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The University of New Mexico Dept. of Physics and Astronomy PHYSICS 307L: Junior Laboratory Fall 2006
Professor Michael Gold office: 1111 (277-2086) , lab: 131 (277-3604) E-mail: mgold@unm.edu

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Contents
0.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 7 7 7 7 8 10 12 14 15 15 15 16 18 19 19 21 21 21 22 22 23 24 25

1 The Oscilloscope 1.1 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Review of Basic Oscilloscope Functions 1.2.1 Basic Structure . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Bandwidth and Risetime . . . . 1.2.3 Controls and Operating Modes 1.2.4 Applications and Examples . . 1.3 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Ratio e/m for Electrons Objective . . . . . . . . . . Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure . . . . . . . . . . Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative Experiments . . Questions . . . . . . . . . .

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3 Electron Diffraction 3.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Apparatus . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Important Precautions . . 3.5 Experimental Procedure . 3.6 Data Taking and Analysis 3.7 References . . . . . . . . .

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4 Balmer Series 27 4.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 iii

. . . . .2. . . . .5 Experiment 2: Determination of h . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .1. . .5. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . .2 Helmholtz Coils . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .1 Procedure . . . . . . .3 The h/e Experiment . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . Neon . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Theory . . . . .1 Using the Filters . . . . . .2. .1 The Probe Unit . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .4 The Hydrogen Spectrum . . . . . 7 Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Method . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .2.1 ESR in Theory . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Apparatus . . . 7. . . . . . . 4. .2 The ESR Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .5 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 33 36 36 37 37 39 39 39 39 41 41 42 42 42 45 45 49 49 49 51 51 51 51 53 54 54 5 Planck’s Constant 5. . . . . . . . . .6 Technical Information on the h/e Apparatus 6 Excitation and Ionization Energies of 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Theory . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .2 Analysis . . . iv . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Experiment 1: The Photon Theory of Light 5. .3 ESR in Research . .6 References . . . 7. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 7. . . . . . .3 Equipment and Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 4.2 Apparatus . .1 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Photoelectric Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .3 Calibration of the Spectrometer 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 References . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .2 Background Theory . . . .3 Basic ESR Setup . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .2 ESR in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .2 Method . . March 1981 D “Determination of the rest-mass energy of the electron. . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Am J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nov. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . . 54 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 61 63 65 65 65 66 71 73 75 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Am J. . . 8. . . . . . . . Phys Vol 45 No 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .5 Analysis .. . . . . . . . .3 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . A General References B Tables C “Energy Levels in helium. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977 89 E Interactions of Electrons and Photons with Matter F Radiation Dosages 93 103 v . .4 Speed of Light c Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .”. . 9 Mass of the Electron 9. . 8 Poisson Statistics 8.. . . . . 9. . .1 Preface . . . . . . .2 10. . .3 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Objective .6 References . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Taking ESR Data 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparatus . .2 Theory . . . . . . .7. . . . . . 9. . . . Phys Vol 49 No 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .”. . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . 10 The 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .

The course schedule http://www-hep. 13:00-13:50. Perform the experiments with a partner.unm. the most precise and accurate) experiment within the constraints of the available resources (equipment. 135. time.just like in real research! 2. • perform the best possible (i. • learn how to use various types of hardware.Introduction 1 1. General Information: Prerequisite: exposure to Modern Physics at the P330 level. • learn basic statistics. Lab: M/W 14:00-16:50 rooms 116. and determination of statistical and systematic errors. and software. You are expected to show up well-prepared for the lab so that you should be able to complete the data collection for most the experiments in one afternoon session. If possible. room 5.e. Weekly lecture: M.) .phys. hence based on experiment. instrumentation. error analysis. Purpose of this Course: Physics is science. This lecture will cover (at an introductory and practical level) basic electronics. Except for the oscilloscope experiment we have only one set-up per experiment. Therefore you have to sign-up (with the TA or instructor) for an experiment the week before starting .html will be continuously updated.edu/∼gold/phys307L/schedule. Please consult the instructor if you have not taken this course. etc. do your own data analysis and write your own lab reports. error analysis and statistics as well as essential elements of the laboratory physics and apparatus. This course is meant as an introduction to modern experimental techniques. In this course you will: • apply the theory you have learned in the real (experimental) world. The majority of research physicists do experiments and make measurements. but keep your own lab notebook. You nominally sign up for one of the two sessions. a brief introduction to the use of MatLab for graphing and fitting of data will also be given.

Each experiment must begin on a new page and be labeled by its number. 4. observations. Remember that you have limited time to spend for the performance of an experiment . any pages that have a line drawn through will be ignored. (It will be obvious to the instructor when you haven’t done this!) You may want to look at the apparatus of your next experiment in the week before actually doing it. Pages are not to be torn out. and lab partner. .2 Introduction it. The first page will be an index for your experiments 1-10. Preparation for each Experiment: The key to this course is to read and study the write-up (including reference material) before coming to the laboratory. as well as a description of the apparatus. date started. All raw data must appear in the notebook.do not spend this valuable time on preparations which should be done prior to coming into the lab. calculations and answers to questions regardless of whether a formal write-up is being done for this experiment. This log will be examined periodically and it has to be handed in together with the final lab report at the end of the semester. Lab notebook Data and observations must be recorded in a lab notebook: The notebook must be bound and have numbered pages. Please keep in mind the schedule– it is your responsibility to complete the experiments on time! 3.

Guidelines for writing lab reports: The lab report is an exercise in critical thinking and scientific writing. for example from the error on the fit to a slope. When relevant. as well as usage of the English language. #6 Analysis and Results: . Lab reports must be typed. poor] agreement of the accepted value v [unit]”. good. Imagine that you were designing the experiment. Derive and discuss any formulas used in applying calibrations and calculating derived quantities from your data. What is the scientific reason for doing the experiment? #3 Method: Briefly describe the apparatus and procedure. #2 Introduction: Explain the goals of the experiment.Introduction 3 5. For example. ”Our experimental test of the hypothesis h yields a value of [chisq/degree of freedom]. #5 Data: Briefly describe how the data was taken. in agreement with the hypothesis at a confidence level of xx %”. fair. Discuss how calibrations were done. Include an estimate of the systematic error. Display calibration data in a table. No handwritten reports will be accepted . #1 Abstract: A concise (short paragraph) statement of the objective of the experiment. This should not be a repeat or summary of the lab manual. the results (including errors and accepted values if relevant) and the conclusion. Should include one or both of the following sentences: ”We have measured q = (xx ± yy)x10z [unit] in [excellent. how would you design the Helmholtz coils? #4 Calibrations: Explain what calibrations are necessary. but rather a reflection of your understanding of what the important components are and how they work. Describe and include any fits that were done to obtain calibration constants. Present calibrated and derived data in a table or tables. hand-drawn sketches of the experimental apparatus are acceptable. Present the raw data in a well organized table or tables. including choice of data points.

Include a list of systematic errors considered and discuss how each was estimated. Speculate on the cause of any discrepancies. and suggest further experimentation that might resolve such discrepancies. conjecture on additional systematics that you did not have time to investigate.g. etc. Discuss in detail your calculations of statistical and systematic errors. What is the major source of systematic error that you have considered? If necessary. de Broglie). #7 Conclusions: Compare your results with expected values and/or discuss how well hypotheses were verified.) done to obtain your final results for parameters measured and/or hypotheses tested (e.4 Introduction Describe any analysis (calculations of averages.. . fits. Answer all questions in the lab manual or additional questions asked by the instructor. graphs.

Introduction

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5. List of Experiments:
The following 10 experiments are to be done this semester1 • The oscilloscope • e/m Ratio for Electrons (dark) • Electron Diffraction (very dark, and works marginally) • Balmer Series (dark) • Planck’s Constant (dark) • Excitation Levels of Neon • Electron Spin Resonance • Poisson Statistics (MCA) • Mass of the Electron (MCA) • Speed of Light (MCA) Important Notes: The oscilloscope experiment must be done first. It is recommended that the next four experiments which are less challenging be done next. (They require a dark room and are set up in room 135.) The last three use a computer interfaced multichannel (pulse-height) analyzer (MCA). Take time to read the technical information on this instrument and to familiarize yourself with its operation. The Poisson statistics and electron mass are easist to do sequentially as they use the same equipment. It is recommended that you do some quick data analysis while you’re still taking data, i.e. using some of your measured numbers calculate a couple final results. This way you can check right away whether your results are more or less as expected.

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The five underlined exeriments are to be written up as formal lab reports.

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Introduction

6. Requirements/Grade:
Complete all 10 experiments, which should not take you more than about 12-13 afternoons. We like to emphasize quality over quantity. This pace allows you to take additional data on any given experiment if your analysis reveals problems with your initial data set. You will formally write up only 5 of the 10 experiments. The grade will be based primarily on the five lab reports (underlined in the above list). Also important is the completeness of your lab book, In addition, general performance in the lab will be considered. There will be no midterm, but there will be a comprehensive final exam, in which you will be expected to demonstrate understanding and successful completion of all 10 experiments undertaken. More details on the final exam will be given later.

Experiment 1 The Oscilloscope
1.1 Preface

This simple experiment will help you gain familiarity with one of the most useful and most widely used instruments in any physics lab, the oscilloscope. In addition, you will compare the oscilloscope with the digital multimeter (DMM).

1.2
1.2.1

Review of Basic Oscilloscope Functions
Basic Structure

Despite its apparent complexity, the oscilloscope, in its most frequent application, may simply be considered as a voltmeter which visually displays the input voltage signal as a curve in time. Visual representation of the signal is provided by means of a cathode-ray tube (CRT) and two pairs of deflecting electrode plates which control the vertical and horizontal movement of the CRT electron beam. When a signal appears at the input, it is first amplified, then split in two. One part is applied to the vertical-deflection plates, while the other is used to trigger a generator which applies a linear ramp voltage to the horizontal-deflection plates. This latter voltage causes the beam to be swept horizontally across the screen at a constant speed. Since the beam is now also being deflected vertically in proportion to the input signal, a curve representing the waveform of the signal in time is produced. This is the simplest and most important operation mode of the oscilloscope. Examples of further applications are given later.

1.2.2

Bandwidth and Risetime

One of the most important operating characteristics of the oscilloscope is the bandwidth of the vertical amplifier. This parameter essentially governs how fast a signal can be 7

This controls the vertical scale. GND . The risetime displayed for a signal with a risetime tpulse will thus be a combination of the risetime of the pulse and the 2 oscilloscope risetime. a signal with a perfectly vertical rising edge (0 risetime) will be displayed as a signal with a finite risetime (tosc ).2.4 ns. A rough relation between the bandwidth and this risetime is given by the formula tosc [ns] = 350/f3db [M Hz]. the input impedance of the oscilloscope is very high (make sure you understand why!). Vertical and Horizontal Sensitivity VERTICAL SENSITIVITY . this allows a visual comparison of two or more signals.This determines the speed at which the beam is swept across the screen and thus the horizontal scale. 1.make sure you know how this is done. as well as ac frequencies are displayed. some oscilloscopes also provide a switch which allows selection of a 50Ω input impedance so as to obviate cable termination. Otherwise this termination can easily be achieved with a BNC T and a 50Ω terminator . Depending on how triggering is performed. the oscilloscope has an intrinsic risetime of its own. i. the indicated settings are only valid in the calibrated . For fast signal viewing from 50Ω cables.e.3 Controls and Operating Modes Input Coupling As in any good voltmeter. in parallel with a small capacitance on the order of 10-20 pF. An approximate formula for tdisp is given by t2 = t2 disp pulse + tosc . Note that these markings are only valid when the vernier is in the calibrated position! TIME .6 ns risetime. DC .8 Oscill0scope accepted and correctly displayed by the oscilloscope without distortion.The input signal is directly shunted to ground. At each input. This is especially important for signals from detectors such as photomultipliers which can emit pulses of nanosecond risetime. Similarly.5 ns risetime) will thus be displayed as a pulse with a 4. Because of the finite bandwidth of the amplifier. On most oscilloscopes a vernier control is available which allows a continuous adjustment between the indicated markings. Thus varying signals superimposed onto a constant dc level may be seen. where f3db is the bandwidth of the oscilloscope in Megahertz. if a 10 ns risetime is measured on the same oscilloscope. Again. the true risetime of the signal is tpulse = 9.In this mode any constant dc level is suppressed and only nonzero ac frequencies are displayed. the type of coupling may be selected: AC . A 3 ns risetime pulse on a 100 MHz oscilloscope (→ 3. On most oscilloscopes two (sometimes more) inputs are available allowing the simultaneous display of several signals.dc constant levels. usually 1M Ω.

Triggering is made on the ac line voltage. This is useful for finding the trace and adjusting its position on the screen. When a signal is present.Only one single sweep is made. synchronization is as in the normal mode. the horizontal sweep of the oscilloscope is activated only when there is a triggering signal satisfying certain conditions. LEVEL or THRESHOLD .In this mode no sweep is made unless a triggering signal satisfying the desired conditions is present. For most beginners.Triggering is done by the input signal itself as outlined above. T rigger M odes NORMAL . Signal Source INTERNAL .Selects the slope of the signal on which triggering should be made. for example. input. EXTERNAL . EXTERNAL X . the time base generator is disconnected allowing the horizontal deflection of the beam to be controlled by an external voltage applied at the EXT-X or channel-2 input. . DELAYED SWEEP . The conditions for a trigger include the slope of the signal and its amplitude.Oscilloscope 9 position. T rigger Conditions SLOPE .A continuous sweep is performed even if no signal is present at the input. As we have seen. In this manner a precise point on the signal may be selected for the beginning of the sweep. SINGLE SWEEP . Normally. depending on the mode selected. AUTO .In this mode the time sweep is made after a certain delay time determined by the delay setting dial.When in this position. this produces a steady trace on the display screen.In this position the internal ramp generator is disconnected and the horizontal movement of the beam is controlled by the voltage at the X-input. This triggering signal may be the input signal itself or some other external signal.Triggering is made by an externally applied signal at the EXT. Trig.This defines the voltage level at which triggering of the sweep begins. LINE . At all other times the screen remains blank. positive signals are triggered on the positive slope and negative signals on the negative slope. For a repetitive signal such as a sine wave. Triggering(Synchronization) Triggering or synchronization is the most important adjustment to be made when using the oscilloscope. This is the normal mode of operation. EXTERNAL or X-INPUT . always starting at the same point on the signal. Signals not reaching this minimum level are therefore not displayed. failure to obtain a trace is usually due to setting this level incorrectly.

