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What are free radicals? Why are they damaging the human body? And how dose vitamin E and the other
antioxidants nutrients help protect the body against free radical damage? But first, a little background…
Background: A Brief Look at Chemical Bonding
To understand the way that free radicals and antioxidants interact, you must first understand a bit about cells and molecules. So hare’s a (very) brief refresher course in Physiology/Chemistry: The human body is composed of many different types of cell are composed of many different types of molecules. Molecules consist of one or more atoms of more elements joined by chemical bond.
As you probably remember from your old high school days, atoms consist of a
charged particles) in the atoms nucleus determines the number of electrons
(negatively charged particles) surrounding
the atom Electrons are involved in chemical reactions and are the substance that bonds atoms together to from molecules. Electrons
surround, or “orbit” an atom in one or more shell. The innermost shell is full when it has two electrons. When the first shell is full, electrons begin to fill the second shell. When the second shell has eight electrons, it is full, and so on.
The most important structural feature of an atom for determining its chemical behavior is the number of electrons in its outer shell. A substance that has a full outer shell tends not to enter in chemical reactions (an inert substance ). Because atoms seek to reach a state of maximum stability, an atom will try to fill it’s outer shell by:
Gaining or losing electrons to either fill or empty its outer shell Sharing its electrons by bonding together with other atoms in order to complete its other shell
Atoms often completer their outer shells by sharing electrons with other atoms. By sharing electrons, the atoms are bound together and satisfy the conditions of maximum stability for the molecule.
How Free Radicals are formed?
Normally, bonds don’t split in a way that leaves a molecule with an odd, unpaired electron. But when weak bonds split, free radicals are formed. Free radicals are very unstable and react quickly with other compounds, trying to capture the needed electron to gain stability. Generally, free radicals attack the nearest stable molecule, “stealing” its electron. When the “attacked” molecule loses its electron, it becomes a free radical itself, beginning a chain reaction. Once the process is started, it can cascade, finally resulting in the disruption of a living cell.
Some Free radicals arise normally during metabolism. Sometimes the body’s immune system’s cell purposefully create them to neutralize viruses and bacteria. However, environmental factors such as pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke and herbicides can also spawn free radicals.
Normally, the body can handle free radicals, but if antioxidants are unavailable, or if the free-radical production becomes excessive, damage can occur. Of particular importance is that free radical damage
accumulates with age.
singlet oxygen and superoxide. This protection is found in a diverse range of molecules referred to as antioxidants. smoke and toxic heavy metals ). the metabolism of oxygen. glutathione peroxidase lipoic and acid. which cause oxidative stress. these molecules are manufactured and viruses. But in fending off infections. and numerous enzymatic reactions. or free radicals. Host cells can be damaged as well. chemicals ionizing radiation.ANTIOXIDANTS A wide range of health conditions can develop or be worsened by the presence of highly reactive and unstable oxygen molecules referred to as reactive oxygen species. peroxides. Free radicals are by-products that are formed in the body when fat molecules react with oxygen-the way a peeled apple turns brown or silver tarnishes when exposed to air. Some of the more common free radical molecules include hydroxyl radical. superoxide bilirubin. endogenous molecules: alpha . a surplus of free radicals are produced and released into surrounding tissue. dismutase. oxidized [rancid] facts. Free radicals are produced by environmental sources ( air pollution. immune system cells. Some free radical activity is required for normal physiological processes. which the body must eliminate. A potent antioxidant system is manufactured by a cell in the form of enzymes: catalase.
recharge oxidized molecules such as vitamins C and E and recirculate them back into their . cysteine. or damage to cell membranes – allowing the leakage of substance that can generate additional damage. deactivation of some enzymes. These molecules can neutralize toxic forms of oxygen ( free radicals ) or convert them into less dangerious products. are more effective in enhancing the body’s defense against all free radicals. glutathione. Some degree of oxidative stress occurs in most. Medical research shows that antioxidants taken individually do not provide a complete defense against free radicals. and essential nutrients: carotenoids. Imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense can result in oxidative stress which can cause a depletion of these molecules. exogenous molecules: bioflavonoids. since no one antioxidant destroys all free radicals. It is important to note that certain antioxidants become free radicals when they take on electrons from the free radicals they inactivate. but other antioxidants such as alpha lipoic acid and glutathione. and vitamins A. thioredoxin and urate. selenium. but a variety of antioxidants taken together. via enzymatic reactions in cells. their chemical structures change and they become free radicals ) pro-oxidant ). if not all human diseases. For example after vitamins C and E destroy free radicals. C and E. phenolic acid derivatives and proanthocyanidins. commonly referred to as an antioxidant cocktail.coenzymeQ10. mannitol. sulfhydril groups. activation of others ( such as proteases ) DNA strand breakage.
