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Network Topology Bus Topology

Fundamental layout of a network Each node is tapped into the bus


- Describes the path or paths between any - Each node broadcasts a message that travels
two points in the network Node along the bus
- Affects availability, speed and traffic Computer or device on a network - Every node on the bus receives the message
congestion of the network - Message is ignored by all nodes except the one whose
node matches the delivery address in the message A
Logical topology Hub
- Transmissions travel entire medium (both
- Operational relationship between the directions)
various network components
- Termination required at ends of bus to prevent signal
Physical topology from echoing B
- Actual layout of the network wiring - Traffic congestion is a major issue
- Hubs work at Layer 1 of the OSI Model

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Star Topology Ring Topology


Nodes communicate through the Point-to-point connection from
central device each node to the next
- Switching in the central device connects - Last node connected back to the first
pairs of nodes together to allow them to
communicate directly - Token passed from node to node
- Central device can steer data from one A - If a node has the token, it can transmit A
Switch
node to another as required - Guarantees network performance
- Most modern switches allow multiple pairs - Each node gets a chance to transmit
to communicate simultaneously
- Each node retransmits the signal it
- Failure of central device causes entire B receives B
network to go down
- Packets are placed on the loop at a
- Switches work at Layer 3 of the OSI node, and travel from node to node until FDDI
Model the desired node is reached Fiber Distributed Data Interface

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Mesh Topology Network Devices


Multiple paths between end nodes Repeater (Physical Layer)
- Failure of an individual intermediate node - Amplifies and repeats signal
Switch
will slow but not stop the network as long Hub (Physical Layer)
as an alternative path is available Router - Passive central bus connection
- Large networks that use switches and Bridge (Data Link Layer)
routers are typically partial mesh - Routes packets based on MAC addresses
networks Router
Switch (Network Layer)
Full mesh network Switch - Routes packets based on IP addresses
- Direct point-to-point channel connecting Router Router (Network Layer)
every pair of nodes - Routes packets between networks
- Impractical due to the large number of Gateway (Various Layers)
connections needed
- Converts between protocols and networks

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Local Area Networks (LAN) Wide Area Networks (WAN)
Connects computers and other Communication between users and
networked devices over small localized applications over large geographical
Wireless distances
area Et hernet
Intranet
Ranges in size from - WAN that services a single company or

Wired Ethernet
- Single room to organization
- Campus Area Network (CAN) Dedicated
- Multiple buildings in close range of each other Lines
- Can have dedicated high speed connections
- Creating separate LANs for different between geographic locations
departments or for different business functions
minimizes extraneous traffic on the network
To WAN or
Routers and perhaps gateways are used Internet
To Larger
to connect the LAN to other networks WAN or
Internet

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Wide Area Networks (WAN) Internet Backbones


Communication between users and Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
applications over large geographical
distances - Local ISPs receive their service from regional ISPs who, in turn, receive their
service from national ISPs
Intranet
- No official central backbone and no official guidance for its development
- WAN that services a single company or
organization Internet backbone
- Campus Area Network (CAN) - High speed fiber optic networks carry traffic between major cities throughout world
To Internet To Internet
- Can have dedicated high speed connections - Speed ranges from 45 to 625 Gbps with 1.6 Tbps backbones available
between geographic locations
- Network access points (NAP)
Backbone Networks (Tiered Ethernet) - Interchanges between the backbones
- Ties together LANs and WANs providing
access to external networks like the Internet
- Can be viewed as a large LAN where each
node is itself a LAN or smaller WAN

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Personal Area Networks (PAN) Standards Organizations


Created for the personal use ISO (International Standards Organization)
of an individual - More than 17,000 standards including the OSI Reference model

- Generally have ranges of 30 feet or IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers
less which is sufficient to permit an - Ethernet standards Ethernet (802.3), Wi-Fi (802.11), Bluetooth (802.15) and WiMax (802.16)
individual to interconnect personal IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
computing devices - Internet standards based on RFCs (request for comments)
- Connections between different ICANN
cooperating users are possible - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
- Bluetooth is the primary medium - IP address allocation, domain name registration, protocol parameter assignment
- Common Example: - Management of domain name and root server systems

- Interconnection between a cell phone, IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)


hands-free speaker and car radio - Registers application layer port numbers and specific parameter values used in Internet protocol
headers

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