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This
is the
Intro
Page to

Public Health

By Tynamite

I CALL THIS ENRICHING EDUTAINMENT!

CONTENTS:
Chapter 1: Key Aspects of Public Health in the
UK
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Chapter 2: The Origins of Health
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Chapter 3: Current Patterns of Ill Health and
Inequality
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Chapter 4: Promoting and Protecting Public
Health
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Chapter 5: Tuberculosis and Coronary Heart
Disease
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CHAPTER 1:
Key Aspects of Public Health in
the UK
Public health is taken very important to the UK
government and they make a great deal of effort to
ensure that the public is healthy as a whole.

This is what they do.

Monitor the health status of the community:
Identifying the health status of the community:
Develop programmes to reduced risk and screen for early

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disease:
Controlling communicable diseases:
Promoting the health of the population, planning and
evaluating the national provision of health and social care:

Are you ready for P1?
Describe key aspects of public health in the UK

Monitor the health status of the community:

Demographics are a great way of the UK government finding out
what health issues need to be addressed. If too many people have
an illness, something can be done about it. Demographics help the
government improve society, and more importantly, its country.

Identifying the health needs of the population:
The government uses demographics to tell itself which areas of the
UK needs redeveloping and services built in that area. So when a
new hospital or dentist gets places somewhere, it's not just because
they feel like it. It's because they know it's a benefit to the
community.

Developing programmes to reduced risk and screen for
early disease:

There are certain nationwide health issues which the UK
government tries to tackle. Issues such as....

Obesity; an increasing number of people require operations due to
being obese and the people getting obese are getting younger.
These operations cost the NHS millions of pounds, which could have
been better spent. In 2007, 2724 people obese people were treated.
Also, stomach stapling is on the rise.

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The country's obesity problem is down to the diet which the country
has. The government is campaigning that readers look up the
amount of saturated fats they buy. People can lose weight if they
use exercise.

More and more people need weight operations on the NHS as they
are becoming too obese. In 2007, 2424 were treated as obese. Also,
stomach stapling is on the rise.

Smoking is another issue which can be
avoided if people took care of their health. The
NHS is offering free schemes to make people
give up with millions of pounds spent in
advertising campaigns, which goes to show how little that is
compared to the cost the NHS has treating these people.

300 people die everyday due to smoking in Britain. This also
reduces your life expectancy from 7-8 years.

The government has discouraged people from smoking by
launching the Smokefree initiative which bans smoking from public
places including pubs. This makes smokers more likely to give up
and dramatically reduces the number of people who die from
passive smoking. Figures show that 300 die everyday due to
smoking; that is a shocking figure, this means 109,500 people die
from smoking a year.

The reason why smoking will never be banned despite the public
smoking ban is that the queen has to pass every law before it
becomes the law. Because of this, the queen will never ban smoking
as that way the queen will get less tax as cigarettes have the
queen's mark on it. That's the real reason why corn flakes and
weetabix are significantly more expensive than the competitors

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Drink driving is something that kills people who need not be
killed. The television and radio adverts give adults the message that
drink driving will have a heavy punishment. The credit crunch has
increased the amount of people who drink for escapism.

Sexual health is an issue which can be prevented by simply
educating people on the importance of safe sex.

Coronary Heart Disease is the UK's biggest
killer which is linked to fatty diets and little
exercise. Change4life is trying to combat this
becoming worse in the future generation. This
is strongly linked to diets.

Raising awareness of diseases and how they can be prevented
makes people more informed on their health choices.

Controlling communicable diseases:
Raising awareness also helps people know what illness they have
without being diagnosed. For instance, people already can
distinguish between a cold and the flu, seeing as the flu they know
when not to turn up to work. They know that.

It is a known fact that covering your mouth and nose when you
cough and sneeze, or even better, using a tissue helps capture the
germs to be binned.

It's not that simple though, as there are sexual diseases people
cannot always tell who has them, and there are airborne diseases
such as swine flu which people can breathe in. Which is why at the
time of going to print, everyone in Mexico has a gas mask, to
prevent a global epidemic which will be bigger than AIDS.

