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0n Questions ol Party History

Resolution on Certain Questions in the History

Of Our Party Since the Founding of the
' People's Republic of Ch ina
(Adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the llth
Central Committee of the Communist Party
of China on June 27, l9B1)

But it initiated the vigorous workers' -moye-

Review of the History of the 28 Years ment and the people's anti-imperialist and anti-
Before the Founding of the People's feudal struggle and grew rapidly and soon be-
Republic i came a leading force such as the Chinese people
had never before known.
1. The Communist Party of China has 3. In the course of leading the struggte of
traversed 60 years of glorious struggle since its the Chinese people with its various nationalities
founding in 1921. In order to sum up its ex- for new democracy, the Communist Party of
perience in the 32 years since the founding of China went through four stages: the Northern
the People's Republic, we must briefly review Expedition (1924-27) conducted with the co-
the previous 28 years in which the Party led the operation of the Kuomintang, the Agrarian Rev-
people in waging the revolutionary struggle for olutiorrary War (1927-37), the War of Rssistance
new democrary. Against Japan (1937-45) and the nationwide War
2. The Communist Party of China was the of Liberation (1946-49). Twice, first in 1927
produet of the iniegration of Marxism-Leninism and then in 1934, it endured major setbacks. It
was not until 1949 that it finally triumphed in
with the Chinese workers' movement and was
founded under the influence of the Octdber
the revolution, thanks to the long years of
armed struggle in conjunction with other forms
Revolution in Russia and the May 4th Move-
ment in China and with the help of the Com-
of struggle in other fields elosely co-ordinated
munist International led by Lenin. The Revolu-
with it.
tion of 1911 led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the great ln 1927, regardless of the resolute opposi-
revolutionary forerunner, overthrew the Qing tion of the Left wing of the Kuomintang with
Dynasty, thus bringing to an end over 2,000 Soong Ching Ling as its outstanding represen-
years of feudal monarchical rule. However, the tative, the Kuomintang controlled by Chiang
semi-colonial and semi-feudal nature of Chinese Kai-shek and Wang Jingwei betrayed the
society remained unchanged. Neither the Kuo- policies of Kuomintang-Communist co-operation
mintang nor any of the bourgeois or petty- and of anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism de-
bourgeois political groupings a,nd fa,ctions found cided on by Dr. Sun Yat-sen and, in collusion
any way out for the country and the nation, nor with the imperialists, massacred Communists
was it possible for thern to do so. The Com- and other revolutionaries. The Party was stiil
munist Party of China and the Communist quite inexperienced and,. moreover, was dom-
Party of China alone was able to show the peo- inated by Chen Duxiu's Right capitulationism,
ple that China's.salvation lay in overthrowing so. that the revolution suffered a disastrous
once and for all the reactionary rule of im- defeat under the surprise attack of a powerful
perialism and feudalism and then switching over enemy. The total membership of the Party,
to socialism. When the Communist Party of which had grown to more than 60,000, fell to a
it had less than 60 members.
China was founded, Iittle over 10,000.
10 Beijary Reateto, Na. 27
However, our Party continued to fight te. forces of the Red Army had withdrawn. As a
naciously.' Launched undbr the leadership of result of the defeat caused by Wang Ming's
Zhou Enlai and several other comrades, the "IAft" errors, the revolutionary base areas and
Nanchang Uprising of. l92l fired the opening the revolutionary forces in the Kuomintang
shot for armed resistance against the Kuomin- areas sustained enormous losses. The Red Army
tang reactionaries. The meeting of the Central of 300,000 men was reduced to about 30,000 and
Committee of the Party held on August 7, lg27 the Communist Party of 300,000 members to
decided on the policy of carrying out agrarian about 40,000.
revolution and organizing uprisings.
Shortly afterwards, the Autumn Harvest and In January 1935, the Political Bureau of the
Guangzhou Uprisings and uprisings in many Central Committee of the Party convened a
other areas were organized. l,ed by Comrade meeting in Zunyi during the Ircng March, which
Mao Zedong, the Autumn Harvqst Uprising in established the leading position of Comrade
the Hunan-Jiangxi border area gave Uirttr to the Mao Zedong in the Red Army and the Central
First Division of the Chinese Workers, and peas- Committee of the Party. This saved the Red
ants' Revolutionary Army and to the first rural Army and the Central Committee of the Party
revolutionary base area in the Jinggang Moun- which were then in critical danger and subse-
tains. Before long, the insur:gents led by Com- quently made it possible to defeat Zhang Guo-
rade Zhu De arrived at the Jinggang Mountains tao's splittism, bring the Long March to a
and joined forces \rith it. Witfilne progress of triumphant conclusion and open up new vistas
the struggle, the Party set up the JLngxi cen- for the Chinese revolution. It was a yital turn-
tral revolutionary base area and the Western ing point in th; history of the Party.
Hunan-Hubei, the Haifeng-Lufeng, the Hubei- At a time of national crisis of unparalleled
Henan-Anhui, the Qiongya, the Fujian-Zhe_ gravity when the Japanese imperialists were
jiang-Jiangxi, the Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi, the
intensifying their aggression against China, the
HunanJiangxi, the Zuojiang-youjiang, the Central Committee of the Party headed by Com-
Sichuan-Shaanxi, the Shaanxi-Gansu and the
rade Mao Zedong decided on and carried out
Hunan-Hubei:Sichuan-Guizhou and other base the correct policy of forming an anti-Japanese
areas. The First, Second and Fourth Front national united front. Our Party led the stu-
Armies of the \ilorkers' and Peasants, Red Army dents' movement of December 9, 1935 and or-
were also born, as were many other Red Army ganized the powerful mass struggle, to demand
units. In addition, Party organizations and other an end to the civil war and resistance against
revolutionary organizations were established Japan so as to save the nation. Ttre Xian In-
and revolutionary mass struggles unfolded under cident organized by Generals Zhang Xueliang
difficult conditions in the Kuomintang areas. In and Yang Hucheng on December 12, lg36 and
the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the First Front its peacful settlemeht which our Party pro-
Army of the Red Army and the central revolu- moted played a crucial historical role in bring-
tionary base area under the direct leadership ing about renewed co-operation between the
of Comrades Mao Zedong and Zhu De played Kuomintang and the Communist Party and in
the most important role. The front armies of achieving national unity for resistance against
the Red Army defeated in turn a number of Japanese aggression. During the war of resist-
"encirclement and suppression,, campaigns ance, the ruling clique of the Kuomintang con-
launehed by the Kuomintang troops. But be- tinued to oppose the Communist Party and the
cause of Wang Ming's "Irft" adventurist leader- people and was passive in resisting Japan. As
ship, the struggle against the Kuomintang's a result, the Kuomintang suffered defeat after
fifth "encirclement and suppression,' campaign defeat in front operations against the Japanese
ended in failure. The First Front Army was invaders. Our Party persevered in the policy
forced to embark on the 25,000-li Long March of maintaining its independence and initiative
and made its way to northern Shaanxi to join within the united front, closely relied on the
forces with units of the Red Army which had masses of the people, conducted guerrilla war-
been persevering in struggles there and with its fare behind enemy lines and set up many anti-
25th Army which had arrived earlier. The Sec- Japanese base areas. The Eighth Route Army
ond and Fourth Front Armies also went on their and the New Fourth Army the reorganized
long march, first one and then the othef arriving Red Army-grew rairidly -and became the
in northern Shaanxi. Guerrilla warfare was mainstay in the war of resistance. The North-
carried on under difficrrlt conditions in the base east Anti-Japanese United Army sustained its
areas in south China from which the main operations amid formidabie difficulties. Diverse

Julg 6, 1981 11
forms of antiJapanese struggle were unfolded correct path to victory for the Chinese revolu-
on a broad scale in areas occupied by Japan or tion was charted. Ttris is a major contribution
controlled by the Kuomintang. Consequently, to the development of Marxism-Leninism.
the Chinese people were able to hold out in the
war for eight long years and win final victory, 2) As the vanguard. of the Chinese pro-
in co-operation with the people of the Soviet letariat, the Communist Party of China is a
Union and other countries in the anti-fascist party serving the peopte wholeheartedly, with
war. no selfish aim of its own. It is a party with
both the courage and the ability to lead the
During the anti-Japanese war, the Party people in their indomitable struggle against any
conducted a rectification movement, a move- enemy. Convinced of all this through their own
ment of Marxlst education. Launched in 1942, experience, the Chinese people of whatever na-
it was a tremendous success. It was on this basis tionality came to rally around the Party and
that the Eniarged Seventh, Plenary Session of the form a broad united front, thus forging a strong
Sixth Central Committee of the Party in 1945 political unity unparalleled in Chinese history.
adopted the Resolution on Certain Questions in
the History of Our Party and soon afterwards 3) The Chinese revolution was victorious
the Party's Seventh National Congress was con- mainly because we relied on a people's army
vened. meetings summed up our his- led by the Party, an arrny of a completely new
torical experience and laid down our correct type and enjoying flesh-and-blood ties with the
line, principles and policies for building a new- people, to defeat a formidable enemy through
democratic New China, enablin'g the Party to protracted people's war. Without such an aimy,
attain an unprecdented ideological, political it would have been impossible to achieve the
and organizational unity and solidarity. After liberation of our people and the independence
the conclusion of the War of Resistance Against of our country.
Japan, the Chiang Kai-shek government, with 4\ The Chinese revolution had the support
the aid of US imperialipm, fLagrantly launched of the revolutionary forces in other countries
an all-out civil waf, disregarding the just at every stage, a fact which the Chinese people
demand of our Party and the people of the will never foiget. Yet it must be said that,
whole country for peace and democracy. With fundamentally, victory in the Chinese revolu-
the wholehearted support of the people in all tion was won because the Chinese Communist
the liberated areas, with the powerful backing Party adhered to the principle of independence
of the students' and workers' movements and and self-reliance and depended on the efforts
the struggles of the people of various strata in
the Kuomintang areas and with the active co-
of the whole Chinese people, whatever their
nationalit5r, after they undenvent untold: hard-
operation of the democratic parties and non- ships and surmounted innumerable difficulties
party democrats, our Party led the People's and obstacles together.
Liberation Army in fighting the three-year War
of Liberation and, after the Liaoxi-Shenyang, 5) The victorious Chinese revolution put
Beiping-Tianjin and Huai-Hai campaigru and an end to the rule of a handful of exploiters
the successful crossing of the Changjiang (Yang- over the masses of the worklng people and to
tze) River, in wiping out a total of 8 million the enslavement of the Chinese people of all
Chiang Kai-shek troops. The end result,was nationalities by the imperialists and colonialists.
the overthrow of the reactionary Kuomintang The working people have become the masters
government and the establishment of the great .of the new state and the new society. While
People's Republic of China. The Chinese peo- changing the balance of forces in world politics,
ple had stood up. the people's victory in so large a country having
4. The victories gained in the 28 years of nearly onequarter of the world's population
struggle fully show that: has inspired the people in countries similarly
subjected to imperialist and colonialist exploita-
f) Victory in the Chinese revolution was tion and oppression with heightened eonfidence
won under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism. in their forward inarch. The triumph of the
Our Party had creatively applied the basic Chinese revolution is the most important polit-
tenets of Marxism-Lertinism and integrated ical event since World War II and has exerted
them with the concrete practice of the Chinese a profound and far-reaching impact on the
revolution. In this way, the great system of international situation and the development of
Mao Zedong Thought came into being and the the people's struggle throughout the world.

