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Section O/Chariter 1O

ChristopherJ. Naum

Rescue operations are a major component of the multifaceted fire Structural collapse rescue
and emergency service system. These service professions have tra- Surface and underwater rescue
ditionally made the protection of life and property the primary focus
of their mission in the community, and have consistently exhibited Swift-water rescue
their unique ability to overcome the challenges of a rapidly chang- Icerescue
ing society and working and living environments therein.
Wilderness search and rescue
The complexity of rescue responses can vary greatly with the
incident being handled. Typical training levels and the expertise and Urban search and rescue
innovation of operating companies and personnel determine the ef- Agricultural and farm rescue
fectiveness and efficiency of these responses.
Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) rescue operations
High-rise rescue
* Helicopter rescue
The rescue emergency services system involves more than basic
structural fire rescue and extrication capabilities; it extends into oth- Heavy rescue applicable to: air, rail, and maritime
er areas that impact incident response capabilities. Specialized tech- Large-scale disaster response rescue
nical rescue response teams have evolved as traditional and typical
functional areas are transcended. The need for specialized rescue teams is typically based on the
historical perspective of a community or jurisdiction, local and re-
Specialized technical rescue response capabilities are recog- gional conditions and trends, and capabilities and deficiencies en-
nized as a tactical component in the emergency response delivery countered in incident operations, coupled with the degree of risk
system. In many instances, the need for specialized technical rescue potential that exists.
capabilities has slowly developed due to identified community risk
factors in incident responses or through specific incident occur- The acceptable level of risk is determined by local conditions,
and must be identified and balanced with the capabilities of the

rences that have shown the deficiencies that were present within the
response system. emergency service delivery system.
Rescue deployment and operations ability is based upon the
Operational Deployment degree of awareness, knowledge, training, resources, and planning
that are present, coupled with the potential, frequency, magnitude,
Specialized technical rescue encompasses numerous areas of oper- and impact that these factors may have on the specialized agencys
ational deployment, and includes, but is not limited to: ability to carry out the necessary functions dictated by the incident
High- and low-angle rope rescue response.
Motor vehicle extrication operations The development of a specialized technical rescue component
within any jurisdiction requires a thorough understanding of the in-
Industrial extrication and entrapment rescue herent hazard potential present at specific technical rescue re-
Confined-space entry and rescue operations sponses; the degree of commitment required in the way of financial
support, training, and skill enhancement; resource allocation and
Trench and excavation rescue equipment requirements; and logistical planning and legal ramifica-
Below-grade rescue tions that will impact the conceptualization, implementation, and
ultimate operation of a specialized rescue team. In many situations,
a regional approach to organizing, staffing, and funding a technical
Christopher J. Naum, a 21-year fire service veteran, is president of L.A. rescue team will be the most practical answer.
Emergency Management & Training Consultants, Syracuse, NY. He is a
member of the NFPA 1670 Committee on Technical Rescue and the Struc- The development of specialized technical rescue teams will
tural Collapse Rescue and Confined Space Rescue Task Groups, and chair- continue to be a major influencing factor in the national emergency
person of the Trench Rescue Task Group. service community. The need for specialization YS. the generalist
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approach toward operations will continue to drive the development developed. The magnitude, severity, and frequency of related inci-
of this unique delivery system. The emergency service community dents and responses will also dictate the methodology of the plan-
must maintain both proficiency in the delivery of their services and ning process.
the safety of the personnel who perform those various responsibili- The identification and formulation of select resource criteria
ties. Identification of, and planning for, specialized rescue situations and subsequent development of the community resource directory
enhances incident response capability. Knowledge, skills, and un- (CRD) is unique to each department or agencys community re-
derstanding of these special conditions are limited by unique oper- source plan. The CRP and CRD augment and enhance the limita-
ational parameters and safety considerations. In summary, tions of the jurisdictions capabilities during rescue operations, and
successful outcome and termination of special rescue incidents re-
provide the framework and operating structure to build effective,
lies on skills, training, preplanning, and deployment of adequately
safe, and timely rescue operations.
prepared and outfitted resources and personnel.
The basis of the community resource plan is to establish con-
tacts; identify procedures; and initiate agreements with local, juris-
COMMUNITY RESOURCE PLANNING dictional, regional, andior state and national entities for the
(CRPI procurement of identified resource needs. Through careful and thor-
ough research and preplanning, a useful data base can be developed
The typical demands associated with a site-specific technical rescue that includes established procurement procedures and memoranda
incident or a regionwide disaster can quickly overwhelm even the of agreement.
largest of responding emergency service agencies. Even with an ef-
fective in-place incident management system, the planning and lo-
gistical demands placed upon incident managers, coupled with the DEVELOPMENT OF A CRP DATABASE
requirements for meeting tactical deployment requests, can impede There are four basic functional areas that can be generally associat-
or impair the most efficient of organizations or departments. ed with the categories of resource planning for rescue response.
Due to the potential complexities associated with rescue situa- These include, but are not limited to: (1) equipment, (2) supplies,
tions and the variety of conditions and parameters that may be (3) services, and (4) technical support.
present at site-specific or large-scale disaster incidents, external re- Since the basis of the community resource plan and resource
source allocation and deployment may become necessary in order directory are established and defined by the identification of internal
to enhance and support operational incident requirements. agency/department limitations or deficiencies, they are also directly
The need for comprehensive community risk assessment and related to the degree of risk potential to which the community and
planning for complex collapse or disaster responses forms the foun- jurisdiction are susceptible. The relationship of current operational
dation for subsequent incident operations. One component of com- capabilities, coupled with the influence of existing mutual-aid
munity risk assessment planning focuses upon the development of agreements and assignments, will provide a measurement by which
a data base of external resources that could be deployed and utilized the parameters of the community risk profile and analysis can be
in order to facilitate strategic and tactical objectives. factored in order to determine the existing limitations and deficien-
cies. This provides the foundation for the research and development
Community resource planning (CRP) provides the means by of an external resources data base.
which an agency or jurisdiction can enhance identified internal de-
ficiencies and provide a system for external resource allocation that The following lists provide an overview of items that could
will provide on-scene incident commanders with the necessary re- comprise the data base. These lists are not all-inclusive.
sources to augment the agencys ability to respond and operate at
rescue incidents. Equipment
As with any incident response, the successful intervention,oper- Aerial lifts
ation, and termination of the incident is directly related to the degree
of resources available or deployed, coupled with the effectivenessand Air tools
efficiency of their respective tactical assignments, objectives, and Backhoes
time management parameters.

