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CHEMIS TRY Inve stigatory P ro j e c t

Kamal Sing h
12 A
K. V. 2 Colaba


This is hereby to certify that the original and genuine
investigation work has been carried out to investigate
about the subject matter and the related data collection
and investigation has been completed solely, sincerely
and satisfactorily by Kamal Singh a student of class 12 A
of Kendriya Vidyalaya 2 Colaba Mumbai , regarding his
project titled
Fertilizers .

It would
EXAMINER be my utmost pleasure to express
thanks to my Chemistry teacher Mrs.Shilpa Rana mam
in providing a helping hand in this project. Her
valuable guidance, support and supervision all through
this project are responsible for attaining its present form. I
would also like to thank my parents and friends as they
encouraged me to put forward my project.

Background of study
Statement of the problem
Significance of the study
Score and Limitation
Definition of terms
Experimentation and Analysis


Plants need to be fertilized because most soil does not
provide essential nutrients required for optimum growth.
Even if the person is lucky enough to start with great
garden soil, as your plants grow, they absorb nutrients and
leave the soil less fertile. Nutrients in the soil also help
plants grow strong. Some nutrients that plants need are
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
and sulfur.
Fertilizers, also known as food elements, are materials
produced to supple these elements in a readily available
form of plant use. It helps to make plants grow faster
which help some farmers and gardeners for their business.
Choosing the right fertilizer help us to get everything we
need from the plants we eat or from the meat of animals
that eat plants. Plants are factories that do all of the work
to process the basic elements of life and make them
available to us.
Fertilizers help feed the world. The FARO has stated
that after land and water, fertilizers are probably the
most important input leading to increased yields. It is
inherently difficult to estimate the share of fertilizers in
increasing agricultural output since so many factors are
involved. It has been estimated that fertilizer contribute
about 40% of the nitrogen in human protein consumption,
it follows that nearly one third of this protein depends on
fertilizers. Therefore, it is important for us to know which
fertilizers to use for us to sustain properly the needs of
every plant.
Increased crop production largely relies on the type of
fertilizers used to supplement essential nutrients for
plants. Fertilizer application is required to replace crop
land nutrients that have been consumed by previous plant
growth with the ultimate goal of maximizing productivity
and economic returns. Now a day, there is increased
emphasis on the impact on soil environment due to
continuous use of chemical fertilizers. The impact of
chemical fertilizer application on agricultural land is seen
not only in terms of the soil quality but also on the survival
of soil organisms dwelling there in. Chemical fertilizers
provide three major plant nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorus
and potassium or NPK. However, the ever increasing cost
of commercial fertilizer products driven, in part, by the
inevitable depletion of global phosphorus, is forcing
producers to look for alternative sources like bio-
fertilizers and other organically-based solutions. In
literature, some researchers have concluded the chemical
fertilizers to be harmful for soil organisms but on the
contradictory they have been supported too to be
beneficial as far as their food supply is concern. The
primary advantages of using biosolids as a fertilizer
alternative are cost efficiencies and the presence of
nutrients and organic matter. Returning these valuable
materials back to the soils is a critical element in long-
term sustainability.
Statement of the problem

This research aim to compare 2 different brand of

fertilizer: Chemical fertilizer and Citrus Sinensis Peeling
(bio-fertilizers), specifically the researchers sought to
answer the following questions:

How do the researchers determine the effectively of

these product?
What are advantages and disadvantages of using
these fertilizers?
Which fertilizer will make plants grow faster and
Which fertilizer is better and safer to use: Citrus
Sinensis Peeling or branded fertilizer?
The researchers will determine the effectivity of the
product by testing the effectivity of 2 brand of fertilizer in
separate plants (Plant A and Plant B). After the testing, the
researchers will record the result and make a statement
about the research.
Significance of the study

The study is beneficial to:

1. Farmers and gardeners- the benefit of this study will
help them to improve the quality of their products,
save time with their work, and get a higher profit.
2. Environment- the benefit of this study will help our
environment by helping the soil and plants to sustain
their needs and provide the essential nutrients
required for optimum growth.
3. Agricultural company- the benefit of this study will
help them to give a good service to their customers by
giving them a high and good quality products (ex:
rice, vegetables, and fruits)
4. Community- the benefit of this study will help the
community to sense this as a source of income if
made into a business.

Score and Limitation

The following information of this research will come
from different textbooks, surveys of different researchers,
information stated of the product, and some information
in the internet about the subject which is plants and
fertilizers. The factors to consider covered by this study
are to evaluate the effectiveness, cost, and functionality of
the fertilizer.
Through the study shows high feasibility, there are still
boundaries that shall be set to further facilitate the
research process. In the study, there shall be two set-ups;
thus set-up A: plant fertilized with citrus sinensis peelings,
set-up B: plant fertilize with branded fertilizer. The
researchers will then identify its difference.
The following limitations are:
Sunlight is one of the important materials in doing
this study. Without sunlight, this experiment cant
be processed.
Some informations gathered from surveys,
questionnaires and reference materials.
Cost and availability that will be covered from this
Time management
Definition of terms
The following technical terms are defined in this
Nitrogen- tasteless odorless gaseous chemical
Phosphorus- poisonous waxy chemical element
Potassium- silver white metallic chemical element
Calcium- a soft gray alkaline earth metal, fifth
most abundant element by mass in the earths
Sulfur- an abundant, multivalent non-metal
Citrus Sinensis- the scientific name of sweet
oranges. It is what most consumers commonly buy.