The National Statistics is kept inline with the Census and the figures
released by the NHS. Each time you are diagnosed with an illness,
the hospital has a liability to report it. This nationwide reporting
keeps the Department of Health, National Statistics and the
government updated.

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Once the census 2011 is done, the government will target the
vulnerable areas so they can provide services for us.

Promoting the health of the population, planning and
evaluating the nation provision of health and social
care:

The most illness people fear when sending their kids outside is
them catching a cold. However, when people go to hospital, they
fear getting MRSA. MRSA is a superbug which gets passed around
because hospitals are full of disease. Washing your hands gets rid of
MRSA. And so does cleaning the place. But the seriousness of MRSA
is because it is immune to antibiotics thanks to doctors over-
prescribing people with antibiotics when they didn't need it.

When the government wants to reduce the number of people who
have an illness such as AIDS, or prevent people from getting it such
as swine flu. They usually produce a nationwide advertising
campaign which prevents people from getting it by raising
awareness.

All these things show the world how healthy the UK is as a country.

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And actually, MRSA is worse than Swine Flu at the moment as MRSA
is immune to antibiotics and Swine Flu can be killed by Tamiflu. The
problem comes when Swine Flu becomes immune to Tamiflu as it
mutates and mates with other animal’s swine flu.

References for Chapter 1
There are no references.

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CHAPTER 2:
The origins of public health
What has happened centuries ago has greatly
influenced the health you have today in the UK.

Centuries such as....

The 19th Century:
The 20th Century:
The 21st Century:

Are you ready for P2?
Describe the origins of public health in the UK

The 19th Century

The first public health act was in
1848 which was largely a result of

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Edwin Chadwick’s work on health. He was born in the year 1800,
and in the year of 1832, he accepted the role of Assistant
Commissioner on the Poor Law commission. This is what started his
work.

Later in the same year, Chadwick was appointed a Chief
Commissioner because he wanted to collect facts about the existing
system of Poor Law management.

Chadwick improved methods at first met with opposition from his
special colleagues and it therefore meant that ideas were carried
out.

The Poor Law Act 1834

The poor law act was setup by a man called Earl Gray who was the
prime minister in 1833. This law was produced because he wanted
to examine the working of the poor law system in Britain.

Before, the poor law act was commissioned; the prime minister had
to make a report that backed up the theory of the poor law system
in Britain. As a result, the poor law amendment act was passed. The
poor law act confirmed that:

 No well fitted person was to receive any kind of money or
other help from the poor law authorities except in a
workhouse.
 The conditions that where in the workhouses were to be made
very harsh to discourage people from wanting to receive help.
 Workhouses were to be built in every community or, if
communities were too small, then they had to be built in
unions of parishes.
 Ratepayers in each township or unions in Britain had to elect
as board of guardians to supervise the workhouse, to collect
the poor rate and send reports to the central poor law
commission.
 The three man central poor law commission would be
appointed by the government and would be responsible for
supervising the amendment act throughout the century.

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The First Public Health Act 1848

This act was largely the result of Chadwick’s work and the pressure
applied by the health of town’s association. It allowed smaller towns
to implement changes to sanitation but was limited in its overall
scope. The first public act included:
 Medical officer in each town.
 Water pumps
 Rubbish Collections.
The first public health act wasn’t compulsory for all towns so it
didn’t go down well.

About John Snow and anaesthetics

John Snow is a 19th century British physicist. He is considered to be
one of the founders of epidemiology (the science of medical science
which deals with the transmission and control of diseases. The
study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations.). He
is the one who identified the source of the cholera outbreak in
1854. “At the time, it was assumed that cholera was airborne.
However, Snow did not accept this 'miasma' (bad air) theory,
arguing that in fact entered the body through the mouth.” In August
1854, Soho experienced a
cholera outbreak, so he
plotted the places where
people lived who got
cholera. He noticed that
people who lived certain a
specific water pump had the
cholera. So he identified a
water pump in Broad Street
(now Broadwick Street) as
the source of the disease.

Once he had the handle of
the pump removed, the
cases of cholera started to
decrease dramatically.

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However, his germ theory was not widely accepted until the 1860s.
He also is famous for his work in anaesthetics. He made drugs safer
and more effective by testing ether and chloroform which are both
anaesthetics which we still use today in small doses on animals and
humans. This suggests that in the olden days before him, people
just tested drugs on sick people who were to be operated on.
The 20th Century

Why was the NHS setup in 1948?