12 Beijing Reuieut, No, 27

5. Victory in the new{emocratic revolu. Thought, has very succespfully led the whole
tionswas won ,through long years of struggle people in carrying out socialist revolution and
an&sacrifice by countless martyrs, party mem- socialist construction. The e.stablishment of the
berq. bnd gpople of all nationalities. We should socialist system represents the greatest and
by .no means give all the credit to the leaders most profound social change in Chinese history
of, the revolution, but at the same time we and is the foundation for the country's future
shquld not. underrate the significant role these progres.s and development.
leaflers have played. Among the many out-
st4grding leaders of the Party, Comrade Mao 7. Our major achievements in the 32 years
.Zedong was the most prominent. prior to the since the founding of the People's Republic are
failure of the revolution in 1927, he had clearly the following:
pointed out the paramount importance of the
leadership of.the proletariat over the peasants,
1) We have established and consolidated
struggle and the danger of a Right deviation in
the people's democratic dictatorship led by the
wofking class and based on the worker-peasant
this regard. After its failure, he was the chief
representative of those who succeeded in shift-
alliance, namely, the dictatorship of the pro-
ing the emphasis in the Party,s work from the letariat. It is a new t5pe of state power, un-
known in Chinese hi,story, in which the people
city to the countryside and in preserving, r-
storing and promoting the revolgti.onary forces are the masters of their own house. It con-
in the countryside. In the 22 years from 192? stitutes the fundamental guarantee for the
to 1949, Comrade Mao Zedong and. other party building of a modern socialist country, pros-
penous and powerful, democratic and culturally
leaders managed to overcome innumerable dif-
ficulties and gradually worked out an overall
strategy and specific policies and directed their 2) We have achieved and consolidated na-
implementdtion, so that the revolution was able tionuride unification of the country, with the
to switch from staggering defeats to great vic- exception of Taiwan and other islands, and have
tory. Our Party and people would have had thus put an end to the state of disunity charac-
to grope in the dark rnuch longer had it not teristic of old China. We have achieved and
been for Comrade Mao Zedong, who more than consolidated the great unity of the people of
once rescued the Chinese revolution from grave all nationalities and have forged and expanded
danger, and for the Central Committee of the a socialist relationship of equality and mutual
Party which was headed by him and which help among the more than 50 nationaiities. And
charted the firm, correct political course for the we have achieved and consolidated the great
whole Party, the whole people and the people,s unity of the workers, peasants, intellectuals and
army. Jus! as the Communist Party of China people of other strata and have strengthened
is recognized as the central force leading the and expanded the broad united front which is
entire people forward, so Comrade Mao Zedong led by the Chinese'Communist Party in full co-
is recognized as the great leader of the Chinese operation with the patriotic democratic parties
Communist Party and the whole Chinese peo- and people's organizations, and comprises all
ple, and Mao Zedong Thought, which came lnto socialist working people and all patriots who
being through the collective struggle of the support socialism and'patriots who stand for
Party and the people, is recogni.zed as the guid- the unification of the motherland, including our
ing ideology of the Party. This is the inevitable compatriots in Taiwan, Xianggang (Hongkong)
outcome of the 28 years of historical develop- and Aomen (Macao) and Chinese citizens
ment preceding the founding of the people's Re- overseas.
public of China.
3) We have defeated aggression, sabotage
and armed provocations by the imperialists and
hegemonists, safeguarded our country's security
Basic Appraisal of the History of the 32 and independence and fought successfully .in
Years Since the Founding of the peo- defence of our border regions.
ple's Republic
4) We have built and developed a socialist
economy and have in the main completed the
6. Generally speaking, the years since the socialist transformation of the private owner-
founding of the People's Republic of China are ship of the means of production into public
years in which the Chinese Communist party, ownership and put into practice the principle
guided by Marxism-Leni.qiem and Mag. Zedong of "to each according to his work." The system
'' i'
J-uLy 6, 1981 t3
of exploitation of man by man has been 7) There has been a substantial gro-wth in
eliminated, and exploiters no longer exist as urban and rural conunerce and in foreign trade.
classes since the overwhelming majority have The total value of commodities purchased' by
been remoulded and now live by their own enterprises owned by the whole people rose from
labour. 1?.5 billion yuan in 1952 to 226.3 billion yuan in
1980, registering an increase nearly l3-fold; retail
5) We have scored signal successes in in- sales rose tuom 27J billion yuan to'214 billion
dustrial construction and have gradually set up
Jruan, an increase of ?.? times. The total value
an independent and fairly comprehensive in- of the state's foreign trade in 1980 was 8.? tirhes
dustrial base and economic system. Compared that of 1952. With the growth in industry, agri-
with 1952 when economic rehabilitation was culture and commefce, the people's livelihood
completed, fixed industrial assets, calculated -on has improved very markedly, as compared with
the basis of their original price, were more than pre-liberation days. In 1980, average consump-
27 times greater in 1980, exceeding 410,000 mil- tion per capita in bqth town and country was
lion yuan; the output of cotton yarn was 4.5 nearly twiee as much as in 1952, allowing for
times greater, reaching 2,930,000 tons; that price changes.
of coal 9.4 times, reaching 620 million tons;
that of electricity 4l times, exceeding 300,000 S) Considerable progress has been made
million kwh; and the output of crude oil ex- in education, scienc, culture, public health and
physical culture. In 1980, enrolment in the
ceeded 105 million tons and that of steel 3?
various kinds of full-time schools totalled 204
million tons; the output value of the engineer- million, 3.7 times the number in 1952, In the
ing industry was 54 times greater, exceeding past 32 years, the institutions of higher educa-
127,000 million yuan: A number of new in- tion and vocational schools have turned out
dustrial bases have been built in our vast hinter- nearly 9 million graduates with specialized
land and the regions inhabited by our minority knowledge or skills. Our achievements in nu-
nationalities. National defence industry started clear technology, man-made satellites, rocketry,
from scratch and is being gradually built up. etc., represent substantial advances in the field
Much has been done in the prospecting of of science anil technology. In literature and art,
natural resources. There has been a tremendous large numbers of fine works have appeared to
growth in railway,' highway, water: and air cater for the needs of the people and socialism.
transport and post and telecommunications. With the participation of the maSses, sports
6) The eonditions prevailing in agricul- have developed vigorously, and records have
tural production have experienced a remarkable been chalked up in quite a few events. Epi-
change, giving rise to big increases in produc- demic diseases with their high mortality rates
tion. The amount of land under irrigation has have been eliminated or largely eliminated, the
grown from 300 million rnu in 1952 to over health of the rural and urban populations has
670 million mu. Flooding by big rivers such as greatly improved, and average life expectancy
the Changjiang, Huanghe (YeIIow River), Huai- is now much trigher.
Haihe, Zhujiang (Pearl River), Liaohe and 9) Under the new historical conditions, the
Songhuajiang has been brought under initial People's Liberation Army has grown in strength
control. In our rural aras, where farrn and in quality. No longer composed only of
machinery, chemical fertilizers and electricity ground forces, it has become a composite army,
were practically non existent before liberation, including the naval and air forces and various
there is now a big increase in the number of technical branches. Our armed forces, 'oyhich
agricultlrre-related tractors and imigation and are a combination of the field armies, the re-
drainage equipment and in the quantity of gional forces and the militia, have been
chernical fertilizers applied, and the amount of
strengthened. Their quality is now much higher
electricity consumed is 7.5 times that generated and their technical equipment much better.
in the whole country in the early years of Ttre PLA is serving as-the solid pillar of the
liberation. In 1980, the total output of grain people's democratic dictatorship in defending
was nearly double that in 1952 and that of and participating in the socialist revolution and
cotton more than double. Despite the excessive socialist construction.
rate of growth in our population, which is now
nearly a billion, we have suceeeded in basically 10) Internationally, we have steadfastly
meeting the needs of our people in food and pursued an independent socialist forbign policy,
clothing by our own efforts advocated and trphBld the Five Principles of

