uting for the values of Xl' X 2 and X, into equatio n 4.21
dropping the negative signs,
... 4.33
376
Thus it will be observed that the expression for the indeterminate moments
is analogous to the well known form used for the determination of stresses
In an eccentrically loaded column (equation 8.44, Part 1).
The indeterminate moment M j at any point on the frame is represented
by the stress in an eccentrically loaded section who!e centIC line dimensions
are iden tical to those of the given frame and whose width at any point is
proportional to llEI when loaded by the Modiagram. The Mo.D. may
thus be considered as the intensity ofload on the section of the analogous
column.
N M
+ _Y M,
M j
= x +y 4.34
A Iy I,
Once the indeterminate moments are found .. the final moments are
obtained by applying the superposition relaticmhip in equalicn 4.20 ..
M = Mo + Mi.
4.6 Sign conventions
On applying the method of column analogy .. specific sign convention
must be adopted. It is felt .. however, that if full advantage is to be taken
of the m:::thod, complex sign convention should be avoided. This could
be simply achieved by considering Momoments as downward load on the
section of the analogous c::>lumn and following the sign convention used
in reg ard to the general equation of stress (section 8.11, Part 1) with which
the student is already familiar. Compressive stress will then correspond
to negative Mi (moment causing tension in the outer fibers), and conversly
tensile stress to positive moment (moment cau<jing tension in the inner
fibers of the frame).
the frame without affecting the final result. This follows from the principle
of superposition and the fact that main systems are arbitrarily chosen.
(2) The relevant properties of the section of the analogous column are
calculated. On so doing, it should be noted that:
a) the width of the section at any point is proportional to IIEI, and set
ting EI = 1 always results in simpler calculations,
b) a hinge support on the original frame is represented on the column
section by an infinite area concentrated at the position of the hinge;
i.e. A = co .. and the centroid coinsides with the location of the hinge,
c) if the frame has two hinge supports then. the line joining the correspond
ing points on the section of the analogous coluri'm is a principal axis.
In such a case, the location of the centroid on this line is immaterial as
the moment of inertia about the other principal axis is infinite.
(4) Ignoring any sign conventions apart from those used in conjunc
tion with the general equation of stress, the indeterminate moments are
found by applying either equation 4.33 or 4.34, _reproduced below.
N My M,
=+ x + y
A Iy I,
II The later equation is used only when the centroidal axes are principal
I axes.
(5) The final moments at the various points of the frame are obtained
from equation 4.20; M = Mo + M;.
I
378
Esample 4.3 Using the method of column analogy, construct the B.M.D.
for the frame shown in Fig. 4.9a. The relative moments of inertia are as
indicated.
tim 9
r e
~:
b 21 e e
6 1
1 a d
9
"
f.. 12 m "3...J
(al (b) Mo.D.
l
9=2 N,=144 M =324 12.35
+
Nt'54
I EI=l
7.15ml
(el (d) 8.M.D.
Fig. 4.9
Solution: For ease of calculations, two different main systems are chosen
correspondi ng to two load systems; beam be and cantilever ecd loaded
seperately. The first main system is obtained by replacing the fixed supports
at a and d by simple supports and the second is obtained by removing the
fixed support at a. The resulting Modiagram is shown in Fig. 4.9b. The
section of the analogous column, assuming EI = 1, is shown in Fig. 4.9c.
A = 2 ( I X 6) + 12 X 1/2 = 18
Since the section is symmetrical about the y.axis the centroid lies on it at
a distance y from the upper edge.
2 XI X6 X 3
y= = 2
18
2
I = 2 
,
6 X
( 12
6 +6 X 12) +6 X 22 = 72
379
6 X 122
Iy = 12 + 2 (6 X 6 2) = 504
Straining actions..
Nt = G X 12 X 36)i= 144
N2 = (9 X 6) I = 54
N = 144 + 54 = 198 ~
M,  144 X 2 54 X I = 234
.,.t
M"  54 X 6 = 324 + +
The straining actions are indicated on the section of the analogous column
Fig. 4.9c.
III
Indeterminate moments,
Since the centroidal axes are principal axes, equation 4.34 is used" and,
the signs of the various terms are found by inspection.
M. = 
198
18 + n
234x4
+
324x6
504 =  II + 13 +3.S5 = + 5.S5 m.t.
, 198
 
IS
234 x 2 324x6
 +  = 
72 504
II  6.5 +3.S5 = 13.65 m.t.
! 19S 234 x 2
IS  72   =
324 x 6
 II  6.5 3.85 = 21.35 m .t.
504
t
198 234 x 4 324 x 6 .
