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J. Construct.

Steel Research 18 (1991) 71-83

Technical Note

Geometric Properties of Schifflerized Angles

Seshu M a d h a v a R a o A d l u r i & M u r t y K. S. M a d u g u l a

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor,
Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4
(Received 10 August 1990; revised version accepted 16 October 1990)

A BS TRA C T

Latticed triangular-base steel towers have been used as communication
structures for a long time. Since these towers are economical, they are also
being increasingly used as electrical transmission line towers. The legs of
these towers generally consist of 'schifflerized' angles (equal leg 90°
hot-rolled angles bent to 60°). Since the properties of these schiffterized
angles are not available in published literature, they are presented in the
paper for ready use of design engineers.

NOTATION

A Area of cross-section
a Length of unbent portion of schifflerized angle leg
b Length of bent portion of schifflerized angle leg
Cw Warping constant
/pc Polar moment of inertia about centroid
Ips Polar moment of inertia about shear centre
I, Maximum moment of inertia (about u - u axis)
Iv Minimum moment of inertia (about v - v axis)
J Saint-Venant's torsion constant
m Total length of centre line of cross-section
r, Maximum radius of gyration (about u - u axis)
rv Minimum radius of gyration (about v - v axis)
t Thickness of the leg of schifflerized angle member
71
J. Construct. Steel Research 0143-974X/91/$03,50 ~ 1991 Elsevier SciencePublishers Ltd,
England. Printed in Great Britain

Madugula ~c Distance of the centroid from heel ~ Distance between the centroid and shear centre INTRODUCTION Steel angles are extensively used in latticed communication structures and electrical transmission towers. la.'x\ / / / / // / / / / / / J U ~'~ / " ~ 4~3" [ ] U . u-u = major axis. Triangular plan with one leg member at each of the three corners. The main legs of these towers are usually arranged in one of the following two ways: 1. . v-v = minor axis). These towers result in a significant reduction in the weight of the structure. 5'. a + b = leg width. 2. Typical cross-section showing original equal leg 90 ° angle and schifflerized angle (a = length of unbent portion. t = thickness of leg. In the case of triangular-base towers. This plan makes the analysis and design relatively simple because of the ease with which the torsional and lateral loads can be resolved into in-plane forces. the main legs are located at the /.72 Seshu Madhava Rao Adluri. c = fillet radius. Murty K. b = length of schifiterized portion. Schifflerized angle Original equal leg 9 0 ° angle / \ ~- \x/ Fig. Rectangular plan with one leg at each corner of a square or a rectangle.

2) /max -. 1). Geometric properties of schifflerized angles 73 vertices of an equilateral triangle. Approx. lb. In order to have smooth bracing connections. 20-45% smaller /min -. Small Approx. 30-100% larger Plate 2 \ . The process involves either re-rolling or brake-pressing a 90 ° angle. . 20-50% larger Warping const. the included angle between the two legs of the angle members should be 60 °. Although schifflerized angles are extensively used in TABLE 1 Comparison of Salient Properties of Equal Leg 90° Angle and Schifflerized Angle Property 90° angle Schiffierized angle Area Same Same Torsion const. Table 1 gives a comparison of some of the properties of equal leg 90 ° angle and the corresponding properties of schifflerized angles.J/ Fig. The finished member is called a schifflerized angle. Approx. Each leg is bent inwards by 15 ° so that the angle between the leg and the centre-line of the section is 30 ° instead of 45 ° (Fig. 2) (point S in Fig. Same Same Shear centre Intersection of centre lines of legs Further away from the centroid (point O in Fig. This is achieved by 'schifflerizing' the hot-rolled 90 ° angles. Idealization of schifflerized angle section into rectangular elements.