The NHS was setup on July the 5th 1948 by the Department of
Health which is now the largest health organisation in Europe.

It provides free healthcare for all UK citizens including hospitals,
ambulances, specialists, physiotherapists and dentists.

There are two types of health authorities such as special health
authorities such as the national blood service. These authorities are
independent and offer healthcare for the whole of the UK.

The strategic health authorities develop strategic plans such as the
NHS, which provides primary and secondary care for the UK.

There are fourteen regional hospital boards. The NHS is split into
five parts.

 Hospital services
 Family doctors (GPs)
 Dentists
 Opticians and Pharmacists
 Community nurses and health visitors

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The Beverage Report

William Beverage was born on the 5th of March 1879 in Bengal,
India. The Beverage report sets down measures to reform the
economic situations after World War 2.

Beverage’s reports gives plans and practices which suggest that the
British citizen is being taken care of by the government from cradle
to grave became the national policy.

During World War 1, Beverage was involved in mobilising and
controlling man power. In 1941, the government commissioned a
report into the ways that Britain should be rebuilt after World War 2.
Beverage was an obvious choice to take charge.

Beveridge recommended that the government should find ways of
fighting the five giant evils of want, disease, ignorance, squalor and
idleness.

The Acheson Report

The Acheson report calls of an increase in benefit levels for women
of bearing age, expectant mothers, young children and older
people.
Poverty has a disproportionate effect on children. In thee mid 90’s,
around a quarter of people in the UK were living below the poverty
level.

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It is said that benefits underestimate the cost of providing a basic
standard of living for single parents.

As a result sometimes mothers are forced to go without food.

Education is another area of health inequality. The report calls for
more funding for schools in deprived areas, better nutrition at
school and health promoting schools.

To encourage children to eat more fruits than having vending
machines on the premises.

It says children who achieve less at school are likely to go on and
get badly paid jobs or be unemployed.

Healthier Nation 1999

The Healthier Nation 1999 report is commonly known as The White
Paper.
It is the government’s 1999 plan for tackling health problems in the
UK, improving the population’s health, and saving lives.

The paper is made up of three sections, Our Healthier Nation,
Saving Lives and Making It Work.

Our Healthier Nation
This section looks at new ways to save lives and aims to
advance national public health. It also sets to put plans for
preventing the causes of illnesses.

Saving Lives
This section deals with specific illnesses such as sexual health,
drug and alcohol problems, genetic illnesses, cancer, heart
disease, strokes, and mental health. It also discusses the
improvement of the health within ethnic minorities.

Making It Work

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This section discusses new standards of health and how
successful they are likely to be.

Overall the paper contains a new list of health practitioners, new
treatments and services available to the British Public. Graphs and
statistics are also included throughout the report.

If you want to, you can read the whole document on the internet for
free.

The 21st Century
The White Paper Issue (2004)

The different things that I am focusing on in the 21 st century are the
white paper issues, Health Protection Agencies and Public Health
Agencies. The White Paper is on public health. It supports the public
to make them healthier and so they are taught about more choices
to do with their health.

The government applied rules on this issue for smoking, obesity,
diet, exercise, sexual health, alcohol, mental health and on general
health.

You may have noticed that obesity, diet, exercise, sexual health and
mental health are new issues to this century.

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Health Protection Agencies

Health protection agencies provide protection to the UK’s public
health – though provision of support, NHS, local authorities,
emergencies, and other health services.

They
 Protect people.
 Prevent harm.
 Prepare for threats.
 Collect data.
 Provide independent testing and support to many groups and
organisations.

An example of a health protection agency is The National Institute
for Health and Clinical Excellence.

Public Health Agencies

The Department of Health provides a health and social care policy,
guidance, and publications for NHS and social care professionals.
They are similar to health protection agencies as they are in place
to help improve people’s health.

References for Chapter 2
19th Century
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/snow_john.shtml#
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_(physician)

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CHAPTER 3:
Current Patterns of Ill Health and
Inequality
This chapter is here to describe, identify, explain and
evaluate the factors which have an effect on the ill
health and the inequality.

