Lean automated manufacturing: avoiding the pitfalls to embrace the opportunities

Hongyi Chen and Richard R. Lindeke
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, and

David A. Wyrick
Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
Abstract Purpose – Over the last several months, the cries to become lean and low cost have echoed all the way from the halls of government to the smallest company’s back room. In times of severe economic challenge, the natural reaction is to make decisions that can make an organization become as lean and focused as possible. This paper aims to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This paper discusses the benefits and pitfalls associated with lean manufacturing management starting from the kernel idea that pleasing the customer should be at the root of all effort leading through the ravages of overzealous application of “lean to the max.” Elements of lean discussed in this paper address organizational waste, human resources, distributed design, supply chain management, customer management, and the financial system. Findings – Potential solutions and recommendations are made to help organizations become lean yet remain committed to being centered on the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction. These benefits and pitfalls may be seen as outcomes based on the degree to which lean is implemented. Originality/value – This paper reviews the popular lean manufacturing environment and makes practical recommendations to new adopters to avoid failures due to the improper application of “lean” to their organization. Keywords Lean production, Value chain, Management strategy Paper type General review

1. Introduction
The benefits of lean enterprise management are welldocumented. More and more companies have embraced lean as the only way to manage their business. While the principles of waste reduction, human optimization, distributed design, and supply chain management has served many companies very well, these benefits may alternatively lead to absolute failure. The authors previously documented the “ravages” of lean thinking taken to the limit and proposed the Temporal Think Tank (T3e) (Lindeke et al., 2008) as a solution. Lean management focuses on eliminating waste (non-valueadding activities) throughout their systems. This leads organizations to better understand their customers’ needs and deliver what the customer wants exactly when they want it (just-in-time). Lean has led to higher quality throughout the production chain and design through evolution. Major manufacturers concentrate their expertise and judiciously outsource vital sub-components and sub-assemblies to specialists who become critical to the supply of the final product. By selective sharing of design/development, the lead (lean) organization can focus resources and competencies on a limited set of innovative ideas and reduce their direct costs for innovating many of the components in their products.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0144-5154.htm

What, however, happens in the event of a sea-change as described in Lindeke et al. (2008), or worse yet, the failure of a vital supplier? Only by addressing various scenarios can the high-level organization hope to succeed, or even survive. This may require additional personnel from the lean company to work more closely with supplier organizations as they struggle to make their sea change. By shifting employees throughout the workforce, and actually working within the other organization’s operations, many companies have learned to survive and quickly adapt to change. This concept was, in part the spark for the T3e. Lean management is not simply “cutting out the fat” in an organization. Fundamentally, lean requires taking personal responsibility for one’s work and pleasing one’s customer, at whatever level that customer specifies. Without distributing the work force in the value chain, and attendant personification of the customer, all of the lean benefits can be forfeited as a supplier worries more about the bottom line costs and delivery schedule rather than the receiver’s needs for quality product. This is particularly true in difficult economic times when the extra people in the suppliers’ or customer’s plants are “brought home” to address local issues brought on by reducing the work force to the “leanest” levels. This paper explores the positive and negative aspects of a lean philosophy. Providing this foundation exposes some pitfalls in lean thinking. The current downward shift in the marketplace poses important challenges to the lean paradigm.
This paper is an updated and revised version of an award winning paper previously presented at Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing Conference (FAIM), University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, UK, July 6-8, 2009.

Assembly Automation 30/2 (2010) 117– 123 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 0144-5154] [DOI 10.1108/01445151011029745]