Effective deployment of a community resource plan provides
Cellular phone compadies
for a pre-determined and coordinated means of supporting the plan-
ning and logistical demands associated with rescue incidents, and Compressors
allows for the substantial reduction in the time allotments required Computer equipment supply and rental companies
to identify, locate, and subsequently contact and call-out resources
for anticipated or required deployment needs. Concrete construction form suppliers
Community resource planning is not an entirely new concept Concrete cutting, breaking, and sawing firms
within the fire and emergency service delivery system. The identifi- Construction equipment
cation and utilization of mutual-aid agencies and companies to aug-
Conveyors and material handlers
ment daily fire, rescue, and emergency medical service (EMS)
alarm assignments is commonplace in many jurisdictions. Supple- Cranes, rigging/erectors
mentation of local jurisdictional manpower and equipment needs Excavators
with mutual-aid agencies allows the receiving agency to: (1) deploy
adequate resources at a given incident and (2)increase the ability to Fire equipment and supply firms
mitigate the incident conditions. Flood lighting and searchlights
The size, organizational structure, internal capab Forklifts
sources, operating environment, and technical rescue capabilities of
the department, coupled with the identified community risk hazards, Generators
will determine to what extent the community resource plan will be Ham radio operators groups
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Hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical Rubbishdumpster suppliers and haulers

Hydraulic tool distributors Tire distributodrepair forms
Light and heavy equipment firms Towing services
Loaders, trenchers, skid-steer loaders 9 Transportation service
Portable pumps Tree- and debris-removal firms
Public works agencies Trucking and leasing companies
Radio communications and equipment suppliers
Technical Support
Sawing and cutting equipment
Scaffolding American Concrete Institute
Shoring American Institute of Architects
Television and communications companies American Institute of Steel Construction
Tent suppliers and distributors American Public Works Association
Welding supply companies American Society of Consulting Engineers
Association of Building Contractors American Society of Safe-
Supplies ty Engineers
9 Bag, burlap, and canvas manufacturers . Association of Engineering Geologists
Battery distributors Association of General Contractors
Building materials supply firms Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
Chemical supply and distributor companies Construction Specification Institute
Compressed gases supply distributors International Association of Bridge, Structural, and Ornamen-
Fire equipment and supply firms (1ocaVregional) tal Iron Workers
Fuel distributors Local and regional professional societies, associations, and
trade groups
Grocers and food suppliers
National Society of Professional Engineers
Hardware supply firms
Physicians and Surgeons Professional Associations
Lumberyards Contractors
Medical supply companies Demolition
Portable shelter and tent firms
Drilling and boring
Power tool suppliers
Rental service and supply companies
General contractors
Heavy-equipment operators