The two signals are thus “chopped” in appearance. one f ull sweep is made alternatively for each channel. check the . check the following (not necessarily in the order listed!) 1) Check slope and trigger level. i. ALTERNATE . ADD .4 Applications and Examples Signal Viewing Figure 1. if that is what you are using).Displays channels 1 and 2 on alternate sweeps. If no signal is observed.Displays channel 2 only.e. CHANNEL 2 .1: Normal signal viewing Display Modes CHANNEL 1 .2. This mode is useful for comparing the relation between two signals. This is usually done at a high frequency on the order of 500 kHz. If there is still no trace.10 Oscill0scope Figure 1. CHOP . 2) Check that the trigger is on internal (or external. 1.The signals in channels 1 and 2 are added and displayed.Displays channel 1 only.1 shows the scheme for normal signal viewing. 3) Is the trace positioned on the screen? Put on Auto (if not already) and position trace with the horizontal and vertical position knobs.In this mode the display is alternated between channels 1 and 2 during a sweep.

Quite obviously only those linear signals which pass through the discriminator will be displayed since only these signals will have a trigger. 6) Are you sure of your input signal? Try one that you know exists.4. 1. With the display on Alternate. A second example of signal comparison is checking the threshold of a discriminator or setting the levels of a Single Channel Analyzer (SCA). If the oscilloscope is not equipped with two channels an alternate scheme is to use the external trigger.Oscilloscope 11 Figure 1. 4) Check the horizontal and vertical scales. 1. The output of the SCA or discriminator is used to trigger the scope for viewing the linear signal.2. Are they about the right order of magnitude for the signal you are observing? 5) Check that the input is not on OFF or GND.3. Comparison of Signals Signals may be compared in time and amplitude using the setup in Fig. This is the usual method for setting coincidences. the relation in time of the second signal can be seen. The oscilloscope sweep is triggered by either A or B according to the selection on the trigger source.2: setting a coincidence intensity. Note that a delay must be added in order to take into account the processing time of the SCA or discriminator. This is shown in Fig. shown in Fig. In this way a certain amplitude may be selected . 1.

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Oscill0scope

Figure 1.3: using the external trigger or the level of the discriminator checked with respect to the noise.

1.3

Procedure

Review Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s two laws, and simple circuit analysis. You will need to be thoroughly familiar with those topics. In class we will also discuss the idea of complex impedance for AC circuits – resistance (R) and reactance (X): Z(ω) = R + iX(ω). In this formalism, one can apply Kirchoff’s laws to AC circuits with capacitors and inductors just for DC circuits with resistors. The current and voltage are now frequency dependent (the real part of complex V,I). Pure capacitive elements contribute a reactance to the circuit X = 1/(iωC), and pure inductive elements a reactance X = iωL. You will be using the Heathkit ET-1000 Circuit Design Trainer from the 308 lab of next semester as a signal generator and a power supply. Familiarize yourself with its layout and its options. Also make sure that any potential switch on the scope probe is in the ×1 position. 1. Start by examining a low DC voltage (say +5 V) on the scope. Then examine sine

Oscilloscope

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Figure 1.4: setting the levels of a discriminator (SCA) and triangular waves of different frequencies, and compare the measured frequency with the dial setting on the Heath Trainer. Always compare your measured result with your expectation. 2. Compare (for relatively low frequencies, ≈ 100 Hz) the sine wave on the scope with the DMM reading of the same sine wave. Why are the two measurements different, i.e. what is actually measured in the two instruments? For the scope measurements is there any noticeable difference between using AC and DC coupling? 3. Study the difference between AC and DC coupling by looking at a sine wave from our Wavetek Function Generator. Make sure that the DC offset is initially set to zero. Now vary the DC offset on the Function Generator and carefully observe the difference on the scope between AC and DC coupling. Note how with AC coupling the scope display is independent of the DC offset of the input signal, whereas under DC coupling you can move the sine wave up/down the scope display by varying the DC offset. Make sure you understand the implications of using AC/DC coupling and how one can disentangle AC and DC components of a signal or waveform.

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Oscill0scope 4. Take a low voltage DC power supply and with the scope examine and measure its AC “ripple”, i.e. the (hopefully small!) AC component sitting on top of the DC. 5. Build a voltage divider from two 10KΩ resistors. 6. Derive an expression for Vout as a function of Vin . Use Vin around 20V and 10k for the two resistors. 7. With a DMM measure the actual values of R1 , R2 , Vin , Vout , and the current I. Compare Vout and I with your calculated expectations and comment. 8. Now for a quantitative comparison of the input impedances of DMM (typically 10MΩ) and scope (typically 1MΩ). Measure Vout also with the scope, compare with the DMM reading, and comment. 9. Now change R2 in such a way that you would expect a difference in Vout between scope and DMM readings. Compare both readings with the expected Vout , and explain the differences.

10. Build an AC circuit by replacing in the voltage divider R1 → Z1 = 1/(iωC) and Z2 = R. What is the characteristic frequency of the circuit? Plot the circuit gain and phase as a function of frequency. (I suggest using MATLAB for the plotting.) Now choosing appropriate values for C and R measure the gain and phase shift with your scope and a waveform generator. Does it agree with your calculation? If time permits, repeat with Z1 = R and Z2 = iωL.

1.4

References

[1] Melissinos and Napolitano, Ch. 3.

For coils of N wires each carrying current I.8 × 10−4 weber ) × I. therefore −7 B = (7. x = R/2. amp − meter2 (2. (2. Thomson first measured the charge-to-mass ratio (e/m) of the electron. and the radius of curvature r we can detetermine the ratio e/m. It was Thompson’s hypothesis of the electron’s existence. B= µR2 N I (R2 + x2 ) 2 3 .2 Theory In 1897 J.1) In the Helmholtz configuration.2) By measuring V. Some time later R. 15 . and its charge-to-mass ratio.A.Experiment 2 The Ratio e/m for Electrons 2. In our apparatus N = 130 and R = .J. Millikan determined the charge of the electron and resolved this ratio using an electric field alone.1 Objective Study the effects of electric and magnetic fields on a charged particle and measure the charge-to-mass ratio (e/m) of the electron. Helmholtz coils give us a simple solution for the value of the magnetic field along the axis of symmetry.15 meters. His experiment involved analyzing the electron’s motion in an electric and magnetic field. that lead to the concept of the first atomic particle. 2. The permeability of free space µ = 4π × weber 10 amp−meter .I. having radius R show that the field along the symmetry axis x is given by.

1 shows the apparatus. 2.5 A to the heater jacks of the electron gun at the right side of the base panel. the accelerating voltage must be measured with an accurate dc voltmeter connected at the jacks labelled Voltmeter on the base panel. Turn on the Heater supply and allow the electron gun filament to heat up for two minutes. The high voltage applied to the anode of the gun accelerates the electrons boiled off from the cathode to form the necessary electron beam. this supply also powers the small scale lamps on the coil brackets. The value of this voltage determines the average velocity of the electrons in the beam and appears in the final expression for the ratio of e/m. you should be able to see the violet hue of the electron beam projecting horizontally from the electron gun.3 V (ac or dc. Connect a regulated 6-9 Vdc supply rated at 2 A to the Helmholtz coil jacks. With the accelerating voltage on. Regardless of the metering on your high voltage supply. Besides powering the heating element. The e/m tube is filled with helium at a pressure of ∼ 10−2 mm Hg. Key to Figure 2.1 E Envelope to vacuum tube G Electron Gun F Focusing element of gun Z Heater or filament of gun within cathode A Anode of gun S Electron Beam H Helmholtz Coils B Space of magnetic field M Mirror scale W Lamps to measure r All Others Various connectors as labelled Turn the Current Adjust control to zero and set the switch on the panel to the e/m position. Lastly connect a high voltage source of 150-300 Vdc rated at 40 mA to the Electrode jacks of the electron gun. Nothing should be connected to the jacks labelled Def lection P lates at this time. At the end of this time apply a 200 Vdc potential from the high voltage supply to the Electrodes for the initial value of accelerating voltage.3 Procedure Fig. A wire wound potentiometer control to the right of the coil jacks on the panel serves to adjust the current in the coils.3 V!) supply rated at 1. You will need to connect an ammeter in series between the supply and the coil jacks so that you can measure the current to 1% or better accuracy. Be sure to observe the color-coded polarity on all input jacks. For proper viewing of the beam this experiment should be conducted in a darkened room or in subdued lighting . Now connect a 6. but do not exceed 6.16 Electron charge/mass 2.

Turn on the coil current and increase the Current Adjust control from zero to a current value that bends the beam around into a complete circle on itself. This brings the beam and gun into .Electron charge/mass 17 Figure 2. It may be necessary to rotate the tube socket until the end of the curving beam strikes between the two wire leads supplying the heating filament on the left side of the electron gun. using a black cloth hood to mask the tube and to backdrop the beam.1: Charge-to-Mass Ratio Apparatus.

if the voltage is too high.76 × 1011 coul. To overcome this defect.18 an exact parallel position with the plane of the coils. I. However. take a mean of the two radii for the value of r. Each side of the beam loop may have a slightly different radius of curvature. . take enough data point to be able to do the following. due to the fact that both sources of error mentioned cause the radius to be measured as smaller than it should be. For about ten different combinations of accelerating voltage V and coil current I record the corresponding value of the radius r. and r is proportional to ve . the electron beam radius involves kg by far the largest error because the beam is enclosed in a glass envelope forcing a sighting measurement to be made at a distance which is fraught with parallax error. They are the accelerating voltage. ve . First. keep the accelerating voltage as high as possible (above ∼250 V tends to give best results). The technique for measuring the beam radius is to move your head in order to align the electron beam with the reflection of the beam that you see on the mirrored scale. To minimize the relative effect of collisions. To minimize this error you can try to measure radii to the outside of the beam path. Therefore. Second. Compare the three including their errors with the accepted value. On the other hand. Since e/m is proportional to 1/r2 . Best results are typically obtained for radii of less than ∼5 cm. Electron charge/mass 2.4 Data Three data variables are necessary to make a determination of the ratio e/m. Your experimental values for e/m will be higher than theoretical. Note: The greatest source of systematic error in this experiment is the velocity of the electrons. V . Plot r vs. V at const. collisions with the helium atoms in the tube further rob the electrons of their velocity. Do the same via plotting r2 vs. You now have three results for e/m. Calculate e/m and its error. the coil current. the non-uniformity of the accelerating field caused by the hole in the anode causes ve to be slightly less than its theoretical value. and determine e/m from a linear least squares fit. Also go through the qualitative experiments suggested next. Each of these variables must be measured as accurately as is possible in order that e/m come close to the accepted value of 1. In addition. and the radius of the beam curvature. the radius measurement will be distorted by the curvature of the glass at the edge of the tube. an anti-parallax scale is mounted and illuminated by two small lamps on the back of the coil. I −1 at const. . experimental values for e/m will be greatly affected by these two effects.

rotate the glass envelope and observe the resulting spiral path of the beam in the magnetic field. A pair of skewed plates at the right side of the electron gun produces an electric field around the emerging electron beam when a voltage is applied.gov/seg/geomag/) 3. To show the electric field deflection.noaa. connect in parallel the voltage leads from the Electrode jacks to the jacks labelled Def lection P lates. Thomson originally determined the charge to mass ratio of the electron by first deflecting an electron beam with an electric field. In which direction is the beam deflected now? Explain. J. Suppose that protons were emitted in the vacuum tube instead of electrons. In retrospect. First deflect the electron beam using the electrical deflection plates (reverse the polarity sense of the jacks). This is the substance of the historic Thomson experiment which we cannot reproduce here in a quantitative way due to the uncertainty of the electric field value between the deflection plates. There should be no current in the coils in this case. can you tell what sign the charge is in the beam? Turn down the voltage to zero and reverse the polarity of the Def lection P late Jacks. If the polarity of the plates is in the same sense as the colorcoded jacks. We ignored the Earth’s magnetic field in our procedure. Turn on the current to the Helmholtz coils and adjust the current until the deflection of the magnetic field cancels the deflection of the electric field. Turn the coil current on again and observe the deflection of the electrons. Switch on the accelerating voltage supply and set the central switch to the Electrical Def lection position. How much error does this introduce into this experiment? (see http://www.ngdc. and then compensating this deflection with a opposing magnetic field deflection. Note how the beam deflection varies with the voltage value.J. Why do we see the electron beam at all? 2. 2. You can reenact this procedure here qualitatively. An applied electric field will also deflect the electron beam. How does the Lorentz vector expression account for this spiraling? Turn the coil current down to zero and then switch the polarity of the coil leads to reverse the current direction which will in turn reverse the magnetic vector.5 Qualitative Experiments You can qualitatively demonstrate the vector effects of an electric and magnetic field on a charged particle with the e/m apparatus as predicted by the Lorentz force law.Electron charge/mass 19 2. With the electron beam on and the Helmholtz coils operating. Observe what happens when the beam bends and hits the deflection plates.6 Questions 1. How would this effect the experiment? .

t 5.20 Electron charge/mass 4. The reciprocal f = 1 is called the electron’s cyclotron frequency. Would a relativistic correction for the electron’s momentum be appreciable for the present experiment? . Show that if the magnetic field is held constant. the time t required for an electron to make a complete circle in your e/m tube and return to the anode is independent of the accelerating voltage by deriving an expression for this time.

first calculated the inter-atomic spacings and showed them to be of the 21 . using the cubic system of NaCl.1 Objectives • Electrons as waves. De Broglie hypothesized that all particles have a wave behavior with a universal relationship between the wavelength and momentum given by λ = h/p. 3. then perhaps the electron. The momentum in this relationship is the momentum that is conserved in collisions. • Study and verification of the de Broglie hypothesis λ = h/p. Note that it is identical to the one for photons (E = hν). The de Broglie relationship holds for all particles. who in 1912 suggested (in connection with x-ray studies) that the basic granularity of matter at the atomic level might provide a suitable grating. This expression is called the de Broglie relationship and the wavelength is called the de Broglie wavelength. It was Max von Laue.2 Theory In a bold and daring hypothesis in his 1924 doctoral dissertation Louis de Broglie reasoned that if electromagnetic radiation can be interpreted as both particles (Photoelectric Effect. which acts as a diffraction grating. Compton Scattering) and waves (diffraction). could also have a wave interpretation. Diffraction phenomena represent clear evidence for wave properties. Bragg. which had traditionally been interpreted as a particle. • Measurement of the spacing of diffracting planes in graphite. How can an electron be both wave and particle? In this experiment you will investigate the diffraction of electrons passing through a thin layer of graphite (carbon).Experiment 3 Electron Diffraction 3.e. the relativistic momentum. i.