It will also describe the current patterns of ill health
and inequality going on in the UK, explain possible
causes and patters and evaluate how strong the
factors link to the patterns.

Are you ready for P3, P4, M1 and D1?
Identify current patterns of ill health and inequality in the
UK.
Describe six factors that potentially affect health status in
the UK.
Explain probable causes of the current patterns of ill health
and inequality in the UK.
Evaluate the role of factors that contribute to the current
patterns of ill health and inequality in the UK.

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Identify six factors that potentially affect health status in
the UK.

There are various factors what affect health and six of them are

 Age,Employment Status, Gender, Housing, Income,
Social Class

Describe current patterns of ill health and inequality in the
UK.

 Age
 People who are older tend to be in hospital more often..
 Employment Status
 If you are unable to get a job, or a good enough job, your
health will be affected for the reasons above. People who
have a job also are less likely to drink or smoke.
 Gender
 Women live longer than men and the reason for that is
unknown as there are many factors which influence life
expectancy. There is no clear cut answer as the factors are
biological and sociological.
 Housing
 Young children can get asthma in bad housing due to the dust
and dirt. A bad house is a accident waiting to happen.
 Income

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 If you have a high income, you then have the ability to buy
healthier more expensive foods, and pay for your own
healthcare. Such options make richer people have more
health. You can also use your income to give your kids a good
start in life. Having a better job will give you a higher income.
 Social Class
 People with a better education have a higher social class.
People with a higher social class live for longer and are less
likely to become ill.

Explain probable causes of the current patterns of ill health
and inequality in the UK.

 Age
 As people get older, their body starts to deprecate and they
are prone to more diseases and illnesses. Which is why people
over 50 should get the flu jab.
 Employment Status
 If you are unable to get a job, or a good enough job, your
health will be affected for the reasons above. People who
have a job also are less likely to drink or smoke.
 Gender
 Women live longer than men and the reason for that is
unknown as there are many factors which influence life
expectancy. There is no clear cut answer as the factors are
biological and sociological.
 Housing
 Young children can get asthma in bad housing due to the dust
and dirt. A bad house is a accident waiting to happen.

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 Income
 If you have a high income, you then have the ability to buy
healthier more expensive foods, and pay for your own
healthcare. Such options make richer people have more
health. You can also use your income to give your kids a good
start in life. Having a better job will give you a higher income.
 Social Class
 People with a better education have a higher social class.
People with a higher social class live for longer and are less
likely to become ill.

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Evaluate the role of factors that contribute to the current
patterns of ill health and inequality in the UK.

According to statistics by the National Readership Survey, the
amounts of people on the lower classes are decreasing and vice
versa. People are moving up the social class.

It’s more likely for an unemployed person to turn to alcohol, crime
and drugs. People who are unemployed will be more interested in
getting quick money.

“As the credit crunch gets "worse" (although that's debatable),
there are more "acquisitive" crimes being committed - shoplifting,
thefts, burglaries, cars being broken into, that sort of thing, and all

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the goods being sold on the black market. The people buying them
seem to think they are getting a bargain, but they are buying
someone's misery.”

The thieves therefore still have plenty of money to buy their drugs.
This is not a good thing for Britain at all.

The government has various schemes to help people move up
social classes. Some people argue that the government wants to
limit the amount of people who move up a social class which is why
exams have gotten harder, and university places have reduced.

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References for Chapter 3
http://england.shelter.org.uk/housing_issues/the_housing_crisis/Homel
essness_and_bad_housing#1

Focus on Inequalities. Retrieved 20:00, February 09, 2009, from
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/focuson/socialinequalities/

Living Standards. Retrieved 20:00, February 09, 2009, from
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1006

CHAPTER 4:
Promoting and Protecting Public
Health
Public health has to be promoted as it's a public
concern.
Public health has to be protected to prevent the
country going into chaos.

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That is what they do.

Are you ready for P5 and M2?
Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health
Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health

This would happen if there was no access to good health.

Introduction

The government needs to spend money on making people healthy
to prevent epidemics, catastrophes, and make the country a more
richer and economic place.