Utility companies
Steel erectors and Fabricators
Services Utility
Aviationhelicopter services Consulting Engineers and Architects
Awning and canopy manufacturers
Baking companies
Banquet and party supply companies
Civil engineers
Beverage supply and distributors
Construction engineers
Boat supply companies
Bottled water distributors
Buses, public, private; school districts Marine

Catering companies Mechanical

Fencing companies Safety, health, and hygiene
Glasslwindshield repair companies Sanitary
Ice distributors Soil
Motorcycle, all-terraidATV firms Structural
Portable restroom supply companies Surveying
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Electric equipment and supply distribution
The conceptualization and planning process is defined by the fol-
Environmental and remedial contractors
lowing ten parameters. Each must be thoroughly identified and ad-
Hazardous waste abatement companies dressed.
Highway and transportation agencies 1. What type of specialized rescue team(s) is required?
2. What risk factors are present or potential within the jurisdiction?
Industrial rescue teams
3. What level of expertise currently exists within the organization?
Land surveyors 4. How can system enhancement be best achieved?
Search-and-rescue dog handlers Short term
Wilderness search groups/associations Intermediate

After the appropriate CRP data base items are identified, the Long term
data collection process must identify local, regional, statewide, or 5. What level or degree of technical capabilities can the plan
other appropriate contacts, e.g., companies, firms, agencies, or indi- achieve?
viduals that will ultimately provide the identified resource needs. 6. How can the services be best achieved?
The next phase in the community resource plan requires the initia- Regional
tion, preparation, and adoption of appropriate types of agreements Countywide
that clearly define the scope and conditions for the provision of ser-
vices, equipment, and/or supplies established by the CRP. These Intercounty
agreements can take the form of the following: Cooperative agreements with industrial or private teams
Memoranda of agreement (MOA) Outside agencies
Mutual-aid agreements (MAA) 7. What is the current projected level of interest of staff and per-
9 Service agreements (SA)
Service or retainer contracts (SWSC)
These agreements should be reviewed and approved by the le- Availability for staffing requirements
gai council having jurisdiction within the organization structure of
the department to ensure that the agreement and its parameters are Previous levels of specialkpecific training
equitable, concise, and that all liability issues have been addressed. Employmen/trade experience
Fire/rescue/EMS response experience