14 Beilrng Reoieto, No. 27

Peaceful Coexistence, entered into diplomatic
relations with 124 countries and promoted trade The Seven Years of Basic Completion of
andr economic and cultural exchanges with still The Socialist Transformation
more countries and regions. Our country's place
in the United Nations and the Security Council
has been restored to us. Adhering to proletarian 9. From the inception of the People's Re-
internationalism, we are playing an increasingly public of China in October 1949 to 1956, our
influential and active role in international Party led the whole people in gradually realiz-
affairs by enhancing our friendship with the ing the transition from new democracy to so:
people of other countries, by supporting an{ cialism, rapidly rehabilitating the country's
assisting the oppressed nations in their cause of economy, undertaking planned economic con-
liberation, the newly independent countries in struction and in the main accomplishing the so-
their national construction and the people of cialist transformation of the private ownership
various countries in their just struggles and by of the means of production in rnost of the coun-
staunchly opposing imperialism, hegemonism, try. The guidelines and basic policies defined
colonialism and racism in defence of world. by the Party in this historical period were cor-
peace. All of which has served to create fa- rect and led to lriiliant successes.
vourable international conditions for our social- 10. In the first three years of the Peo-
ist construction and contributes to the develop- ple's Republic, we cleared the mainland of
ment of a world situation favourable to the bandits and the remnant armed forces of the
people everywhere Kuomintang reactionaries, peacefully liberated
8. New China has not been in existence Tibet, established people's governments at all
for very long, and our successes are still pre- levels throughout the country, confiscated
liminary. Our Party has made mistakes owing bureaucrat-capitalist enterprisas and trans-
formed them into stateowned socialist enter-
to its meagre experience in leading the cause of prises, unified the country's financial'and eco-
socialism and subjective erors in the Party
leadership's analysis of the situation and its
nomic work, stabilized cornrnodity prices,
carried out agrarian reform in the new liberated
understanding of Chinese conditions. Before areas, suppressed counter-revolutionaries, and
the "cultural revolution" there were mistakes unfolded the movements against the "three
of enlarging,the scope of class struggle and of evils" of corruption, waste and bureaucracy and
impetuosity and rashness in economic construc- against the "five evils" of bribery, tax evasion,
tion. Later, there was the comprehensive, long- theft of state property, cheating on government
drawn out and grave blunder of the "cultural contracts and stealing of economic information,
revolution." All these errors prevented us from the latter being a movement to beat back the
scoring the greater achievements of which we attack mounted by the bourgeoisie. We effec-
should have been eapable. It is impermissible tively transformed the educational, scientific
to overlook or whitewash mistakes, which in and cultural institutions of old China. While
itself would be a mistake and would give rise successfully carrying out the complex and dif-
to more and worse mistakes. But after all our ficult task of social reform and simultaneously
achievements in the past 32 years are the main undertaking the great war to resist US aggres-
thing. . It would be a no less serious error to sion and aid Korea, protect our homes and
oveilook or deny our achievements or our suc- defend the country, we rapidly rehabilitated the
cessfi:.I experiences in scoring these achieve- country's economy which had been devastated
ments. These achievements and suecessful ex- in old China. By the end of 1952, the country's
periences of ours are the product of the creative industrial and agricultural production had
application of Marxism-Leninism by our Party attained record levels.
and people, the manifestation of the superiority
of the socialist system and the base from which ll. On the proposal of Comrade Mao Ze-
the entire Party and people will continue to dong in 1952, the Central Committee of the
advance. "Uphold truth and rectify s11sp" Party advanced the general line for the. transi-
this is the basic stand of dialectical materialisni tion period, which was to realize the country's
our Party must take. It was by taking this socialist industrializaiion and socialist trans-
stand that we saved our cause from danger and formation of agriculture,. handicrafts and capi-
defeat and won victory in the past. By tiking talist industry and iommerce step by step over
the same stand, we will certainly win still a fairly long period of time. This general line
greater victories in the futtr.rq 'was a reflection of historical necessity.

JUL! 6,1981 15
1) Socialist industrialization is an indis- 12. During the period of transition, .our
pensable prerequisite to the country's ind+ Party creatively charted a course for sociglist
pendence and prosperity. transformation that suited China's specific qon-
ditions. In dealing with capitalist industry dnd
2) With nationwide victory in the new- commerce, we devised a whole series of transi-
democratic revolution and completion of the tional forms of state capitalism from lower to
agrarian reform, the contradiction between the higher levels, such as the piacing of state orddis
working class and the bourgeoisie and between with private enterprises for the processing of
the road and the capitalist road became materials or the manufacture of goods, state
the principal internal eontradiction. The coun- monopoly of the purchase and marketing of the
try needed a certain expansion of capitalist in- products of private enterprise, the marketing of
dustry and commerce which were beneficial to products of state-owned enterprises by private
its economy and to the people's livelihood. But shops, and joint state-private ownership of iri-
in the course of their exparxion, things detri- dividual enterprises or enterprises of a whole
rnental to the national economy and the peo- trade, and we eventually realized the peaceful
ple's livelihood were bound to emerge. Con- redemption of the bourgeoisie, a possibility en-
sequently, a struggle between restriction and visaged by Marx and Lenin. In dealing with
opposition to restriction was inevitable. The individual farming, we devised transitional
conflict of interests became increasingly appar- forms of co<peration, proceeding from tem-
ent between capitalist enterprises on the one porary or all-the-year-round mutual-aid teams,
hand and the economic policies of the state, the to elementary agricultural producers' co-opera-
socialist state-owned economy, the workers and
tives of a semi-socialist nature and then to
staff in these capitalist enterprises and the peo-
ple! as a whole on the other. An integrated advanced agriculturatr producers' co-operatives
series of necessary measures and steps, such as of a fully socialist nature, always adhering to
the fight against speculation and profiteering, the principles of voluntariness and mutual
the readjustment and restructuring of industry benefit, demonstration through advanced
and commeree, the movement against the ,,five ples, and extension of state help. Similar "*"*-
evils," workers' supervision of production and methods were used in transforming individual
state monopoly of the purchase and. marketing handicraft industries. In, the course of such
of :grain and cotton, were bound to gradually transformation, the state-capitalist and co-
bring backward, anarchic, lop-sided and profit- operative economies displayed their unmistak-
oriented capitalist industry and commerce into
able superiority. By 1956, the socialist trans-
the orbit of socialist transformation.
formation of the private ownership of the means
3) Among the individual peasants, and of production had been largely completed in
particularly the poor and lower-middle peasants most regions. But there had been shortcomings
who had just acquired land in the agrarian re- and errors. From the surruner of 1955 onwards,
forrn but lacked other means of production, we were over-hasty in pressing on with agri-
there was a genuine desire for mutual aid and cultural co-operation and the transformation of
co-operation in order to avoid borrowing at private handieraft and commercial establish-
usurious rates and even mortgaglng or selling ments; we were far from meticulous, the
their land again with consequent polarization, changes were too fast, and we did our work in
and in,order to expand production, undertake a somewhat summary, stereot;ped manner,
water conservancy projects, ward off natural
leaving open a number of questions for a long
calamities and make use of farm machinery and
new techniques. The progress of industrializa- time. Following the basic completion of the
tion, while demanding agricultural products in transformation of capitalist industry and cpm-
ever increasing quantities, would provide merce in 1956, we failed to do a proper job in
stronger and stronger support for the technical employing and handling some of the former
transformation of agrfculture, and this also industrialists and businessmen. But on the
constituted a motive force behind the trans- whole, it was definitely a historic victory for us
forrnation of individual into co-operative to have effected, and to have effected fairly
farming. smoothly, so difficult, cumplex and profound a
social change in so vast a country with its
As is borne out by hisbory, the general line several hundred million people, a change, more-
for the transition period set forth by our party over, which promoted the growth of industry,
was entirely correct. agriculture and the economy as a whole.
16 Bei.jrng Revietn, No. 27
13. In economic construction under the ultimately eliminate the system of exploitation
First Five-Year Plan (1953-57), we likewise and continue to wipe out the remnant forces of
scoied major successes through our own efforts counter-revolution, the principal contradiction
and with the assistance of the Soviet Union and within the country was no longer the contradic-
other friendly countrie.s. A number of basic tion between the working class and the bour-
ind,ustries, essential for the country's industrial- geoisie but between the demand of the people
ization and yet very weak in the past, were for rapid econoinic and cultural development
br,rilt up. Between 1953 and 1956, the average and the existing state of our economy and cul-
annual increases in the total value of industrial ture which fell short of the needs of the people;
and agricultural output were 19.6 and 4.8 per that the chief task confronting the whole nation
cent respectively. Economic gXowth was quite was to concentrate all efforts on developing the
fast, with satisfactory economic results, and the productive forces, industrializing the country
key economic sectors were well-balanced. The and gradually meeting the people's incressantly
market prospergd, prices were stable. The peo- growing material and cultural needs; and that
ple's livelihood improved perceptibly. In April although class struggle still existed and the peo-
1956, Comrade Mao Zedong made his speech On ple's democratic dictatorship had to be further
the Ten Major Relationships, in which he initial- strengthened, the basic task of the dictatorship
\r summed up our experiences in socialist con- was now to protect and develop the productive
struction and set forth the task of exploring a forces in the context of the new relations of pro-
way of building socialism suited to the specific dugtion. The congress adhered to the principle
conditions of our country. put forward by the Central Committee of the
Party in May 1956, the principle of opposing
1.4. The First National People's Congress both eonservatism and rash advance in eco-
was convened in September 1954, and it enacted nomic construction, that is, 'of making steady
the Constitution of the People's Republic of progress by striking an overall balance. It
China. In March 1955, a national conference of emphasized the problem of the building of the
the Party reviewed the major struggle against Party in office and the need to uphold demo-
the plots of the careerists Gao Gang and Rao cratic centralism and collective leadership,
Shushi to split the Party and usurp supreme oppose the personality cult, promote democracy
power in the Party and the state; in this way it within the Party and among the people and
strengthened Party unity. In January 1956, the strengthen the Party's ties with the masses. The
Central Committee of the Party called a con- Iine laid down by the Eighth National Congress
ference on the question of ttie intellectuals. of the Party was correct and it charted the path
Subsequently, the policy of "letting a hundred
flowers blossom and a hundred schools of for the development of the cause of socialism
thought contend" was advanced. These meas; and for Party building in the new period.
ures spelled out the correct policy regarding
inteilectuals and the work in education, science
and culture and thus brought about a significant The 10 Years of lnitially Building
advance in these fields. Owing to the Party's Socialism in All Spheres
correct policies, fine style of work and the con-
sequent high prestige it enjoyed among the peo-
ple, the vast numbers of cadres,. masses, youth 16. After the basic completion of socialist
and intellectuals earnestly studied Marxism- transformation, our Party led the entire people
Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought and par- in shifting our work to all-round, 'large-scale
ticipated enthusiastically in revolutionary and socialist construction. In the 10 years precrd-
construetion activities under the leadership of ing the "cultural revolution" we achieved very
the Party, so that a healthy and virile revolu- big successes daspite serious setbacks. By 1966,
tionary morality prevailed throughout the coun- the value of fixed industrial assets, calculated
try. on the basis of their original price, was 4 times
greater than in 1956. The output of such major
15. The Eighth National Congress of the industrial produets as cotton yarn, coal, electric-
Party held in September 1956 was very success- ity, crude oil, steel and mechanical equipment
ful. The congress declared that the socialist sys- all recorded impressive increases. Beginning in
tem had been basically established in China; 1965, China became self-sufficient in petroleum.
that while we mustr strive to liberate Taiwan, New industries such as the electronic and
thoroughly complete socia[st transformation. petrochemical industries were established one