2) (3) where 3bt3b~t (~(a-t/2}) 2 1.. 48 ~.~2).2 . Madugula triangular-base towers. (4) and (a .t/2) + V ' 6 b ~ t tic = 4X/2(a + b .t/2) (1) 2(a . Murty K..t/2) ~ + 4 b ( a .2 .t/2) 3 (8) 24 6 . no published literature is available concerning their properties.4 ~ .74 Seshu Madhava Rao Adluri.A(K~ . t(a . This paper focuses on the calculation of section properties for schiffle- rized angles. = 2(1. the computation of warping constant is quite involved and is therefore presented here in detail.. + . GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES As is customary with hot-rolled 90 ° angles..t/2) + V~ (2) 1. 24 6 I.. S.t/V2) 2 (6) where bt33b3t ((a-t~2) b) 2 l.t/2)t ~ I.~.t/2)t 3 t(a .+ bt ~ + ~ (7) and (a . This property assumes importance when the m e m b e r is relatively short (as in the case of the legs of triangular-base guyed towers) making it susceptible to torsional-flexural buckling. 48 ~-~-8-+bt + ~ . A = area of cross-section = 2t(a + b .t/2) -~ (5) 1. = 2(1.1 + 1... the geometric properties of schifflerized angles have been calculated I by idealizing the cross-section into rectangular segments (Figs l a and 1b).l . While the calculation of properties such as m o m e n t s of inertia and Saint-Venant's torsion constant pose no particular difficulty.1 + 1.

2). Location of shear centre for schiflterized angles. . (12) Shear centre The shear centre of the schifflerized section does not lie at the centre of the heel portion as is the case with the regular 90 ° angle but is located at a point further away from the centroid (Fig.~ (11) t2 J = ~ 2 (a + b . 2. + Iv (9) r.=~/~ (10) r v -= ~ . Let R1 be the resultant of internal shearing forces F1 in plates AB and CD and R2 be the resultant of internal shearing forces F2 in plates BO and OC. The distance of the shear centre from the centroid can be derived as (Nf3 -. The resultant of R1 and R2 (shown as R1 + R2) passes through the shear centre.t/2)t 3 ----(area) -~.1)(3c2b 2 + Nf2cb 3) t (13) -Us = 4c3 +12c2 b + 6 X/~cb2 + 2b 3 N/~ + u c I j j Shear centre~ u Fig.. Geometric properties of schifflerized angles 75 Ip~ = I.

= f (~.~ . S. r.76 Seshu Madhava Rao Adluri. = the distance of the shear centre f r o m the normal to the centre line of the section at any point ( ' n ' varies across the thickness of the leg). W a r p i n g function: w~ Let w~ = wl + w. (19) where WI = F~ds (2o) w2 = n r n (21) .A w~ dA 18) where r~ = the distance of the shear centre f r o m the tangent to the centre line of the section at any point ('s" varies along the cross-section).~. Madugula where c = a-t~2 (14) lps : /pc + AlS~ 15) W a r p i n g constant: Cw T h e d e r i v a t i o n o f Cw as p e r G o o d i e r ' s t h e o r y 2-~ is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w : W a r p i n g constant C.w ~ ) : d A 16) where w~ = warping function at any point on the section = rs ds + h r . 17) ~ = a v e r a g e warping on the entire section .. Murty K.

s < .s < . Referring to Fig.f ( b + c ) . Sketch for calculation of the warping function for schifflerized angles.s) (23) For b < . 3 and taking s = 0 at point A.b + 2 c : wl = b ( e + f ) . Geometric properties o f schiffierized angles 77 Lc U $ "~ u Fig. fb s f d s = b(e+f)-fs (24) w2 = n ( b + c + h .b + c : wl = e b . t's For O<-s<-b: wl = i{1 e d s = es (22) w2 = n ( b + g .s ) (25) For b + c < . 3.(b + c)} (28) . fds (26) +c = b(e + f ) .f s (27) w2 = n{h + s .

k / 3 e (34) Average warping: ~ ~ = ~if w~dA = . S..2(b + c) Jo wl ds Using the expressions for w~.fs}ds + ~ Jb+2c {es .(~c . (~. t/V'5-)} (32) 1 f = h = ~. .2c(e + f ) (3o) w2 = n { g + s . / 2 ) } (33) g = Xf2c .~ if (wl + w 2 ) d A (35) Since £m (t/2 1 f 1 nr.78 Seshu Madhava Rao Adluri. 2X/2_ c.2c(e +f)}ds .~ {~. Murty K.t / . Madugula ~ For b + 2c -< s < 2(b + c): wl = b(e + f ) . f ( b + 2c) + f 2c t eds (29) = e s . "~-1 1 e. w". esds + "*b {b(e + f ) .( b + 2 c ) } (31) In eqns (22)-(31). {~i~ . dncts" = 0 (36) and 1 fJl[n Wlt ds wl d n d s - mt (37) 1 f2(b+c) -. 2(b+c) 1[£.fs}ds + (38) e-b+2c "2(b+c) ] J64-c {b(e + f ) .