haloperidol. simvastatin. when cells are exposed to cigarette smoke. mineral hydrochlorothiazide. it is this synergistic interrelationship among antioxidants that supports the necessisity for repletion with an antioxidant cocktail rather than repletion with an individual antioxidant. lipid peroxidation occurs which is inhibited by vitamin C. choline salicylate. promethazine. furosemide. when cells are exposed to nitrogen dioxide. glipizide. neomycin.original stabilized ( antioxidant ) state. whereas vitamin C has no effect on the formation of protein carbonyls by cigarette smoke. chlorpromazine. some known carcinogens that aggravate oxidative DNA damage in vivo are powerful inhibitors of in vitro liqid peroxidation. trifluoperazine and trimipramine. Certain pharmaceutical drugs can also cause antioxidant deficiencies include aspirin. uric acid seems to be a major protective antioxidant. whereas it appears to play little role as a scavenger of hypocholorous acid. atorvastain. oral oil. As an extreme example. cortiocsteriods. In addition. isoniazid. hydralazine. thereby providing the cells with constant protection from cellular damage due to excessive and varied free radical activity. . methyldopa. lovastatin. contraceptives. benzthiazide. Similarly. glimepiride. prochlorperazine. beta-blockers. promazine. chlorothiazide. Thus.
individuals with poor liver or kidney function are particularly at risk for vitamin A deficiency. supporting epithelial regeneration. and mucous membranes. measles. prolonged use of neomycin sulfate and / or cortisone. as well as playing roles in maintaining visual and reproductive system integrity. proper cellular differentiation. . bones. skin teeth. protein deficiency. Vitamin A Storage and Target Tissues While all tissues contain trace amounts of vitamin A. proper mucosal function. acute gallbladder or respiratory intestinal disease. improving the antibody response to T-cell antigens. more than 90% of the body’s vitamin A is stored in the liver ( and the kidneys to a lesser extent ). including assistance in the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides. Consequently. steatorrhea. increasing lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. The physiological roles of vitamin A include: Maintaining glucocorticoid production. and as a precursor of retinene in the retina. Children under the age of 6 are also prone to vitamin A deficiency.VITAMIN A Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that is essential for an efficient immune system and is important in the eyes. maintaining the stability and intergrity of lysozomes and cell membranes. Vitamin A plays a number of vital roles in the human body. pancreatic. Other predisposing factors include alcoholism. parasites.
skin.Target tissues for vitamin A include the retina. The highest dietary sources of vitamin A are in fish liver oil and animal livers and kidneys. the gastroenterological/biliary system. a large number of systems can be negatively affected by vitamin A deficiency. Consequently. the pulmonary system or the digestive tract. . Poor epithelial regeneration can result in skin hyperkeratinization. The developing skeletal system also requires vitamin A. and deficiency in this nutrient can result in growth retardation as well as abnormal bone development. adrenals. bone. and the amount needed to raise plasma vitamin A levels to normal levels in vitamin A deficient individuals. as well as poor antioxidant function. The effects of vitamin A deficiency on the retina can result in night blindness and / or epithelial degeneration in the eye. The effect of vitamin A deficiency on the immune system can result in low lymphocyte count and impaired immune response. germinal epithelium. intestines and salivary glands. liver. Vitamin A Requirements and Replenishment The recommended daily allowance ( RDA ) for vitamin A has been based on the amount needed to correct night blindness in people with vitamin A deficiency. problems with the genitourinary reproductive system ( poor fertility ). Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency Vitamin A is involved in a large number of systems in the human body.
Pregnant individuals should be particularly careful to avoid excess vitamin A intake ( more than 800 ug RE/day ). and tardive dyskinesia. protecting thymic function and white blood cells from oxidative stress. alpha0tocopherol supplementation is useful in treating other cardiovascular diseases. involuntary eye movements. as it is a known morphogen. stroke and neurodegenerative disease ( Alzheimer’s ). Taking more than 30. poor coordination. and dairy products ( with the exception of cottage cheese ) are also good dietary source of vitamin A. E ( tocopherol ) Vitamin E is an antioxidant in the protection against heart disease. red blood cell fragility. Symptoms of deficiency include nerve damage. tomatoes. Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A is toxic if taken in excess over an extended period of time. anemia and retrolental fibroplasis ( eye disease ).000 ug RE/day of vitamin A over a prolonged period is generally considered toxic. In addition. and can cause abnormal fetal development at dosages above 4800 ug RE/day. It may also have applications in Parkinson’s Disease and arthritis. menopause symptoms. fibrocycstic breast disease. Vitamin E is important to immune function. . muscle weakness.Carrots. palm oil. orange fruits and green vegetables. cancer. diabetes.