JuLa 6. 1981 17
after another. The distribution of,industry oveq realistic, that the scale of construction should
the country became better balanced. Capital correspond to national capability, considerations
construction in agriculture and its technical should be given to both the people's livelihood
transformation began on a massive scale and and the needs of state construction, and that
yielded better and better results. Both the num- the material, financial and credit : balances
ber of tractors for farming and the quantity of should be rnaintained in drawing up plans.
chemical fertilizers applied increased over ? Comrade Deng Xiaqping held that industrial
times and rural consumption of electricity ?1 enterprises should be consolidated and their
times. The number of graduates from institu- management improved and strengthened, and
tions of higher education was 4.9 times that of that the system of workers' conferences should
the previous seven years. Educational work be introduced. Comrade Zhu De stressed the
was improved markedly through consolidation. need to pay attention to the development of
Scientific research and technological work, too, handicrafts and of diverse undertakings in agri-
produced notable results. culture. Deng Zihui and. other. comrades point-
In the tr0 years from 1956 to 1966, the Party ed out that a system of production rasponsibili-
accumulated precious experience in leading so- W should be introd,uced in agriculture. All
cialist construction. In the spring of 1957, Com- these views were not only of vital significance
rade Mao Zedong stressed the necessity of cor- then, but have remained so ever since. In the
rectly handling and distinguishing between the course of economic readjustment, the Central
two typcs of social contradictions differing in Committee drew up draft rules governing the
natyre in a socialist society, and made the cor- work of the rural people's communes and work
rect.handling of contradictions arnong the pee in industry, corrunerce, education, science and
ple the main content of the countryis political literature and art. These rules which were a
life. Later, he called for the creation of "a po- more or less systematic summation of our ex-
perience in socialist construction and embodied
litical situation in which we have both cen-
tralism and democracy, both discipline and specific policies suited to the prevailing condi-
freedom, bgth unity of will and pergonal ease of tions remain important as a source of reference
mind and liveliness." In 1958, he proposed that for us to this very day.
the focus of Party and government work be In short, the material and technical basis
shifted to technical revolution and socialist con- for modernizing our country was largely estab-
struction. All this was the continuation and de- lished during that period. It was also largely in
velopment of the line adopted by the Eighth the same period that the core personnel for our
National Congress of the Party and was to go work in the 'economic, cultural and other
on serving as a valuable guide. While leading spheres were trained and that they gained their
the work of iomecting the errors in the great experience. This was the princi,pal aspect of
leap forward and the movement to' organize the Party's work in that period.
people's communes, Comrade Mao Zedong point-
ed out that there must be no expropriation of
17. In the course of this decade, there
were serious faults and errors in the guidelines
the peasants; that a given stage of social devel-
opment should not be skipped; that egalitarian- of the Party's work, which developed through
ism must be opposed; that we must stress twists and turns.
commodity production, observe the law of value Nineteen fifty-seven was one of the years
and strike an overall balance in economic plan- that saw the best results in economic work since
ning; and that economic plans must be arranged the founding of the People's Republic owin$ to
with the priority proceeding from agriculture the conscientious implementation of the correct
to tight industry and then to heavy industry. Iine formulated at the Eighth National Congress
Comrade Liu Shaoqi said that a variety of of the Party. To start a rectification campaign
means of production could be put into circula- throughout the Party in that year and urge the
tion as commodities and that there should be a masses to offer criticisms and suggestions were
double-track system for labour as weII as for
education* in socialist society. Comrade Zhou . * The double-track system for labour refers to
Enlai said, among other things, that the over- a combination of the system of the eight-hour day
whelming majority of Chinese inteflectuals had in factories, rural areas and government offices
become intelleetuals belonging to the working with a system of part-time work a'nd part-tirhe stu-
people and that science and technology would dy in tactoribs and rural areas. T?re double-track
system means a system of full-time
play a key role in China's modernization. Com- schooling combined with a system of part-time work
rade Chen Yun held that plan targets should be and part-time study.

I8 Beiji,ng Reuieu, No. 27

normal steps in developing socialist democracy, anti-Party group of Peng Dehuai, Huang Ke-
In the rectification campaign a handful of bour- cheng, Zhang Wentian and Zhou Xiaozhou wis
geois Rightists seized the opportunity to advo- entirely wrong. Politically, this struggle grave-
catelwhat they called "speaking out and airing ly undermined inner-Party democracy from the
views in a big way" and to mount a wild attack central level down to the grass roots; econom-
against the Party and the nascent socialist sys- 'ically, it cut short the process of the rectification
tem in an attempt to replace the leadership of of "Left" errors, thus prolonging their influ-
the Communist Papty. It was therefore entirely ence. It was mainly due to the errors of the
correct and necesdary to launch a resolute coun- great leap forward and of the struggle against
terattack. But the scope of this struggle was "Right opportunism" together with a succession
made far too broad and a number of intellec- of natural. calamities and the perfidious scrap-
tuals, patriotic people and Party cadres were ping oJ contracts by the Soviet Government that
unjustifiably labelled "Rightists," with unfor- irur econom5l encountered serious difficulties
tunate consequences. between 1959 and 1961, which caused serious
In 1958, the Second Plenum of the Eighth losses to our country and people.
National Congress of the Party adopted the In the winter of 1960, the Central Com-
general line for socialist construction. The line mittee of the Party'and Comrade Mao Zedong
and its fundamental aspects were correct in that set about recti.fying the ,'Left".errors in rural
it reflected the masses' pressing demand for a work and clecided on the principle of "readjust-
change in the economic and cultural backward- ment, consolidation, filling out and raising
ness of ouf,, country. Its shortcoming was that it standardsi' for the economy as a whole, A num-
overlooked the objective economic laws. Both ber of correct policies and resolute measures
before and after the plenum, all comrades in were worked out and put into effect with Com-
the Party and people of all nationalities dis- rades Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun and
played high enthusiasm and initiative for so- Deng Xiaoping in charge. All this constituted
cialism and achieved certain results in produc- a crucial turning point in that historical phase.
tion and construction. However, "Left" errors, In January 1962, the enlarg.ed Central Work
characterized. by excessive targets, the issuing Conference attended by 7,000 people made a
of anbitrary directions, boastfulness and the preliminary summing-up of the positive and
stirring up of a "communist wind," spread negative experience of the great leap forward
unchecked throughout the country. This was and unfolded criticism and self-criticism. A
due to our lack of experience in socialist con- majority of the comrades who had been un-
struction and inadeqLrate understanding of the justifiably criticized during the campaign
laws of economic development and of tt U."i" against "Right opportunism" were rehabilitated
economic conditions in China. More importdnt, before or after the conference. In addition,
it was due to the fact that Comrade Mao Zedong most of the "Rightists" had their label removed.
and many leading comrades, both at the centre Thanks to these economic and political meas-
and in the localities, had become smug about ures, the national econo?ny recovered and de-
their successes, were impatient for quick results veloped fairly smoothly between 1962 and 1966.
and overestimated the role of man's subjective
will and efforts. After the genral line was for- Nevertheless, "Left" errors in the princi-
mulated,.the great leap forward and the move- ples guiding economic work were not only not
ment for rural people's communes were initiat- eradicated, but actually grew in the spheres of
ed without careful investigation and study and politics, ideology and culture. At the 10th Plen-
without prior experimentation. From the end ary Session of the Party's Eighth Central Com-
of 1958 to the early stage of the Lushan Meeting mittee in September 1962, Comrade Mao Ze-
of the Political Bureau of the Party's Central dong widened and absolutized the class struggle,
iommittee in July 1959, Comrade Mao Zedong which exists only within certain limits in social-
and the Central.Committee led the whole Party ist socieff, and carried forward the viewpoint he
in energetically rectifying the errors which had had advanced after the anti-Rightist struggle in
already been recognized, However, in the later 1957 that the contradiction between the prole-
part of the meeting, he erred in initiating criti- tariat and the bourgeoisie remained the prin-
cism of Comrade Peng Deh,uai and then in cipal contradiction in orrr society. He went a
launching a Party-wide struggle against "Right step further and asserted that, throughout the
opportunism." The resolution passed by the historical period of socialism, the bourgeoisie
'Eighth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central would continue to exist and would attempt a
Committee of the Party concerning the so-called comeback and become the source of revisionism