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will be considered non-value-adding and thus be cut-off. stress may drive “creative tensions” that stimulate employees’ creativity (Oldham and Cummings. 1996). those ones identified in literature (Lindeke et al. Besides. Lewis. 5 transportation or the additional movement that is not of value to the product. Wastes can include designing wrong products that no customer wants. from the system. However. 2006). Fucini and Fucini. and become the subject of Kaizen (continuous improvement) events. 2006). 2. innovative and to continuously improve the manufacturing process. in order to identify non-value-adding activities. technology and innovation management. work characteristics. The analysis is based on a thorough literature review in the fields of lean manufacturing. 2003. making mistakes in the manufacturing process that leads to defects. to protect their value streams. etc. 2. However. the shrinking size of the workforce and the busy schedules of employees who have multiple responsibilities will make it much harder to get workers together for formal discussions. As discussed above. we attempt to clearly spell out the key concepts of lean and discuss the associated pitfalls. most people cannot function effectively in a time crunch for long . Lindeke and David A. Case studies are also employed in our research. Wyrick Assembly Automation Volume 30 · Number 2 · 2010 · 117 –123 Can companies apply lean in a shrinking economy. and they are listed as: 1 overproducing more items than included in customer orders. Even before ideas get generated. 2008. new product development. and hence the organization. In the following sections.. 2003. Since the return 118 on investment for many innovations is very difficult to quantify when the ideas first take shape. Therefore. slack in lean systems are continuously identified and removed as muda. By focusing on value-adding activities. Mehri. In addition. product design. 2. Slack on the human resource side mean unused work time and excess workers. value should be clearly understood and defined. As noted in Christensen (2006). 6 over-processing or additional steps that do not increase the overall value of the product. especially in a market pull situation. A disruptive technology is a new technology or new application that usually underperforms in area(s) most desired by the mainstream customers. 2008. To offer researchers and practitioners an extensive list of the potential pitfalls in the lean thinking. called muda in Japanese. or at least short-sighted. 2 inventory due to increases of finished goods and work-inprocess. many more issues have come to our attention as we link the lean philosophy to other management concepts. especially the ones offering particularly longterm contributions. it may hinder radical innovations that create technology push opportunities and cause companies to stumble upon disruptive innovations. Parker. risk-taking innovation activities. in reducing waste and focusing on value-adding activities. we present our analysis in this section. 2000.. However. However. it is emphasized that value can only be defined by the end-users (Womack and Jones. and increased profits. especially before the potential market has been clearly identified and developed. Mehri. and human resource management. redefine values to encourage long-term. begin the effective use of business system. blindly following customers’ demand may lead a company to focus on technology development that overshoots customers’ demand and lose the market to disruptive technologies that had been initially denied by the same group of customers. 4 waiting for any resource throughout the flow of design and production. exclusively following customers’ definition of value and the elimination of all “non-value” adding activities can lead a lean company to failures because customers can be wrong. Customers’ needs and wants should be followed closely in product design and manufacturing. Increasing worker utilization and reducing the size of the workforce usually lead to reduced manufacturing costs. The seven categories of waste summarized in Hale and Kubiak (2007) have a good cover of all the wastes in lean definition. improved customer satisfaction. some of the negative effects of lean on employee outcomes. it is very likely that those ideas. develop more intelligent and flexible manufacturing systems. a company may focus on obvious short-term benefits and ignore long-term competitive advantages. These “creative times” are highly valuable in keeping the teams. This approach is expected to continuously and incrementally improve products and increase customer satisfaction. Parker. As noted in Silverthorne (2002). Correct identification of muda and successful elimination of them leads to reduced manufacturing cost. and closely support suppliers along their entire value chain. the time and effort that are necessary to spark innovation may also be eliminated as waste in a lean system. 2003). stress is also created in the work environment from “crazy” schedules and multiple responsibilities.. In lean thinking. 3 motion that does not add value to the final product. this paper suggests that organizations. and 7 not being right the first time or the costs and time associated with repairing and correcting a product. while focusing on innovations needed for survival? In particular. but with other valuable features and great potential to develop. as lean practices reach the extreme. employees being left idle or waiting for deliveries during work hours. Fucini and Fucini. 1990. Benefits and pitfalls of lean systems While the benefits of lean practices are well-documented. lean enterprises actively work to identify and eliminate different kinds of waste. at least in the short-term. In certain situations.and production-oriented T3e’s. It should be noted that when the lean concepts were first developed in Toyota Company by Taiichi Ohno. 2000. Richard R. Lewis. time was set aside periodically for the worker teams to get together and suggest ways to improve the system (Womack et al. and an organization’s innovation capability have also been studied (Lindeke et al. However.2 Human resource management The second keystone to the lean philosophy is to “respect the workers” since they are the knowledge resources in the system. too much stress is more likely to stifle employees’ creative thinking. much less casual chats that may spark innovative changes.1 Reducing waste Waste reduction is the fundamental concept in the lean philosophy. the technology can eventually better more established technologies and dominate the market. Any products or features that the current customers do not want will be considered muda since they do not generate revenues in the current market. 2007). 1990.Lean automated manufacturing Hongyi Chen. Any activities that consume resources but do not create value will be considered muda. higher product quality.