( synthetic ) form. Most studies have utilized does between 200-400 IU/day. the body’s supply of this vital nutrient must be renewed daily. Synthetic forms are designated as “dl-“. gamma-tocopherol. increasing the requirement of vitamin E. either natural or synthetic.Vitamin E is available in many formations. The RDA for vitamin E ( d-a-tocopherol ) is set at 15 IU/day. Thus. Some studies report effective use of vitamin E at doses up to 3000 IU/day over a two year period without observed side effects. The biologically active form of the vitamin is the “d”-form ( natural ) and it is recommended for supplementation over the “dl”. Vitamin C has been shown to help in . and the alpha-and delta-tocotrinols have less than 50% of the biological activity than d-a-tocopherol. Beta-tocopherol. Vitamin C Is one of the many nutrients that are thought to stimulate and strengthen the immune system? This water-soluble anti-oxidant vitamin washes out of the body daily with the release of urine. as in d-a-tocopherol. The amount of vitamin E required is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fat in the diet. Natural forms of vitamin E are designated as “d-“. The more polyunsaturated fat in the diet. The more polyunsaturated fat there is in the diet. the greater the risk for oxidative damage.
which required selenium for activity.the production of the white blood cells responsible for fighting infection and illnesses. Selenium is also essential for healthy cell-mediated immune function. cancer and depressed immune function. Selenium is also needed for the activation of thyroid hormones. Selenium appears to provide protection against heart disease and stroke. stimulating immune properties of lymphocytes. cardiovascular disease. Glutathione peroxides activity. Chronic low selenium intake is associated with an increased risk for heart disease. including aging and cataract formation. . facilitates the recycling of vitamins C and E in optimizing the performance of the antioxidant system. Selenium supplementation (110 ugm/daily ) increases the ratio of HDL to LDL and inhibits platelet aggregation. Low levels of selenium have been linked to higher risk for cancer. and other conditions associated with free radical damage. Selenium This trace mineral functions primarily as a component of the antioxidant enzyme. glutathione peroxides.
Selenium is available in several different forms. selenium supplementation has been reported to exacerbate low thyroid function. brown rice. Brazil nuts. However. whole wheat bread. oats. Studies indicate that inorganic salts like sodium selenite are less effectively absorbed and not as biologically active forms of selenium. taking more than 750 mcg of selenium per day may cause toxicity with reactions such as loss of fingernails. Highest sources of dietary selenium are found in wheat germ. . In the presence of iodine deficiency goiter.Selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity are low in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. turnips. such as selenomethionine or high-selenium content yeast. eczema. Heavy metal toxicity symptoms may be alleviated by selenium. Selenium is safe at the level generally used for supplementation (100-200 mcg/day ). Immune system function is enhanced by selenium. Natural killer cells have a the ability to destroy cancer cells and bacterial and viral agents. acting as an antagonist. This is related to the increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostagladins and leukotriens. psoriasis and most inflammatory conditions. skin rash and neurological aberrations. bran red Swiss chard. Selenium efficiency may also contribute to male infertility. by contributing to higher natural killer cell (NKC) activity.
taste and vision. CD4 lymphocytes. carboxypeptidase’s ( necessary for the digestion of dietary proteins ). DNA and protein synthesis. and is a powerful stimulant to the immune system. lipid metabolism. a critical regulator of the sensory perceptions of smell. an immune-cell stimulating hormone ). zinc is required to metabolize B-complex vitamins. alkaline phosphates (which frees inorganic phosphates to be used in bone metabolism ).Zinc Activates approximately 200 enzymes with vital roles in acid/base balance. helps to regulate a wide variety of immune system activities including Tlymphocytes. digestion. gene expression. alcohol dehydrogenase ( which works in the liver to detoxify alcohol ). Zinc is also an essential component of antioxidant function. has antiinflammatory properties and has been used successfully to treat some types of arthritis. stabilizing . and controls salt-taste perception. used in the treatment of the common cold. activating the thymus gland ( which then produces thymosin. eicosanoid production. immune function. necessary for a healthy prostate gland and helps prevent benign prostatic hyperplasia. restores the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and air passages. necessary for the production of insulin and digestive enzymes. necessary for dark adaptation and night vision. carbonic anhydrase ( which helps excrete carbon dioxide ). essential fatty acids and prostaglandins. regulates vitamin A levels by controlling the release of stored vitamin A from the liver. and RNA. natural killer cells and interleukin 2.
lean meat and meat products. peas. liver nutritional supplements. legumes ( beans lentils. decreased immunity. dermatitis.cell membranes thus making them less susceptible to oxidative damage. alcoholism. Dietary sources richest in zinc ( per serving ) include eggs. fatigue. frequent infections. inflammatory bowel disease. retarded growth in a child. including humans. poor appetite. behavioral disturbances. alopecia. enriched grains and grain products. hypogonadism and delayed sexual maturation. The influence of copper upon human health is due to the fact it is part of enzymes. injuries and fractures that do not heal. potato. nuts oyster. heart disease. and some types of infertility. poor circulation. COPPER Copper ( Cu ) is a trace element that is essential for most animals. which are proteins that help biochemical . chronic inflammatory skin conditions. soybeans ). A zinc deficiency could be a contributing cause of acne. diarrhea. high cholesterol. anorexia. and is essential for the activity of superoxide dismutase-an important intracellular antioxidant enzyme. hypochlorhydria. seeds and wheat germ. eczema. prostate and other cancers.