I The documents and data contained within the CRD yellow pages Time commitment requirements
1I for complex incident management provide for the timely identifica-
Personal nsk factors
tion, call out, and deployment of required resources, based upon
specific incident parameters. Dedication
As with any resource or reference document, the community 8. What are the projected financial considerations and impacts?
resource directory and data base should be updated and revalidated Short term
on an annual basis, so to ensure that individual contact names,
phone numbers, and conditions are valid and current. In addition, it Intermediate
is important to identify and document any changes in the resource Long term
listing that may affect its usefulness within the data base. It is not
9. What influencing regulations/standards must be complied with,
uncommon for products, services, or materials to change or be with-
or basis achieved?
drawn, especially when dealing with equipment, supply, or service
companies. This, obviously, can compromise the dependability a n d NFPA
or function of the CRP. OSHA
Financial constraints, budgets curtailments, staffing limita- ANSI
tions and reductions, and limited resource acquisitions can prevent
the initiation of programs or delay expansion of existing services. NIOSH
All proposals must be thoroughly assessed, properly planned, and DOT
adequately developed in order to effectively implement program DOL
goals. Technical rescue team development relies heavily on a thor-
ough understanding of the issues surrounding the needs associated API
with such a team, coupled with an appropriate planning process that NASAR
will ultimately lead an agency toward its established goal of en-
hanced rescue capabilities or deployment of specially trained and AAUS
adequately outfitted personnel for technical rescue responses. Other
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10. What is the time commitment for organization, development, Technical Rescue Specialties Program
and implementation of the program initiative?
Efforts must be made early in the conceptualization and plan-
ning process to ensure that the commitments and objectives being The following examples are typical technical rescue program ele-
developed can be achieved within the organization. Initial interest ments that can facilitate the development of rescue operation capa-
may be high with any new program, but may quickly wane as the bilities for technical rescue specialties!
demand of increased training and time commitments take their toll.
Rope rescue: Rope techniques are a basic underlying skill for
most other types of rescue. Most fire fighters will be familiar with
State/Federal Regulations basic rope techniques and knot tying as part of the basic fire fighter
Regulatory impact of associated state/federal regulations, along
with the influence of recognized national standards, will also influ- An awareness of rope skills can be taught to rescuers in only a
ence and help direct the planning, organization, and training pro- day. It could include topics such as rope characteristics, strengths,
cess. NFPA has standards under development that will cover basic knots, hardware, hazards to be aware of when using rope, and
technical rescue operations and the professional qualifications of dangerous techniques to avoid.
rescue technicians. These regulations and standards may assist the
planning group or committee in identifying relevant issues that may An operation-level could cover rope rescue techniques. Rescu-
impact the development of objectives, goals, and organizational ers could be taught basic techniques of rappelling, rigging, belay-
scope for the subsequent teams deployment. ing, safety, anchoring, and simple mechanical advantage systems.
Additional operational techniques could include patient packaging,
low-angle evacuations, and simple pickoff maneuvers. This could
Research and Data Gathering be taught in 2 days.
Efforts should be taken by respective departments and agencies to A detailed technician-level program could be conducted in ap-
research and obtain information from other departments and teams proximately one week, covering basic and advanced rigging tech-

around the country, in order to gain the wealth of information that niques, anchor systems, belays, simple and complex mechanical
can be analyzed and disseminated, with applicable information ap- advantage systems, and advanced patient extrication techniques and
plied and augmented in order to meet with local conditions, factors, stokes basket operations. Low- and high-angle rescue techniques,
and team objectives. This research and data-gathering network can including telpher and Tyrolean systems, could be included.
save a tremendous amount of time and effort, by avoiding redundan- Some specialty topics could include advanced techniques for
cy in program planning and technical rescue team applications. helicopter operations, ladder operations and bridging techniques,
Those departments that have developed technical response teams and other topics. Practical and teaching experience should be re-
over the years, and the process by which they developed the meth- quired. Urban rope techniques could be incorporated for areas
ods utilized for operations and the equipment utilized, coupled with where high-angle rescues may be adapted to an urban environment.
the revisions that have been adopted through field-proven situations,
can only help to provide time-proven data and information. Confined space rescue: Confined spaces are defined as any area
not designed for human occupancy, with limited entrance and
TECHNICAL RESCUE TEAMS egress. OSHA has established one of the few standards that is appli-
cable to technical rescue, 29 CFR 1910.146, which requires con-
It is imperative that departments and agencies considering develop- fined space rescue personnel who enter these spaces to be trained
ing specialized technical rescue teams understand the long-term (although it provides little training specifics).
commitments and the level of dedication required to fulfill the op-
erability and usefulness of team activation. A department or agency An awareness of confined space rescue can be taught in a few
must identify the appropriate types and levels of technical service(s) hours, and could include background on OSHA regulations, recog-
necessary as the needs or risks within the jurisdiction or community nition of permit-required spaces, confined space hazard recognition,
change. In the 1980s, many jurisdictions quickly implemented haz- how to secure the scene, available resources for confined space res-
ardous materials teams as the wave of this concept and need swept cue, and what conditions preclude rescue entry into a space.
throughout the emergency services only to find that the demands of Operation-level personnel could be taught safe entry and res-
time, financial support, and commitment levels necessitated a re- cue technique, atmospheric monitoring techniques, and how to as-
evaluation of their level of commitment and degree of involvement. sess the hazards and risks. An operations level could be achieved
with several days of training.
Rescue Specialties Technician-level personnel could be trained for a wide range of
skills and hazards assessment. Skills may include patient evacua-
The following list is designed to assist any agency or organization
tion, special retrieval systems, use of communications and com-
in identifying the specialties necessary to safely and effectively un-
mand at confined space incidents, familiarity with various types of
dertake technical rescue operations.
confined space, atmospheric monitoring, hazard assessment, and
1. Ropehigh-angle rescue operations ventilation techniques. At least 40-60 hr are necessary to train per-
sonnel to the technician level.
2. Confined space rescue operations
3. Trench rescue operations Trench rescue: By definition, a trench is deeper than it is wide.
4. Structural collapse rescue operations Rescuers have been injured or killed after entering and unshored
trench that suffered a secondary collapse. Awareness of the dangers
5. Water/ice rescue operations
of trench incidents can be taught in about 4 hr, covering the basics
6. Motor vehicle rescues of hazard recognition, scene security, rescuer safety, types of trench
7. Industrial/agricuIturd rescue operations collapses, additional resources, and initial actions.