1 shows the hexagonal structure of graphite with the two characteristic spacings of 0.4 Important Precautions Due to its extreme thinness the graphite can easily be punctured by current overload.213 nm. 3.2.213 nm.3 Apparatus Our electron diffraction tube. 3. The source of the electron beam is an indirectly-heated oxide-coated cathode. onto which a very thin layer (only a few molecular layers!) of graphite has been deposited.22 Electron diffraction Figure 3. 3. 3. Across the exit aperture of the gun lies a micro-mesh nickel grid.123 and 0. see Fig. Fig.1: Structure of Graphite right order for x-rays. The diffraction pattern appears as rings due to the polycrystalline nature of graphite. converging beam of electrons within an evacuated clear glass bulb on the front surface of which is deposited a luminescent screen.123 and 0. Such current overload causes the graphite target to become overheated and to glow dull . The electron beam penetrates through this graphite target to become diffracted into two rings corresponding to the separation of the carbon atoms of 0. comprises a ‘gun’ which emits a narrow.

It is also good practice to inspect the target periodically during an experiment. The 33k resistor R in Fig. 3.5 Experimental Procedure Connect the tube into the circuit shown in Fig. IMPORTANT: Switch on the heater supply (VF ). and wait one minute for the cathode temperature to stabilize before applying the HV (anode voltage VA ). . In actuality you will likely find that the current tends to stay well below this value. Switching on the unit (in back) will also switch on the heater. The HV should be connected to the “+” and “−” HV connections to get the full voltage which is read on the top-scale of the KeV unit’s meter.Electron diffraction 23 Figure 3. thereby reducing the emitted current.25 mA at all times. Therefore an increase in current causes the cathode-can to become more negatively biased. 3. Be sure the high voltage slider is at zero before switching on the unit. Use a handheld digital multimeter.3 is incorporated into the filament protection circuit of the stand to provide ‘negative auto-bias’ and so reduce the likelihood of damage to the target due to accidental abuse. Both heater supply and HV are obtained from the 813 KeV power unit.2: Schematic of the Electron Diffraction Tube red. The total emitted current passes through R. 3. It is therefore important to monitor the anode current and to keep it below 0. typically a few µA (micro-Amps).3 but ignore VB .

4 is controlled during production of the tube to be 13.2 cm.0 ± 0. Also calculate the two values for d from your data (no need to make the above approximation!).24 Electron diffraction Figure 3.5 kV. The straight lines you should get verify the theory and substantiate de Broglie’s hypothesis. Do the geometry and correct for the curvature (and thickness?) of the glass (see Figure 3. From Fig. −1/2 . Show that by using the de Broglie relation.3: Circuit Diagram 3. The length L in Figure 3. measuring the diameter of the two rings with the calipers. so do the best you can.1) Plot D as a function of VA for all your data and indicate the estimated error in D as vertical error bars. and compare with the accepted values of 0. but get very hard to see as you go down in voltage. 4πL c √ D 2eVA mc2 d= (3.4 we also know that D = 2L tan θ. The rings are quite distinct at the full 5 kV. The kinetic energy and momentum of the electrons are of course related to the accelerating potential. Try to go as low as 2. Be sure the room is very dark.123 and 0.213 nm.4 ). where D is the extrapolated diameter. the lattice spacing d is related to the accelerating voltage VA approximately by. You want the rings centered so you can do the correction for the curvature of the tube-face. Take at least 10 different data points.6 Data Taking and Analysis The tube is old and rings are faint. 3. You can adjust the position of the spot by using the little magnet on the neck of the tube.

The length L = 13.0 ± 0.Electron diffraction 25 Figure 3. .7 References Any good Modern Physics textbook.2 cm.4: Curvature and glass thickness of the electron diffraction tube. 3.

26 Balmer series .

and an interpolation between the known lines is used for the final calibration. • Review basic atomic physics. To adjust the spectrometer. All that is required for the spectral analysis of light is to rotate the prism relative to the incident light keeping the incident ray and the axis of the analyzing telescope fixed at a 90 deg angle. • Study the Balmer Series in the hydrogen spectrum. It may be seen that the angle of incidence and the angle of exit can remain fixed for all wavelengths by an appropriate rotation of the prism. This has obvious advantages for positioning and alignment of source and detector. first bring the cross-hairs into sharp focus by sliding the ocular in or out to suit your vision. Our spectrometer may be old. • Calibrate an optical spectrometer using the known mercury spectrum. • Determine the Rydberg constant for hydrogen. but it is nevertheless a quality instrument which must be handled carefully. 4. • Compare hydrogen with deuterium 4. Next bring the slit into sharp 27 . The rotation of the prism is calibrated with a known source (Hg in our case).Experiment 4 Balmer Series 4.1 Objectives In this experiment we will observe the Balmer Series of Hydrogen and Deuterium. Fig.1 shows the composite prism used in this device and the optical path for an incident ray.2 Apparatus The instrument used in this laboratory is a so-called “constant-deviation” spectrometer.

the cross-hairs and the slit will be in sharp focus and there will be no parallax between them.28 Balmer series Figure 4. The prism acts as a spectrometer because it has a wave-length dependent index of refraction focus by turning the large knurled ring near the center of the viewing telescope. When the instrument is properly adjusted.1: A Pellin-Broca constant-deviation prism. .

Use the above equation to find the value for R. (4. The optical scientist must decide. 4. from impurities. Locate all of the mercury lines that you can. Although the original equation in . Show your raw and your corrected (using the above calibration) data. In almost all optical equipment there is a trade off between resolution and intensity. within the limitations of his/her instrument. In practice the narrower the slit.1 above was discovered empirically in 1885 by a Swiss high school teacher named Balmer for whom this spectral series is named.0 nm yellow 690.1) R is the Rydberg constant. or from more complicated molecular behavior. The wavelengths which you observe can be fitted by an expression of the form of equation 4. and n is the principle quantum number. You must correctly identify each wavelength with the right quantum number in order to get R as a constant.Balmer series 29 4. You should see all of the lines listed below. With the spectrometer slit wide ( 1 to 1 mm) find a line of the mercury spectrum. However. Expression 4.7 nm (deep violet very hard to see!!) 435. how to compromise intensity and resolution requirements.75 nm red When you are turning the screw drive which rotates the prism. Important: turn the screw in one direction only to avoid error in gear back lash (the gears do not mesh exactly and there are dead spots when you reverse the direction). You should get four or five evaluations of R. . Use your data and the known values to calibrate your instrument. 4. note the positions on the dial which correspond to the mercury lines listed above.4 The Hydrogen Spectrum Observe the spectrum of hydrogen.. Now narrow the slit until the 2 mercury line becomes sharp and narrow.1 nm green 577. 404. you may see other faint lines from mercury.8 nm violet skip (very weak blue-green) 546. the better is the resolution of the instrument.3 Calibration of the Spectrometer Turn on the mercury tube and let it warm up for a few minutes. 1 =R λ 1 1 − 2 22 n . 5. narrowing the slit also causes loss of intensity.0 nm yellow 579.1. n = 3. In addition. You should see at least four and possibly five lines..

µ = reduced mass). 3. The value of the Rydberg constant. it remained for both Rydberg and Ritz to suggest independently in the 1890’s that equation 4.0967758 × 107 m−1 . R (= µe4 /8 2 ch3 . Chapters 1. Calculate the expected difference between hydrogen and deuterium. Compare your hydrogen and deuterium results. 4... .0 nm and λ = 589. m = 1. n > m (4. Describe as quantitatively as possible whether you could resolve these two lines or not. In your report discuss briefly the atomic/quantum physics underlying the hydrogen spectrum. test the resolving power of your instrument by observing the doublet splitting of the famous yellow Na lines (λ = 589. for the Rydberg constant and for the wavelength of the Hα line.30 Balmer series a slightly different form was good guess work by Balmer.2) giving rise to the possibility of the existence of other spectral series which were subsequently observed.. Why would you expect it to be different from hydrogen? In addition.2 is also basic to the Ritz combination principle.5 Analysis What is your value of the Rydberg constant and its standard deviation? Compare your results with the accepted value for hydrogen: R = 1.5. .6 References [1] Melissinos and Napolitano. n = 2.6 nm). 3. was ex0 plained theoretically only after the Bohr model (1913) and the comprehensive development of Quantum Mechanics in the 1920’s. 2.. Could you measure any difference. Also measure the Balmer spectrum for deuterium. . Quantum theory owes much to experiments of the type performed with the constant deviation spectrometer.6. could you even expect to see any difference based on your Na result? 4. and.1 might be modified to be 1 =R λ 1 1 − 2 m2 n . Equation 4. If we convert the hydrogen emission wavelengths to frequencies. in particular. 4. we find that certain pairs of frequencies added together give other frequencies which appear in the spectrum.

2 5. he ran into considerable difficulty. glowing body also showed that the maximum intensity of emitted light departed dramatically from the classically predicted values (Wien’s Law). 5. This constant has turned out to be one of the most important fundamental constants in all of modern physics. later called photons. This discrepancy became known as the ultraviolet catastrophe. is possible.1 Background Theory Planck’s Quantum Theory By the late 1800’s many physicists thought they had explained all the main principles of the universe and discovered all the natural laws. Classical theory (Rayleigh-Jeans Law) predicted that the amount of light emitted from a black body would increase dramatically as the wavelength decreased.2. Planck was forced to develop a new model for light called the quantum model. In order to reconcile theory with laboratory results. As he attempted to formulate a theory to explain the spectral distribution of emitted light based on a classical wave model. The relationship between the classical and quantum theories for the emission and absorption of light can be investigated with our apparatus. discrete bundles of energy or quanta. whereas experiment showed that it approached zero.Experiment 5 Planck’s Constant 5. Experimental data for the radiation of light by a hot. 31 . In combination with a mercury vapor light source an accurate determination of the ratio h/e and thus of h. But as scientists continued working. Planck’s constant. In this model. inconsistencies that couldn’t easily be explained began showing up in some areas of study. light is emitted in small.1 Introduction The emission and absorption of light was an early subject for investigation by the German physicist Max Planck.

independent of intensity. The electron uses a minimum W0 of its energy to escape the cathode.1) where KEmax is the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons.32 Plank’s constant In 1901 Planck published his law of radiation. and can be measured as a photoelectric current. The classical wave model predicted that as the intensity of incident light was increased. 5. In the early 1900’s several investigators found that the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons was dependent on the wavelength. the amplitude and thus the energy of the wave would increase. In it he stated that an oscillator. The energy lost or gained by the oscillator is emitted or absorbed as a quantum of radiant energy. by . causing electrons to be emitted. later known as Planck’s constant. while increased intensity would only increase the number of electrons emitted (or the photoelectric current). for which he received the Nobel prize in 1921: E = hν = KEmax + W0 (5. or number of electrons was dependent on the intensity as predicted by the quantum model. and h is a fundamental constant of nature. while the magnitude of the photoelectric current. leaving it with a maximum energy of KEmax in the form of kinetic energy. and became a cornerstone of the quantum mechanical view of the atomic and subatomic world.3 The h/e Experiment A photon with energy hν is incident upon an electron in the cathode of a vacuum tube. and independent of intensity. light strikes a material. predicted that higher frequency light would produce higher energy photoelectrons. however. or any similar physical system. the magnitude of which is expressed by the equation E = hν. He went on to state that the emission and absorption of radiation is associated with transitions or jumps between two energy levels. E is the energy supplied by the quantum of light known as a photon. and W0 is the energy needed to remove them from the surface of the material (the work function). where E equals the radiant energy. In 1918 Planck was awarded the Nobel prize for introducing the quantum theory of light. Einstein applied Planck’s theory and explained the photoelectric effect in terms of the quantum model using his famous equation. ν is the frequency of the radiation.2 The Photoelectric Effect In the photoelectric effect. Normally the emitted electrons reach the anode of the tube. energies between these values never occur. has a discrete set of possible energy values or levels. This would then cause more energetic photoelectrons to be emitted. The new quantum theory. However.2. Planck’s constant was found to have significance beyond relating the frequency and energy of light. 5.2. or frequency.