storage and metabolism of iron. Copper is also involved with an enzyme that strengthens connective tissue (lysyl oxidase) and in brain neurotransmitters (dopamine hydroxylase and peptidyl alpha amidating monoxygenase). Excess dietary copper can also lead to high copper levels in the kidney. Copper is found in foods . Copper is found in the blood bound to proteins. Copper may be absorbed by both the stomach and small intestinal mucosa. under normal situations.0 mg or less of copper per day.0 mg/day. transports copper as well as helps convert iron to a form that can be transported to other tissues. Copper is utilized by most cells as a component of enzymes involved in energy production ( cytochrome oxidase ) and in the protection of cells from free radical damage ( superoxide dismutase ). with most absorbed by the small intestine. The uptake of copper and elimination through the bile allows copper to be conserved and tightly regulated. ceruloplasmin.reactions occur in every cell.5 – 3. Copper is involved in the absorption. Diet recommendations : The estimated safe and adequate intake for copper is 1. The average level of copper stored in the body is from 50 to 120 mg. Most copper is excreted via bile that is released into the gastrointestinal tract. One of the proteins. not much copper is excreted via the urine. The symptoms of a copper deficiency are similar to iron deficiency anemia. with most of this in the liver. Many survey studies show that Americans consume about 1. However. with minimal copper reabsorbed by intestinal cells.
Chromium Chromium deficiency is a disorder that results from an insufficient dietary intake of chromium. but not necessarily absorption. Vitamin C supplementation result in decreased copper status. organ meats ( 3. grain products and chocolate have appreciable levels of copper. the absolute amount of copper absorbed may be influenced by other dietary components. While these food items are good to excellent sources of copper.5 mg/28 g( 1 Tbsp. as opposed to glucose or cornstarch.0 to 3. It occurs rarely in developed nations. Feeding rats either source or fructose. Grains. In rats.such as nuts [ 0.7 mg/serving ). Conversely. shellfish ( 1. Copper absorption may be decreased by excess dietary iron or zinc. large doses of vitamin C can lead to copper deficiency.2 mg/serving ). decreases copper status and exacerbates the signs of copper deficiency.2 to 0. Other dietary components have an influence upon copper status. too much copper may cause an iron deficiency. Use of chromium in the body . )].8 mg/serving of beef liver ) and legumes ( 0.
Trivalent chromium is an essential trace metal and is required for the proper metabolism of sugar in humans. Sometimes minerals are added to the diet separately from food. Manganese Is a chemical elements required by living organisms. Unlike other essential trace metal chromium has not been found in a metalloprotein with biological activity. Treatment Chromium picolinate is the most commonly used synthetic supplement to correct imbalances in glucose metabolism due to chromium deficiency. called pica or geophagy. such as calcium carbonate or sodium chloride. as vitamin and mineral supplements and in dirt eating. They are trace minerals (required only in very small amounts ). . These can be naturally occurring in food or added in elemental or mineral form. and Oxygen which are ubiquitous in organic molecules. Some of these additives come from natural sources such as ground oyster shells. other than the four elements Carbon. Chromium deficiencies can affect the potency of insulin in regulating sugar balance. Therefore. the functional basis for the chromium requirement in the diet remains unexplained. Hydrogen Nitrogen.
requiring the presence of one another for full benefit. milk and spinach for Sodium Legumes. taking a multivitamin without minerals is not nearly as effective as taking one with minerals. leafy vegetables ( especially spinach ) for iron A large body of research suggests that human often can benefit from mineral supplementation. the main source ). eggs and legumes for Sulfur Red meat. whole grains.Food Sources Diary products and green leafy vegetables for calcium Nuts. soy beans and cocoa for Magnesium Table salt (sodium chloride. Extensive university research also demonstrates that the most . and bananas for Potassium Table salt is its main dietary source for Chlorine Meat. Vitamins and minerals are interdependent.
lack of Calcium heavy metal toxicity. Vitamin B12 deficiency is caused by a wide range of factors including low gastric acidity ( common in older people. and it causes anemia. ) use of acid blockers such as Prilosec T M or excessive laxative use. Vitamin B12 comes in several kinds including hydroxyl-cyanoand adenosyl-.bioavailability from of supplemental mineral is the cheated mineral ( one that is bonded to a specific-size amino acid ). but only the metghyl form is used in the central nervous system. or excessive Vitamin B12 degradation. lack of intrinsic factor. Methylcobalamin Is a type of Vitamin B12. WHAT DOES IT DO ? Methylcobalamin donates methyl groups to the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers and regenerates damaged neurons. Deficiency states are fairly common and vitamin B12 deficiency mimics many other disease states of a neurological or psychological kind. In a B12 . poor absorption from the intestines. Cyanocobalamin ( the kind in vitamin supplements is converted by the liver into methylcobalamin but not in therapeutically significant amounts.
Cell viability was markedly reduced by a brief exposure to glutamate followed by incubation with glutamate-free medium for 1h. Glutamate cytotoxicity was also prevented by chronic exposure to S-adenosylmethionine. Glutamate cytotoxicity was prevented when the cultures were maintained in methylcobalamin-containing medium. a vitamin B12 analogue. Specific conditions may require higher doses. against glutamate cytotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons Akaike A Tamura Y Sato Y Yokota T.deficiency. methylcobalamin. on glutamateinduced neurotoxicity were examined using cultured rat cortical neurons. Eur J Pharmacol (1993 Sep 7 ) 241 (1) : 1-6 The effects of methylcobalamin. Dose For every day prevention take 1 mg daily under the tongue. which is formed . Refrences in various disorders Protection via Methylcobalamin Protective effects of a vitamin B12 analogue. toxic fatty acids destroy the myelin sheath but high enough doses of B12 can repair it.