In the UK, there are still large health inequalities. And a lot of this is
down to money. Some old people die of hypothermia because they
cannot afford central heating. Whereas the government has lots of
money to spend on immunisation.

Some people don’t have access to services because of where they
live, or because they don’t have enough money. Immunisation gives
everyone access to services.

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Immunisation
Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health

Immunisation is what the government does to make its citizens
immune to various diseases such as
measles, mumps, rubella, polio, typhoid, and
tuberculosis.

Vaccinations save the NHS millions of
pounds.

Prevention is better than cure, for health and
financial reasons.

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When it comes to immunisation, there are no health inequalities as
everyone is entitled to free vaccinations.

Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health

Immunisation helps us by making sure that we don’t get ill.

Vaccines work by giving people a small dosage of an illness so that
the body gains immunity after its immune system has killed the
disease.

The doctor will send out letters informing about any vaccinations
which should take place so you are aware of it.

Immunisation has successfully gotten rid of diseases such as
tuberculosis, smallpox, polio, tetanus, and diphtheria.

Five a day campaign

Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health

In 2003 the 5 a day campaign local community initiative was set up
to encourage people in 66 programme areas across the UK to eat
least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day could help
prevent you up to 20% of deaths from conditions such as heart
disease and cancer. The Department of Health now insist that
companies who make claims like this will have to review their
recipes to ensure their processed foods are not high in fat, sugar or
salt, if they want to be included in the 5 a day campaign.

Aims
 Access and availability – whether people have access to good
quality, affordable fruit and vegetables locally.
 Attitudes and awareness – awareness of the 5 a day message,
and people’s knowledge,

Fruit and vegetables
 Access and availability whether people have access to good
quality, affordable fruit and vegetables locally.

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 Attitudes and awareness – awareness of the 5 a day message,
and people’s knowledge, attitudes, motivation and skills
concerning buying, preparing and eating fruit and vegetables.

The government led a 5 a day programme which aims to
increase fruit and vegetable consumption by:
 raising awareness of the health benefits.
 Removing the VAT from fruit juices.

Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health
More needs to be achieved
The government's national diet and nutrition survey from 2002
had shown that:
 women consume 2.9 portions a day and men 2.7 portions,
consumption has dropped even further.
 Men ate 2.3 portions of fruit and vegetables a day and women
just 1.6 portions.
 It has claimed that there has been a strong public awareness
of the 5 a day message.
 Recommendations are that everyone should eat at least 5
portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables each day.
 The average fruit and vegetable consumption among the
population in England is less than 3 portions a day.

The campaign
 More than 400 organisations have signed up to display the
logo both on packaging and on posters and literature to
promote the healthy eating message.

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 A portion is approximately 80g of any fresh fruit or vegetable
under the 5 a day scheme. This is equal to a medium apple or
banana, a bowl of mixed salad, or three tablespoons of peas or
carrots.
 Drinking more will not count as another portion because the
processing reduces the fibre content and breaks down the
natural sugar which becomes more damaging to teeth.

National Smoking Ban

Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health

1. The no smoking day is on the 1st of July.
2. It was when the smoking ban made all public places smoke
free. The only place you can have a smoke is outside bars,
clubs, pubs and restaurants all across London.
3. It is one of the biggest annual health awareness campaigns in
the UK. It helps smokers to make a huge contribution towards
the health of the nation.
4. The vision: To reduce tobacco illness and death.
5. The mission: To support smokers who want to stop by
providing an opportunity to do so, and highlighting the
effective help that is available.

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The key aims of No Smoking Day is to
 Encourage and assist smokers who want to
quit.
 Raise awareness of the campaign.
 Help achieve national and local health
targets.

The core messages are
 No Smoking Day is a good opportunity to quit.
 Smokers can get help if they want to quit.

Explain methods of promoting
and protecting public health

The national no smoking day is a good opportunity to quit because
there are many health risks.
 Causes lung cancer, but it can also cause many other cancers
and illnesses.
 Smoking kills around 114,000 people in the UK each year.

How do cigarettes damage health?

Cigarettes contain more than 4000 chemical compounds and at
least 400 toxic substances.

The products that are most damaging are
 Tar – a substance that causes cancer.
 Nicotine – a substance that increases cholesterol levels in your
body.