M. =   +  =  II + 13 3.S5 = 1.85 m .t.
18 72 504
t
~
Final moments,
M. = 0 + 5.S5 = 5.S5 m .t.
Mb = 0  13.65 =  13.65 m .t.
M e (left) = 0 21.35 = 21.35 m .t.
Me (below) = + 9  21. 35 =  12.35 m. t.
M. = 9 I.S5 = 7.15 m.t .
Example 4.4 Using the method of column analogy, calculate the bending
moments at joints a; b, c, d, e, and (. and hence construct the B.M .D . for
the frame shown in Fj,!f'. 4.10a . The relative moments of inertia are as
indicated . ..
2.4 tim
I I I I ! II I I I II I ! II I
, d
41
e
3m c 41
t
5
b
41 21 43.2
ta f
I" 6 + 6 ' "
( a)
M,=279.2 114
N :43.2

Y
114
:43.2 N2=32.4
x
EI=1 112
1. =5.53 532mt 11.91
(c) (d) B.M.D.
Fig. 4.\0
2 2
Iy = 5 X 5.53 2 + 1.5 X 6 +J.5 X 2.53 2) +0.75X0.47 2+ (1.5X6
I
( 12 12
Straining actions,
I Nt = (2/3 X 6 X 43.2) 1/4 = 43.2
N2 = (43.2 X 3) 1/4 = 32.4
N3 = Nt = 43.2
N = 43.2 + 32.4 + 43.2 = lIS.S ~
~
, Indeterminate moments,
Since x and yare not principal axes, equation 4.33 has to be used.
In this case, the sign conventions should be strictly followed.
N =  IIS.S, M,. =  279.2 and M" =  55.S
M _ ..:'!. + M"I,  M,I,y x + M.I y  MyI,y Y
; A I xy
I  I xy 2 I xy
I  I xy 2
" lIS.S (55.S)(73.21) (279.2)(59.1) (279.2)(357) (55.S)(59.1)
t
l
=  12.75+ 73.21 X 357  59.12 x + 73.21 X 357 _ 59.12 Y
i
= 9.32 + 0.55 x4.26 Y
i
I' M. =  9.32 + 0.55 ( 5.53)  4.26 ( 4.15) = 5.32 m.t.
Mb =  9.32 + 0.55 ( 5.53)  4.26 (0.S5) =  15.9S m.t.
Me 9  =.32 + 0.55 (0.47)  4.26 (0.S5) =  12.6S m.t.
382
Final moments,
The final moments at joints a,b, e and f are the same as the indeterminate
moments since the Momoments at these joints are zero.
M, = 43.2  12.68 = 30.58 m.t.
Md = 43.2  25.46 = 17.74 m.t.
1/t.
lIt.
blr;~?==!.. c
N,
EI =I 112
A=oo
(a) (b) 8.M.D.
Fig. 4.11
Solution: The main system chosen in the previous example is used here.
The section of the analogo~s column is shown in Fig. 4.11a. It is noted
that infinite areas are concentrated at the locations of the hinge supports.
Thus, the centroid lies on the line connecting a and f which is taken as the
xaxis, and it is obvious that Iy = co and IXY = O.
N My Mx
=  + x + y
A Iy Ix
Mx
Since A = Iy = co = y
I,
383
. 770 X 8 770 X 8
Md = 43.2  =22.2m.t., M,=   2Im.t., Mr= O.
292.8 292 .8
Exatnple 4.6 Using the method of column analogy, construct the B.M.D.
for the frame shown in Fig. 4. 12a . The relative moments of inertia are as
indicated.
4t1m
41
1 6m
d 1.
12m!
>_ _ 12m
( a)
2. 31
(c) ( d ) B.M.D
Fig. 4.12
+ (I X6 X6
12
2
+6 X 32) = 216.7
.
X 122 )
Iy = 3.75 X 122 + (3 12 +3 X 6 2 = 684
Straini ng actions ,
N, = ( 15 X 7.5) I
2 2= 28.125 t
N2 = ( 2/3 X 12 X 72) 1/4 = 144 ~
...t
Mx = 28.125 + 144 X 6 = 835.87 5
My = 144 X 6 28.125 X 12 = 526.5 ~+
I!.aJnple 4.7 Using the method of column analogy, construct the B.M.D.
for the frame shown in Fig. 4~13a. The moment of inertia varies as
indicated.
21 e
3m
21
31
14m
1 a
x
L 3 _____ 3m
(a)
(b) ""00
M  6.57
.!:
I
58 Y
Tl2
=14.22
Ib9
:1
(e) (d)BM.O.
Fig. 4.13
I: y =
3 X 1.5 + 1.67 X 2
1.27 m.