There patients were-retreated one year after the last . acute exposure to MK-801. These results indicate that chronic exposure to methylcobalamin protects cortical neurons against NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate cytotoxicity. Clin Ther ( 1987 ) 9 ( 2 ) : 183-92 Seven men and four women with symptomatic diabetic neuropathy were treated with methylcobalamin ( 2. glutamate to the cytotoxicity adding methylcobalamin glutamate-containing medium.500 micrograms in 10 ml of saline ) injected intrathecally. Chronic exposure to methylcobalamin and S-adenosylmethionine also inhibited the cytotoxicity inducedby methyl-D-aspartate or sodium nitroprusside that releases nitric oxide. Treatment was begun when patients had good metabolic control. In contrast. Methylcobalamin and Diabetic Neuropathy Clinical usefulness of intrathecal injection of methylcobalamin in patients with diabetic neuropathy Ide H Fujiya S Asanuma Y Tsuji M Sakai H Agishi Y. prevented glutamate cytotoxicity. as determined by measurements of plasma glucose and hemoglobin.a NMDA receptor antagonist. In cultures was not maintained affected in by a standard medium.in the metabolic pathway of methylcobalamin. and was repeated several times with a one-month interval between injections.
Nerve Regeneration with Methylcobalamin Ultra-high dose methylcobalamin promotes nerve regeneration in experimental acrylamide neuropathy. J Neurol Sci ( 1994 Apr ) 122 ( 2 ) : 140-3 Despite intensive searches for therapeutic agents. few substances have been convincingly shown to enhance nerve regeneration in patients with .SD ) concentration of methylcobalamin in spinal fluid was 114 +/. These findings suggest that a high concentration of methylcobalamin in spinal fluid is highly effective and safe for treating the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. The mean peroneal motor-nerve conduction velocity did not change significantly. The mean ( +/.intrathecal injections. Methylcobalamin caused no side effects with respect to subjective symptoms or characteristics of spinal fluid. such as paresthesia. and heaviness.752 +/. The effect appeared within a few hours to one week and lasted from several months to four years.504 pg/ml one month after intrathecal methylcobalamin treatment (n = 11). burning pains. Symptoms in the legs.32 pg/ml before intrathecal injection (n = 5) and 4.2. dramatically improved. Watanabe T Kaji R Oka N Bara W Kimura J.
all the rats showed equally decreased CMAP amplitudes. We examined the effects of ultra-high dose of methyl-B12 on the rate of nerve regeneration in rats with acrylamide neuropathy.peripheral neuropathies. Morphometric analysis revealed a similar difference in fiber density between these groups. rats treated with ultra-high (500 micrograms/kg body weight. Nerve Terminal Regeneration Methylcobalamin (methyl-B12 ) promotes regeneration of motor nerve terminals degenerating in anterior gracile muscle of gracile axonal dystrophy ( GAD ) mutant mouse. Neurosci Lett (1994 Mar 28 ) 170 (1) : 195-7 . The animals were then divided into 3 groups. Yamazaki K Oda K Endo C Kikuchi T Wakabayashi T. Those treated with ultra-high dose showed significantly faster CMAP recovery than saline-treated control rats. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that ultra high dose of methylcobalamin (methyl-B12) may up-regulate gene transcription and thereby protein synthesis. whereas the low-dose group showed no difference from the control. intraperitoneally ) and low ( 50 micrograms/kg ) doses of methyl-B12. and saline-treated control rats. Ultra-high doses of methyl-B12 may be of clinical use for patients with peripheral neuropathies.
although most terminals were degenerated in both the untreated and methyl-B12-treated GAD mice. In the distal endplate zone of the muscle. . therefore. required by every cell in the body to make ATP – the fuel and energy source for the body. it is not appreciably stored and.We examined the effects of methylcobalamin (methyl-B12. helps convert carbohydrates into energy. These findings indicate that methyl-B12 promotes regeneration of degenerating nerve terminals in GAD mice. VITAMINS B1 ( thiamin ) The first of the B-vitamins to be discovered: water-soluble and like other B-vitamins. the perimeter of the terminals was increased and the area of the terminals was decreased significantly in the methyl-B12-treated GAD mice. must be supplied daily. plays a major role in the conversion of blood sugar ( glucose ) into biological energy. mecobalamin ) on degeneration of motor nerve terminals in the anterior gracile muscle of gracile axonal dystrophy ( GAD ) mutant mice. sprouts were more frequently observed in the latter. GAD mice received orally methyl-B12 (1 mg/kg body wt/day ) from the 40 t h day after birth for 25 days. necessary for the maintenance of nerve function. where few degenerated terminals were seen in both groups of the mice. metabolizes fats and proteins. produces hydrochloric acid which aids in digestion. In the proximal endplate zone.