Plotting V vs ν allows the extraction of the constants h and W0 from a least squares fit.1 shows the setup using a mercury vapor light source and the h/e apparatus. focus the light onto the white reflective mask of the h/e apparatus (Fig. until you achieve the sharpest possible image of the aperture on the window in the photodiode mask. 5. Roll the light shield of the apparatus out of the way to reveal the white photodiode mask inside the apparatus. The grating is blazed to produce the brightest spectrum on one side only. 5. By sliding the lens/grating assembly back and forth on its support rods. rather than by monitoring the photoelectric current. This allows you to see the ultraviolet line as a . Relating kinetic energy to stopping potential V gives a linear relation between V and the frequency ν. Note that the unit can also be powered using a dual ±9 V power supply.1 only a digital voltmeter is required. Rotate the h/e apparatus about the pin of the coupling bar assembly until one of the colored maxima in the first order shines directly on the slot in the white reflective mask. Apart from the equipment shown in Fig. 5. Rotate the h/e apparatus on its support base so that the same spectral maximum that falls on the opening in the white reflective mask also falls on the window in the photodiode mask.Plank’s constant 33 applying a reverse potential V between the anode and cathode. Slide the lens/grating assembly back and forth on its support rods.2). see later. Connect a digital voltmeter (DVM) to the OUTPUT terminals of the h/e apparatus. Minimum values are indicated on the h/e apparatus. If necessary. the photoelectric current can be stopped. adjust the back plate of the light aperture assembly by loosening the two retaining screws and sliding the aperture plate left or right until the light shines directly on the center of the lens/grating assembly. Then tighten the thumbscrew on the base support rod to hold the apparatus in place. 5. The white reflective mask on the h/e apparatus is made of a special fluorescent material. Check the alignment of the light source and the aperture by looking at the light shining on the back of the lens/grating assembly. Tighten the thumbscrew on the lens/grating assembly and replace the light shield.3 Equipment and Setup Fig. Rotate the h/e apparatus until the image of the aperture is centered on the window in the photodiode mask. Turn the power switch ON. Turn on the light source and allow it to warm up for five minutes. Before proceeding check the two battery voltages. In our experiment the stopping potential is measured directly. During your experiment you may need to turn the lens/grating assembly around in order to have the brightest spectrum on a convenient side of your lab table. Set the h/e apparatus directly in front of the light source. KEmax can be determined by measuring the minimum reverse potential needed to stop the photoelectrons and reduce the photoelectric current to zero.

1: Equipment setup using a mercury vapor light source and the h/e apparatus.34 Plank’s constant Figure 5. .

Plank’s constant 35 Figure 5.2: h/e Light Shield .

the greater its energy. This prevents ambient room light from interfering with the lower energy yellow and green light and masking the true results. This will assure the apparatus records only the potential of the light you are measuring. and it also makes the violet line appear more blue. . 5. test by switching off the room lights. You can see the actual colors of the light if you hold a piece of white non-fluorescent material in front of the mask. and 20%. Read the output voltage on your DVM. For some apparatus. plus a variable transmission filter.3. The palm of your hand works in a pinch. The relative transmission percentages are 100%. i. Press the PUSH TO ZERO button on the side panel of the h/e apparatus to discharge any accumulated potential in the unit’s electronics. the maximum kinetic energy.3. In contrast. These filters limit higher frequencies of light from entering the h/e apparatus. of photoelectrons depends only on the frequency of the incident light. KEmax . 60%. the brighter the light. the stopping potential will temporarily read high and then drop down to the actual stopping potential voltage. 80%.e. See the Technical Information section at the end of this writeup for an explanation. 5.36 Plank’s constant blue line. It is a direct measure of the stopping potential for the photoelectrons. 5. Use the green and yellow filters when you’re using the green and yellow spectral lines. There must be no overlap from adjacent spectral maxima. → Important: when making measurements it is important that only one color falls on the photodiode window.1 Using the Filters The h/e apparatus includes three filters: one green and one yellow. The variable transmission filter consists of computer-generated patterns of dots and lines that vary the intensity (not the frequency) of the incident light. the greater its energy. In general you should make sure that room light does not interfere with your results. Both of these assertions will be investigated here. It also blocks the higher frequency UV light from the higher order spectra which may overlap with lower orders of yellow and green. see Fig. although it fluoresces enough that the UV line will still be visible. the classical wave model of light predicted that KEmax would depend on light intensity. Note that the output voltage will drift with the absence of light on the photodiode. and is independent of the intensity. i. Thus the higher the frequency of the light. 40%.4 Experiment 1: The Photon Theory of Light According to the photon theory of light. The filter frames have magnetic strips and mount to the outside of the white reflective mask of the h/e apparatus.e.

Place the variable transmission filter in front of the white reflective mask (and over the colored filter.Plank’s constant 37 5. Press and release the instrument discharge button. Repeat the entire procedure using a second color from the spectrum.4. Describe the effect that passing different amounts of the same colored light through the variable transmission filter has on the stopping potential and thus on the maximum energy of the photoelectrons. Record the DVM voltage. record the new DVM reading. Part B You can easily see five colors in the mercury spectrum. and observe how much time is required to return to the recorded voltage. Move the variable transmission filter to the next section.1 Part A Procedure Set up the equipment. 5. Adjust the apparatus so that only one of the spectral colors falls upon the opening of the photodiode mask. Describe the effect that different colors of light had on the stopping potential and thus on the maximum energy of the photoelectrons. Repeat these steps for all five sections of the filter. Defend whether this experiment supports a wave or a quantum/photon model of light based on your lab results. If you select the green or yellow line. if one is used) so that the light passes through the 100% section and onto the photodiode. check (and adjust if necessary) focus and alignment as described earlier.4. Explain why there is a slight drop in the measured stopping potential as the light intensity is decreased. Important: for consistent results you want to measure the recharge time to reach the same voltage for each of the five intensities. . Repeat the process for each color. Be sure to use the green filter when measuring the green line. use the corresponding filter. and use the yellow filter. and the time to recharge after the discharge button has been pressed and released. as well as the charging time after pressing the discharge button. Record the DVM reading. Adjust the apparatus so that only one of the yellow bands falls upon the photodiode. Connect your DVM.2 Analysis Plot your charging time results.

3: The expected three orders of light gradients you should see.38 Plank’s constant Figure 5. .

1 Procedure Make sure focus and alignment are still ok. take two sets of readings. and the anode-to-cathode voltage stabilizes.e.5. For each color in the first order measure and record the stopping potential (don’t forget the yellow and green filters). the anode is connected to a built-in amplifier with an ultrahigh input impedance (> 1013 Ω). When the potential on this capacitance reaches the stopping potential of the photoelectrons.5. can be determined. Move to the second order and repeat the above process. Compare with the accepted value of h. once the capacitor has been charged from the photodiode current it takes a long time to discharge this potential through some leakage. unity gain (Vout /Vin = 1) amplifier lets you measure the stopping potential with a DVM. W0 . i. Then calculate your final results (incl. errors!) for h and W0 as a weighted average. The photodiode tube and its associated electronics have a small capacitance which becomes charged by the photoelectric current. and the output from this amplifier is connected to the output jacks. Planck’s constant h. Note that while the impedance of this amplifier is very high. Photoelectrons ejected from the cathode collect on the anode. and comment on the quality of your result.5 Experiment 2: Determination of h According to the quantum/photon model of light. 5. it is not infinite. and determine h and W0 for each fit. 5. Perform four linear least squares fits to your four data sets. This final voltage between the anode and cathode is therefore the stopping potential. Therefore a shorting switch (“Push to zero”) enables the user to quickly bleed . This high impedance. With careful experimentation the constant of proportionality. Repeat these five measurements to test for reproducibility. monochromatic light falls on the cathode plate of a vacuum photodiode tube that has a low work function. Due to the very high input impedance.6 Technical Information on the h/e Apparatus In the h/e apparatus. To let you measure the stopping potential.2 Analysis Plot all your results. 5. the current decreases to zero. and some charge will leak off. Thus charging the apparatus is analogous to filling a bath tub with different water flow rates while the drain is partly open. the energy of light is directly proportional to its frequency.Plank’s constant 39 5.

the input voltage will stabilize. . Once photoelectrons charge the anode.40 Plank’s constant off the charge. each apparatus has a slightly different capacitance. the internal capacitance along with the user’s body capacitance coupled through the switch is enough to make the output voltage jump and/or oscillate. However. When the zero switch is released. Due to variances in the assembly process. the op-amp output will not stay at zero volts after the switch is released since the op-amp input is floating.

As such it is closely related to the original Franck-Hertz experiment (1914).1 Theory The essence of this experiment is the demonstration of energy quantization of atoms. From a collision standpoint. it can now easily be captured by an anode positioned near the beam. This is an inelastic collision. and has sufficient energy to “move” the bound electron up into new orbits (or even ionize the atom). The theory is quite simple. These peaks in current will signal the energy levels of the atom. We now interpret that minimum energy as the energy of an excited state of the atom. As a function of the electron accelerating potential. and the free electron will slow down appreciably. VA . If an electron collides with a bound electron. It is strongly advised to read up on the Franck-Hertz experiment. free electrons colliding with orbiting electrons need to have at least the minimum energy required to excite the bound electrons to higher quantum levels. This is achieved via inelastic e− scattering off Ne atoms. and determining the separate excitation energy levels that are available. then the energy absorbed by the atom is lost to the free electron. In particular. 41 . This experiment involves collecting these electrons after their atomic collisions. Taylor et al. which showed that an electron must have a certain minimum energy to make an inelastic collision with an atom. The enclosed paper by N. Ne in this case. the number of electrons captured will increase rapidly near the energy levels of the atomic gas in the tube.Experiment 6 Excitation and Ionization Energies of Neon 6. gives more details and background information on this type of experiments as well as on the level scheme of Neon.

2. 6. Important: Do not let VF exceed 2. and determine their excitation energies in eV . 6. The anode cylinder of the gun has an external connection to pin 1. The inside surface of the glass bulb is coated with a transparent conducting layer. 4. Located inside the bulb is a wire ring collector so positioned that it cannot receive electrons directly from the source of the beam. Measure the energy resolution (FWHM) of the first peak. 2. or at least give an upper limit if that peak consists of several levels.3 Objectives 1. 6. The tube comprises a cathode ray gun which projects a divergent beam of electrons into a clear glass tube containing Neon gas at low pressure. For the filament voltage VF use an HP 6213A 12V DC power supply (or similar) capable of delivering ∼ 1 A.1 and 6. and any others that you can. The ring is connected to a shielded cable terminating in a BNC plug. The source of the beam is a tungsten hairpin filament connected to pins 3 and 4. and housed within a cathode can which is connected to pin 5. Find the ionization energy (in eV ) of neon.42 Excitation levels of Neon 6. Any movement close to the glass bulb during scanning of the accelerating voltage should be avoided as it is liable to seriously distort your results. Identify as many energy levels of neon as you can resolve. Get the hardware to work successfully! This is not completely trivial since you are dealing with a somehat delicate instrument capable of measuring collector currents in the pA range.4 Method • Set up the apparatus as shown in Fig.2 Apparatus • Hertz Critical Potentials tube filled with neon • Tube stand • Picoamplifier and Alarmed Meter • Power Supply and Digital Multimeter Figs.5 V! Make sure that you zero the alarmed meter at the range . This coating is insulated from the wire ring but connected internally to the anode cylinder.2 show schematically the tube and circuit diagram. 3. 6.

Excitation levels of Neon 43 .

44 Excitation levels of Neon Figure 6.2: Circuit Diagram. For the Data Recorder we use the so-called Alarmed Meter. .

Chapter 1.Taylor et al. If.”.5 V for VF ! • Reverse the potential of the collector ring..3. Am J. This tube is capable of stable collection currents at constant accelerating voltages. the excitation energy peaks tend to show up more prominently. Taylor et al. The ionization energy of Neon is 21. If your setup doesn’t achieve this stability. Consult Fig.3 in the enclosed paper by N. For comparison take data for two different filament voltages VF . examine it for good connection everywhere and disturb the whole table as little as possible while taking your data. [2] Appendix :“Energy Levels in helium. .how do you explain this? 6. 6. however it is also easily disturbed. 6. 6. and the readings on it will not need to be readjusted. • Vary the accelerating (Anode) voltage VA and record the collector current IC .6 References [1] Melissinos and Napolitano. March 1981.5 Analysis Summarize your results. Phys Vol 49 No 3. Higher VF tend to give better peak-to-valley results. you decide to play with the range setting you must zero the alarm readings again. • Check your answers for excitation energies and ionization energy against known values bef ore dismantling the equipment. and find the ionization potential of neon.Excitation levels of Neon 45 setting that you actually end up using. and compare them with known values.. You may decide to use a DVM instead of the alarm. 6. i. Then do a finer scan to cover the peak regions with sufficient data points. Start with a coarse scan to verify that your results are qualitatively similar to typical results shown in Fig. and known excitation energies can be found in the paper by N. will be helpful in this regard. But remember to not exceed 2. Your peak positions and your ionization energy will likely have a (hopefully more or less constant) offset relative to the known values .56 eV. for any reason.4 for a typical result.e. What is the electron configuration of the dominant structures that you found? Fig.

46 Excitation levels of Neon Figure 6. Typical excitation energy spectrum for Neon measured with this type of .3: apparatus.

4: Onset of ionization in case of reversed collector bias. .Excitation levels of Neon 47 Figure 6.