July 6, 1981 I9
inside the Party. The socialist education move- rested with the same collective leadership. Al-
ment unfolded between 1963 and lg6b in some though Comrade Mao Zedong must be held
rurail areas and at the gfass-roots level in a chiefly responsible, we cannot lay the blame_ pn
small number of cities did help to some extent him alone for all those errors. During this'be-
to improve the cadres' style of work and eco- riod, his theoretical and practicaf' mistai<es
nomic management. But, in the course of the concerning class struggle in a socialist society
movement, problems differing in nature were became increasingly serious, his personal arbi-
all treated as forms of class struggle or its re- trariness gradually undermined democratic cen-
flections inside the Party. As a result, quite a tralism in Party life and the personality ctllt
number of the cadres at the grass-roots level grew graver and graver. The Central Commlt-
were injustly dealt with in the latter half of tee of the Party failed to rectify these mistakes
1964, and early in 1965 the erroneous thesis was in good time. Careerists like Lin Biao, Jian!
advanced that the rhain target of the movement Qing and Kang Sheng. harbouring ulterior
should be "those Party persons in power tak- motives, made use of these errors and inflated
ing the capitalist road.', In the ideological them. Ttris led to the inauguration of the
sphere, a number of literary and art works and "cultura1 revolution."
schools of thought and a number of representa-
tive personages in artistic, literary and academic
circles were subjected to unwarranted, inordi- The Decade of the "Cultural Revolution"
nate political criticism. And there was an in-
creasingly serious "Lft" deviation on the ques-
tion of intellectuals and on the question of edu- 19. The "cultural revolution," which lasted
cation, science and culture. These rrors even- from May 1966 to October 19?6, was responsible
tually culminated in the ,,cultural revolutiorq,' for the most severe setback and the heaviest
but they had not yet become dominant. losses suffered by the Party, the state and the
Thanks to the fact that the whole party people since the'founding of the People's Repub-
and people had concentrated on carrying out the lic. It was initiated and led by Comrade Mao
coirect principle of economic readjustment since Zedong. His principal theses were that many
the winter of 1960, socialist construction grad- representatives of the bourgeoisie and oounter-
ually flourished again. Ttre party and the fople revolutionary revisionists had sneaked into the
were united in sharing weal and woe. They Party, the government, the army and cultural
overcame difficulties at home, stood up to the circles, and leadership in a fairly large majority
pressure of the Soviet leading clique and repaid of organizations and departments was no longer
all the debts owed to the Soviet Union, which in the hands of Marxists and the people; that
were chiefly incurred through purchasing Soviet Party persons in power taking the capitalist road
arms during the movement to resist U.S. aggres- had formed a bourgeois headquarters inside the
sion and aid Korea, In addition, they did what Central Committee which pursued a revisionist
they could to support the revolutio.r.ry strug- political and organizational line and had agents
gles of the people of many countries and assist in all provinces, municipalities and autonomous
them in their economic construetion. The Third regions, as well as in all central departments;
National Peop1e's Congress, which met between that since the forms of struggle adopted in the
the end of 1964 and the first dgys of 196b, an- past had not been able to solve this problem,
nounced that the task of national economic the power usurped by the capitalist-roaders
readjustment had in the main been accomplished could be recaptured only by carrying out a great
and that the economy as a whole would soon cultural revolution, by openly and fully mobiliz-
enter a new stage of development. It called for ing the brpad masses from the bottom up to
energetic efforts to build China step by step in- expose these sinister phenomena; and that the
to a socialist power with modern agriculture, cultural revolution was in fact a great political
industry, national defence and science and revolution in which one class would overthrow
technology. This call was not fulfilled owing another, a revolution that would have to be
to the "cultural revolution.,' waged time and again. These theses appeared
mainly in the May 16 Circular, which served as
18. All the successes in these 10 yeirs were the programmatic document of the "cultural
achieved under the collective leadership of the revolution," and in the political report to the
Central Committee of the Party headed by Com- Ninth National Congress of the Party in April
rade Mao Zedong. Likewise, responsibility for 1969. Ttrey were incorporated into a general
the errors committed in the work of this period theory-the "theory of continued revolution
20 Beiitng Retsieto, No. 27
under the dictatorship of the proletariat': have proved that labelling Comrade Liu Shaoqi
w,lich then took on a specific meaning. These - a "renegade, hidden traitor and scaU' was noth-
erron@us "Left" theses, upon which Comrade ing but a frame-up by Lin Biao, Jiang Qing and
Mao Zedong based himself in initiating the "cul- their followers. The political conclusion con-
tu.ral revoiution," were obviously inconsistent cerning Comrade Liu Shaoqi drawn by the 12th
with the system of Mao Zedong Thought, which Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Com-
isr the integration of the universal principles of mittee of the Party and the disciplinary measure
Marxism-Leninism with the concrete practice of it meted out to him were both utterly wrong.
the Chinese revolution. Ttrese theses must be The criticism of the so-called reactionary aca-
ttiiroughly distinguished from Mao Zedong demic authorities in the "cultural revolution"
Thought. As for Lin Biao, Jiang Qing and during which many capable and accomplished
oi.hers, who were placed in important positions intellectuals were attacked and persecuted also
by Comrade Mao Zedong, the matter is of an badly muddled up the distinction between the
entire\r different nature. They rigged up two people and the enemy.
counter-revolutionary cliques in an attempt to
seize supreme power and, taking advantage of 3) Nominally, the "cultural revolution"
Comrade Mao Zedong's errors, committed many was conducted by directly relying on the masses.
crimes behind his back, bringiarg disaster to the In fact, it was divorced both from the Party or-
country and the people. As their counter-rev- ganizations and from the masses. After the
olutionary crimes have been fully exposed, this movement started, Party organizations at dif-
resolution will not go into them at any length. ferent levels were attacked and became partially
or wholly paralysed, the Party's leading cadres
2A. The history of the "cultural revolution" at various levels were subjected to criticism
has proved that Comrade Mao Zedong's principal and struggle, inner-Party life came to a stand-
theses for ihitiating this revolution conformed still, and many activists and large numbers of
neither to Marxism-Leninism nor to Chinese the basic masses whom the Party has long relied
reality. They represent an entirely erroneous on were rsjected. At the beginning of the "cul-
appraisal of the prevailing class relations and tural revolution," the vast maiority of partici-
political situation in.the Party and state. pants in the movement acted out of their faith in
1) The "cultural revolution" was defined Comrade Mao Zedong and the Party. Except for
as a struggle against the revisionist line or the a handful of extremists, however, they did not
cdpitalist road. There were no grounds at all approve of launching ruthless struggles against
for this definition. It led to the confusing of leading Party cadres at all levels. With the lapse
right and wrong on a series of important theories of time, following their ow,n circuitous paths,
and policies. Many things denounced as revi- they eventually attained a heightened political
sionist or capitalist during the "cultural revolu- consciousness and consequently began to adopt
tion" were actually Marxist and socialist prin- a sceptical or wait-and-see attitude towards the
ciples, many of which had been set forth or sup. "cultural revolution," or even resisted and op
ported by Comrade Mao Zedong himself. The peed it. Many people were assailed either more
"cultural revolution" negated many of the cor- or less severely for this very reason. Such a state
rect principles, policies and achievements of the of affairs could not but provide openings to be
17 years after the founding of the People's exploited by opportunists, careerists and con-
Republic. In fact, it negated much of the work spirators, not a few of whom were escalated to
of the Central Committee of the Party and the high or even key positions.
People's Government, including Comrade Mao 4) Practice has shown that the "cultural
Zedong's own contribution. It negated the revolution" did not in fact constitute a revolu-
arduous struggles the entire people had con- tion or social progress in any sense, nor could
ducted in socialist construction. it possibly have done so. It was we and not the
2) The confusing of right and wrong enemy at aII who were thrown into disorder by
inevitably led to confusing the people with the the "cultural revolution," Therefore, from be-
enemy. I'he "capitalist-roaders" overthrown in ginning to end, it did not turn "great disorder
the "cultural revolution" were leading cadres of under heaven" into "great order under heaven,"
Party and government organizations at all nor could it conceivably have done so. After.the
Ievels, who formed.the core force of the social- state power in the form of the people's dem-
ist cause. The so-called bourgeois headquarters ocratic dictatorship was established in China,
inside the Party headed by Liu Shaoqi and Deng and especially after socialist transformation was
Xiaoping simply did not exist. Irrefutable facts basically completed and the exploiters were