lack of job security constitutes another source of employee stress in lean enterprises. the lean producers are barely involved in manufacturing of many. the career ladder is designed to allow employees to gain a depth of knowledge in one special area first and then expand their expertise (Bennett. The Toyota Company in Japan tries to maintain a long-term relationship with its suppliers and helps them improve manufacturing by loaning/ switching its engineers through the supplier companies. However. Since everyone can perform every job to some degree. can only be seen to decrease. 2007). lean companies are able to steadily decrease the unit cost of products. In either case. However.. In lean environments. to solve the fundamental problem. This probably explains. assessed. When incremental changes to modules/parts no longer lead to overall product improvement. Employees in a lean company are trained and expected to take on multiple responsibilities. In this way. Richard R. to reduce cost. The lean producers become focused on the overall design of product and the final assembly of parts being engineered and produced by different suppliers. manufacturing processes for new designs will need to be created. the company runs the risk of being fragile in situations when many workers call in sick or choose to go on strike. 2003). As a result.Lean automated manufacturing Hongyi Chen. with no reserve stocks. This happened in the early stage when General Motors (GM) tried to embrace the lean philosophy in its Pontiac assembly plant in Pontiac. However. Typically. either with their classes or in departmental outlook has been largely taken instead by developing course materials and preparing for lectures. in this case the Flint . the rest are distributed to its first-tier suppliers. the product design and manufacturing strategies in lean companies. since most major parts are outsourced as a “turnkey” project to suppliers. One of the cases that the authors considered when examining the potential pitfalls of a lean workforce is a university department that has been short of teaching resources for several years. and improve manufacturing systems. the relationships among the product components and core concepts may need to be reconfigured (Henderson and Clark. the average teaching load and the service load have also been increased. With “just enough” people who are very much stressed and in many cases pushed to the limit. the flexibility of the system is increased. 2. This approach promotes communication and knowledge sharing between producers and suppliers to a great degree. Another tradeoff to distributed design when parts are mostly outsourced is that the innovations from internal product research and development (R&D) at a company may flow out to competitors too quickly. and improves efficiencies. a naturally expected result is layoffs. not enough people will be there to cover the jobs. as a tradeoff. and improved. By focusing on product design and final assembly while aggressively outsourcing parts. During times when sales decrease. many members have to take the responsibility of continuously teaching new courses. it is critical to maintain and strengthen its manufacturing ability. the system will stop running if parts do not arrive on time or a faulty shipment comes. The innovation rate. Lindeke and David A. It is important to develop expertise in an area since it is essential to have expertise in order to innovate in such an area. Michigan. primary engineers. workers in the West do not have the luxury of a lifetime employment guarantee. a company will need a strong incentive and great commitment of time and efforts to understand and be involved in major suppliers’ manufacturing process. Japanese lean car producers design and provide detailed drawings of only 119 30 percent of the parts in their cars. parts from suppliers arrive shortly before they are needed since excess inventories were eliminated as waste. and often key. even though the jobs in a mature lean system are supposed to make employees feel important and challenged and thus greatly respected by the company. measured by publications in this context. For employees in Western lean companies.3 Distributed design Distributed design characterizes. This approach agrees with the economic theory that distributing jobs to the most efficient parties increases overall social welfare. Since all the buffers and inventories had been removed. where lean manufacturing originated. Wyrick Assembly Automation Volume 30 · Number 2 · 2010 · 117 –123 periods without burning out. debug. when a company becomes leaner and leaner. or even large segments of their products will decrease. even before the company can benefit fully. who usually have expertise in process engineering and plant operations (Womack et al. To survive increasing student enrollment with a “lean” faculty group. This is linked to a third cornerstone of lean: being agile where this agility helps develop from the strength of design and manufacturing knowledge and facilitates bringing innovative products to market quickly. and broad understanding of different areas will be a plus that sometimes stimulates innovations. Even if there are agreements in place to keep trade secrets. other customers of the same supplier may “smell” innovations from the parts or assemblies they receive or conversations with the supplier’s representatives. 1996). In such a situation. suppliers are likely to provide parts that are similar. the responsibilities of manufacturing are mostly shifted to suppliers. some of which are not in their direct or closely related areas of expertise. Unlike workers in Japan. Just because of being lean. In fact. This will eventually negatively affect the capability of an organization to innovate and can even lead to a regression in retained organizational knowledge. why critics renamed lean manufacturing “mean manufacturing” or “management by stress” (Parker. For a company that wants to achieve product leadership. Time to perform research and innovate.4 Supply chain management In the lean supply chain. Designing high-quality products and low-cost manufacturing is an important part. instead of waiting for orders beside the assembly line. As a result. the company’s own ability to design. even if they have a sense of being on an important mission and being challenged. a conflict exists between the fear of losing jobs and the need to accomplish more with less people while continuously eliminating excess workers. In traditional organizations. components of their products. This approach saves storage space and costs. 1990). Since most suppliers provide parts to multiple customers. Therefore. work will be delayed dramatically and quality may suffer. employees may lose special expertise as they change roles frequently. a failure of a shipment from its supplier. the employees may never get a chance to deepen their understanding and keep up with the development of technologies in any area. to each customer. if not the same. 2. and assemblers are expected to transform themselves into salespeople and go out to talk to potential customers to create sales. At the same time. if the job responsibilities are shared too broadly and shifted too often. workers will not be able to innovate when they have been under too much stress for too long. a lean system can hardly respond to such emergencies. However.