beriberi is the classical B1 deficiency syndrome. Low blood pressure and dizziness are also possible symptoms of a B1 deficiency. loss of memory. especially the heart. heart palpitation. constipation depression. fatigue. sore calf muscles and weight loss. A B1 deficiency could be a contributing cause of alcoholism. a Severe deficiency known associated as with alcohol produces condition Wernicke-Korsakoof Syndrome.nerve tissues and nerve transmission. irritability. loss of appetite. nerve damage ( numbness and tingling of the hands and/or feet ). indigestion. legumes ( beans. muscle weakness. beriberi.. rapid pulse rate. peas. In addition. it is most commonly seen in severely malnourished infacts and elderly people. impaired muscular coordination. anorexia. In addition. resulting from a B1 deficiency. psychological stress. alcohol interferes with the absorption of B1 and the vitamin is also necessary for the metabolism consumption of alcohol. It is more prevalent in Asian countries where polished rice is the staple diet. . lentils. edema. loss of reflexes in legs. and is required for the synthesis of acetylcholine which is the primary neurotransmitter involved in memory and thought processes. memory function and coma.S. enriched grains and grain products. When beriberi occurs in the U. important for the maintenance of muscular function. mental confusion. Dietary sources richest in B1 ( per serving ) include brewer’s yeast. loss of energy. chronic dieting. with symptoms ranging from mind confusion to severely impaired cognitive function.
nutritional supplements. In addition.soybeans ). red cabbage and tea should be avoided. nails and skin. and necessary for the healthy growth of hair. plays a critical role in the conversion of carbohydrates to ATP in the production of energy. B1 is easily destroyed or lost during cooking because it is heat-sensitive and water-soluble. as these foods may contain anti-thiamin factors. Excessive ingestion of certain raw fresh-water fish and shellfish. FAD and FMN are known to bind to over 100 flavoprotein enzymes which catalyse oxidationreduction reactions in cells. These enzymes include the oxidases which function aerobically. . nutritional yeasts. has important antioxidant activity. blueberries. it is not appreciably stored in therefore must be supplied daily. rice bran and wheat germ. necessary for growth and reproduction. flavoprotein enzymes function as hydrogen carriers in the electron transport system resulting in the production of ATP and energy within the mitochondria. combines with phosphoric acid to become part of two important flavin co-enzymes: FAD ( flavin adenine dinucleotide ) and FMN ( flavin mononucleotide ). both by itself and as part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. pork. organ meats. and dehydrogenases which function anaeobically. B2 ( riboflavin ) Water-soluble and like other B-vitamins. fats and proteins. coffee. facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates. in energy production.
dementia. liver. and soreness and burning of the lips. A B2 deficiency frequently overlaps with deficiencies of B3. angular stomatitis. itching. milks and dairy productas. sebborheic dermatitis ( dry. In addition.nutrional supplements. Because it is water-soluble. eyes that tire easily. Dietary sources richest in B2 ( per serving ) include avocado. muscle cramp.B2 is absorbed from the upper part of the small intestine and thus. nutritional yeasts and oyster. compromised immune function. enriched grains and grain products. reddening and tearing of the eyes. mouth and tongue ( possible magenta-colored tongue ). cataracts. burning. and a severe deficiency can also cause depression and hysteria. slow wound healing. chelosis ( cracks in the corners of the mouth ). B2 is heat stable but very sensitive to destruction by light.fish (especially salmon and tuna). dark green leafy vegetables. excessive stress. fish ( expecially salmon and tuna ). itchy scaly skin ) and scaling eczema of the face and genitals may develop. substantial amounts are lost by leaching into water when cooking.A B2 deficiency could be a contributing cause of acne. B6 and/or iron. meats milk and diary products. blod-shot eyes and an extreme sensitivity to light. when repleting the diet with a nutritional supplement. egg. it is best absorbed when taken with food.liver. chronic diarrhea. meats. Since B-2 exist in the germ and .
A B3 deficiency could be a contributing cause of anorexia. making. indigestion muscular . elevated cholesterol. at certain dosages. making it critical in supplying energy to and maintaining the function of every cell in the body. and cholesterol). stimulates histamine release witch causes temporary vasodilation and the characteristic “niacin flush”. lowers blood pressure and improves circulations. digestive heart disease. milling and processing of grains results in substantial losses. important in the oxidation-reductions reaction the function of every cell in the Krebs Cycle involving the production of energy from carbohydrates.bran of gains. as it is part of the glucose tolerance factor of yeast which enhances response to insulin. fatigue. B3(niacinamide) Niacin-containing co-enzymes NAD and NADP are involved in more that 200 different reactions in the metabolism of amino acids. and helps to minimize hypoglycemic symptoms and can reduce the craving for sweets. has shown to have increases HDL ( the “good” activity resembling anti-anxiety benzodiazepines. headache. carbohydrates and fatty acids. depression. glossitis and skin lesions. reduces LDL ( the “bad” cholesterol )and triglycerides. arthritis . .insomnia hypochlorhydria muscle fatigue and other problem. hypertension.