July 6,1981 21
eliminated as classes, the socialist.. revolution civil war." Around February 196?, at various
represented a fundamental break with the past meetings, Tan Zhenlin, Chen Yi, Ye Jianyi4g,
in both content and method, though its tasks re Li Fuchun, Li Xiannian, Xu Xiangqian, Nie
mained to be crompleted. Of courge, it was Rongzhen and other Political Bureau Members
essential to take proper account of certain and leading comrades of the Military Commis-
undesirable phenomena that undoubtediy exlsted sion of the Central Committee sharply criticized
in Party and state organisms and to remove the mistakes of the "eultural revolution." This
them by correct measurqs in conformity with was labelled the "February adverse current,"
the Constitution, the laws and the Party Con- and they were attacked and repressed. Com-
stitution. But on no account should the theoriee rades Zhu De and Chen Yun were.also wrongly
and methods of the "cultural revolution" have criticized. Almost all leading Party and govern-
been applied. Under socialist conditions, there ment departments in the different spheres and
is no economic or political basis for carrying out localities were stripped of their power or re-or-
a great politicai revolution in which "ohe class ganized. Ttre chaos was such that it was ,heces-
overthrows another." It decidedly could not saqr to send in the People's Liberation Army to
c0me up with any co,nstructive programme,. but support the Left, the workers and the peasants
oould only bring grave disorder, dafnage and and to institute military control and military
retrogression in its train. History has shown training. trt played a positive role in stabilizing
that the "cultural revolution," initiated by a the situation, but it also produced some negative
leader labouring under a misapprehension and consequences. The Ninth Congress of the Party
capitalized on by counter-revolutionary cliques, legitimatized the erroneous theories and prac-
led to domestic turmoil and brought catastrophe tices of the "cultural revolution." and so rein-
to the Party, the state and the whole people. forced the positions of Lin Biao, Jiang Qing,
Kang Sheng and others in the Central Com-
21. Ttre "cultural revolution'? can be divid-
mittee of the Party. The guidelines of the Ninth
ed into three stages.
Congress were wrong, ideologically, politically
1) From the initiation of the "cultural iev- and organizationally.
olution" to the Ninth National Congress of the
Party in April 1969. Ttre convening of the 2) From the Ninth National Congress of
enlarged Political Bureau meeting of the Central the Party to its 10th National Congress in
Committee of the Party in May 1966 and the August 19?3. In 1970-71 the counter-revolution-
l1th Plenary'session of the Eighth Central ary Lin Biao clique plotted to capture supreme
Committee in August of that year marked the power and attempted an armed counter-revolu-
launching of the "cultural revolution" on a full tionary coup d'etat. Such was the outcome of
scale. These two meetings adopted the May 16 the "cultural revolution" which overturned a
Circular and the Decision of the Central Com- series of fundamental Party principles. Objec-
mittee of the Communist Party of China Con- tively, it announced the failure of the theories
cerning'the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolu- and practices of the "cultural revolution." Com-
tion respectively. They launched an erroneous rades Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai ingeniously
struggle against the s+called anti-Party clique thwarted the plotted coup. Supported by Com-
of Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing, Lu Dingyi and Yang rade Mao Zedong, Comrade Zhou Enlai took
Shangkun and the so-called headquarters of Liu charge of the day-to-day work of the Central
Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. They wrongly re-or- Committee and things began to improve in all
ganized the central leading organs, set up the fields. During the criticism and repudiation of
"Cultural Revolution Group Under the Central Lin Biao in 1972, he correctly proposed criticism
Committee of the Chinese Communist Party,, of the ultra-Left trend of thought. In fact, this
and gave it a major part of the power of the was an extension of the correct proposals put
Central Committee. In fact, Comrade is/.ao Ze- forward around February 1967 by many leading
dong's personal leadership charaeterized by comrades of the Central Committee who had
"Left" errors took the plaee of the collective called for the corection of the errors of the
leadership of the.Central Committee, and the "cultural revolution." Comrade Mao Z,edong,
cult of Comrade Mao Zedong was frenziedly however, erroneously held that the task was
pusfred to an extreme. Lin Biao, Jiang eing, still to oppose the "ultra-Right.?' The 10th
Kang.Sheng, Zhang Chunqiao and others, acting Congress of the Party perpetuated the "Ireft"
chiefly in the name of the ,'Cultural Revolution emors of the Ninth Congress and made Wang
Group," exploited the situation to incite people Hongwen a vice-chairman of the Party. Jiang
to "overthrow everything and wage full scale Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan and Wang
,, Beijung Reoiew, No. 27
Hongwen formed a gang of four inside the Polit- counter-revolutionary Un Biao and Jiang Qing
ical Bureau of the Central Committee, thus cliques. His death left the whole Party and
strengthening the influence of the counter- people in the most profound grief. In April of
revolutionary Jiang Qing clique. the same year, a powerful movement of protest
signalled by the Tian An Men Incident swpt
3) From the 10th Congress of the Party the whole country, a movement to mourn for the
to October 1976. Early in 1974 Jiang Qing, late Premier Zltou Enlai and oppoe the gang of
Wang Hongwen and others launched a carnpaign four. In essence, the movement was a dem-
to "criticize Lin Biao and Confucius." Jiang onstration of support for the Party's correct
Qing and the others directed the spearhead at leadership as reprsented by Comrade Deng
Comrade Zhou Enlai, which was different in Xiaoping. It laid the ground for massive popular
nature from the campaign conducted in some support for the srrbsequent overthrow of the
localities and organizations where individuals counter-revolutionary Jiang Qing clique. The
involved in and inci"dents connected with the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and
conspiracies of the counter-revolutionary Lin Comrade Mao Zedong wrongly assessed the
Biao clique weie investigated. Comrade Mao nature of the Tian An Men Incident and dis-
Zedong approved the launching of the move- missed Comrade Deng Xiaoping from all his
ment to "criticize Lin Biao and Confucius." posts inside and outside the Party. As soon as
When he found that Jiang Qing and the others Comrade Mao Z,edong passed away in September
were turning it to their advantage in order to 1976, the counter-revolutionary Jiang Qing
seize power, he severely criticized them. He clique stepped up its plot to seize supreme Party
declared that they had formed a gang of four and state leadership. Early in October of the
and pointed out that Jiang Qing harboured the same year, the Political Bureau of the Central
wild ambition of making herself chairman of Committeg executing the will of the Party and
the Central Committee and "forming a cabinet" the people, resolutely srnashed the clique and
by political manipulation. In 1975, when Com- brought the catastrophic "cultural revolution"
rade Zhou Enlai was seriously ill, Comrade Deng to an end. Ttris was a great victory won by
Xiaoping, with the support of Comrade Mao Ze- the entire Party, army and people after pro
dong, took charge of the day-to-day work of the longed struggle. Hua Guoferlq, Ye Jianying, Li
Central Committee. He convened an enlarged Xiannian and other comrades plhyed a vital part
meeting of the Military Commission of the in the struggle to crush the clique.
Central Committee and several other important
meetings with a view to solving problems in 22. Chief responsibility for the grave
industry, agriculture, transport and science and "Treft" error of the "cultural revolution," an
technology, and began to straighten out work error comprehensive in magnitude and protract-
in many fields so that the situation took an ed in duration, does indeed lie with Comrade
obviouC turn for the better. However, Comrade Mao Zedong. But after all it was the error of
Mao Zedong could not bear to accept systematic a great proletarian revolutionary. Comrade Mao
correction of the errors of the "cultural revolu- Zed,ong paid constant attention to overcoming
iton" by Comiade Deng Xiaoping and triggered shortcomings in the life of the Party and state.
the movement to "criticize Deng and counter the In his later years, however, far from making a
Right deviationist trend to reverse correct comect analysis of many problems, he confused
verdicts," once again plunging the nation into right and wrong and the pgople with the enemy
turmoil ln January of that year, Comrade Zhou during the "cultural revolution." While making
Enlgi passed away. Comrade Zhou Enlai was serious mistakeg, he repeatedly urged the whole
utterly devoted to the Party and the people and Party to study the works of Marx, Engels and
stuck to his post ti[ his dying day. ]Ie found knin conscientiously and imaglned that his
himself in an extremely difficult situation theory and practice were Marxist and that they
throughout the "cultural revolution." He al- were essential for the consolidation of the dicta-
ways kept the general interest in mind, bore torship of the proletariat. Herein lies his trage-
the heary burden of office without complaint, dy. While persisting in the comprehensive error
racking hist brains and untiringl5r endeavouring of the "cultural revolution," he checked and
to keep. the normal work of the Party and the rectified some of its specific mistakes, protected
state going, to minimize the damage caused by some leading Party cadres and non-Party public
the "cultural revolution" and to prolect many figures and enabled some leading cadres to re-
Party and non-Part5r' cadres, He waged all turn to irnportant leading posts. He led the
forms of struggle to counter sabotage by the struggle to smash the counter-revolutionary tin
JuLy 6,1981
Biao clique. He made major eriticisms and ex- ed did not waver in their love for the mother-
posures of Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao and Iand and in their support for the Party S.qd
others, frustrating their' sinister ambition to socialism. Party and state leaders such as Qqm-
seize supreme leadership. All this was crucial rades Liu Shaoqi, Peng Dehuai, He Long and
to the subsequent and relatively painless over- Tao Zhu and all other Party and non-Party
throw qf the gang of four by our Party. In comrades who were persecuted to death in the
his later years, he still remained alert to safe- "cultural revolution" will live for ever in the
guarding the security of our country, stood up memories of the Chinese people. It was through
to the pressure of the social-imperialists, pur- the joint struggles waged by the entire PartY
sued a correet foreigar policy, firmly supported and the masses of workers, peasants, PLA of-
the just struggles of all poples, outlined the ficers and men, intellectuals, educated youlh
correct strategy of the three worlds and advanc- and cadres that the havoc wrought by the "cul-
ed the important principle that China would tural revolution" was somewhat mitigated.
never seek hegernony. During the "cultural Some progress was made in our economy despite
revolution" our Party was not destroyed, but tremendous losses. Grain output increased rela-
maintained its unity. The State Council and the tively steadily. Significant achievements were
People's Liberation Army were still able to do scored in industry, communications and capital
much of their essential work. The Fourth Na- construction and in science and technology.
tional People's Congress which was attended New railways were built and the Changjiang
by deputies frorn all nationalities and all walks River Bridge at Nanjing was completed; a
of life was convened and it determined the number' of large enterprises using advanced
oomposition of the State Council with Comrades technology went into operation; hydrogen bomb
Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping as the core of tests were successfully undertaken and man-
its leadership. The foundation of China's so- made satellites successfully launched and re-
cialist system reinained intact and it was pos- trieved; and new hybrid strains of long-grained
sible to continue socialist economic construction. rice were developed and popularized. Despite
Our country remained united and exerted a the domestic turmoil, the People's Liberation
significant influence on international affairs. Army bravely defended the security of the
All these important facts are inseparable from motherland. And new prospects were opened
the great role played by Comrade Mao Zedong. up in the sphere of foreign affairs. Needless
For these reasons, and particularly for his vital to say, none of these successes can be attributed
contributions to the cause of the revolution over in any way to the "cultural revolution," without
the years, the Chinese people have always re- which we would have scored far greater achieve-
garded Comrade Mao Zedong as their respected ments for our cause. Although we suffered from
and beloved great leader and teacher. sabotage by the counter-revolutionary Lin Biao
and Jiang Qing cliques during the "cultural
23. The strugle waged by the Party and revolution," we won out over them in the end.
the people against "Left" errors and against the The Part;r, the people's political power, the
counter-revolutionary Lin Biao and Jiang Qing people's army and Chinese society on the whole
cliques during the 'tcultural revolution" was remained unchanged in nature. Once again
arduous and full of twists and turns, and it history has proved that our people are a great
never ceased. Rigorous tests throughout- the people and that our Party and socialist system
"cultural revolutionl have proved that standing have enormous vitality.
on the oorrect side in the struggle were the 24. In. addition to the above-mentioned
overwhelming majority of Members of the immediate cause of Comrade Mao Zedong's
Eighth Central Committee of the Party and the
mistake in leadership, there are complex social
Members it elected to its Political Bureau,
and historical causes underlying the "cultural
Standing Committee,and Secretariai. Most of revolution" which dragged on for as long as a
our Party cadres, whether they were wrongly decade. The main causes are as follows:
dismissed or remained at their posts, whether
they were rehabilitated early or late, are loyal 1) The history of the socialist rrlovement
to the Party and people and steadfast in their is not long and that of the socialist countries
belief in the cause of socialism and communism. even shorter. Some of the laws governing the
Most of the intellectuals, model workers, development of socialist society are relatively
patriotic democrats, patriotic overseas Chinese clear, but many more remain to be explored.
and cadres and masses of all strata and all na- Our Party had long existed in circumstances of
tionalities who had been wronged and persecut- war and fierce clas.s struggle. It was not fully
24 Beiiing Reur.ero, No. 27
prepared, either ideologically or in terms of against the big-nation chauvinism of the Soviet
sciientific study, for the swift advent of the new- Union. In these circumstances, a campaign to
bijl'n socialist society and for socialist cpnstruc- prevelt and combat revisionism inside the
tiiin on a national scale. The scientific works country was launched, which spread the error
of'Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin are our guide of broadening the scope of class struggle in the
tri action, but can in no way provide ready-made Party, so that normal differences among corrr-
ahbwers to the problems we may encounter in rades inside the Party camt to be regarded as
our socialist cause. Even after the basic com- manifestations of the revisionist line or of the
'pletion of socialist tra{rsformation, given the struggle between the two lines. This resulted in
guiding ideology, we were liable, owing to the growing tension in inner-Party relations. Thus
historical circumstances in which our Party it became difficult for the Party to resist cer-
grew, to continue to regard issues unrelated to tain "Left'n views put forward by Comrade Mao
ilass struggle as its manifestations when observ- Zedong and others, and the development of these
ing and handling new contradictions a.nd prob- views led to the outbreak of the protracted
lems which cropped up in the political, economic, "cultural revolution."
cultural and other spheres in the courEe of the
development of socialist society. And when con- 2) Comrade Mao Zedong's prestige reach-
fronted with actual class struggle under the new ed a peak and he began to get arrogant at the
conditions, we habitually fell back on the very time when the Party was confronted with
familiar methods and experiences of the large- the new task of shifting the focus of its work
scale, turbulent mass struggle of the past, which to socialist construction, a task for which the
shouid no longer have been mechanically fol- utmost caution was required. He gradually .
lowed. As a result, we substantially broadened divorced himself from practice and from the
the scope of class struggle. Moreover, this sub- masses, acted more and 'more arbitrarily and
jective thinking and practice divorced from subjectively, and increasingly put himself above
reality seemed to have a "theoretical basis" in the Central Committee of the Party. Ttre result
the writings of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin was a steady weakening and even undermining
because certain ideas and arguments set forth of the principle of collective leadership and
in them were misunderstood pr dogmatically in- democratic centralkm in the political life of the
terpreted. For instance, it was thought that ' Party and the country. This state of affairs took
equal right, whieh reflects the exchange of equal shape only gradually and the Central Committee
amounts of labour and is applicable to the dis- of the Party should be held partly responsible.
tribution of the means of consumption in social- From the Marxist viewpoint, this complex
ist society, or "bourgeois right" as it was de- phenomenon was the product of given historical
signated by Marx, should be restricted and conditions. Blaming this on only one person or
criticized, and so the principle of "to each ac- on only a ha,ndful of people will not provide a
cording to his work" and that of material in- deep lesson for the whole Party or enable it to
terest shbuld be restricted and criticized; that find practieal ways to change the situation. In
small production would crntinue to engender the communist movement, leader:s play guite an
capitalism and the bourgeoisie daily and hourly important role. This has been borne out by
on a large scale even after the basic crompletion history time and again and leaves no room for
of socialist transformation, and so a series of doubt. However, certain grievous deviations,