a large workforce is maintained to deal with customer management. Michigan. applying it in a shrinking market. the failure of a supplier. maintaining a lifetime relationship with customers seems much less important in those markets. or would even release GM’s tooling to move it to a different supplier (Detroit News. consequence of the effect of vendor and supply chain control in lean enterprises.000). Increasing sales to the point that early losses can be compensated for therefore quickly and continuously reducing costs by effective lean practices throughout the process are critical for the survival of a lean company. Reduction in vendors can save resources. likely. including assembly. even if they are not Tier 1 or even regular suppliers. The main difference is that the lean company tries to set the selling price lower than the price of the mass product company and much lower than its actual initial cost. Lindeke and David A.5 Customer management In the Japanese Toyota system. Surely. the sales department in Toyota devotes a significant. 2. 120 during a visit to the Toyota Company. 2. In order to maximize the total income from a customer over the long-term. respectively. people in other countries do not have to purchase new cars as often in the absence of strict government regulations dealing with the inspection of aging vehicles. lean companies tend to use it more aggressively.000.. 2003).000 and 30. that caused 26 out of 29 North American assembly plants to close down and lay off nearly half of GM’s workforce (Bradsher. due in large part to a governmental policy that requires very expensive and very demanding vehicle inspections as a car ages. will train and expect the customer service personnel to perform other jobs. (2007). One of the prime driving ideas that most companies adopt when they begin their conversion to lean management is to consolidate their vendor list. most lean companies view extra vendors as muda. 2008). Therefore. Although this issue is supposed to be solved by the supporting organizational structures that are constructed. knowledge and expertise needed to managing customer interaction will be lost. it can also limit innovation. caused the entire plant in Pontiac to shut down and they had to send the workforce home 4 h early with a loss in production of product that was slated to flow to the customer (Womack and Jones. Since large complex parts of the product are “solesourced” in lean-supply systems. Richard R. 1998) is another good example that without buffers. but often observed. the experts that used to analyze and communicate customers’ needs may be moved to other jobs and become too busy with more obvious or urgent work. 2007). One of the authors spent time with a lean manufacturer recently and observed an unfortunate issue as the engineering staff explored a new quality process. It is reasoned that profits gained later through expanded market share will soon compensate for the losses incurred in the beginning of a product’s life. can be fatal to the company. Figure 1 shows an example: both lean and mass production companies set the selling prices: at $20. and costly. By this action in the long-term. As mentioned in Womack et al. the unit manufacturing cost will drop more quickly and dramatically as more customers are attracted to purchase the product. Compared with customers in Japan. lower than the actual initial manufacturing and development cost ($50. While the aggressive shadow pricing strategy encourages initial purchases and can succeed in an expanding market. as discussed in the previous sections. hoping that by applying lean practices. especially a first-tier supplier.6 Financial system While the shadow pricing strategy is used in both lean and mass production companies. the problems at GM when a supplier of airbags went into bankruptcy and no longer provide products to them.7 Summary of lean pitfalls Table I summarizes the lean concepts and the potential failures that they may lead to. this was an unexpected. however. without being able to differentiate one’s product through superior features and quality from its competitors will. One need only consider. Strikes at different levels of the supply chain will also have a significant negative effect on production at the lean company. Both companies decrease the product price one or a few times as their products enter into a later stage in the life cycle to beat competitors and better penetrate the market. Figure 1 Shadow pricing strategy as employed by lean organizations Manufacturing unit cost $50K $30K $20K Selling Price 30K 50K Manufacturing volume Mass production Manufacturing cost Product price Lean production 1M 5M .Lean automated manufacturing Hongyi Chen. thus. the authors were told that the external relationship manager was too busy to meet with them since he was doing some assembling. expecting the learning curve effect and economies of scale will drop the average unit cost if the sales reach the projected five million units volume. A lean system would likely view a large workforce dedicated to customer management as a waste. 2. only expedite the fall of the company. Japanese buyers usually purchase a new car about every four years. Supply problems become more likely when financial crises affect every component of the economy. The 1998 strikes in two of GM’s part supplier factories in Flint. Simply being cheap is not the answer to sustaining success: innovation and technological advancements are the ultimate driving forces of product leadership. there is no guarantee that a late or faulty shipment will not happen in a mature lean system. failure of any link on the lean supply chain will cause the whole chain to fall like dominos. Wyrick Assembly Automation Volume 30 · Number 2 · 2010 · 117 –123 plant nearby. as we find today. In the same way. Keeping every customer’s information in a database and calling them frequently will instill customer loyalty and make it difficult for competitors to gain a share in the Japanese market. effort to keep good long-term relationships with every customer (Womack et al. Since there is a cost associated with keeping communication channels open to vendors. The engineers had identified a promising new measuring device but they were unable to purchase it for testing because the vendor was not “on the approved list”! This led to a significant delay and additional expense for bringing innovation into the company.