6.17
/l~'. v
Fig. 4.14
o
Av'
1= ." i.3:;
12
L/2
L/2
o
Avh
I.,. = 4.37
12
Applying equations 4.35, 4.36 and 4.37, the moments and product of
inertia of the section of the analogous col umn are as follows :
.
387
3 X 32 1.67 X 4 2
= + 3 X 0.23 2 + 1.5 X 1.272 + ,
12 12
+ 1.67 X 0.73 2 = 7.94
1.5 X 32 2 1.67 X 3 2
1,. = 3 X 1.58 2 + + 1.5 X 0.08 +  
12 12
+ 1.67 X 2.92' = 24.12
1.67 X 3 X 4
I.,. = 3 ( 0.23) ( 1.58)+ 1.5 ( 0.08) (1.27)
12
+ 1.67 (2.92) ( 0.73) =  4.29
Straining actions,
3 X 6
N   x l = 9t..+9
2
+
 9 X 0.73 = 6.57 t.  6.57
Indeterminate moments,
F.na1 moments,
The final moments at all the joints are the same as the indeterminate
moments except at a where M. =  6 + 4.94 = 1.06 m.t. The final
B.M.D is thus as shown in Fig. 4.13 d.
I
388
&alllple 4.8 The frame shown in Fig. 4.1Sa has stepped columns. Draw
the B.M.D. for the frame under the given crane loads if the moment of
inertia varies as indicated.
d
31
9 mt
1_12m _ _ 9 3
(al (bl"'\,.D.
,,\,407
3EI,11 y .~~____~==~!J8mt
2.06
.09
0.54 3.4
(el (dl B.M.D.
Fig. 4.15
3 X 33 2 X 63
I, = (12 X I) 3.172 + 2 ( ''1"2 + 9 X 1.67 2 + 12
+ 12 X 2.83 2) = 448
I X 12 3
=+
12
2 (9 X 62 + 12 X 6 2 ) = 1656
389
Straining actions,
NI = (3 X 6 X 2) = + 36
Nz = (9 X 6 X 2) = + 108
N = 36 + 108 = + 144
M. = (36 + 108) 2.83 = 407.f
My = (108  36) 6 = 432++
Indeterminate moments,
N M. My 144 407 432
M; = A 1. Y I; x = + 54 448 Y 1656 x
Final moments,
M, = 9.54  9.00 = 0.54 m.t.
M. (belo:w) = 4.09  9.00 = 4.91 m.t.
Me = 1.36 m.t.
Md = 1.78 m.t.
I.
I
390
Ezaxnple 4.9 Using the method of column analogy, construct the B.M.D.
for the frame shown in Fig. 4.16a. The moment of inertia varies
as indicated.
31 b
1.21
(c) (d)B.M.D.
Fig. 4.16
5
A = 2 (5 X I) + 6 X  = 15
6
2 (5x I x2) 4
y
15 3
2 2
5 X 6 [5 X 3 2]
= 12 + 2 ':12:"" +5 (4.5) = 225
,
Straining actions,
N =+ (
12 X
2
5) 1=+30
391
Indeterminate moments"
M, = ~ M. y M,x
1\ Ix If
30 40 X 3 150
= 15 80 Y 225 x
= 2 1.5y 0.66 x
Final moments,
The final moments of all the joints are the same as the indeterminate
moments except at joint a where M. =  12 + \0 =  2 m.t. The
final B.M.D. is thus as shown in Fig. 4.l6d.
392
Ezample 4.10 Using the method of column analogy, construct the B.M.D.
for the frame of constant EI shown in Fig. 4.17a.
211m
1D ::ITII:JIITIII~i:r:TIID
LCi1: 64mt
3m 64'~~~~16~
fa e 8
6
b &4 48
.....Lam 141
(a) 'b) M. D
fM x=4852.8
41.39 ml
Y x My =768
2f.2~5~m~~~~~~
......, . .
r
3.75
+.
I N2:384
I
N,=384
6t6ml N31
EI=l
25.54 30.69
(e) (d) B.M.D.
Fig. 4.17
2
Iy = 2 (6 X 82 + 8.55 12X 8
+ 8.55 X 4
2) 1132.4
Straining actions"
NJ = (64 X 6) = 384
393
Fig. 4.18
E>cunple 4.11 Determine the end moments for the beam shown in Fig.
4.19a if the moment of inertia varies as indicated.
(b)"\,.D.
PU4
(e)
Fig. 4.19
which are the final moments since the Momoments at points a and bare
both zero.
for the final moments, but the main system considered is the easiest as it
takes advantage ofthe symmetry ofloading on the section of the analogous
column.
395
EzaJnple 4.1