"Left" economic policies and policies on class which occurred in the history of the interna-
struggle in urban and rural areas were formulat- tional communist movement owing to the failure
ed; and that'all ideological differences inside to handle the relationship between the Pgrty and
the Party were reflections of class struggle in its leader correctly, had an adverse effect on
society, and so.frequent and acute inner-Party our Farty, too. Feudalism in China has had a
struggles were oonducted. All thi:s led us to very long history. Our Party fought in the
regard the error in magnifying class struggle firmest and most thoroughgoing way against
as an act in defence of the purity of Marxism. it, and particularly against the feudal system
Furthermore, Soviet leaders started a polemic of land ownership and the landlords and local
between China and the Soviet Union, and turned tyrants, and fostered,a fine tradition of de-
the arguments between the two.Parties on mat- mocracy in the anti-feudal struggle. But it re-
ters of principle into a conflict between the two mains difficult to eliminate the evil ideological
nations, bringing enormous pressure to bear and political influence of centuries of feudal
upon China politically, economically and mili- autocracy. And for various historical reasons,
tarily. So we were forced to wage a just struggle we failed to institutionalize and legalize inner-

Julg 6, 1981
Party democracy and democracy in the political policy, that is, "we firmly uphold whatever
and. social life of the country, or we drew up policy decisions Chairman Mao made, and we
the relevant laws but they lacked due authority. unswervingly adhere to whatever instructions
This meant that conditions were present for the Chairman Mao gave," and he took a long time
overconcentration of Party powcr in individuals to rectify the error. He tried to suppress the
and for the development of arbitrary individual discussions on the criterion of truth unfolded in
rule and the personaiity cult in the Party. Thus, the country in 19?8, which w6re very signifi-
it was hard for the Party and state to prevent cant in setting things right. He procrastinated
the initiation of the "cultural revolution" or and obstructed the work of reinstating veteran
check its development. cadres in their posts and redressing the in-
justices left over from the past (including the
case of the "Tian An Men Incident" of f976).
A Great Turning.Point in History He accepted and fostered the personality cult
around himself while continuing the fersonality
cult of the past. The llth National Congress of
25. The victory won in overthrowing the the Chinese Communist Party convened in
counter-revolutionary Jiang Qing clique in August 19?7 played a positive role in exposing
October 1976 saved the Party and the revolution and repudiating the gang of four and mobilizing
from disaster and enabled our country to enter the whole .Party for building China into a
a new historical period of development. In the powerful modern socialist state. However, owing
two years from October 19?6 to December 1978 to the limitations imposed by the historical con-
when the Third Plenary Session of the l1th ditions then and the influence of Comrade Hua
Central Committee of the Party was convened, Guofeng's mistakes, it reaffirmed the erroneous
large numbers of cadres and other people most theories, policies and slogans of the "cultural
enthusiastieally devoted themselves to all kinds revolution" instead of correcting them. He also
of revolutionary work and the task of construc- had his share of responsibility for impetuously
tion. Notable results were achieved in exposing seeking quick results in economic work and for
. and repudiating the crimes of the counter-rev-
eontinuing certain other "Left" policies. Ob-
olutionary Jiang Qing clique and uncovering viously, under his {eadership it is impossible to
their factional setup. The consolidation of Party correct "Left" errors within the Party, and all
and state organizations and the redress of the more impossible to restore the Party's fine
wrongs suffered by thoae who were unjustly, traditions.
falsely and wrongl;, charged began in some 26., The Third Plenary Session of the llth
places. Iridustrial and agricultural production 'Centra} Committee in December 1978 marked a
was {airly swiftly restored. Work in education,
crucial turning point of far-reaching signifi-
science and culture began to return to normal.
canee in the history of our Party since the birth
Comrades inside and outside the Party demand- of the People's Republic. It put an end to the
ed more and more strongly that the errors of situation in which the Party had been advancing
the "culttiral revolution" be correited, but such haltingly in its work since October 1976 and
demands met with serious resistance. This, of began to correct conscientiously and compre-
course, was partly due to the fact that the hensively the "Left" errors of the "cultural rev-
political and ideological confusion created in olution" .and earlier. The plenary session
the decade-long "cultural revolution" could not resolutely criticized the eroneous "two-
be eliminated overnight, but it was also due to
whatever's" policy and fully affirmed the need
the "Left" errors in the guiding ideology that to grasp Mao Zedong Thought comprehensively
Comrade Hua Guofeng continued to eommit in
and accurately as a seientific system. It highly
his capacity as Chairman of the Cmtral Com-
evaluated the forum on the criterion of truth
mittee of the Chinese Communist Party. On the
proposal of Comrade Mao Zedong, Comrade Hua and decided on the guiding principle of emanci-
pating the tnind, using our brains, seeking truth
Guofeng had become First Vice-Chairman of the
Central Committee of the Party and con- from facts and uniting as one in looking forward
currently Premier.of the State Council during to the future. It firmly discqrded the slogan
the "movement to criticize Deng Xiaoping" in "Take.class struggle as the key link," which had
19?6. ff" contributed to the struggle to becorne unsuitable in a socialist society, and
oierthrow the counter-revolutionary Jiang Qing made the strategic decision to shift the focus
clique and did useful work after that. But he of work to socialist modernization. It declared
promoted the erroneous "two-whatever's" that attention should'be paid to solving the prob-