f . Pll = O. ql4=g-(b+2c). Geometric properties of schifflerized angles 79 O n simplification. q12 = b + c + h .f . ~fkmi~ t/2 (40) Cw = [Ws . the shear centre coincides with the intersection point of the centre of legs as is the case with 90 ° angles. P23 = . ml = b.k~ + -~. if b = 0. . if dimension b is taken as zero. m2 = b + c. ~ t + p2it + qZu-1- j . q22 = . k3 = b + c .k i ) +--~.1. k2 = b . k4 = b + 2c O n simplification.t/2 where. Px4 = .2Wstp2i (43) t3 6i = p2i t + q2 i 1--2 (44) As a check for the derivations. P21 = e.k3)/j Cw = ~ [ o t i ( m i . qll = b+g. F o r example. t3 Oli ---. q13=h-(b+c). q21 = --1. Pl3 = b ( e + f ) . 1.c f (39) Substituting the expressions for w S and ~'s. kl = O. PI2 = b(e + f ) .(m/2. q 6i .{Pli + P2i S + n(qli + q2is)}] 2dndS i= 1 t "~. m3 = b + 2 c . q23= 1. from eqn (13). P22 = -. into eqn (16). (41) i=1 where.2 c ( e + f ) . P24 = e.2Vvstpl i (42) t3 ~i = 2pliP2i t + 2qliq2i ~-~ -. Ws = b e . q24 = 1. the section b e c o m e s a regular 90 ° angle section with leg width equal to dimension a and all the formulas reduce to those corresponding to the regular 90 ° angle sections. m 4 = 2(b + c).

2 0. ('.7 1.53 (1!} 2< Illj I[) 2~.25 4-08 3118 134 11.6 5.3 5.1 5.2 2"- 8 25 15.24 70 x 7!1 I1t 26 13.3 2.2 3.7 1-31 3-67 2.7 2.68 3.5 8.4 2.74 74.4 8.35 (/.6 1.25 20.59 463 3.8 9.5 "7 2 ?. r.:'~ 2.28 26.51 130 ~1.11 3.60 214 94.83 84.12 1.04 9. J ~.81 13.8q 46-9 2.6 8~ x g(t lip 26 15.84 2. 4.72 ?5.78 12 200 5 2211 5 96(1 2(I 38 764) 9-23 27411 6-01 I 691.39 3 2611 6-111 l 9511 4.8 4.3 8.(P 5-38 316 3.7t/ 257 2.8 4-(~ 113 2.4 4. (??lttl.88 892 4.55 275 122 17.27 1 6611 720 325 12 28 27.8 5.14 54. (cm) (¢'ttt 4) (C?H) (ctn 4) (cm4~ (cm ~') 2iX} x 200 24 43 911.85 24 6.94 4.~< 4-73 271 3.8 1-61 11.11 4. 1.4 5.42 q 2-1 ~.57 41.4 3.8 6.'~ 1.15 84.91 8 51~) 3 6211 I 86[) 1"~0 ~ 1511 18 31> 50.11 141 (~35 5.84 2-59 3.41 777 339 99.5 1-58 2-25 3. II.62 27.73 152 2.6 8 25 13.43 957 4111 56. ((rn ~) (cmt (ctn"t (crn/ (crn'~.01 12.57 5311 3.511 549 237 33.99 15.33 931 412 184 12 28 22.99 1 (~511 4-57 613 3.11) 137 2.59 9-67 6-75 2 300 98(I 202 120 × 120 15 32 33.8 4.29 258 3.10 2.67 97.~1 219 3.31 211.98 479 210 43.33 1.56 439 3.t1~ II!~ !'3~ 11. 1m lp.8 6.96 2.112 I 54(] 4.43 153 3.3 2.71 I111 8-85 11141t11 44311 3530 18 36 68.82 5-1R1 3.~ a Area h.2 1.2 8 25 12-2 3.965 3.1 11-9 25 8.90 87. TABLE 2 Properties of Schifflerized Angles (Sections as per British Standard Practice) Size 7hickne~. 18.113 397 173 24-2 6 24 10..61 86-7 40.55 49.56 110 51 2 6. I.70 216 2.4 2.6 32 27.1.11f~ 2 2311 6.56 16.479 2.14 2 491i 6.67 5-38 l 1711 5111J I(M 8 25 18.7"~ 2.65 173 8.52 ~2. (ttltH.34 1 370 5911 173 ID 26 23.12 119 2-30 1(/.4 1.1/2 I 3911 +76 52.l 911 :e 9{I 12 2~ 2112 4 18 161 2.86 3..63 74. 3-24 66-2 2"26 31.I) 2-82 42-4 1.6 6-76 719 4.21~ .47 374 3.33 3"(11 216 97-9 19-8 8 25 10-6 3.93 557 246 71.511 331 147 30.12 141 2.~ 1.~1 34.96 5.8 2. (ram.86 1.8 2.9e.6 4.76 25.07 5-67 3.57 8/).35 3-28 4.86 611.0 6 24 9.06 1811 81-4 11-2 6 24 8414 3-I]4 42.71t 185 2-83 7.611 32-1 1.4 9.821 2.48 54-8 6-611 3 89(1 1 6811 I 09(t 15 32 42.0 6.9 2.24 3-47 62.56 4.88 9 45(I 4 (1311 2 6111 ?4 61. r.4 2. I 2.0 3.91 2.4 2.1 6-66 3 320 1 42(I 645 12 28 34.4 I[) 26 17.71 2710 1 161) 339 10 26 29-11 6-68 6(16 4-57 374 3.84 73-0 2.