48 Electron spin .

A test sample is placed in a uniform magnetic field. a single electron within the test sample. This will be achieved by looking for the “spin-flip” transition of a free (unpaired) electron exposed to a magnetic field. its intrinsic g-factor µB = the Bohr magneton = e /2me = 5. Due to its quantum nature. or spin. E = −µs · B.582 × 10−16 eV-sec. the famous gs factor of the electron.1) where: gs = a constant characteristic of the electron.788 × 10−9 eV /G S = the spin of the electron = Planck’s constant/2π = 6. The smaller magnetic field induced in the coil by the oscillator is at right angles to the uniform magnetic field. The electron has an intrinsic (not related to any orbital motion!) magnetic dipole moment µs that is related to its intrinsic angular momentum.3 eV-nm. for the moment.1. 7. or c = 197. the electron can orient its spin in one 49 . Consider.1 Introduction Using ESR (Electron Spin Resonance.1 ESR in Theory The basic setup for ESR is shown in Fig. 7.Experiment 7 Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) 7.1. also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) you will be measuring one of the best known quantities in all of physics. by the vector equation: µs = −gs µB S/ (7. The magnetic dipole moment of this electron interacts with the uniform magnetic field. The sample is also wrapped within a coil that is connected to an RF (radio frequency) oscillator.

the energy level has been split. therefore. scope display (right) of only two ways (“space quantization”). The result is an observable change in the current flowing through the oscillator.50 Electron spin Figure 7. The energy difference between these two possible orientations is equal to gs µB B. The condition for resonance. Resonance occurs when the RF oscillator is tuned to a frequency ν. where E0 is the energy of the electron before the magnetic field was applied.1: ESR diagram (left). is: hν = gs µB B (2) . is equal to the difference between the two possible energy states of the electron. spin up or spin down. such that the photon energy. i. This absorption of energy affects the permeability of the test sample. with energies equal to E0 ±gs µB B/2. hν. which affects the inductance of the coil and thereby the oscillations of the RF oscillator.e. the energy degeneracy has been lifted by the B field. In the language of Quantum Mechanics. Electrons in the lower energy state can then absorb a photon and jump to the higher energy state.

The result is a B field that varies sinusoidally about a constant value. and 1000:1 frequency divider. is a particularly simple substance for ESR measurements. and shared molecular orbitals the energy level splittings become quite complex.1 The ESR Apparatus The Probe Unit The ESR Probe Unit (see Fig. 7. which is proportional to the B field. the details of the analysis of such systems provide significant insight into the inner structure of the molecules. The test sample included with our apparatus. superimposed on a larger DC current. and only one unpaired electron. With our apparatus. which dips sharply each time the B field passes through the resonance point. 7. This makes it possible to investigate some of the basic ESR principles without (or before) getting into the more complex world of ESR analysis. DPPH (Diphenyl-Picryl-Hydrazyl. The upper trace is a measure of the current going to the Helmholtz coils.3 ESR in Research In actual ESR research the situation is significantly more complicated than is implied above. to a pair of Helmholtz coils. It has a total orbital angular momentum of zero. However. 7. which is in the MHz range.1 (right) .2 7. finite orbital angular momenta. The lower trace shows the envelope of the voltage across the RF oscillator. If the RF frequency is such that equation (2) is satisfied at some point between the minimum and maximum values of the sinusoidally varying B field. appear as in Figure 7. then resonance will occur twice during each cycle of the field. during resonance. It contains an RF oscillator with a built-in signal amplifier. Resonance is normally observed using a dual trace oscilloscope. for a given value of the external B field.1.3) is the heart of the ESR apparatus. see Fig. 7.1. to be measured with a standard kHz frequency meter. this difficulty is solved by varying the magnitude of the B field about some constant value.2.2). in a magnetic field of a given magnitude. With multiple unpaired electrons.2 ESR in Practice For an electron with only two energy states. The frequency and amplitude of the RF signal can be . The frequency divider allows the RF frequency. this is done by supplying a small AC current. it would be necessary to set the RF frequency with considerable accuracy in order to observe resonance. Therefore.Electron spin 51 7. it has only a single resonant frequency. In practice. The oscilloscope traces.

which in turn provides the connections to the necessary power supply.2: Chemical structure of DPPH. and the frequency output for a digital counter is a TTL signal. This is because the inductance of the probe determines. and oscilloscope. The Probe Unit requires ±12 V . 7. 4). The range of frequencies provided by the oscillator depends on which RF probe is being used (see Fig. (C6 H5 )2 N − N C6 H2 (N O2 )3 . frequency meter. The Probe Unit is connected to the ESR Adapter (see Fig. controlled using the knobs shown in the Figure.4). the inductance of the oscillator circuit. in part. .52 Electron spin Figure 7.

3). starting with the Biot-Savart law.2.5 cm. Make sure the two coils are as parallel as possible. It can also be found in most introductory physics textbooks. the B field in the central region between the two coils is highly uniform. i. the total current should never exceed 4A! . and it turns out that the correct separation is achieved by positioning them essentially flush against the ESR Probe Unit. They should be connected in parallel and placed so that the separation between them is equal to the radius (see Fig. 7. You should be able to derive the expression for B yourself. Their diameter is 13.Electron spin 53 Figure 7.3: ESR probe unit (left) and Helmholtz coils (right) 7.3. 7.2 Helmholtz Coils The Helmholtz coils provide a highly uniform magnetic field in which to place the sample material for the ESR measurement. and is given in Fig. → IMPORTANT: The current to each of the coils should never exceed 2A.e. When all this is the case.

This is supplied by the Variac/small transformer and DC power supply. respectively. Because of the inductance of the Helmholtz coils.54 Electron spin 7.4 and 7. a Variac plus a 6. Figures 7. 7. Adjust the frequency to about 50 MHz (50 kHz on your frequency meter) and the amplitude to a . with the 1000 µF capacitor isolating the AC from the DC to prevent wave distortion. Z to Z. a 1000 µF capacitor. 3-4A). Make sure the two green LEDs on the side of the ESR Adapter are on. and circuit components to the Helmholtz coils as shown in Figures 7. Turn on the power supplies. Power supplies providing ±12 VDC to the ESR Adapter. except for the phase shift caused by the induction of the coils.5. see Fig. The trace should be a simple sine wave. and the Helmholtz coils.3. the current in the coils is out of phase with the voltage that is observed on the oscilloscope. 2 VAC. make sure your power supply doesn’t limit the current too much. This allows the experimenter to adjust the phase between the oscilloscope traces. and our home-made phase shifter box.4 and 7. Connect the power supplies. To correct this. If you switch channel 1 to DC coupling. the ESR Adapter.1 Basic ESR Setup Required Equipment In addition to the Probe Unit. so that the AC current to the Helmholtz coils and the ESR resonance pulses appear symmetrical. Insert the medium-sized RF probe into the Probe Unit. see Fig.1 µF capacitor are used to shift the phase of the voltage that is displayed on the oscilloscope. 7. oscilloscope. DC Power Supply (10V. Do not terminate the scope in 50 Ω. Please be careful not to short out anything! The +12 V draws considerably more current than the -12 V. They are connected in parallel. Adjust the DC to approximately 1 A and the AC to about 2 V.3. you will need the following additional equipment: Frequency Meter. and turn on the Probe Unit.3 V transformer to provide approx. it should show an AC voltage superimposed on a DC voltage.5 show the setup and the required connections.5. Oscilloscope. Channel 1 of the oscilloscope will show the current to the Helmholtz coils. a 100 kΩ variable resistor and a 0.2 Setup Connect the Helmholtz coils in parallel (A to A. DC Ammeter. ammeter. which in reality they are.4) and position them appropriately. Circuit Explanation: The Helmholtz coils require a small AC current superimposed on a larger DC current.3 7. 7.

4: ESR setup .Electron spin 55 Figure 7.

56 Electron spin Figure 7.5: Schematic for Helmholtz coil connections .

4 Taking ESR Data Adjust the phase shifter so that the resonance pulses are symmetric with respect to the oscilloscope trace that shows the current to the Helmholtz coils. Then insert the test sample into the RF probe and place the probe and sample in the center of the Helmholtz coils. 7.6: Scope displays midrange value. sine wave may get distorted). To do this: . The oscilloscope traces should now appear as in Figure 7.6. Refine the adjustment of the DC current until the resonance pulses occur when the AC component of the current to the Helmholtz coils is zero.c. with the Helmholtz coil axis perpendicular to the sample. power supply.c. Note: do not limit the voltage on the coils d. slowly vary the DC current to the Helmholtz coils. If you don’t see the resonance pulses. or vary the RF frequency.Electron spin 57 Figure 7. until you do. keep this limit relatively high and only adjust the current to the coils (otherwise the a.

Adjust the DC current.6. Measure the RF frequency and the DC current. σmean and compare with the accepted value. or the other way around. b. 7. For each of the three RF probes take at least five different data points. You should also determine gs from a linear least squares fit. until the pulses occur just when the AC current to the Helmholtz coils is zero. Since the current has been adjusted so that the resonance pulses occur when the AC current to the coils is zero. respectively. Make sure that channel 1 is AC coupled. 30-75 MHz. σ. zero the trace. What systematic error do you think results from the fact that the ESR Probe Unit (metal!) protrudes into the region between the Helmholtz coils? Explain whether your results show evidence for such a systematic effect. covering as large a frequency range as possible. Then vary the current and find the new resonance frequency. c. In order of decreasing number of turns the three RF probes cover approximate frequency ranges of 13-30 MHz. . the current to the Helmholtz coils at resonance is just the DC value indicated by the ammeter. ground the input to channel 1. Comment on your results relative to the accepted value. notice how the resonance pulses move closer together or farther apart. and the phase shifter if necessary. 7. 7. the scope traces should appear as in Fig. Adjust the DC current. After these adjustments. and 75-130 MHz. Using the scope controls. Chapter 7. and then unground the input. then mean. Everything is set for making ESR measurements. As you do.5 Analysis Calculate gs for each data point.6 References [1] Melissinos and Napolitano. This is most accurately accomplished if you adjust the vertical position of channel 2 so that the bottom of the resonance pulses are just at the zero level of channel 1.58 Electron spin a.

but at a definite average rate (example: radioactive decays).2 Method You will use the same setup as for the electron rest mass experiment. It is of paramount importance in all of atomic. the MCA no longer acts as a pulse height selector. In addition. and stores this number in the first channel. the Poisson distribution. In MCS mode. It then jumps to the next channel and counts for another dwell time period. Typical dwell times will be in the milliseconds range. subatomic physics. we need to connect two pins on the MCA 59 . you will use our multichannel analyzer (MCA) in multichannel scaling mode (MCS) instead of pulse height analysis mode (PHA). Suggested starting values: HV of 1000V for the NaI. It describes the results of experiments where one counts events that occur at random. minimum gain (both fine and coarse) for the preamp/amp/discriminator (PAD) module. but as a multichannel scaler with each channel acting as an independent scaler. No source will be needed as you will simply measure the background count rate in our NaI detector. MCA setup: To put the MCA into MCS mode. after which it jumps to the next channel and so on. and. In MCS function. therefore. 8. the MCA counts the incident pulse signals (regardless of amplitude) for a certain dwell time. the channels represent bins in time.1 Preface This simple experiment will help you gain familiarity with the second most important statistical distribution in physics. At the start of operation. in particular. no radioactive source.Experiment 8 Poisson Statistics 8.

And now the important part: adjust the dwell time such that the average count rate per channel is around 1-2 counts. 8. Compare your three count rate distributions with the expected Poisson distributions graphically (with statistical error bars). Save the resulting spectrum as an ASCII file to a floppy. How closely do your results follow the expectation for Poisson distributions. repeat with a Gaussian distribution. Calculate mean and standard deviation in each case. that the standard deviation is equal to the square root of the mean? Also notice how your highest average count rate case is rather symmetric. and connect the cable labeled MCS/REJ to the one labeled SCA. and calculate the chisquare per degree of freedom. This is done with a “hydra” break-out cable.e. Notice the significant asymmetry of the distribution for the lowest average count rate (Poisson at work!).e. MCS mode of operation with 1 pass. Repeat this procedure for two other dwell times such that the average count rate per channel is around 5 counts and around 10 counts. .60 Poisson statistics input connector. attach the break-out connector to the MCA card.3 Analysis Plot your three resulting distributions (with MATLAB). For the highest average count rate case. i. Setup the software with 256 channels. Make sure sync is set to internal and presets on (or the number of passes doesn’t work correctly). already for an average count rate of around 10 the Poisson distribution is virtually indistinguishable from a Gaussian. (Note: this means the computer will effectively perform this simple counting experiment 256 times for you!). Chapter 10. respectively. i.4 References [1] Melissinos and Napolitano. 8. Find a break-out cable. With the computer off.