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An operations level of training can be taught in several days, ments and agencies prepare appropriately to meet the challenges
with students gaining knowledge of rescue equipment, different and demands associated with the risk potential and hazards present
types of shoring, means of securing the site according to departmen- or projected for the jurisdiction and community.
tal standard operation procedures (SOPS),how to perform a safe en- Specialized technical rescue operations is an emergency inte-
try, and other support operations. grated system. Through proactive planning, community-based risk
Technician-level personnel should become familiar with vari- assessment and evaluation, preparedness training, resource devel-
ous rescue techniques, shoring techniques, victim retrieval systems, opment, and contingency planning, fire and emergency service
EMS and patient care skills for trench collapse, control of utilities, agencies can effectively prepared and anticipate the manner in
and long-term operations skills. The technician level could be which they can handle incident responses, while maintaining the
taught in about 10-14 days. highest degree and consideration for the safety and well-being of
Trench rescue shares equipment, rescue techniques, and skills their personnel and emergency responders. Technical rescue opera-
with both confined space rescue and collapse rescue. A course could tions requires a fine balance between training, knowledge and skills,
be designed to include aspects of each discipline. risk management, and resources.

Structural collapse: Structural collapse shares many techniques BIBLIOGRAPHY

with trench and confined space rescue. An awareness of the dan-
gers of structural collapse could cover types of construction and Reference Cited
associated hazards, types of collapses, how to secure the scene,
and when to call for help. This could be taught in approximately 1. Federal Emergency Management Agency Technical Rescue Program
8-1 2 hr. Development Manual, FA-159, Feb. 1996, pp. 1.5-1.9. United States
Fire Administration, Washington, DC.
An operations-level of training could also include patterns for
conducting a surface debris search for victims, basic stabilization, NFPA Codes, Standards, and Recommended Practices
utility control, and atmospheric monitoring. It could be taught in 5
Reference to the following NFPA codes, standards, and recommended
to 8 days. practices will provide further information on rescue operations dis-
A technician-level course covering shoring and building stabi- cussed in this chapter. (See the latest version of The NFPA CutuZog for
lization, rescue equipment, search equipment and operations, tunnel- availability of current editions of the following documents.)
ing and excavation techniques, hazard stabilization and mitigation,
NFPA 220, Types of Building Construction
components of urban search and rescue techniques, and patient care NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighters Professional Qualifications
could be taught in approximately 5-7 days. NFFA 1201, Developing Fire Protection Sewicesfor the Public
NFPA 1470, Standard on Search and Rescue Training for Structural Col-
Water Rescue lapse Incidents
NFPA 1.500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safe@and Health
One of the most dangerous types of special rescue is water rescue. Program
There are several different specialties within the field of water res- NFPA 1521, Fire Department Safewty Officer
cue. Rescuers may face incidents involving calm water, swift wa- NFPA 1561,Fire Department Incident Management System
ter, ice, or even surf conditions. Dive rescue is a specialty within NFPA 1600, Disaster Management
itself. Courses in each training level could be designed to address NFPA 1983, Fire Service Life Safety Rope & System Components
all types of water rescue or individual types (e.g., swift water res-
cue only). Additional Reading