138 14.1 1.63 123 10 26 1 900 45-2 1.0 17-4 23.9 96-7 67-5 23.87 6 24 744 28.51 65 x 65 10 26 1 200 30.0 0.7 0-093 12.9 19-9 8-66 445 13 29 3080 57.0 7.7 .0 388 66-5 35.8 4.6 8 25 976 29.9 1.72 .29 3.2 5-66 117 8 25 1 940 55.88 8 25 816 25.3 1-53 31-5 0-848 23-5 32.6 0-604 21-0 29-4 40.42 0.0 27-6 1-69 0-781 15.74 35.75 0.8 41.3 0.2 0-138 11-8 33.3 40.1 780 13 29 3 730 68.9 46-7 32.6 0.0 2.4 10-4 33.3 33-8 60-1 20.1 0.469 21.6 10.5 0-807 24.4 60.66 34-5 747 65.27 22-9 137 43.7 8 25 1 140 33-6 0-669 24.5 1.16 245 10 26 2400 56-0 3-55 38-5 2.1 1 010 88.3 251 42-9 9.7 90 x 90 13 29 2 170 42-3 1.3 1-03 23-3 63-3 44-5 6-66 2-89 60.91 38.1 0-276 18-4 0-117 12.5 104 44.75 45-6 4.81 5 24 725 32.247 14.7 1-49 0-665 4.2 7-49 23-5 0.6 18.73 28.63 29.3 0-534 21-1 0.79 4.3d0 2.34 11.6 7.63 63.3 0-896 20-3 122 39.3 1.6 8 25 1 380 40.3 3-97 1.0 6 680 20 38 7600 92-3 27.37 220 13 29 2430 46-5 2-36 31.1 283 89-4 69.780 6.0 11-6 48.8 5-57 35.8 0.9 0.0 0-444 24.347 21.2 13.0 1.6 0.730 20.5 100 31-7 3.0 1.330 18.02 23.655 0.0 5-94 2-63 88.260 17.6 75 x 75 13 29 1 780 35.3 0-333 17-1 24-2 33.13 28.7 0-221 17-5 6.29 1-50 49-2 10 26 1 400 34.1 8 25 1 540 44.0 9-80 202 125 × 125 16 34 3 740 58.9 29-2 12.266 1.0 45-5 3 330 86.6 2.3 4-38 23.1 85.825 0-393 5.954 0.54 45.93 28.9 47.163 14-8 8.13 6 24 624 24-1 0-217 18.1 16-9 47.297 21.0 0.0 5-49 2-37 33-1 2 6 24 1 160 43.47 22.0 60-8 23.6 42-4 18-3 1 460 16 .79 2.8 41-3 56.8 8.% 100 x 100 16 34 2940 47.3 22-5 0-973 0-468 8.37 28-4 0.6 524 89.2 174 55.90 31-4 1.0 36-2 1860 C~ 13 29 5030 89.06 45-7 3.2 6 24 1 040 39-0 0-871 28-9 0.9 0-484 16.5 40.2 15.9 29. Iv r~ J us lt.8 45.3 • 5-58 38.1 1.5 130 89-8 54-7 23-3 472 150 x 150 20 38 5 600 70-8 11-7 45-7 6.9 5.6 3-08 28.24 1-00 13-9 6 24 864 32.21 24.7 148 64-1 11 300 25 44 9 380 94.187 18.10 29-6 80.0 56-1 13.7 319 54.73 24.6 1-12 0-510 4-40 5 24 625 27.7 14-0 45-5 4-24 1.21 28.7 0-561 0.436 2.400 16.3 3530 16 34 6 140 90-6 22.1 60.3 4-54 38-4 2.86 31.0 9.83 15.8 0.7 1-72 29.70 35-5 210 66.18 31.6 2.04 33.2 46.5 426 10 26 2 900 66-8 6.7 1010 10 26 3900 88.69 1.8 3-08 1.7 t~ 10 26 1 700 41.079 12.7 56.4 1 950 87.34 4540 69.520 24-5 0.7 39-8 4.8 0-656 23.3 0-445 21-3 0-207 14-6 20-8 28.652 8.4 14-1 60-1 9-17 48.5 16.58 5 24 525 23-6 I).~ It.94 o0 55 x 55 10 26 1 @)0 26.3 60.~ C~ (ram) (ram) (mm) (ram2) (ram) (lO~mm ~) (mm) (106mm 4) (ram) (103mm 4) (ram) (106mm 4) (lO~mm 4) (lOOmm 6) 200 x 200 30 54 11 100 95.8 0.6 126 54.1 2.2 12.10 43. TABLE 3 Properties of Schifflerized Angles (Sections as per Canadian Standard Practice) Size Thickness a Area ~ lu r.