9. See the enclosed handout (mainly from ref. 9. and shape this pulse into a positive (or bipolar with positive leading part) pulse with significantly longer rise time than the raw anode pulse. ask before turning on the HV! The PMT output needs to be connected to the MCA via a preamp/amplifier module.3 Procedure Warning! Check the polarity of the high voltage for the PMT. and the Multichannel Analyzer (MCA). The preamp/amp module will then integrate. the raw anode output of the PMT should be a negative pulse (why?).5-30)µs. and do not exceed the maximum HV. Check the signals at various places with an oscilloscope.2 Theory You must become familiar with γ-ray interactions in matter. you will perform this experiment as outlined there. For instance. which should be indicated on the NaI detector. the Sodium Iodide (N aI) detector including the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT).Experiment 9 Mass of the Electron 9. Based on the enclosed article by Mudhole and Umakantha. This amplification and shaping is required for the pulse to become ‘digestible’ to the MCA. amplify.1 Objective To determine the rest mass of the electron. via γ-ray interactions (mainly Compton scattering and photoeffect) in a N aI scintillation detector. Our MCA is actually a PC with an internal MCA card (called PCA3). 61 . me . If in doubt.1). It digitizes pulses in the range (0-10)V and with risetimes from (0.

channel number versus energy deposited. can you think of a . 0. Also determine the resolution (FWHM) in % using your 137 Cs photopeak. mentioned above. In addition. i. Use the photopeaks for calibration. a well-known background line in concrete buildings.511 MeV. If. 0. 137 Cs. Identify this peak in a background spectrum. and take data for the same amount of time with the MCA in subtract mode. Please make sure your lab report contains copies of all your spectra. Good sources for the calibration are 22 N a. Using your calibration determine the Compton edge and the backscatter peak (both in keV) for as many sources as possible. Another useful exercise is to take data for a certain amount of time with a weak source. Look for it and make sure you understand what is happening there. and 60 Co. are (with their half-life and most abundant Eγ ): 137 Cs (τ1/2 = 30.46 Mev from 40 K in concrete. Then calculate me incl.356 MeV) Note that in case of 22 N a and 60 Co you might also see the sum peak at higher energies.62 Electron mass Also observe the PMT output as you change the HV (gain of the PMT increases with increasing HV . 1.2 years.17 MeV. then remove the source.make sure you understand why). i. error(in keV). Do a linear least squares fit. 1. based on their longevity. 0. An example for this is 60 Co .662 MeV) 60 Co (τ1/2 = 5. try to still use the backscatter peak. If you take data long enough with your detector close to a wall (no Pb bricks as shielding and no sources around!) you will likely see a peak at 1. performing a background subtraction. using the backscatter peaks? If yes. for example.3 years.6 years. If the backscatter peak is weak try to enhance it by positioning some material appropriately. at least four each from the Compton edge and from the backscatter peak. Record the spectra from several γ-sources to familiarize yourself with the physics and the hardware.275 MeV) 133 Ba (τ1/2 = 10. you can’t use the Compton edge from a particular source. The most useful sources. It is important to collect as many data points for me as possible.e. resulting in a total of 5 photopeaks.. Do your results from the Compton edges indicate whether the half-height point is really the best measure of the Compton edge? Is there any systematic difference in your results between the accuracy obtained for me using the Compton edges vs.33 MeV) 22 N a (τ1/2 = 2.why can’t you use the Compton edge in this case? For sources with two γ lines accumulate enough statistics so that you can use the sum peak and its Compton edge.e. Typical numbers for N aI detectors are 5%-10%.5 years. This relationship should be highly linear. take a long-enough background spectrum so that you can use the 40 K line. 1.

Nov. Leo.e. Phys Vol 45 No 11. 1994. Radiation Detection and Measurement. why are they not distributed over a much wider energy range? 9.R. 2nd ed. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments. 1977.. Knoll. Springer.Electron mass reason why? 63 Why do the backscatter events show up in a peak. 1989.4 References [1] Melissinos and Napolitano. .F.. Wiley.”. 2nd ed. [3] Appendix : Interaction of Electrons and Photons with Matter [5] G. Chapter 8. i... Am J. [6] W. [2] Appendix: “Determination of the rest-mass energy of the electron.

64 Speed of light .

The photocathode has a thin layer of a photosensitive substance. please do not exceed 200 V!). c. 10. 10. The photocathode will emit a number of electrons proportional to the intensity of light that it receives.Experiment 10 The Speed of Light c 10. These light pulses are detected with a PMT which requires negative high voltage in the range of 1800 to 2400 V. This high voltage is applied to the photomultiplier tube (PMT).the PMT must never be exposed to any bright light source while its high voltage is turned on.1. A typical PMT will contain ten to fourteen dynodes.1 Introduction In this experiment you will measure the speed of light. These photoelectrons are accelerated by the potential applied between the cathode and the first of a series of electrodes called dynodes. The circuit in Fig. 10. This is one of the most fundamental constants in physics. typically antimony-cesium alloys. Please be careful .2 Apparatus Warning! This experiment uses a photomultiplier tube (PMT) that will be ruined if exposed to ambient light when at operating voltages. The first dynode is maintained at a positive potential with 65 . and at the same time the fastest quantity you’ll ever measure! By using short pulses of light and a high speed detector you will determine c with good accuracy (few %) in a direct time-of-flight (TOF) measurement over distances of only one to two meters. Permanent damage will result! A schematic of the set-up is shown in Fig. This frequency is determined by the external dc power supply (150 to 200 Vdc.2 sends out short (few nanosecond) light pulses via a green LED (light emitting diode) at frequencies around f ∼ 10kHz.

This experiment contains an important source of a systematic error which. 10. Note that the TAC has a threshold of -250 mV and requires a ∆t > 2 nsec.3. Explain why this is the case. The principle is shown in Fig. The electrons that are emitted from the photocathode are attracted to the first dynode and acquire enough kinetic energy to free additional electrons as they collide with the dynode (secondary emission). The output of the PMT is therefore a negative current pulse. even if the maximum pulse amplitude is reached at the same time. the basic function of which is described at the end of this handout. However. After the last dynode stage.3 Procedure 1. the anode amplitude should be .2 and the anode (not dynode!) pulse from the PMT (with some time delay cable) are sent to the start and stop input of a time-to-amplitude (TAC) converter. and it plays an important role in high resolution timing experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Each subsequent dynode is kept at about the same potential difference with respect to the preceding one.e. its triggering time will occur later for smaller pulses than for larger pulses. If a device (like our TAC) triggers at a fixed voltage or discriminator level. this does not change the basic physics of the device. This charge multiplication process occurs at each dynode. In order to compensate for this PMT amplitude change we have polarizers mounted in front of the LED and the PMT. The TAC output is analyzed by a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA). the electrons are collected at the anode of the tube. 2. 10. Our PMT actually has negative HV applied to the photocathode while the anode is grounded. In our application this time walk occurs because the PMT signal increases in amplitude as the LED assembly is moved closer to the PMT. We are assuming here that the pulse rise time remains constant. The TAC generates an output voltage pulse whose amplitude is proportional to the start-stop time difference. NOTE: it is extremely important for good results to take all data points at one and the same PMT amplitude. The phenomenon is known as ‘time walk’. By rotating the PMT relative to the LED assembly you can change the amount of light hitting the photocathode thereby keeping the output amplitude constant. A pulse from the LED pulser labelled ‘start’ in Fig. as long as this time difference is within the range selected by a front panel knob. Familiarize yourself with the hardware.66 Speed of light respect to the photocathode. if not very carefully corrected for. 10. could easily ruin your results quite dramatically. With a HV of around 1800 to 2000 V for the PMT. is independent of pulse amplitude. i. respectively.

Speed of light 67 Figure 10.1: Schematic of Speed of Light Apparatus. .

.68 Speed of light Figure 10.2: Speed of Light LED-pulsing Circuit.

Speed of light 69 Figure 10.3: Illustration of ‘time walk’. .

CTRL+F2 will not work until F2 is pressed a second time. 4. Find a way to measure the systematic uncertainty on the value of c due to this uncertainty in amplitude. with data taken over a much larger change in distance (∼ 150 cm). and why? • Take data at successively larger (or smaller. For your measurements. Think about this remarkable fact in terms of the distance that light travels in 1 ns! Measure and report your time resolution. 3. their errors) for c from an overall mean. including error. even at large distances between LED and PMT. If this is not the case. you need to adjust the relative alignment of LED/lens assembly and PMT. Measure the systematic uncertainty due to the time walk. check the linearity of your calibration. Which set of data would you expect to give better results. estimate the precision to which you can hold the amplitude constant (the uncertainty in the amplitude).e. 8. • Summarize and compare your results (incl. by inserting several different cables of known delay. For a comparison take a few data points without the time walk correction. Then take some data. and not by the position resolution σx . CTRL+F2 will erase all data. Calibrate your system. 6. and also from your data taken without the time walk correction. Take the following data: • Measure several times over a short (∼ 25 cm) change in distance and compare the results. If you are using the PCA3 software as part of your MCA system. choose a value for the amplitude that will minimize the systematic uncertainty. and make sure there is sufficient delay between them. . from your linear least squares fit. If you happen to press F2 without holding down CTRL. Your time resolution (Full Width at Half Maximum or FWHM of your peak) should be better than 1 ns. In addition. determine the number of picoseconds per channel. or using a delay box. i. 5. By using error propagation show that the relative error in c is dominated by the time resolution σt .70 Speed of light several volts (into 50Ω). depending upon where you start) distances and determine c and its error from a least squares fit to your x versus t curve. look at both start and stop signals for the TAC simultaneously. What conclusions do you draw? 7. and determine c from those. First. The polarizer should be set for maximum amplitude at the largest distances. Using the oscilloscope.

Springer. .. [3] W. Leo. 1994.4 References [1] Melissinos and Napolitano [2] Canberra Model 2044 Time Analyzer manual (available in the lab).Speed of light 71 10.R. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments. 2nd ed.

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Leo. Melissinos (op. 2. Physics 1. table of isotopes). Springer. 2003. Wiley.g.) 73 . Purcell. Statistics and Data Analysis 1. 2nd ed. G. Academic Press. ”Data Analysis for Physical Science Students:. ”Electricity and Magnetism. Robinson (updated classic) Experimental Methods 1. 2nd ed.Appendix A General References Note that many of these are available in the lab. 2nd ed. ”Optics”. 1989. cit. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 2. Knoll. Lous Lyons (my personal favoite) 2. W.. 4. ”Experiments in Modern Physics”. 3rd edition (August 1997). Hecht and Zajac.F. 2 edition (August 1.. ”Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physicsl Sciences”. Bevington. 1994. any recent modern physics book 4. see hyperlinks in the class web page (e. Berkeley Physics Series Vol II”. 1984) 3. Melissinos and Napolitano. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments. Technical notes are available for all experimental hardware. Radiation Detection and Measurement.R. McGrawHill Science/Engineering/Math. D. 3.. Also. E. P.

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Appendix B Tables 75 .

0254 m 1 ˚ ≡ 0. ideal gas at STP Wien displacement law constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant Fermi coupling constant∗∗ weak-mixing angle W ± boson mass Z 0 boson mass strong coupling constant 1 in ≡ 0.7 3.413 996(39)×10−3 m3 mol−1 2. equation c h ≡ h/2π e c ( c)2 me mp Value s−1 Uncertainty (ppb) exact∗ 170 170 85 85.854 187 817 . ×10−7 N A−2 7. The last group of constants (beginning with the Fermi coupling constant) comes from the Particle Data Group.166 37(1)×10−5 GeV−2 80.1 nm A 1 barn ≡ 10−28 m2 ∗ † Symbol.670 400(40)×10−8 W m−2 K−4 1. Physical constants 1 1. Avogadro constant Boltzmann constant molar volume. Mohr and B.054 571 68(18)×10−34 J s = 6.N. Taylor.3 85 85 20 6.007 276 466 88(13) u = 1836. .152 1. ./field gravitational constant‡ standard gravitational accel. 1 (2005). The figures in parentheses after the values give the 1-standard-deviation uncertainties in the last digits.672 621 71(29)×10−27 kg = 1.861 592 678(26)×10−13 m 0.035 999 11(46)† 2. Mod.806 65 m s−2 6.617 343(15)×10−5 eV K−1 22.6742(10)×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 = 6.403(29) GeV/c2 91. 3.577 215 664 901 532 861 −19 −36 299 792 458 m 6.” †† The corresponding sin2 θ for the effective angle is 0.5 × 105 exact 170 1800 1800 1700 1700 7000 9000 6.389 379 323(67) GeV2 mbarn 0.897 7685(51)×10−3 m K 5. At Q2 ≈ m2 the value is ∼ 1/128. 170 0. ×10−12 F m−1 4π × 10−7 N A−2 = 12.782 661 81(15) × 10 2.13.602 176 53(14)×10−19 C = 4./field proton cyclotron freq.7087(10)×10−39 c (GeV/c2 )−2 9.578 381 451 820 833 804(39)×10−11 MeV T−1 259(21)×10−14 MeV T−1 12(15)×1011 rad s−1 T−1 76(82)×107 rad s−1 T−1 α = e2 /4π 0 c re = e2 /4π 0 me c2 −e = /me c = re α−1 λ a∞ = 4π 0 2 /me e2 = re α−2 hc/(1 eV) hcR∞ = me e4 /2(4π 0 )2 2 = me c2 α2 /2 2 σT = 8πre /3 µB = e µN = e e ωcycl /B p ωcycl /B GN gn NA k NA k(273.1876(21) GeV/c2 0.681 684(68)]−1 eV 0 ◦ C ≡ 273.15 K)/(101 325 Pa) b = λmax T σ = π2 k 4 /60 3 c2 GF /( c)3 sin2 θ(M mW mZ αs (mZ ) Z ) (MS) /2me /2mp = e/me = e/mp 6. . Mohr and B.997 924 58 × 109 esu = 1 C 2 0.582 119 15(56)×10−22 MeV s 1.152 672 61(85) me md 1875. N ∗∗ See the discussion in Sec.494 043(80) MeV/c2 = 1.758 9.3.566 370 614 . Reviewed 2005 by P.141 592 653 589 793 238 1 G ≡ 10 1 dyne ≡ 10 −4 −5 T N J kg kT at 300 K = [38.15 K 1 erg ≡ 10−7 J 1 atmosphere ≡ 760 Torr ≡ 101 325 Pa The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. 0. Based mainly on the “CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2002” by P.3 10 6.J.612 82(16) MeV/c2 (mass 12 C atom)/12 = (1 g)/(NA mol) 931. Taylor (NIST).272 029(80) MeV/c2 = 1. reduced electron charge magnitude conversion constant conversion constant electron mass proton mass deuteron mass unified atomic mass unit (u) permittivity of free space permeability of free space fine-structure constant classical electron radius (e− Compton wavelength)/2π Bohr radius (mnucleus = ∞) wavelength of 1 eV/c particle Rydberg energy Thomson cross section Bohr magneton nuclear magneton electron cyclotron freq. 170 exact exact 3.7 86 86 1. The full 2002 CODATA set of constants may be found at http://physics. “Electroweak model and constraints on new physics.626 0693(11)×10−34 J s 1. 10.1. 170 86.N.817 940 325(28)×10−15 m 3.326 968(17) MeV fm 0.239 841 91(11)×10−6 m 13.788 3.380 6505(24)×10−23 J K−1 = 8.5 × 105 3. 85 85 170 86. At Q2 = 0.23152(14). This set of constants (aside from the last group) is recommended for international use by CODATA (the Committee on Data for Science and Technology).109 3826(16)×10−31 kg 938. .46 86 86.022 1415(10)×1023 mol−1 1. Phys. Rev.1176(20) e = 2.gov/constants Quantity speed of light in vacuum Planck constant Planck constant.297 352 568(24)×10−3 = 1/137.602 176 53(14) × 10 1 eV/c = 1.6 × 105 2. PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Table 1. W ‡ Absolute lab measurements of G have been made only on scales of about 1 cm to 1 m.3 × 104 1. 77.605 6923(12) eV 0. .1.5 × 105 1.7 × 107 γ = 0.529 177 2108(18)×10−10 m 1.718 281 828 459 045 235 1 eV = 1.nist.665 245 873(13) barn 5. the corresponding fractional uncertainties in parts per 109 (ppb) are given in the last column.J.660 538 86(28)×10−27 kg µ0 0 = 1/µ0 c2 8.803 204 41(41)×10−10 esu 197.23122(15)†† π = 3.7 6.510 998 918(44) MeV/c2 = 9.