A basic awareness of water hazards, safety, and shore-based Collins, Larry, An Innovative Approach to Swiftwater Rescue,Firrhouse,
rescue techniques can be taught in a few hours. Different types of May 1994, p. 83-1 11.
water rescue may share similar techniques, but pose different dan- Downey, Ray, The Rescue Company, Fire Engineering Publications,Tulsa,
gers. OK, 1992.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Earthquake Reduction Series 41,
Operations-level training could cover techniques for in-water Rapid Visual Screening for Potential Deismic Hazards, Washington,
or ice rescue. Rescuers should become familiar with different types DC.
of water rescue techniques, ice and current hazards, hypothermia Federal Emergency Management Agency, Earthquake Damaged Build-
and EMS considerations, ice rescue equipment, and shore-based ings; An Overview of Heavy Debris and Victim Extrication, FEMA
swift-water rescue techniques. This course could be taught in about 158, Sept. 1988, Earthquake Reduction Series 43, Washington, DC.
one week, and requires personnel to be able to swim. Final Report; Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing, Fire miblica-
tions, Oklahoma State University. Stillwater, OK. 1996.
The technician level could require knowledge in all facets of Foley, Steven N., Picking up the Pieces,NFPA Journal, MaylJune 1995.
water rescue and how to perform special rescue techniques, such as P-52ff
victim retrieval using boats or a helicopter. This course could be Gallagher, Tim and Steve Storment,Confined Space Rescue,Rescue,
taught in about one week. May/June 1994, p. 5149.
IFSTA, Fire Sewice Rescue Practices, Fire protection Publications,Okla-
homa State University, Stillwater, OK, 1996.
SUMMARY Mellot, Kevin, D., Building a Specialized Rescue Capability on a Budget.
Fire Chie$ November 1992, p. 36-39.
The daily demands imposed upon fire and emergency service agen- Naum, C. J. Basic Training for StructuralCollapse Operations: On-Call,
cies can, at times, overwhelm the best prepared and trained depart- Vol. 1., No. 5, Nov./Dec.
ments and their personnel. Changes in society and the built Naum C . J., Search and Rescue for StructuralCollapse Operations, The
environment influence fire and emergency incidents. Specialized Voice, May 1996; June 1996.
rescue operations, and the skills necessary for their safe and effec- Naum, C. J., Specialty of the houseTechnical Rescue Teams, Firehouse,
tive deployment and subsequent operations, require that all depart- Vol. 18, No. 4., April 1993, pp. 86,88,90.

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Naum C. J., Developing a Technical Rescue Team, Firehouse, Vol. 18, Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120(OSHA),Hazard-
No. 5., May 1993, pp. 3841,4445. ous Waste Sites and Emergency Response, March 6, 1989
Naum, C. J., Trench CollapseResponse, Rescue & EMS Considerations, Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.146(OSHA), Con-
Rescue-EMS, Vol. 11, No. 3, May/June 1993, pp. 36-40. fined Space Operations, April 15, 1993.
Naum, C. J., Community Resource Planning for CollapseRescue,Fire-
house, Vol. 18, No. 8.,Aug. 1993, pp. 32-34. Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1926.650(OSHA), Exca-
Naum, C. J., Search and Rescue Marking Systems for CollapseRescue, vation and Trenching Operations, Oct. 31, 1989.
Firehouse, Vol. 19, No. 11, Dec. 1994, pp. 32-37. US. Fire Administration, Technical Rescue Technology Assessment, FA-
Naum, C. J., TrenchCollapseRescue Operations, The Voice,Vol.23, No. 153,Washington, DC, Jan. 1995.
4; AprillMay 1994, pp. 17-19.

U.S. Fire Administration, ProtectiveClothing and Equipment Needs of
Naum, C. J., FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Task Force System, Fire- Emergency Responders for Urban Search and Rescue Missions, FA-
Jighter News,June/July 1993,pp. 4243. 136,Washington, DC, Sept. 1993.
Naum, C. J., The Essence of Rescue in the 199Os,FireJighterNe~s,
June/ US.FireAdministration,Technical Rescue Program Development Manual,
July 1993,pp. 74-77. FA-159, U.S. Fire Administration, Washington, D.C., Aug. 1995.
NFPA, KOBE-NFFA Fire Investigation Report, National Fire Protection
Association,Quincy, MA, 1997. U.S. Fire Administration,New Technologies in Vehicle Extraction, FA-152,
Practical Rescue Manual, Montgomery County Fire and Rescue, 1988. US. Fire Administration, Washington, D.C., Sept. 1994.
Superintendentof Documents Publications,Superintendentof Documents, Wolf, Alisa, Oklahoma City Bombing,NFPA Journal, Jan.lFeb. 1996, p-
US. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 50ff.

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