Defining value effectively also calls for a positive attitude toward risk taking. at least as it views the future. it is important to define value in the way that innovation-driving activities are viewed so as not to be considered muda. one can only wonder if cost control tactics by GM . more intelligent and flexible manufacturing systems are needed. a sense of importance. In the unfortunate incident stated above. it is important for an organization to make it “ok” to take risks and devote time and efforts to certain activities that do not produce results in a short-term (Business Week. What the companies need to do is to select and adopt suitable ones to maximize their benefits. When one reviews a company that has a strong survival instinct. 2007). a lean company should be able to respond to changes more effectively if contingency plans are developed ahead of their absolute need. besides ensuring competitiveness through continuous innovations. like T3e (Lindeke et al. Richard R. Owing to the strong dependencies of a lean company on its suppliers. Solutions to maximize the benefits of lean For a company to maximize the benefits of its lean practices. and generate scenario analyses. In this way. In this way.. and satisfaction will be provided to motivate employees’ creativities. assess its own competitive advantages. Wyrick Assembly Automation Volume 30 · Number 2 · 2010 · 117 –123 Table I Summary of lean pitfalls Lean concepts in Eliminate all wastes Pitfalls Companies may: Eliminate the creative times that are necessary to innovations Focus on short-term value-adding activities and lose long-term competitive capability through radical innovations Miss technology-push opportunities Stumble over disruptive innovations Create more stresses in the work environment and make employees lose the feeling of job security Employees may lose expertise in their special areas Companies may lose the ability to design. Setting aside some creative times not only helps reduce job anxiety and get employees re-energized. Gerdsri and Kocaoglu. 2007. an organization must drop strict adherence to the Lean mantra of “its muda” to carve out its future by finding time to reflect and study for products that will allow it to flourish in the recovery period that is ahead. CEO of General Electric (GE). A variety of decision analysis tools are available to facilitate such activities and sharpen decision-makers’ judgment (Chen et al. and improve the manufacturing system of the parts Parts designed and manufactured in different places may not match Opportunities to develop radical and architectural innovations will be eliminated Internal innovations may flow out too fast before the company can benefit from its R&D Late and faulty shipment of parts will stop the system The failure of a first-tier suppliers are fatal Effects of strikes on different levels of the supply chain will be amplified Customer satisfaction may be lost in the long-term as a result of the busy schedules and multiple responsibilities of customer analyst The use of shadow pricing strategy may lead to total failure in a shrinking economy Cross-ownership and interlocking equity with each other in the lean group may expedite the fall of the whole group in a crisis Multiple job responsibilities Distributed design Lean supply chain Customer management Financial management 3. 1991. often we find that they have embraced the ability to be agile and flexible in their product design and manufacturing environment. Yoon and Park. While it is not the purpose of this paper to offer an exclusive list of solutions. Details about the systematic process of flexible product platform design can be found in Suh et al. Creating an independent organization. 2008). but also provides opportunities for the employees to interact and stimulate out-of-the-box thinking. a few are suggested.and long-term competitiveness will better prepare a lean company 121 to stand out in fierce competition. special attention must be paid to the pitfalls discussed above. since the system is only as strong as the weakest component of the whole chain. Therefore. it is the companies who have agile philosophies that can succeed. As emphasized in an interview by Jeff Immelt. This agility is linked to their innovative spirit and is vested into the establishment of independent organizations. Lindeke and David A. Thus. with the failure of a key supplier. Flexible product platforms can be designed to effectively share common components and deliberately project uncertainties into flexible elements that are carryover-modified in different product families or product generations. 2005). workers should be respected and involved as much as possible in the decision-making process. with a cost structure not honed to achieve high-profit margin in the current market is also a solution for companies to harness disruptive innovations without affecting the lean nature of the parent company. as in the current worldwide economic crisis. In addition.Lean automated manufacturing Hongyi Chen. it is critical for the lean company to support those suppliers. Given the advantage of being flexible. As an essential part of the lean system. 2008).. to better cope with uncertainties and disruptions in the dynamic market environment. conduct sensitivity analysis. An R&D portfolio that builds both short. (2007). 2009. enjoyment. To cultivate an innovation-encouraging culture in a lean company. This calls for more transparent financial systems and cash flows along the chain. like those espoused by the author’s in the T3e (Lindeke et al. especially for the companies in which tooling and equipment require large capital investment.. When economic conditions become difficult. debug. the need of redesign as well as changes in manufacturing tooling and equipment will be minimized in an event of new product introduction. Millett and Honton. the company also wants to closely monitor and forecast the market demand and technology trends.