Sulfur Chlorine Argon VIII 26.035884 238.078 196. The atomic mass (bottom) is weighted by isotopic abundances in the Earth’s surface.90545 Barium 87 137. Wapstra.1221) (262.25 Terbium 158. and U.42 107.061381) (247.941 9. Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americ. Pa. Darmstadt.964 Gadolin.948 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB IB IIB 19 K 20 Ca 21 Sc 22 Ti 23 V 24 Cr 25 Mn 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 30 Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium German.1141) (263.907216) 101. Cerium 138.96655 200.293 126.92160 78. Thibault.60 131.933200 58.92534 Dyspros.H.224 92.259 Thulium Ytterbium 168. Phys.845 58.4678 87.3050 32.07 102.0107 14. Relative isotopic abundances often vary considerably. A729.411 114.1096) Actinium Thorium 1 . 337 (2003).Table 4.710 121. g/mole).327 Fr 88 Ra Radium Lanthanides Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead 89–103 178.989770 24.207 190.1246) (277.973761 22.1010) (262. (261.6934 63. Periodic table of the elements Actinides Rutherford.1.E.90447 55 Cs 56 Ba 57–71 72 Hf 73 Ta 74 W 75 Re 76 Os 77 Ir 78 Pt 79 Au 80 Hg 81 Tl 82 Pb 83 Bi 84 Po 85 At 86 Rn Cesium 132. both in natural and commercial samples.94 (97.1639) (223.078 44. and G. defined to be exactly 12 unified atomic mass units (u) (approx.9479 183.019736) (226.760 127. Revised 2005 by C. Ruthen.96 79.064204) (243.085105) (258.904 83. this is reflected in the number of significant figures given.0855 30.93421 173.0983 40.04 Lutetium 174.62 88. 4. Audi.24 (144.065 35. Roentgen. “Atomic Weights of the Elements 1999.80 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 Y 40 Zr 41 Nb 42 Mo 43 Tc 44 Ru 45 Rh 46 Pd 47 Ag 48 Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54 Xe Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybd. A number in parentheses is the atomic mass of the longest-lived known isotope of that element—no stable isotope exists.90638 95. Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon 85.00794 IIA 3 Li 4 Be Hydrogen Lithium Beryllium 16 VIA N 8 O 9 Oxygen 17 VIIA Helium PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 5 4.723 72.017578) 4.G.90550 106.1536) (277. 157. Adapted from the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances.027752) 232. and C.8682 112.90585 91.938049 55. The atomic number (top left) is the number of protons in the nucleus. As of early 2006 element 112 has not been assigned a name. 667 (2001). Prometh. 162. Curium Berkelium Californ.070354) (247.811 12.967 Lr Ac 90 Th 91 Pa 92 U 93 Np 94 Pu 95 Am 96 Cm 97 Bk 98 Cf 99 Es 100 Fm 101 Md 102 No 103 Protactin.9994 18.2 Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon 208.08298) (257.098431) (259.9055 Actinide series 89 140.012182 11 Na 12 Mg 10. PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 1 IA 1 H 13 IIIA 14 IVA B 6 Boron 18 VIIIA 2 He 15 VA C 7 Carbon 2 1.49 180.” Pure and Applied Chemistry 73.9961 54. Technet. A. Wohl (LBNL) and D.982430) (209. Einstein.3833 207.002602 F 10 Ne Neon Nitrogen Fluorine 6. Dubnium Seaborg.546 65.84 186.39 69. Bohrium Hassium Meitner.93032 Erbium 167.818 118.955910 47.98038 (208. which do have characteristic terrestrial compositions. (227.070307) (251. Nobelium Lawrenc.0067 15.36 151.981538 28. Nucl. The exceptions are Th.867 50.025410) Francium Lanthanide series 57 La 58 Ce 59 Pr 60 Nd 61 Pm 62 Sm 63 Eu 64 Gd 65 Tb 66 Dy 67 Ho 68 Er 69 Tm 70 Yb 71 Lu Lanthan.10877) (262.987148) (222.1498) (268.116 Praseodym.453 39.1797 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 9 Sodium Magnesium 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 Aluminum Silicon Phosph.9415 51.1461) (272.912749) 150.048173) (244.9984032 20.038055 231. Samarium Europium 140.23 192.90765 144. Groom (LBNL). and there are no confirmed elements with Z > 112.217 195.59 104 Rf 105 Db 106 Sg 107 Bh 108 Hs 109 Mt 110 Ds 111 Rg 112 204.1387) (271. Neodym. Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton 39.64 74.079587) (252.50 Holmium 164. Atomic masses are relative to the mass of 12 C.02891 (237. Fermium Mendelev.

.7589 41 Nb Niobium (Kr) 4d4 5s 1/2 l n 7S 42 Mo Molybdenum (Kr) 4d5 5s 7.. Musgrove...5645 5.. Electron configuration (3d5 = five 3d electrons...... ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE ELEMENTS Table 5... Kotochigova.7596 2p 2p2 2p3 2p4 2p5 2p6 2P 1/2 3P 0 4S 3/2 3P 2 2P 3/2 1S 0 2S 1/2 0 1S 3p 3p2 3p3 3p4 3p5 3p6 2P 1/2 3P 0 4S 3/2 3P 2 2P 3/2 1S 0 1S 2S 1/2 0 19 K Potassium (Ar) 4s 20 Ca Calcium (Ar) 4s2 .8138 3/2 1S 13.1391 7...... A...5874 5.5341 13.1132 .7886 3/2 3P 9.2603 14. The ionization energy is the least energy necessary to remove to infinity one electron from an atom of the element...gov (select “Physical Reference Data”)..8281 2 e 4F 6.9996 0 2S 37 Rb Rubidium (Kr) 5s 4.....9993 1/2 3P 7.1.9024 4 4F n 7.3227 8.” W...4340 m 5/2 5D e 7.3942 0 ....3600 12.3407 6. say...8810 9/2 3F t 7..5.. iron indicates an argon electronic core (see argon) plus six 3d electrons and two 4s electrons.G. Sansonetti (2003).6949 38 Sr Strontium (Kr) 5s2 0 ..2D 6.E..6181 17...7462 3/2 l 7S 6....4867 10......28 43 Tc Technetium (Kr) 4d5 5s2 m 5/2 i 5F e 7.2D 6. “Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms....5615 3/2 3F 6.6398 4 s 2S 7. The electronic configurations and the ionization energies are from the NIST database.7524 2 2P 11..6339 40 Zr Zirconium (Kr) 4d2 5s2 2 e 6D a 6.2P 5....1517 10..4589 45 Rh Rhodium (Kr) 4d8 5s 9/2 i 1S t 8. Reviewed 2005 by C.3917 9... Martin.2980 11. and J.. http://physics. Wohl (LBNL)...C....... The electron configuration for..31 Ga Gallium (Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p 32 Ge Germanium (Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p2 33 As Arsenic (Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p3 34 Se Selenium (Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p4 35 Br Bromine (Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p5 36 Kr Krypton (Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p6 T r a n s i t i o n - 4.7264 1/2 1S 9........7665 e 3 6S 7.6462 5...5984 24....9676 15.0924 e 3 s 6S 7.21 Sc Scandium (Ar) 3d 4s2 22 Ti Titanium (Ar) 3d2 4s2 23 V Vanadium (Ar) 3d3 4s2 24 Cr Chromium (Ar) 3d5 4s 25 Mn Manganese (Ar) 3d5 4s2 26 Fe Iron (Ar) 3d6 4s2 27 Co Cobalt (Ar) 3d7 4s2 28 Ni Nickel (Ar) 3d8 4s2 29 Cu Copper (Ar) 3d10 4s 30 Zn Zinc (Ar) 3d10 4s2 . S..1771 1/2 1S 5... Electronic structure of the elements 1 5....8994 0 4S 9...9858 8.3369 46 Pd Palladium (Kr) 4d10 0 o s 2S 47 Ag Silver (Kr) 4d10 5s 7....2173 39 Y Yttrium (Kr) 4d 5s2 T 3/2 3F r 6.5762 n 1/2 1S 8... etc..3605 44 Ru Ruthenium (Kr) 4d7 5s 5 t 4F n 7.........nist....) 1s 1s2 (He)2s (He)2s2 (He)2s2 (He)2s2 (He)2s2 (He)2s2 (He)2s2 (He)2s2 (Ne)3s (Ne)3s2 (Ne)3s2 (Ne)3s2 (Ne)3s2 (Ne)3s2 (Ne)3s2 (Ne)3s2 Ground state 2S+1 L J 1S 1S 2S 2S 1/2 0 1/2 0 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Ionization energy (eV) 13.....9938 48 Cd Cadmium (Kr) 4d10 5s2 0 .4228 21.

.....0727 1/2 1S 5...2P 81 Tl Thallium (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p 6.5496 73 Ta Tantalum (Xe)4f 14 5d3 6s2 3/2 e 5D a 7........1979 15/2 e 5I 7s2 6...58 7/2 1S 7s2 6.42 15/2 3H 7s2 6.414 84 Po Polonium (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p4 2 2P 85 At Astatine (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p5 3/2 1S 86 Rn Radon (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p6 10..........17 3/2 2 3F 7s 6...2657 11/2 i 7F 7s2 6...104 Rf Rutherfordium (Rn)5f 14 6d2 ∗ 2S 7s 4..2784 7s2 0 ....50 6 2F 7s2 6.....7485 0 87 Fr Francium (Rn) 88 Ra Radium (Rn) ..........8640 74 W Tungsten (Xe)4f 14 5d4 6s2 0 l 6S n 7...9914 2 d 6H 7s2 6..2D 7s2 5.5250 60 Nd Neodymium (Xe)4f 4 4 6H n 6s2 5....8939 1/2 2 1S 5..0260 0 n 8S 7s2 5.....3F ? 7s2 ? 6..473 59 Pr Praseodymium (Xe)4f 3 L 9/2 5I a 6s2 5...1843 69 Tm Thulium (Xe)4f 13 7/2 1S 6s2 6.1498 64 Gd Gadolinium (Xe)4f 7 5d 6s2 2 n 6H 6s2 5.4259 71 Lu Lutetium (Xe)4f 14 5d 6s2 3/2 ....582 61 Pm Promethium (Xe)4f 5 5/2 t 7F 62 Sm Samarium (Xe)4f 6 6s2 5......0? 2 The usual LS coupling scheme does not apply for these three elements....... ...3439 8..1077 68 Er Erbium (Xe)4f 12 s 6 2F 6s2 6......6084 9...6437 0 h 8S 6s2 5..9? 1/2 ? ....9670 77 Ir Iridium (Xe)4f 14 5d7 6s2 9/2 t 3D n 78 Pt Platinum (Xe)4f 14 5d9 6s 8.8335 75 Re Rhenium (Xe)4f 14 5d5 6s2 e 5/2 s m 5D 8.3F 6.......8638 65 Tb Terbium (Xe)4f 9 15/2 i 5I 6s2 5......5769 3/2 1G 5....7864 7.2117 56 Ba Barium (Xe) 6s 0 .9389 66 Dy Dysprosium (Xe)4f 10 8 d 4I 67 Ho Holmium (Xe)4f 11 6s2 6..............2 2D 57 La Lanthanum (Xe) 5d 6s 5.....4382 76 Os Osmium (Xe)4f 14 5d6 6s2 4 i 4F e 8....0215 e 15/2 3H 6s2 6...2855 83 Bi Bismuth (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p3 3/2 3P 8..8251 72 Hf Hafnium (Xe)4f 14 5d2 6s2 T 2 4F r 7.5387 58 Ce Cerium (Xe)4f 5d 6s2 4 4I 6s2 5..1082 1/2 3P 82 Pb Lead (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p2 7...........4167 0 4S 7...........89 A 11/2 5L ∗ c 7s2 6.3067 2 4K ∗ 7s2 5..0096 10..65 0 2P 7s2 7p? 4.....2542 70 Yb Ytterbium (Xe)4f 14 0 2D 5....9588 3 i t 2S1/2 9.1941 6 ∗ 6L t 7s2 6.4375 80 Hg Mercury (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 0 n ....2255 79 Au Gold (Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s o s 1S 10.1298 2S 55 Cs Cesium (Xe) 6s 3.6704 63 Eu Europium (Xe)4f 7 7/2 a 9D 6..9738 7/2 i 9D 7s2 5....2817 8 s 4I 7s2 6....... Electronic structure of the elements 49 50 51 52 53 54 In Sn Sb Te I Xe Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon (Kr) 4d10 5s2 (Kr) 4d10 5s2 (Kr) 4d10 5s2 (Kr) 4d10 5s2 (Kr) 4d10 5s2 (Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p 5p2 5p3 5p4 5p5 5p6 2P 1/2 3P 0 4S 3/2 3P 2 2P 3/2 1S 0 5...........2 5.89 Ac Actinium (Rn) 6d 90 Th Thorium (Rn) 6d2 91 Pa Protactinium (Rn)5f 2 6d 92 U Uranium (Rn)5f 3 6d 93 Np Neptunium (Rn)5f 4 6d 94 Pu Plutonium (Rn)5f 6 95 Am Americium (Rn)5f 7 96 Cm Curium (Rn)5f 7 6d 97 Bk Berkelium (Rn)5f 9 98 Cf Californium (Rn)5f 10 99 Es Einsteinium (Rn)5f 11 100 Fm Fermium (Rn)5f 12 101 Md Mendelevium (Rn)5f 13 102 No Nobelium (Rn)5f 14 103 Lr Lawrencium (Rn)5f 14 ...... See the introductory note to the NIST table from which this table is taken....4513 12.

