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Study on the surface dark deposits of CuSi3 CMT brazing

1.1 Background and Significance

Encountered problem during auto manufacturingDark surface deposits

(a) (b)

Procedure increased
Costing increased

These deposits adhere strongly to the seam surface. They not only affect the
optical appearance and metallurgical soundness of a seam but also can interfere with
quality control systems.

Klocke F, Frank S (2013) Surface deposits in laser brazing. SCI TECHNOL WELD JOI 18 (1):62-69.
1.2 Formation mechanism and distribution of dark deposits

A B

B C

Areas O Si Mn Cu Fe Zn
Area A:rich in O, Si, Cu
A 32.30 27.43 12.11 22.46 4.35 1.34
Area B: rich in O, Si, Mn
B 37.13 24.29 24.91 6.04 6.88 0.75
Area C: rich in O, Cu
C 36.52 8.16 7.49 41.21 5.14 1.47
1.2 Formation mechanism and distribution of dark deposits

Oxides of Cu
Cu2O(Stable at high temperature)CuO(Unstable at high temperature )

Equilibrium phase diagram of Cu-O Temperature-Oxygen partial


pressure of Cu-O
[Cu2O]+ O2 = 2CuOblack
Dark substance was CuO basically.
1.2 Formation mechanism and distribution of dark deposits

EDS spots on area A

Conclusion

Spot O Si Mn Cu Fe Zn Area A: Specific gravity of liquid silicates was small and it


would float on the liquid surface. As cooling process
1 7.73 2.64 0.23 83.53 3.92 1.95 progressed, silicates formed a film to prevent oxidation
2 70.45 15.47 7.85 5.43 0.80 0.00 Area B: The composite silicate MnO SiO2 formed an
elongated region.
Area A was mainly consisted of Cu and Area C: Cu2O with largest specific gravity gathered at the
broken silicates thin film, which cause the edge of weld seam, and then it was oxidized to form black
discontinuous element distribution. CuO.
1.3 Suppression Methods of surface dark substance

Principle 1By reducing the amount of Cu2O

Ar Ar+2%O2
Reason
1. The oxides provided more cathode
B C spot location.
weld seams of galvanized sheets 2. Ar + 2%O2 would enhance the
Ar Ar+2%O2 cathode crushing effect, which prevent
the generation of CuO. And thus dark
substances were suppressed.

weld seams of common steel sheets


1.3 Suppression Methods of surface dark substance

Principle 2By keeping away from oxygen


40 20
2116.8J/cm 1685.2J/cm 898.3J/cm

-20 -40

weld seams under different (Ar)


The influence of heat input on the temperature of
When was positive, gas flow was molten pool was small, but great on the existence
elongated and protect melting time of melting pool. A bigger heat input prolonged
pool well. When was negative, the existence time of melting pool and increased the
gas flow shortened. oxidation degree.