Dermatitis and Diarrhea. synthesizes RNA. fish legumes ( beans. lean . Severe B3 deficiency is known as pellagra which means “rough skin”. indigestion insomnia muscle fatigue. deficiencies of B1. helping to break down and convert amino acids to energy and fatty acids. norepinephrine. poor circulation. essential for the synthesis of tryptophan and the conversion of tryptophan to niacin ( vitamin B3 ). lentils.nervorhydria and other digestive problems. necessary for enzyme activity. GABA. peanut. muscular nervousness/anxiety. organ meats. B2 and/or B6 commonly accompany ( or can cause )a B3 deficiency. required for the production of neurotransmitters derived from amino acids such as serotonin. B6 (pyridoxine ) Required by the body to metabolize proteins. Symptoms of pellagra are characterized by the three D’s: Dementina. potato and poultry. soybeans ). acetylcholine . peanut butter. nutritional yeasts.B3 is also synthesized by intestinal bacteria. works with magnesium to prevent the formation of calcium deposits. forms antibodies which are essential to protect the body against infection. schizophrenia and sleep disorders. In addition. muscle protein and smooth muscle function. Dietary sources richest in B3 ( per serving ) include brewer’s yeast.meats. insulin. DNA. enriched grains and grain products. milk nutritional supplements. hemoglobin. gallstones and kidney stones. pears.
vomiting and weakness. convulsion’s decreased alertness. nerve sleep inflammation. A B6 deficiency could be a contributing cause of anemia. kidney stones. lowers homocysteine levels ¾ reducing the risk of heart disease ( when used in combination with B12 and folate ). B6 helps to regulate essential fatty acids. calcium deposits. useful in treating depression ( B6 is involved in the synthesis of serotonin ). disturbances. eventually leading to atherosclerosis and other forms of heart disease. seborrheic nausea. dermatitis. premenstrual syndrome. Further. B6 is helpful for women during pregnancy. facilitates the conversion of glycogen to glucose for energy production. In heart disease. irritability. lethargy. heart disease. dermatitis. reduces symptoms of toxemia. insomnia. play a role in regulating the level of fats in the blood. anxiety.and histamine. gallstones. depression. useful in treating premenstrual syndrome associated with oral contraceptives ( estrogens inhibit the absorption of B6 ). Current scientific research confirms that elevated homocysteine levels increase the risk of heart disease by damaging coronary arteries. altered mobility. B6 is an essential co-factor for 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase. and lowers homocysteine levels when used in combination with B12 and folate. and when combined with magnesium. carpal tunnel syndrome. an enzyme that . and may help protect from a heart attack resulting from a clot forming in a damaged coronary artery. B6 also reduces birth defects and is used to treat childhood autism.
Pantothenic Acid ( Also known as B5 ) Plays a number of essential metabolic roles including the production of some hormones and neurotransmitters. pantothenate participates in a wide variety of enzymatic reactions transferring two-carbon units ( acetyl groups ) within cells throughout the body. enriched grains and grain products. strengthens the immune system ( the adrenal glands must have B5 to produce their hormones which help manage stress and resist infection ). Dietary sources richest in B6 ( per serving ) include bananas. nutritional yeasts. legumes ( beans lentils. a B6 deficiency can limit the brain’s ability to synthesize serotonin. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression. Pantothenate. Thus. plays a vital role in energy production from food used in the metabolism of fats. peas. helps reduce arthritic symptoms of pain and . and for the synthesis of steroids. as a constituent of co-enzyme A ( CoA ). nutritional supplements. and especially liver ). brewer’s yeast. potato and wheat germ. carbohydrates and protein. meats and meat products ( particularly organ meats. provides an anti-stress effect since CoA is necessary for the synthesis of steroid hormones and proper functioning of the adrenal glands. cholesterol and bile. soybeans ).catalyses one of the steps in the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin.
fatigue. slow wound healing and susceptibility to infection. chicken. increased heart rate. fertility problems. irritability. vegetables ( especially broccoli. Folate (Folic Acid ) Like B12. cauliflower. seeds. and has been reported to improve the stress reactions of well nourished individuals and to relieve “burning feet” syndrome. fish. wheat germ. nutritional supplements. nausea. when a folate deficiency is . phospholipids and prophyrin in the metabolism of acetaldehyde. nutritional yeasts. lentils. Dietary sources richest in pantothenate ( per serving ) include eggs. peas soybeans ). necessary for the synthesis of acetylcholine. and carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs. and the metabolism of all amino acids. vital to producing red blood cells ( erythrocytes ) which carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. burning feet. nuts.stiffness. helps maintain normal uric acid levels which may helps prevent arthritis associated with gout. legumes ( beans. and whole grains and grain products. indigestion. depression. meats. fainting. lean beef. insomnia. burning/pain of the arms and legs. tomato and white and sweet potatoes ). liver. A pantothenate ( B5 ) deficiency could be a contributing cause of arthritis. folate is intimately involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. hair loss.