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 Carbon Monoxide – reduces oxygen in the body.

Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health

Immunisation helps us by making sure that we don’t get ill.

Vaccines work by giving people a small dosage of an illness so that
the body gains immunity after its immune system has killed the
disease.

The doctor will send out letters informing about any vaccinations
which should take place so you are aware of it.

Immunisation has successfully gotten rid of diseases such as
tuberculosis, smallpox, polio, tetanus, and diphtheria.

PPC – Pollution, Prevention and Control
Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health

The PPC came into action on the 1st of August 2000 in England and
Wales.

They wanted to change the nature or functioning of a mobile plant
so that it has less effect on the environment.

They wanted to make it so people needed environment permits so
that they wasn’t able to pollute the environment.

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Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health
BAT takes into account the
 Techniques that could be used.
 The best options that they have.
 The availability of the techniques.

The way PPC affects health:
 Helps stop pollution affecting the environment.
 People aren't taking in the fumes.
 Their health will be better because of this.

The European IPPC Bureau are a recent plan of the government so
that they can help protect the environment. In 2009 they plan to:
 Review the Large Volume Organic Chemicals

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 Review of the Textiles Industry
 Review of the Industrial Cooling Systems

BAT – Best Available Techniques
This term is defined (in Schedule 2 of the Pollution Prevention
and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000) as 'the
most effective and advanced stage in the development of
activities and their methods of operation which indicates the
practicable suitability of particular techniques for providing the
basis for emission limit values designed to prevent, and where
that is not practicable, generally to reduce the emissions and
the impact on the environment as a whole'.

Takes into account the
 "techniques" includes both the technology used and the way
in which the installation is designed, built, maintained,
operated and decommissioned.
 "best" means, in relation to techniques, the most effective in
achieving a high general level of protection of the environment
as a whole.
 "available techniques" means those techniques which have
been developed on a scale which allows implementation in the
relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically
viable conditions, taking into consideration the cost and
advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or
produced inside the United Kingdom, as long as they are
reasonably accessible to the operator.

European IPPC Bureau
The European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control
(IPPC) Bureau was set up to organise an exchange of
information between Member States and industry on Best
Available Techniques (BAT), associated monitoring and
developments in them. In order to help protect the
environment.
Recycling
Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health

In the next three years the aims are
 at least 100,000 tonnes of waste diverted away from landfill in

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each region every year
 creation of 300, and securing a further 300 jobs
 reduce CO2 emissions by 600,000 tonnes a year
 encourage £40m worth of private investment into waste
projects
 Save industry £10m a year through improved waste
management.

In the UK we waste 25.7 tonnes of waste with people throwing in
ordinary bins, plastics textiles, cans, paper, wood, kitchen waste,
garden waste, batteries, glass and card – and all of these products
CAN be recycled.

Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health

Recycling is an everyday precaution that can help save the planet,
and the UK is exceeding the amount of recycling that was set by the
government.

The National Industrial Symbioses Programme (NISP) – Waste
minimisation techniques.

The government supplied £2m to this act so that they could try and
improve the way that they are to dispose of the waste, and so there
is more ways to recycle.

Waste minimisation is also being introduced by the NISP because
there are too many people that aren’t recycling their waste and just
putting it in with other waste that can’t be recycled.
Can cause respiratory
problems like asthma.

Recyclin Recycling stops the
g– fumes from the waste
getting out and
linked to polluting the area.
health
Heart conditions from
the fumes.

All of the fumes from
the waste can play a
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part on causing
cancer.
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References for Chapter 4
http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?
qid=20090121091313AADRK0i
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunisatio...

http://www.stcloudstate.edu/reslife/reshalls/halls/images/Res-
Hall-recycle-logo.jpg
http://grc.engineering.cf.ac.uk/lrn/resources/planning/ppc/glossar
y.php
http://www.grc.cf.ac.uk/lrn/resources/planning/ppc/bat.php
http://eippcb.jrc.es/
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2007/uksi_20073538_en_3#pt2-ch4
http://eippcb.jrc.es.uk/job/

http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch169/ch...
http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch169/ch...
http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch169/ch...
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/
CHAPTER 5:
Tuberculosis and Coronary Heart
Disease
One disease is communicable.
The other one is non-communicable.