McGraw-Hill." For ready use of designers. Bleich.{ c-) + 30 {'. = II. 1.~'e. pp. Seshu Madhava Ram Ultimate strength of schifflerized angles. 1 . 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h e present work is part of a research project carried out with financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.. 116-21. 1952. 2.shu Madhava Rao Adluri. the values of the unbent portion of schifflerized angles (a in Fig. Ontario. F. c213 ct~ 3 ~ tT.5¢}25 -iT~ 2.-IT. . from eqn (411. S. t} )~ 1. New York.(7c ~) --~T {`} .82 .0.l ' (~irca) ~ I~ 144 which tallies with the results given in Ref. In these tables. REFERENCES 1. the angle reduces to rolled 60 ° angle. 1990. University of Windsor.422 h )t ~-~ These values agree well with the results obtained by C a r p e n a et at. I f a = 0. Buckling Strength of Metal Structures. . Madugula 2. Canada. Adluri. MASc Thesis. T h e calculated values are r o u n d e d off to three significant figures as is the standard practice. the geometric properties of schifflerized angles are p r e s e n t e d in Tables 2 and 3 for the corresponding equal leg 90 ° angle sizes listed ill British and Canadian steel design h a n d b o o k s 4"5 respectively. 1) are taken as per industry practice. from eqns (3) and (4). Neglecting higher-order terms in t. Windsor. Mur(~' K.

S. McGraw-Hill. Theory of Elastic Stability. International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems. Granada Publishing. B. & Nicolini. Canada. Modern Technical and Constructional Solutions for the New Italian Power Lines. Paper no. 1961. pp. & Gere. 1976. pp. Constructional Steel Research and Development Organisation. 2nd edn. 22-13. Timoshenko. A. Cauzillo. Steel Desig- ners' Manual. Carpena.. 6-70 and 6-71. Geometricproperties of schiffierized angles 83 3... Handbook of Steel Construction. France. London. Paris. 4th edn. M. 4. 5. May 1985. 4th edn. 6. P. A. CIGRE. J. Willowdale. pp. . P. 1983. 212-24. 1039-41. Ontario. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction.