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TOPIC The Space The constituents of the space Planets in the Space Positions of the planets Sun and planet summery Natural satellite Asteroid Comets Meteors Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bibliography PAGE 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ² 10 11 -13 14-15 16 17 -19 20- 21 22- 23 24- 25 26 - 27 28


The Space


The Sun


Natural Satellites

Other Constituents

Produces heat and light

Mercury Venus Earth Jupiter Saturn
Move round the planets

Asteroids Meteoroids Comets Meteors

A star: Centre of the Solar System

Uranus Neptune Pluto

Move round the Sun in their orbits

The Earth: Perfect placement in the Space to support life

Moon: Earth s natural satelite


PLANETS IN THE SPACE 1) Planets are bodies in the Space that move round the Sun. a) The Sun is the centre of the Space. It also rotates on its own axis. 2) There are nine planets in the Space: y y y y y y y y y Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto 3) Each planet moves in a large oval path called an orbit. 2 . b) We can see other planets from Earth because they reflect light from the Sun. It is the only star in the Space. 4) The time taken by the planets to make one complete movement round the Sun depends on their distance from the Sun. a) A planet does not give out its own light and heat. b) It is star because it gives out light and heat. It consists of a ball of hot gases. The Space consists of: a) The Sun b) Planets c) Natural Satellites d) Asteroids e) Meteors f) Comets 2.THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE SPACE 1. c) The Sun is the biggest body in the Space.

5 years 84 years 165 years 248 years The table shows the relationship between the distance of planets from the Sun and the time taken by the planets to orbit the Sun. 3 .POSITIONS OF THE PLANETS Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Distance from the Sun(million km) 58 108 150 230 780 1 430 2 870 4 500 5 900 Time taken to orbit the Sun 88 days 225 days 365 1/4 days 687 days 12 years 29.

2482 --0.56° 119.Sun and Planet Summary The following table lists statistical information for the Sun and planets: Planet Distance Radius Mass Rotation Moons Orbital Orbital Obliquity Density (AU) (Earth's) (Earth's) (Earth's) Inclination Eccentricity (g/cm3) Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto 0 0.03 The Sun's period of rotation at the surface varies from approximately 25 days at the equator to 36 days at the poles.850 1.53 11 9 4 4 0.29 1. Deep down.2 30.15 --0.2 9.33 0.0097 0.52 3.73° 97.800 25-36* 0.05 0.774 17.411 0.2056 0.69 1.12° 26.38 0.5 19.6° 1.45° 25.488 0.4° 23.1 39.89 1.802 0.0934 0.95 1.25 5.002 58.0 1.748 0.410 5.0461 0.00 0.5 5.8 244 1.394 0.5 109 0.64 2.1° 177. below the convective zone.39 0.267 9 0 0 1 2 16 18 15 8 1 --7 3.0068 0.72 1.000 1.428 0.19° 3.11 318 95 17 17 0.95 1. everything appears to rotate with a period of 27 days.00 0.0560 0.86° 29. 4 .00 1.0167 0.308 2.43 5.774 1.0483 0.18 332.029 0.

100 moons within Earth's solar system. the tidal effects of their primaries make orbits around them unstable. For smaller moons see the appropriate planets. at least. fragments of larger moons shattered by large impacts.  The largest moons in the solar system (those bigger than about 3000 km across) are Earth's Moon. Several moons are thought to be captured foreign objects. Typically the larger gas giants have extensive systems of moons. Mars has two tiny moons.  Most moons are assumed to have been formed out of the same collapsing region of protoplanetary disk that gave rise to its primary.NATURAL SATELLITE  The term moon (never capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. several moons have companions in their Lagrangian points (eg. and Pluto a large companion called Charon (sometimes considered to be a double planet). most theories about them are still uncertain. However. Saturn's moon Titan. Earth has one large moon. and Callisto. there are many exceptions and variations to this standard model of moon formation that are known or theorized. No moons have moons of their own. Europe. or (in the case of Earth's moon) a portion of the planet itself blasted into orbit by a large impact. which rotates chaotically due to a variety of external influences.  Most moons in the solar system are tidally locked to their primaries. and presumably many others orbiting the planets of other stars. As most moons are known only through a few distant observations through probes or telescopes. Saturn's moons Tethys and Dione). an exception is Saturn's moon Hyperion.  The recent discovery of Ida's moon Dactyl confirms that some asteroids also have moons. There are. and Neptune's captured moon Triton. 5 . Ganymede. However. Jupiter's Galilean moons Io. Mercuryand Venus have no moons at all.

 The outer belt. asteroids do not have enough gravity to pull themselves into the shape of a ball. can be very large. These asteroids appear darker than the asteroids of the inner belt. Some.  Asteroids are left over materials from the formation of the Solar System. only a mile or so across. Astronomers group asteroids into different categories based on the way they reflect sunlight.  26 very large asteroids have been discovered. while others are as small as a grain of sand. and are rich in carbon. which includes asteroids 250 million miles beyond the Sun. 6 .  If we stuck all the asteroids together how big would the new planet be? If all the materials of all the asteroids were squashed up into one planet it would be smaller than our moon. These materials were never incorporated into a planet because of their proximity to Jupiter's strong gravity. The inner belt which is made up of asteroids that are within 250 million miles of the Sun contains asteroids that are made of metals.  The asteroid belt is divided into an inner belt and an outer belt. which is probably most of the big ones. like Ceres. consists of rocky asteroids.ASTEROID  An asteroid is a large rock in outer space. But there are still millions of smaller ones that we have yet to see because they are too tiny. Due to their smaller size.

A place where millions of comets can be seen swishing around in every direction. After several thousand years they melt down to a little bit of ice. traveling through the Inner Solar System eventually kills them. and dust. Just like a snowman melts in the summer. Some even melt away completely. They are made out of dust. Kind of like a dirty snow ball. both of which are very distant.  This is when a comet begins to shine. not nearly enough to leave a tail.  Imagine a place far far away. comets melt in the Inner Solar System. 7 . or even crash into one another.  Unfortunately Comets don't live very long once they enter the warmer part of the Solar System.  Unlike a recent blockbuster movie showing a space ship flying past giant rocks the size of houses. When this happens the comets change directions. Comets come from two places: The Kuiper Belt. The only thing that would hit your ship would be microscopic pieces of dust. Sometimes their new path will bring them into the Inner Solar System. Sometimes two comets will come very close to each other. and the Oort Cloud. but as they approach the warmer Inner Solar System they begin to melt leaving behind magnificent tails. and ice. a comets tail is actually quite safe. One place is called the Oort cloud. Up until now the comet has been among millions of others exactly the same. and the other is called the Kuiper Belt.COMETS  A comet is a small world which scientists sometimes call a planetesimal. at the very edge of the Solar System. Although it is the most glorious part of their lives.  A comet will spend billions of years in the Kuiper Belt or Oort Cloud. These Icy comets are orbiting the Sun in two different places.

This heat melts all the ice off the meteor. though. Even if they fall on land. like a fire. Earth got much cooler for a while. because more of the Earth is ocean than there is land. smashed into the Earth about 65 million years ago. Sometimes.from out in space that get sucked into the gravity of the Earth and fall through ouratmosphere to the ground. about eight miles across.  Usually this is because a comet has passed close enough to the Earth for Earth's gravity to grab some of its material. and most of the dinosaurs died 8 .usually a mixture of rock and iron and nickel but sometimes just rock or justiron .  Most meteors are tiny. One really huge meteor. much larger meteors do fall to Earth. where it made a huge crater and sent thousands of tons of dust up into the air. A meteor is the same thing as a shooting star or a falling star they're not really falling stars. and most of them fall into the ocean. these tiny meteors don't do any harm. the size of pebbles. but some people call them that. As a result of this meteor.METEORS  Meteors or meteorites are bits of rock (likegranite) and ice .  Meteors look like stars as they fall because when they hit Earth's atmosphere the friction of the rock rubbing against the atmosphere causes heat and light.

rotation and orbit around the sun make it behave differently than other planets. Mercury has no moons. Mercury rotates the Sun in only 88 days. On average. Mercury has the largest known impact crater of any planet. To get a feel for it. Mercury barely has any atmosphere. named Beethoven and 643 kilometers in size. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. During the night. Mercury is ³only´ 46 million kilometers from the sun. which accounts for its heavy mass. Mercury is named after the Roman messenger of the gods. 9 . Mercury is 38 percent of the diameter of the Earth. hot. Mercury has an eccentric orbit around the Sun. At its closest orbit. Small in diameter. Mercury is primarily comprised of iron. Its unique location. meaning it is closer and farther from the Sun at different points in time. Mercury is the second largest planet when measured by mass. the average temperature on Mercury is 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Mercury rotates very slowly on its axis with one day taking 58 Earth days. hot. the average temperature is ± 300 degrees. Mercury is 36 million miles from the Sun. we need to look at facts on the Planet.MERCURY Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and hot. During the day. but does have glaciers. Mercury is unlike any other planet in the solar system.

 During Mercury's distant past. its period of rotation may have been faster. 10 . Scientists speculate that its rotation could have been as rapid as 8 hours. A model of this process shows that such a despinning would take 109 years and would have raised the interior temperature by 100 degrees Kelvin. but over millions of years it was slowly despun by solar tides.

and what it is like. there is much we still do not know about how this planet looks. Venus was the Roman goddess of love and beauty. you would weigh almost exactly the same on either planet. and chemistry as the Earth. in about the same amounts. There is no where to hide from this ever present furnace. making it difficult for modern science to penetrate. this atmosphere is far thicker than that of the Earth. The Earth Has A Sister Venus is in many ways Earth's sister planet. However.  Because Venus and the Earth are almost the exact same size.  11 . However if they are twins. then Venus is the evil twin. Because we cannot see the surface of the planet Venus visually. she is the Earth gone wrong. If you weighed 70 pounds on Earth you would weigh 63 pounds on Venus. In Greek her name was Aphrodite. The Planet: The planet Venus has long been one of the most misunderstood of all the inner planets. It is almost identical in size. However.VENUS  In astronomy mythology. where the surface temperature is hot enough to cook a meal in mere minutes. In other words Venus is made up of almost the exact same types of materials as the Earth. using special instruments and probes scientists have in recent years unlocked many of the secrets long hidden by this mysterious world. very wrong. Like the Earth. Venus has an atmosphere. Venus is a deadly world.

 Global Warming In the early days of Venus' 4 billion year long life. It is not clear why to similar planets would cool is such different ways. How Does Venus Cool? Like the planet Earth. 12 . On the Earth. however it is believed that the oceans on Earth play a key role in helping promote volcanic and tectonic cooling. this core slowly cools. lakes. Venus does not cool itself in the same way. there are always hot spots somewhere. Venus does not have an ozone layer. As the planet warmed. As a result the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun finds its way directly into Venus' atmosphere. where heat can escape allowing the core to become more cool. Today it is likely that all of Venus' water has evaporated. Owing to its closer proximity to the Sun. As the planet ages. Water vapor is a very effective greenhouse gas. which caused more water to evaporate. On Earth this cooling takes the form of volcanic and tectonic activity. causing the temperature to climb still further. Venus also has a liquid molten core. it would have appeared very similar to the Earth. Venus Is Dry The Earth has a protective layer known as the Ozone Layer. Venus lies much closer to the Sun than does our planet. This increase in water vapor began a cycle of global warming that could not be stopped. That single fact has caused an unstoppable chain of events that doomed Venus to its fiery existence. The increase in water vapor caused the temperature to rise further. This important shield protects the Earth from the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. The two would have been almost identical. water which formed oceans. However over a period of a few million years forces on Venus caused it to take a very different course than the Earth. As a result there is today very little water left on Venus. This atmosphere effectively traps the Sun's energy causing the surface to burn much hotter than it naturally would. and rivers on the Earth. Over many billions of years this radiation has slowly broken down water molocules into hydrogen and oxygen. Instead many scientists believe that every so often much of the surface of Venus actually melts. into the atmosphere. Venus' temperature should have been only slightly warmer than that of the Earth. evaporated. letting of great amounts of heat as it cools.

carbon monoxide.8 .36 3. and hydrogen fluoride.94886 5.4 482°C 92 96% 3+% 13 .394 8.051.36 0.Venus Statistics Mass (kg) Mass (Earth = 1) Equatorial radius (km) Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) Mean density (gm/cm^3) Mean distance from the Sun (km) Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) Rotational period (days) Orbital period (days) Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) Orbital eccentricity Tilt of axis (degrees) Orbital inclination (degrees) Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) Visual geometric albedo Magnitude (Vo) Mean surface temperature Atmospheric pressure (bars) Atmospheric composition Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Trace amounts of: Sulfur dioxide. argon.0068 177.701 35. water vapor.65 -4. helium.869e+24 .25 108. 4.02 0.000 0.87 10. hydrogen chloride.7233 -243.200. neon.0187 224.81476 6.

valleys. streams and all other land formations. The Earth's temperature. She was married to Uranus.EARTH  In astronomy mythology. How big is the Earth? The Earth is the biggest of all the terrestrial planets. Earth was the mother of the mountains. atmosphere and many other factors are just right to keep us alive. weather. Her Greek name was Gaea. 14 . The Planet: Our planet is an oasis of life in an otherwise desolate universe. A terrestrial planet is a dense planet found in the inner Solar System.

Earth Statistics Mass (kg) 5.0000e+00 Equatorial radius (km) 6.9345 Orbital period (days) 365.18 Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 9.600.378.37 Mean surface temperature 15°C Atmospheric pressure (bars) 1.78 Visual geometric albedo 0.0000 Rotational period (days) 0.013 Atmospheric composition Nitrogen 77% Oxygen 21% Other 2% 15 .000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 1.79 Orbital eccentricity 0.0167 Tilt of axis (degrees) 23.0000e+00 Mean density (gm/cm^3) 5.256 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 29.14 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 1.976e+24 Mass (Earth = 1) 1.515 Mean distance from the Sun (km) 149.99727 Rotational period (hours) 23.45 Orbital inclination (degrees) 0.000 Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 11.

the extreme dryness of the soil and the oxidizing nature of the soil chemistry prevent the formation of living organisms in the Martian soil. Finally. when Orson Welles broadcasted a radio drama based on the science fiction classic War of the Worlds by H. This led to the popular belief that irrigation canals on the planet had been constructed by intelligent beings. This phenomenon led to speculation that conditions might support a bloom of Martian vegetation during the warmer months and cause plant life to become dormant during colder periods.  Another reason for scientists to expect life on Mars had to do with the apparent seasonal color changes on the planet's surface. It was given its name by the Romans in honor of their god of war. The rocks. 16 . transmitted 22 close-up pictures of Mars. They believe the combination of solar ultraviolet radiation that saturates the surface. The ancient Egyptians named the planet Her Descher meaning the red one. Wells.G. According to mission biologists. The distinct red color was observed by stargazers throughout history.  Other instruments found no sign of organic chemistry at either landing site. enough people believed in the tale of invading Martians to cause a near panic. The question of life on Mars at some time in the distant past remains open. but provided no clear evidence for the presence of living microorganisms in the soil near the landing sites. soil and sky have a red or pink hue. The three biology experiments aboard the landers discovered unexpected and enigmatic chemical activity in the Martian soil. Other civilizations have had similar names.  In July of 1965. in July and September 1976. Mars is self-sterilizing. Mariner 4. Viking Landers 1 and 2 touched down on the surface of Mars. but they did provide a precise and definitive analysis of the composition of the Martian atmosphere and found previously undetected trace elements. All that was revealed was a surface containing many craters and naturally occurring channels but no evidence of artificial canals or flowing water.MARS  Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and is commonly referred to as the Red Planet. Mars was considered the best candidate for harboring extraterrestrial life. Astronomers thought they saw straight lines crisscrossing its surface. In 1938.  Before space exploration.

9 x 1027 kg and is 142. with small amounts of methane. The four largest are Callisto. material appears to rotate in four to six days. If Jupiter were hollow. and is somewhat like the Sun. Cloud-top lightning bolts. ammonia. The auroral emissions appear to be related to material from Io that spirals along magnetic field lines to fall into Jupiter's atmosphere. (The rings were discovered in 1979 by Voyager 1.JUPITER  Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and is the largest planet in the solar system. Jupiter possesses 62 known satellites. The cloud patterns change within hours or days. Europa.  Jupiter has a very faint ring system. At the outer edge.  Colorful latitudinal bands. The German astronomer Simon Marius claimed to have seen the moons around the same time. water vapor and other compounds. Ganymedeand Io. perhaps comprising the whole planet. It has a mass of 1. The Great Red Spot is a complex storm moving in a counter-clockwise direction. were also observed. motions are small and nearly random in direction.736 miles) across the equator. and were named after Galileo Galilei who observed them as long ago as 1610. more than one thousand Earths could fit inside. near the center.) The atmosphere is very deep. were observed in the polar regions of Jupiter. the pressure is so great that the hydrogen atoms are broken up and the electrons are freed so that the resulting atoms consist of bare protons. It also contains two and a half times the mass of all the other planets combined.800 kilometers (88. similar to Earth's northern lights. An array of other smaller storms and eddies can be found through out the banded clouds. This produces a state in which the hydrogen becomes metallic. At great depths within Jupiter. 17 .  Aurora emissions. atmospheric clouds and storms illustrate Jupiter's dynamic weather systems. but he did not publish his observations and so Galileo is given the credit for their discovery. It is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. similar to superbolts in Earth's high atmosphere. but is totally invisible from the Earth.

000 kilometers (112. The innermost Amalthea Gossamer ring extends from the orbit of Adrastea out to the orbit of Amalthea at 181.000 miles) from Jupiter's center. The fainter Thebe Gossamer ring extends from Amalthea's orbit out to about Thebe's orbit at 221. and stretches in a windsock shape at least as far as Saturn's orbit . Thebe. The two faint Gossamer rings are fairly uniform in nature. Jupiter has a simple ring system that is composed of an inner halo. Adrastea.000 miles) from Jupiter's center. but Galileo imagery provided the unexpected discovery that Gossamer is really two rings. To the Voyager spacecraft.500 kilometers (76. These particles and fields comprise the jovian magnetosphere or magnetic environment. Jupiter's rings and moons exist within an intense radiation belt of electrons and ions trapped in the planet's magnetic field.9 to 4. the Gossamer ring appeared to be a single ring. The innermost halo ring is toroidal in shape and extends radially from about 92.000 miles). y y y 18 .Jupiter's Ring y Unlike Saturn's intricate and complex ring patterns. and Amalthea. It is formed as fine particles of dust from the main ring's inner boundary 'bloom' outward as they fall toward the planet.a distance of 750 million kilometers (466 million miles).000 kilometers (57. Many of the particles are microscopic in size.000 miles) to about 122. the main ring's brightness decreases.3 million miles) toward the Sun.000 miles) or just inside the orbit of Adrastea.940 kilometers (80. The main and brightest ring extends from the halo boundary out to about 128. Close to the orbit of Metis.000 kilometers (136. a main ring and a Gossamer ring. which extends 3 to 7 million kilometers (1. The rings are very tenuous and are composed of dust particles kicked up as interplanetary meteoroids smash into Jupiter's four small inner moons Metis. One ring is embedded within the other.

33 Mean distance from the Sun (km) 778.71 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 13.1794e+02 Equatorial radius (km) 71.0483 Tilt of axis (degrees) 3.70 Mean cloud temperature -121°C Atmospheric pressure (bars) 0.52 Magnitude (Vo) -2.07 Orbital eccentricity 0.7 Atmospheric composition Hydrogen 90% Helium 10% 19 .13 Orbital inclination (degrees) 1.56 Visual geometric albedo 0.492 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 1.Jupiter Statistics Mass (kg) 1.41354 Orbital period (days) 4332.88 Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 59.1209e+01 Mean density (gm/cm^3) 1.2028 Rotational period (days) 0.330.308 Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 22.900e+27 Mass (Earth = 1) 3.000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 5.

Saturn would float in it.130 miles).100 miles an hour).5 Earth years to revolve about the Sun. The features are believed to be composed of fine. This phenomenon is demonstrated by the relationship between the F-ring and two small moons that shepherd the ring material. While electrostatic charging may create spokes by levitating dust particles above the ring. a result of the very fast rotation of the planet on its axis. but fainter than. The most notable gap is the Cassini [kah-SEE-nee] Division. Saturn is the only planet less dense than water (about 30 percent less). In the unlikely event that a large enough ocean could be found. Saturn is visibly flattened at the poles.SATURN  Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and is the second largest in the solar system with an equatorial diameter of 119. It is thought that the rings may have been formed from larger moons that were shattered by impacts of comets and meteoroids. which separates the A and B rings. 39 minutes long. The ring system has various gaps. Near the equator. spoke-like features in the broad B-ring were also found by the Voyagers. Much of what is known about the planet is due to the Voyager explorations in 1980-81. and it takes 29. The origin of the rings is obscure. 20 . but the rings do show a significant amount of water. The ring composition is not known for certain.  Radial. that found on Jupiter. winds alternate east and west as latitude increases. They may be composed of icebergs and/or snowballs from a few centimeters to a few meters in size. which include the bright A and B rings and a fainter C ring. The spokes were observed to form and dissipate in the time-lapse images taken by the Voyagers. The atmosphere is primarily composed of hydrogen with small amounts of helium and methane. dust-size particles. it reaches velocities of 500 meters a second (1. the exact cause of the formation of the spokes is not well understood.Giovanni Cassini discovered this division in 1675. is named after Johann Encke.  The wind blows at high speeds on Saturn. Saturn has 30 named satellites and more continue to be discovered. Much of the elaborate structure of some of the rings is due to the gravitational effects of nearby satellites. Saturn's hazy yellow hue is marked by broad atmospheric banding similar to. The Encke [EN-kee] Division. The rings are split into a number of different parts. The wind blows mostly in an easterly direction. Space probes have shown that the main rings are really made up of a large number of narrow ringlets. The strongest winds are found near the equator and velocity falls off uniformly at higher latitudes. which splits the A Ring. who discovered it in 1837.  Saturn's ring system makes the planet one of the most beautiful objects in the solar system. At latitudes greater than 35 degrees. Its day is 10 hours.300 kilometers (74.

5388 Rotational period (hours) 10.67 Orbital eccentricity 0.268 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 9.05 Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 35.49 Visual geometric albedo 0.5181e+01 Equatorial radius (km) 60.47 Magnitude (Vo) 0.458 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 9.488 Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 9.000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 9.429.33 Orbital inclination (degrees) 2.400.Saturn Statistics Mass (kg) 5.233 Orbital period (years) 29.4 Atmospheric composition Hydrogen 97% Helium 3% 21 .4494e+00 Mean density (gm/cm^3) 0.688e+26 Mass (Earth = 1) 9.67 Mean cloud temperature -125°C Atmospheric pressure (bars) 1.69 Mean distance from the Sun (km) 1.0560 Tilt of axis (degrees) 25.

 Uranus is distinguished by the fact that it is tipped on its side. At least one ring. Methane in the upper atmosphere absorbs red light.800 kilometers (32. The outermost epsilon ring is composed mostly of ice boulders several feet across. the epsilon. similar to the orientation of the more vivid latitudinal bands seen on Jupiter and Saturn. It has an equatorial diameter of 51. Uranus has at least 22 moons. It has a mean distance from the Sun of 2. The two largest moons.190 miles) and orbits the Sun once every 84. Uranus' rings are distinctly different from those at Jupiter and Saturn. the first nine rings of Uranus were discovered. These winds blow at velocities of 40 to 160 meters per second (90 to 360 miles per hour).01 Earth years. The magnetic field source is unknown. Voyager 2 found that one of the most striking influences of this sideways position is its effect on the tail of the magnetic field. Radio science experiments found winds of about 100 meters per second blowing in the opposite direction at the equator. these rings were photographed and measured. as small as 50 meters (160 feet) in width. Winds at mid-latitudes on Uranus blow in the direction of the planet's rotation. The moons Cordelia and Ophelia act as shepherd satellites for the epsilon ring. The magnetotail was shown to be twisted by the planet's rotation into a long corkscrew shape behind the planet. were discovered by William Herschel in 1787. During the Voyager encounters.87 billion kilometers (1. Titania and Oberon. as were two other new rings and ringlets. giving Uranus its blue-green color. The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are believed to arise from electrical currents produced in their molten cores. 2% methane and small amounts of acetylene and other hydrocarbons. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1781.URANUS  Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun and is the third largest in the solar system. 15% helium.  The atmosphere of Uranus is composed of 83% hydrogen. super-pressurized ocean of water and ammonia once thought to lie between the core and the atmosphere now appears to be nonexistent. or possibly incomplete rings or ring arcs. Uranus' Rings y In 1977. There may be a large number of narrow rings. which is itself tilted 60 degrees from the planet's axis of rotation. The atmosphere is arranged into clouds running at constant latitudes.78 billion miles). was found to be gray in color. It rotates about its axis once every 17 hours 14 minutes. A very tenuous distribution of fine dust also seems to be spread throughout the ring system. the electrically conductive. y 22 . Its unusual position is thought to be the result of a collision with a planet-sized body early in the solar system's history. The individual ring particles were found to be of low reflectivity.

990.0461 Tilt of axis (degrees) 97.4535e+01 Equatorial radius (km) 25.01 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 6.Uranus Statistics Discovered by William Herschel Date of discovery 1781 Mass (kg) 8.559 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 4.2 Atmospheric composition Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 2% 23 .9 Orbital period (years) 84.81 Orbital eccentricity 0.686e+25 Mass (Earth = 1) 1.52 Mean cloud temperature -193°C Atmospheric pressure (bars) 1.51 Magnitude (Vo) 5.1914 Rotational period (hours) -17.000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 19.0074 Mean density (gm/cm^3) 1.870.29 Mean distance from the Sun (km) 2.77 Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 21.86 Orbital inclination (degrees) 0.774 Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 7.30 Visual geometric albedo 0.

500 kilometers (30.000 kilometers (1. A day on Neptune is 16 hours and 6. eastward-moving cloud scooting around Neptune every 16 hours or so. liquid ammonia and methane. The largest spot. dark spots reminiscent of Jupiter's hurricane-like storms.7 minutes.760 miles).  Neptune is a dynamic planet with several large. like that of Uranus. 24 . From ground based telescopes the rings appear to be arcs but from Voyager 2 the arcs turned out to be bright spots or clumps in the ring system. and Louis d'Arrest.  The magnetic field of Neptune.  The first two thirds of Neptune is composed of a mixture of molten rock. At low northern latitudes. helium.55 radii (about 13. Methane gives Neptune its blue cloud color. Neptune was discovered on September 23. Voyager captured images of cloud streaks casting their shadows on cloud decks below. scientists think the extreme orientation may be characteristic of flows in the interior of the planet and not the result of that planet's sideways orientation or of any possible field reversals at either planet.200 miles) an hour. Near the Great Dark Spot. six of which were found by Voyager. of the Berlin Observatory. similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. water. If Neptune were hollow. through mathematical predictions made by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier. water and methane.NEPTUNE  Neptune is the outermost planet of the gas giants. Voyager revealed a small. Most of the winds there blow westward. irregularly shaped.  The strongest winds on any planet were measured on Neptune.  Neptune has a set of four rings which are narrow and very faint. an astronomy student. known as the Great Dark Spot. The exact cause of the bright clumps is unknown. were seen high in Neptune's atmosphere. The outer third is a mixture of heated gases comprised of hydrogen. The rings are made up of dust particles thought to have been made by tiny meteorites smashing into Neptune's moons. It has eight moons. opposite to the rotation of the planet.500 miles) from the physical center. It has an equatorial diameter of 49. it could contain nearly 60 Earths. is highly tilted at 47 degrees from the rotation axis and offset at least 0. Neptune orbits the Sun every 165 years. This scooter as it has been dubbed could be a plume rising above a deeper cloud deck. Comparing the magnetic fields of the two planets. 1846 byJohann Gottfried Galle.  Long bright clouds.500 kilometers or 8. winds blow up to 2. is about the size of the earth and is similar to the Great Red Spoton Jupiter.

45 Orbital eccentricity 0.11 Orbital period (years) 164.0 Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 23.000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 30.300.79 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 5.64 Mean distance from the Sun (km) 4.84 Mean cloud temperature -193 to -153°C Atmospheric pressure (bars) 1-3 Atmospheric composition Hydrogen 85% Helium 13% Methane 2% 25 .56 Orbital inclination (degrees) 1.746 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 3.Neptune Statistics Discovered by Johann Gotfried Galle Date of discovery September 23.8799e+00 Mean density (gm/cm^3) 1.024e+26 Mass (Earth = 1) 1.0097 Tilt of axis (degrees) 29.0611 Rotational period (hours) 16.774 Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 11.504.41 Magnitude (Vo) 7.50 Visual geometric albedo 0. 1846 Mass (kg) 1.7135e+01 Equatorial radius (km) 24.

and about 3. It is called Charon. From Pluto¶s surface.PLUTO  There are nine planets in our Solar System. no Earth life could live on Pluto¶s surface. and it lasted until 1999. Without a good atmosphere. even with our best telescopes--we didn¶t even find it until 1930! If we tried to fly there. most of the time! But sometimes. Some of them are large. the sky of Pluto is as dark as nighttime on Earth. it is unlikely that we will ever live there. 26 . and it is half the size of Pluto. Charon is just as cold and lifeless as Pluto. Neptune. Pluto and another planet.4 billion miles from Earth.  While we may visit Pluto one day. It is a giant ball of ice and rock floating so far from the Sun that almost none of the Sun¶s heat reaches it. Because it is so far from the Sun. Because of its size. Neptune is further away from the Sun than Pluto. The surface of Pluto is made entirely of ice.  Pluto is very far away. and Pluto becomes the farthest planet once more. Pluto is so cold that we would need amazingly powerful heaters. for about 20 years. It averages about 3. like our own Earth. cross paths. Charon is so small that we could not even see it until 1978. In fact. cold. And one planet is the smallest planet: Pluto. if we ever hoped to live there. especially one with lots of oxygen. Even during the day. Pluto and Neptune won¶t cross paths again until the year 2247. The last time this happened was in 1979. when we developed better telescopes. Here are some interesting facts about this lonely little planet on the edge of our Solar System. Pluto is so far away that scientists here on Earth have trouble seeing it. Even Pluto¶s warmest days are almost three times colder than the coldest days on Earth!  Pluto has one moon that we know of.  Sometimes. and the surface temperature remains below -350 degrees Fahrenheit! That¶s cold!  Pluto is also dark. it might not be worth the trip. gasses which we humans cannot breather.  Even if we could reach Pluto. Then the two planets cross paths again. Others are medium-sized. and lifeless. Pluto has very low gravity and a very thin atmosphere. not to mention a good supply of warm blankets. even our fastest spaceships would take more than 600 years to reach Pluto. Pluto is small. like two trains on crossed tracks. The atmosphere is full of nitrogen and carbon monoxide. which is almost 250 years from now. like Jupiter or Saturn. Once every 248 years. it does not get all the light that we get here on Earth.5 billion miles from the Sun. the Sun looks like a very bright star.  In addition.

148 Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 0.52 Orbital inclination (degrees) 17. 1930 Mass (kg) 1.2482 Tilt of axis (degrees) 122.54 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 4.3 Nitrogen 27 .12 Atmospheric composition Methane 0.125e-03 Equatorial radius (km) 1.3 Magnitude (Vo) 15.137 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 0.5294 Rotational period (days) -6.000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1)) 39.22 Visual geometric albedo 0.Pluto Statistics Discovered by Clyde W.1783 Mean density (gm/cm^3) 2.74 Orbital eccentricity 0. Tombaugh Date of discovery February 18.913.4 Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 1.3872 Orbital period (years) 248.27e+22 Mass (Earth = 1) 2.05 Mean distance from the Sun (km) 5.520.

my 28 .solar system.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Success Science UPSR Oxford Fajar 2) Science Year 4 Text Book 3) Web

THE END 29 .

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