This chapter highlights the identification and

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prevention or control of the diseases.

Are you ready for P5 and M2 and D2?
Describe methods of promoting and protecting public
health
Explain methods of promoting and protecting public health
Evaluate the effectiveness of methods of promoting and
protecting public health for the two named diseases.

>>>> Coronary Heart Disease

P6 Identify appropriate methods of prevention and control
for a communicable disease and a non-communicable
disease.

Coronary Heart Disease is also known as heart disease and is
caused by a gradual build-up of fatty deposits around the arteries.
This causes the artery to become narrow making it harder for that
artery to supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This leads to pain
whilst breathing which should be checked out, and eventually a
heart attack once a blood clot has formed. Coronary Heart Disease
can also cause strokes if there is a lack of blood circulation in the
brain.

Lots of people put themselves at risk of getting heart disease by the
lifestyle choices they make.

Things like smoking, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and
cholesterol increase the risk of getting heart disease. Eating a

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healthy diet and being physically active reduces the risk of getting
heart disease.

M3 How do the methods help protect the public.

Heart disease is the most common cause of death in the UK, and
there is something that can be done about it.

Smoking is reported to have 400 harmful substances in it. People
who smoke are making a disgrace of their bodies by allowing stuff
like tar to clog up their arteries and lungs which will give them
wheezing whilst walking upstairs.

The NHS and the British Heart Foundation publicise the things that
increase the risk of heart disease to the public such as with their
advertising campaigns. These campaigns emphasise the
importance of good health, and let the general public make well
informed health choices.

Another crucial factor in preventing heart disease is a good diet. All
over the media, especially newspapers healthy food is stressed and
consumer power has made the “What's Inside” (the percentage
thing about food groups on the front of food packaging); which was
only done because of the public's fury into not knowing what they're

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eating. Also, restaurants are pressured by the government to show
the nutrition content of their foods.

Eating too much food makes people obese, and obesity is a main
cause of heart disease. Tackling obesity will also tackle heart
disease to some extent.

D2 Evaluate the effectiveness of methods of promoting and
protecting public health for the two named diseases.

The NHS and the British Heart Foundation are very effective at
raising awareness of heart disease. It is known that eating too much
fat will clog up arteries. BHF also have an annual marathon.

>>>> Tuberculosis

P6 Identify appropriate methods of prevention and control
for a communicable disease and a non-communicable
disease.

Tuberculosis affects the lungs most commonly but can move around
to affect other areas of the body. Unlike heart disease, tb is spread
when someone coughs, sneezes, or even talks to someone and that
person breathes in the bacteria. However, prolonged contact is
usually needed to become affected, which is why the whole world
isn’t infected with it. Otherwise a tb person could talk and give it to
everyone.

People know to go see their GP or doctor when they get symptoms
like these thanks to the awareness made by the government. It is
now common knowledge that people can distinguish between the
sniffles and illnesses like flu and tuberculosis. Also, tuberculosis has
flu like symptoms.

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The pharmacist will prescribe paracetamol and maybe some
antibiotics to deal with the illness.

Raising the awareness level of what the symptoms are for these
illnesses helps the public know they are ill with something bad
rather than a cold or the sniffles!

The symptoms are

 A persistent cough, usually for more than three weeks - it may
be dry to start with and progress to blood-streaked sputum
 Night sweats for weeks or months
 Weight loss
 Fatigue
 High temperature
 Shortness of breath

M3 How do the
methods help
protect the public.

The medicines help
people to make a
speedy recovery from
the disease.

The catch it, kill it bin it
scheme helps raise
awareness so people
can preventing getting
airborne diseases such
as this.

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D2 Evaluate the effectiveness of methods of promoting and
protecting public health for the two named diseases.

The government immunised people for tb which stopped in 2008 or
2007. This helped the public because now the country has stopped
giving out vaccinations for tuberculosis as the chances of someone
getting it is really small. Now it’s all about the cervical cancer
vaccine.

References for Chapter 5
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/tubercolosis1.sht
ml

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THE END!

By Tynamite

DO YOU CALL IT ENRICHING EDUTAINMENT!

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