40250 0.2 19.936 1.948 47. Plexiglas n Polystyrene.632 2.38651 0.49976 0.977] 23.825) (1.534 65.2 (4.3 58.9] — — — 1.87 8.801) (1.28 165.00 36.84 43.53768 0. 1 and 2.42065 0.72 34.392 1. 3 and at http://pdg.8073[1. [STP] H2 O CO2 gas CO2 solid (dry ice) Shielding concrete f SiO2 (fused quartz) Dimethyl ether.8 0.8 110.9 73.0 8.9 9.42120 0.57275 0.41130 0.614 1.9984032 20. Revised May 2002 by D.820 1.53937 0.97 4.95 20.69 1.7 56.gov/AtomicNuclearProperties.08 36.25 8.9 97.4 62.024 [34.1 1.6 70.56 ≈0.93 36.52037 0.89 7.4 56.55509 0.95 1.09 87.16–1.558 3. Gases are evaluated at 20◦ C and 1 atm (in parentheses) or at STP [square brackets].2 66.42207 0.0 3.507[1.3 59.991 (1.265 e 0.0838)[0. 1 atm.6 66.112 1.04–0.546 72.91 7.58496 0.4 54.7 99.886 1.0 21. Data for compounds and mixtures are from Refs.45636 0.8 83.0 18.941 9.24 32. Atomic and nuclear properties of materials 1 6.00674 15.46262 0.8 55.2 58.46 39.305 1.56 2.99 34.33 1.8 48.28 d 866 0.50093 61.264 (1.082 (1.4 82.243 1.65 4.56 40.55 16.8 50.49 1.4 15.2 238.21ρ — H2 gas H2 liquid D2 He Li Be C N2 O2 F2 Ne Al Si Ar Ti Fe Cu Ge Sn Xe W Pt Pb U 1 1 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 18 22 26 29 32 50 54 74 78 82 92 1.4 66.052) (1.49652 0. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Table 6.28 d (731000) (0.740 1.3 113.70 2. scintillator q Aluminum oxide (Al2 O3 ) Barium fluoride (BaF2 ) Bismuth germanate (BGO) r Cesium iodide (CsI) Lithium fluoride (LiF) Sodium fluoride (NaF) Sodium iodide (NaI) Silica Aerogel s NEMA G10 plate t [30420] (1.00794 2.49919 0.99212 0.0 62.2 81.7 .).lbl. Densities and refractive indices without parentheses or brackets are for solids or liquids.6 55. type 6 i Polycarbonate (Lexan) j Polyethylene terephthlate (Mylar) k Polyethylene l Polyimide film (Kapton) m Lucite.44384 0.032 3.4 63.581 — — 1.7 78.233 [283] — — — — — [701] — — — — (273) [293] 1.45 11.00 373.403 1.262) (2.615 1.671 1.30 1.82 8.05 1.594 1.37 6.782] 4.076 1.54 6.36 90.54790 0.39 0.39984 0.0708 122.91 11.51264 0.2 65.2 102 62.9 90.25 29.867 55.6 28.49968 0.9 145 157 167 88.974 1.6 89.724) 1.25 33.0 92.9994 18.4 75.28 1.664 (1.47 45.47632 0.12 1.9 93.00794 1.169[0.54778 0.5 7.54 7.0 60.848 42.303 1.39 23.4224[0.57034 0. C2 H6 Propane.47992 0. (CH3 )2 CHCH3 Octane.699 — (2.95 44.2 36.2 124.3 45.0 117.4 724 0.1249[0.9 134.1 70.48 6.20 g — — 248.0 60.428] 1.70 37.8 60.305 0.6 88. CH4 Ethane.49 43.5 64.519) 1.371 1.128 [138] 1.50002 0.9 54.49555 0.95 1.96 5.87 Density {g/cm3 } ({g/ } for gas) Liquid Refractive boiling index n point at ((n − 1)×106 1 atm(K) for gas) [139.8 56.49926 0.7 78.6.49989 0.5 83.103) 4.6 76.20 1.1 0. (20◦ C.92–0.35 0.956 1.50274 0.22 45.879) 231.323 7.87 0.2 61.032 2.7 49.5 60. Refractive indices are evaluated at the sodium D line.45948 0.7 89.85 24.49 27.7 ≈47.45059 0.52697 0.224 77.83 27.0 83.47372 0.1] — 3.E.3 96.0 77.7 27.01 21.59861 0.94 24.4 106.1.1 [16930] [2.76 6.034 (2.53 2.087 1.205 [298] 1.953[5.0 81. CH3 (CH2 )n≈23 CH3 Nylon.0855 39.1 Air.476 1.251 1.711 1.2 98.04 2.9 82.67 0.0899] 61.46556 0.819) 1.4 75. scintillator o Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) p Polyvinyltolulene.761 1.7 34.1 4.42697 0.76 1.1 62.4 85.9 28.396[1. Groom (LBNL).56 1.9 140.97 8.44071 0.4 1.39575 0.775 1.36 14.42 63.49954 0.24 27.696] 1.19 35.929 1.563 sublimes 10.20 1.2 57.0 95.20 45.17 13. or are for cryogenic liquids at the indicated boiling point (BP) at 1 atm. Futher materials and properties are given in Ref.86 44.5 98.3 62.3 116.145 1.8 54.3 87.129 1.57778 0.509(1.4 67.2 117.99212 0.32 756 0.639 1. C3 H8 Isobutane.397 — — — — — — ≈1.7 [34035] 0.31 2.93 28.14 1.038) h — [1900] 1.76 155 0.9 131.3 151 96.71 41.3 100.42 1.8 91.6 1.1797 26.2 86.848 2.20 1.710 131.2 26.0 98.9 58.3 21.0289 0.8 85.4 42.62333 0.815) 1.87 9.1 30.49038 0.82 19.4 79.84 12.68 2.39 39.417) (2. Material Z A Z/A Nuclear a Nuclear a dE/dx|min b Radiation length c collision interaction X0 MeV length λT length λI {g/cm2 } {cm} 2 g/cm {g/cm2 } {g/cm2 } 43.8 47.0 81.647 1.5 163 169 185 189.94 9.64 40.33 [410] — — 1.937) 1.141[1.3 2.123 1.7 2.18 85.304) (2.7 76.22 [296] [195] 1.5 66.59 136@ρ=0.7 [64850] 0.451 1.84 195.15 [18310] [1.7 65.675) (1.05 38.80 1.012182 12.255) 1.0+0.84 41.204[0.35 ≈18.58962 0.2] 1.15 1.981539 28.2 56.41569 0.745 (1.205)[1.239) 2.011 14.1786] 82.29 183.67] 261.08 207.48181 0.66 36.6 ≈34.787 1.717] 111. liquid.43221 0.2 1.703 398.0140 4.21 2.9 85.002602 6.6 106.5 12.5 59.858] 19.845 63.8 36.2 102.8 42.89 46.123 2.49989 0.32 2.5 59.6 50.43 2.179] 94. CH3 (CH2 )6 CH3 Paraffin wax.1 73.250] 1.5 — (1.54155 0.336 1.86 12.07 44.458 — [444] (1.61 118. (CH3 )2 O Methane.9005] 2.3 67.356) h 184.5 77.092 [67.49848 0.7 194 199 90.85 14.2931] 78.3 43.9 94.

D. σinelastic = σtotal − σelastic − σquasielastic . Sternheimer.092 0.0 — — — — — — Young’s modulus [106 psi] — — — 37 0. Nylon. 269 (1975).032 0.71(20◦ ) 1.057 — — — 0.86 0. S.9 (517) — — — 16. Phys.165 — — — 0. From Y. ρ = density in g/cm3 .M. Al 4%.215 0. Mod.. monomer CF2 =CF2 q. 4.5(20◦ ) — 5. For protons and other particles. Rev. 546 mm pressure. monomer. Radiat. Radiat. B92. Minimum dE/dx from Ref. Polymide film (Kapton). B159. (C22 H10 N2 O5 )n n. For pure graphite.4 8. Striganov.7 — — — 10 16 — 16.073 0.M. 3. G10-plate. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 30. monomer 2-CH3 C6 H4 CH=CH2 r.38 0.7 16. Fe 2%. t. Si 32.126 0. X0 = 63. 1189–1218 (1982). f. Type 6.65(20◦ ) 29(20◦ ) — — 0.3 — 8.V. from CERN–LRL–RHEL Shielding exp. Teflon. Lett. 319 (1979). of thermal expansion [10−6 cm/cm-◦ C] — — 56 12.5%. b. typical composition O2 52%.html.885(0◦ ) 1375(0◦ ) — — — 2.11 0. where N is Avogadro’s number and wj is the weight fraction of the jth element in the element. The specific gravity of crystalline quartz is 2. Buzykaev et al. using density effect correction coefficients from Ref. e. Phys. compound. Methods A433.064 H2 He Li Be C N2 O2 Ne Al Si Ar Ti Fe Cu Ge Sn Xe W Pt Pb U 1.9 29.55(0◦ ) 5. For atomic H. 35. M. monomer C6 H5 CH=CH2 p. Instrum. Ionization energy loss is discussed in Sec. h. and S. 27. J.9 2. N.032 0.75 20 — 4. note that σI (p) ≈ σI (n). Na 1.2 6. Mean free path between collisions (λT ) or inelastic interactions (λI ).038 0. Berger. Appl.6–4.J. X0 data for all elements up to uranium are given. c.05 g/cm2 . Nucl.16 — 0.5 16 — 6 — 50 21 2. Polyethylene terephthlate.04–0.. is also valid for earth (typical ρ = 2. monomer CH2 =C(CH3 )CO2 CH3 o. Seltzer and M.20 — — 0.028 Electrical Thermal resistivity conductivity [µΩcm(@◦ C)] [cal/cm-◦ C-sec] — — 8. Nucl.67(20◦ ) — 11. g.8–7. and S.9) (64) — — — (548. for neutrons at 60–375 GeV from Roberts et al. J.4 0. 33.3 g/cm3 . Polystyrene. calculated from λ−1 = NA wj σj /Aj . Corrections for molecular binding applied for H2 and D2 . Standard shielding blocks. For typical fused quartz. gaseous refractive index at 0◦ C.15). 183–356 (2001).71 . Berger. where energy dependence is weak.17 0. monomer CH2 =CH2 m. Seltzer.1 Specific heat [cal/g-◦ C] — — 0. plus reinforcing iron bars. σtotal at 80–240 GeV for neutrons (≈ σ for protons) from Murthy et al. or mixture. R. 3.J.5 11. Solid ethane density at −60◦ C.436 0.5 5. d.94 0.S. Bismuth germanate (BGO).083 0. Phys. S.48 0. “Muon stopping-power and range tables. Seltzer and M. typically 60% SiO2 and 40% epoxy. = 115 ± 5 g/cm2 . For minimum-ionizing muons (results are very slightly different for other particles). 665 (1984) & http://physics. 56 (1979). C5 H4 O2 l. Tsai. but aerogel with higher and lower densities has been produced. λT and λI are energy dependent. a. Int.162 — 0.E.5%. Polymethylmethacralate. industrial graphite density may vary 2.052 — 0. UCRL–17841 (1968).nist. Mokhov. Appl. Berger. This scales approximately as A0. (NH(CH2 )5 CO)n j. (C16 H14 O3 )n k.3 36.77 . Atomic and nuclear properties of materials Material Dielectric constant (κ = / 0 ) () is (κ–1)×106 for gas (253. see A. R. (Bi2 O3 )2 (GeO2 )3 s.gov/PhysRefData/Star/Text/contents. Polyethylene. Polycarbonate (Lexan). see Carroll et al. 2. The attenuation length. σT . 261–271 (1984). X0 = 63. Nucl. 396 (1999). i.047 g cm−2 .” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 78. 1.3 — — — 23.5) (495) (127) — 11. 97% SiO2 + 3% H2 O by weight. σI scales approximately as A0. Ca 6%. ..65(20◦ ) — — 50(0◦ ) 9.64. For molecular hydrogen (deuterium). 46.5(20◦ ) 9. Groom.83(0◦ ) 20. 4.17 0.06 g/cm3 has been used in Cerenkov counters. Polyvinyltolulene. Values quoted apply to high energy range..M. 80B.1–2.14 0..M.I. 815 (1974).18 0.8 28. Aerogel in the density range ˇ 0. Phys. For electrons and positrons see Ref. Int.J.53 0. For atomic H.6 — Coeff.

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”.. Phys Vol 49 No 3.. March 1981 83 . Am J.Appendix C “Energy Levels in helium.

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. Phys Vol 45 No 11.Appendix D “Determination of the rest-mass energy of the electron. Am J.”. 1977 89 .. Nov.

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.

Appendix E Interactions of Electrons and Photons with Matter 93 .

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Appendix F Radiation Dosages 103 .

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