The research about the comparison between 2 different

brands of fertilizer was aimed to help the community to be
aware of the importance of fertilizers and also to give
them the information in which fertilizer to use for their
plants. Books, internet, and other references materials
were used as the primary sources of information to
strengthen the researchers view on this topic. But these
were not enough, so experiments were conducted by the
researchers to gain additional information.
A. Materials:
Pot A and Pot B
Good quality of soil
Seeds to be use (any
kind of plant: pechay)
Branded Fertilizer
Orange peelings


1. Sow seeds thinly on shallow furrows across the seed
pot, and cover lightly with fine topsoil. Do not
broadcast seeds when sowing to avoid thick
germination in one place.
2. Water the seed pot daily. Watering and other cultural
management practices should be regularly done.
3. Apply liberal amount of fertilizer (Citrus Sensis
Peeling for pot A and branded fertilizer for pot B) at
the base of the plants, then cover lightly with soil and
water immediately.
4. Water the plant whenever necessary or depending on
your own judgment or observation of the plant
5. Always remember to give both pots a presence of
sunlight for their process of growing.
6. Every week, measure the height of both plants.


As long as the researchers followed the procedures,

success of experimentation will be achieved. Factors
such as sunlight could affect the study. In addition, if
this is not available, possible that this study could fail.
However, researchers could try it once more again
and again until the study is evaluated.
Analysis of fertilizers

Major fertilizers containing N:

(a) Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)

(b) Potassium nitrate (KNO3)
(c) Urea (NH2CONH2)
(d) Ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4]

Most of nitrogen fertilizers are obtained form synthetic
NH3. This chemical compound is used as gas or in water
solution or it is converted to salts.

Nitrogen Deficiencies
(a) Pale, green, yellow leaves
(b) Stunted growth

Nitrogen in Excess
(a) Lower disease resistance
(b) Weaken stem
(c) Decay maturity
(d) Lower fruit quality

Major fertilizers containing P:

(a)DAP Diammonium phosphate [(NH4)2PO4]

(b)Ca3(PO4)2 Calcium phosphate
(c)Triple phosphate and super phosphate


Most phosphoric fertilizers are obtained by the treatment

of calcium phosphate with H2SO4 and phosphoric
fertilizers. Calcium phosphate is mainly derived from
phosphate rock and bones. Phosphate rock is found in
deposits of sedimentary origin laid down on beds of ocean

Phosphorus deficiencies
(a) Pale purple colour on the underside of leaves
(b) Reduced flower, fruits and seed production

Advantages of P:
1. Encourage cell division
2. Hastens maturity, offsetting quick growth caused by N
3. Encourage root growth
4. Increase disease resistance

Phosphorous in excess
1. Causes dehydration of roots
2. Increase soluble
salt content of medium

Major fertilizers containining K:

1. Potassium chloride (Potash)

2. Potassium nitrate (KNO3)


It is the seventh most abundant element found in earths

crust. Potassium chloride which is principal commercial
form of potash and some KNO3 is also used for
production of potash fertilizer.

Potassium deficiencies:
1. Leaves appear dry and scorched
2. Irregular yellow areas on the surface

Advantages of K:
1. Increase disease resistance
2. Encourage healthy root and stems
3. Essential for starch formation
4. Efficient use of CO2
Potassium in excess
1. Affects soil acidity
2. Reduced flower, fruit and seed production

Fertilisers V

Experiment Observation Inference

1. Take a pinch of No reaction Dil. group absent
fertilizer + few
drops of dil.
2. Take a pinch of No reaction Conc. group
fertilizer + few absent
drops of conc.

3. Take 1 ml of No reaction Volatile group

soda extract and absent
acidify it with dil

HCl. Add few

drops of BaCl2
soln. to it.

4. A pinch of No reaction Zero group absent

fertilizer + few
drops of NaOH
Heat it.
5. Take 1 ml of No reaction 1st group absent
O.S (original
solution) in a
and to it add few
drops of dil. HCl

6. Take 1 ml of No reaction 2nd group absent

O.S (original
solution) in a
to it add few
drops of dil. HCl.
Warm the
and pass H2S gas.

7. Take 1 ml of No reaction 3rd group absent

O.S (original
solution) in a
and to it add few
drops of dil. HCl
.add few drops
of conc.
HNO3.heat it.
Cool it. Add a
pinch of solid
NH4Cl followed
by excess of
8. Take 1 ml of No reaction IV group absent
O.S (original
solution) in a
and to it add few
drops of dil. HCl.
Add a pinch of
solid NH4Cl
followed by excess
of NH4OH. Warm
the solution and
pass H2S gas.

9. Take 1 ml of OS White ppt V group present,

+ few drops of dil. may be
HCl + a pinch Ba2+, Kr2+ or
of solid NH4Cl + 1 Ca2+
or 2 ml of

10. Filter the White ppt Ca2+ confirmed.

white precipitate,
take a part of it,
dissolve it in
minimum amount
Now add

11. Flame test Brick red flame Ca2+ confirmed.

Fertilizer has Ca2+ as cation. (The fertilizer detected is
Vermi Compost).


Experiment Observation Inference

1. Take 1 ml of Prussian blue Nitrogen present

Lassaigne colour in elemental
Solution (L.S.)* in form.
a test
tube and to it add
few drops of
freshly prepared
ferrous sulphate
solution. Heat it.
Cool it. Add few
drops of conc.

The given fertilizer has N in elemental form. (The fertilizer
detected is urea).

O.C.N + Na NaCN

FERTILIZER 5(vermi compost)

Ca2+ (aq) + CO32(aq) CaCO3 (s) +2CH3COOH + CaCO3
Ca [CH3COO]2 + H2O +CO2+Ca2+ (aq)

Following Books and websites were a source for my


NCERT Chemistry Textbook for class 12