Lindeke. could have been saved and could have begun to deliver even better products to GM in the future. 8. Richard R. however. Hale. S.R. and Ethical Aspects of Professional Practice. N. Henderson. 8. 20 No.Lean automated manufacturing Hongyi Chen. Quality. F. Administrative Science Quarterly. The fundamental and controlling underpinnings of lean management are based on taking personal responsibility for one’s work and pleasing one’s customer. 4-15. pp. pp. A Manager’s Guide to Technology Forecasting and Strategic Analysis Methods. or waste. and Cummings. This would be clearly seen as a “shadow pricing” initiative that would have reaped huge benefit into the future. 959-78. Conclusion Lean enterprise management aims to eliminate waste. New York. 122 4. financial crisis.. all of the benefits of lean can end at the shipping dock with a supplier worrying about the bottom line costs and delivery schedule rather than the receiver’s needs for quality product. 1. 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Lindeke and David A.P. Yoon. Corresponding author Richard R. Research Engineering Design. Y. and Park. NY. D. D. (2007). de Weck. 54 No. Lindeke can be contacted at: rlindek1@d. (2007). Vol. J. The Free Press. Jones. and Roos.T. D.L.umn.emeraldinsight.T. Vol. The Free Press.com Or visit our web site for further details: www. 67-89. 3. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. Womack. and Chang. “Development of new technology forecasting algorithm: hybrid approach for morphology analysis and conjoint analysis of patent information”. “Flexible product platforms: framework and case study”. Richard R. B. 18. (2003).. Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation. Wyrick Assembly Automation Volume 30 · Number 2 · 2010 · 117 –123 Suh. New York.. edu To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. O. 588-99. pp.Lean automated manufacturing Hongyi Chen. E. New York. and Jones.S. NY. pp. (2007).P. J.com/reprints 123 . The Machine that Changed the World. D. Womack.

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