it can result in anemia and reduced tissue oxygenation. cervical dysplasia. hypersegmentation of neutrophils and with severe deficiency-intestinal lesions. gum disease. which. megaloblastic anemia . and has been shown to prevent and reverse cervical dyplasia. heart disease. hair loss. elevated homocysteine. glossitis. reducing the risk of heart disease ( research confirms that elevated homocysteine status increases the risk of heart disease by damaging coronary arteries. in turn. essential for the health of the fetus in preventing spina bifida ( neural tube defects ) and other birth defects. may protect against certain types of cancers including bronchial squamous metaplasia in long-time heavy cigarette smokers. constipation. cancer. and precancerous cervical dysplasia in women ( especially those who take oral contraceptives ). A folate deficiency could be a contributing cause of anorexia. lowers homocysteine levels ( when used in combination with B6 and B12 ). results in a condition known as megaloblastic anemia. essential for the healthy maturation of red and white blood cells. dysplasia associated with ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine and thus. insomnia. diarrhea. eventually leading to atherosclerosis and other forms of heart disease ).present. headache. increased infections. chronic fatigue.
B12 deficiency. wheat germ. dark green leafy vegetables. cantaloupe. increased rate of cellular division ( burns. especially in cells with the most rapid rates of turnover ( epithelial cells of the stomach. vagina and uterine cervix. trauma ). methotrexate. egg. cauliflower. Water Soluble Vitamins . legumes ( beans [ particularly kidney and lima ]. pyrimethamine ). intestine. nutritional supplements. liver. sulfasalazine therapy. infants. malnourished. broccoli. pregnant and lactating womens. brussel sprouts. anti-convulsant therapy ( barbiturates. tuberculosis therapy ( isoniazid plus cycloserine). and restless legs. Further. soybeans ). leukocytes and red blood cells ). haemolytic anemia. cabbage. Folate is easily destroyed by heat. malignancies. folate antagonist therapy ( 5-fluorouricil. Dietary sources richest in folate ( per serving ) include beet. inherited folate disorders. orange juice. neural tube defects and other birth defects. nutritional yeasts. nuts. malabsorption. oral contraceptive users.( identical in appearance to a B12 deficiency ). light and oxygen. lentils. phenytoin. elderly. nausea. seeds. and whole grains and grain products. memory impairment. primidone ). and substantial losses occur in cooking and storage. individuals at highest risk for a folate deficiency include alcoholics. peas. paranoia. Folate deficiency also harms DNA metabolism which caused abnormal cellular development.
dementia.2 to 1. Riboflavin ( B2 ) Cofactor for oxidative enzymes.3 mg mouth & tongue. legumes Pyridoxine(B6) : Cereals. peanuts.Name/Source Functions/Deficiency Daily human requirements Thiamine ( B 1 ) : Cereals. lesions in lips. convulsions in children. . meats Biotin : Meats. M : 1.2 to 1. legumes. M : 1.1 mg Beribery: cardiac failure. liver. organ meats. vegetables Cololamin(B12): (Cyano balamin) Metabolism proteins & fats.7 – 2 mg F : 1. fruits Impaired growth. Amino acid metabolism Lesions in lips. Meats. fruits. & Dermatitis. established 4 – 7 mg RDA 30 – Neuromuscular degeneration Co-enzyme in Carbohydrate. F : 1 to 1. synthesis of 2 mcg & psychosis RBC & Myelin. peripheral No RDA M : 1.4 – 1. Pellagra : Diarrhoea.5 mg productions of energy from Glucose. liver Carbohydrace ( adults ) metabolism. of carbohydrates. F : 1.8 mg : Niacin : ( nicotinic acid ) Cereals. fruits. alopecia & neuropathy 100 mcg For DNA replication. mouth & tongue. Pernicious anaemia. established Dermatitis.6 mg M : 15 to 20 mg F : 13 to 15 mg neuropathy with INH.4 to 1. Part of co-enzymes necessary for Dehydrogenation in metabolism. neuropathy & encephalopathy. fatty No acid & Amino acid metabolism. vegetables. Panththenic acid Part of Co-enzyme A involved in : Milk.
tissue repair. capillary bleeding. Megaloblastic anaemia Collagen formation. adrenal gland function. Antioxidant. neuropathy Formation of DNA along with B12 150 – 200 mcg milk Folic Acid : Liver. fruits. delayed wound healing 50 – 60 mg cereals Vitamin C : (Ascorbic acid) Fruitsw/ vegetables .Liver. Scurvy : bleeding gums. meats.
oils Vitamin K Night blindness. immune F : 4000 units Liver. factor. egg. thickening & / drying of conjunctiva.Fat Soluble Vitamins Name / Source Functions / Deficiency Daily human requirements Vitamin A ( Retinol ) : ( adults ) Function of retina. milk. fish function & Prevention for cancer. Antioxidant action. Rickets (deformed & soft bones ) & Osteomalacia. differentiation & M : 5000 units growth of epithelial tissue. oil. Muscle weakness. Regulator of calcium metabolism & 200 – 400 units bone meneralisation.Bleeding tendencies. wheat germ. Prothrobin synthesis. fish oil. vegetables fruits Vitamin D : Liver. milk Vitamin E : Milk. clothing . haemolytic anaemia in cases of fat M : 10 mg F : 8 mg malabsorption. vegetables.
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