26 Beijing Reuieto, No. 27

Iem of seriotrs imbalances between the major outlined our country's bright prospects. This
branches of the ecpnomy and drafted decisions helped to unify the thinking of the whole Party
on,the acceleration of agricultural development. and people. At its meeting in August 1980, the
It stressed the task of strengthening socialist Political Bureau of the Central Committee set
democracy and the socialist legal system. It the historic task of combating corrosion by
examined and redressed a number of major bourgeois ideoiogy and eradicating the evil in-
unjust, false and wrong cases in the history of fluence of feudalism in the political and ideo-
the Party and settled the controversy on the Iogical fields which is still present. A work con-
merits and demerits, the rights and wrongs, of ference convened by the Central Committee in
some prominent leaders. The plenary session December of the same year resolved to strength-
also elected additional members to the Party's en the Party's ideological and political work,
central ieading organs. These momentous make greater efforts to build a socialist civiliza-
changes in the work of leadership signified that tion, criticize the' erroneous ideological trends
the Party re-established the correct line of running counter to the four fundamental prin-
Marxism ideologicaliy" politically and organiza- ciples and strike at the counter-revolutionary
tionally., Since then, it has gained the initiative activities disrupting the cause of socialism. This
in setting things right and has been able to solve exerted a most salutary countrywide influence
step by step many problems left over since the in fostering a poiitical situation characterized by
founding of the People's Republic and the new stability, unity and liveliness.
problems cropping up in the course of practice
and carry out the heavy tasks of construction
2) At a work conference called by the
and reJorm, so that things are going very well
Central Committee in April 1979, the Party
in both the etonomic and politicat sphere. formulated the principle of "readjusting, re-
structuring, consolidating and improving" the
1) In response to the caII of the Third economy as a whole in a decisive effort to bor-
Plenary Session of the llth Central Committee rect the shortcomings and mistakes of the pre.
of the Party for emancipating the mind and vious two years in our ee-onomic work and
seeking truth from facts, large numbers of eliminate the influence of "Left" errors that had
cadres and other people have freed themselves persisted in this field. The Party indicated that
from the spiritual shackles of the personality economic construction must be carried out in
cult and the dogmatism that prevailed in the the light of China's conditions and in conformity
past. This has stimulated thin-king inside and with economic and natural laws; that it must
outSide the Party, giving rise to a lively situa- be carried out within the limits of our own
tion where people.try their best to study new resources, step by step, after due deliberation
things and seek solutions to new problems. To and with emphasis on practical results, so that
carry out the principle of emancipating the the development of production will be closely
mind properly, the Party reiterated in good time connected with the improvement of the people's
the four fundamental principles of upholding Iivelihood; and that active eff orts must be made
the socialist road, the people's democratic to promote economic and technical co<peration
dictatorship (i.e., the dictatorship of the pro- with other countries on the basis of indepen-
letariat), the leadership of the Communist Party, dence and self-reliance. Guided by these princi-
and 'Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong ples, light indrlstry has quickened its rate of
Thought. It reaffirmed the principle that growth and the strueture of industry is becom-
neither democracy nor centralism can be ing more rational and better co-ordinated. Re-
practised at each other's expense and pointed forms in the system of economic management,
out the'basic fact that, although the exploiters including extension of the decision-making
had been eliminaied as classes, class struggle powers of enterprises, restoration of the
continues to exist within certain ]imits. In his workers' congresses, strengthening of democratic
speech at the meeting in celebration of the 30th management of enterprises and transference of
anniversary of the founding of the People's Re- financial management responsibilities to the
public. of China, which was approved by the various levels, have gradually been carried out
Fourth Plenary Session of the 1lth Central Com- ' in conjunction with economic readjustment. The
mittee of the Party, Comrade Ye Jianying fully Party has worked conscientiously to remedy the
affirmed the gigantic aihievements of 'the Party errors in rural work since the later stage of the
and people since the inauguration of the Peo-- movement for agricultural co-operation, with
ple's Republic .while making self-criticism on the result that the purchase prices of farm and
behalf of the Party for errors,'in its yl.ork and sideline products have been raised, various

Jily 6, 1981 27
forms of production responsibility introduced posteris," which actually obstructs the promotion
whereby remuneration is determined by farm of socialist democracy, was deleted from the
output, family plots have been restored and ap- Constitution. A number of important laws,
propriately extended, village fairs have been decrees and regulations have been r'einstated,
revived, and sideline occupations and diverse enacted or enforced, including the Criminal Law
undertakings have been developed. All these and the Law of Criminal Procedure which had
have greatly enhanced the peasants' enthusiasm. never been drawn up since the founding of the
Grain output in the last two years reached an People's Republic. The work of the judicial,
all-time high, and at the same time industrial procuratorial and public security departments
cr,ops and other farm and sideline products has improved and telling blows have been dealt
registered a big increase. Thanks to the develop- at all types of criminals guilty of serious of-
ment of agriculture and the economy as a whole, fences. The 10 principal members of the
the living standards of the people have counter-revolutionary Lin Biao and Jiang Qing
improved. cliques were publicly tried according to law.
3) After detailed and careful investigation 6) The Party has striven to readjust and
and study, measures were taken to clear the strengthen the leading bodies at all levels. The
name' of Comrade Liu Shaoqi, forrner Vice- Fifth Ptenary Session of the l1th Central Com-
Chairman of the Central Committee of the Com- mittee of the Party, held in February 1980,
munist Party of China and Chairman of the elected additional members to the Standing
People's Republic of China, those of other Party Committee of its Political Bureau and re-
and state leaders, national minority leaders and established the Secretariat of the Central Com-
leading figures in different circles who had been mittee, greatly strengthening the central leader-
wro:rged, and to affirm their historical contribu- ship. Party militancy has been enhanced as a
tions to the Party and the people in protracted result of the establishment of the Central Com-
revolutionary struggle. mission for Inspecting Discipline and . of
discipline inspection commissions at the lower
4) Large numbers of unjust, false and levels, the formulation of the Guiding Principles
wrong cases v/ere re-examined and their for Inner-Party Political Life and other related
verdicts reversed. Cases in which people had inner-Party regulations, and the effort made
been wrongly labelled bourgeois Rightists were
by leading Party organizations and discipline
also corrected. Announeements were made to inspection bodies at the different levels to
the effect that former brxinessmen and indus- rectify unhealthy practices. The Party's rnass
trialists, having undergone remoulding, ar6 now media have also contributed immensely in this
working people; that small trades people,
respect. The Party has decided to put an end
pedlars and handicraftsmen, who were original-
ly labourers, have been differentiated from
to the virtually life-long tenure of leading
cadres, change the overconcentration of power
businessmen and industrialists who were and, on the basis of revolutionization, gradually
members of the bourgeoisie; and that the status
reduce the average age of the leading cadres at
of the vast majority of former landlords and all levels and raise their level of education and
rich peasants, who have become working people professional competence, and has initiated this
through remoulding, has been redefined. These process. With the reshuffling of the leading
measures have appropriately resolved many personnel of the State Council and the division
contradictions inside the Party and among the of labour between Party and government
organizations, the work of the central and local
5) People's congresses at all levels are governments has improved.
doing their work better and those at the pro- In addition, there hav^e been significant
vincial and county levels have set up permanent suctesses in the Party's efforts to implement our
organs of their own. The system according to policies in education, science, culture, pubUc
which deputies to the people's congresses at and
health, physical culture, nationality affairs,
below the county level are directly elected by united front work, ovenseas Chinese- affairs and
the voters is now universally practised. Col- military and foreign affairs.
lective leadership and derriocratic centralism are'
being perfected in the Party and state organiza- In short, the scientific principles of Mao
tions. The powers of loeal and primary organi- Zedong Thought and the correct policies of the
zations are steadily being extended. The so- Party have been revived and developed under
called right to "speak out, air views and hold new conditions and all aspects of Party and
debates in a big way and write big-character governrypnt work. have been flourishing again

28 Bei,irng Reoieto, No. 27

i,since the Third Plenary Spscion of the llth Ttrought took shape and develo@. It was
Central Committee. Our work still suffers from systematized.and extended in a variety of fields
shortcomings and mistakes, and we are still and reached maturity in the latter part of the
confronted with numerous difficulties. Never- Agrarian Revolutionary War and the War of
theless, the road of victorious advance is open, Resistance Against Japa.n, and it was further
and the Party's prestige among the people is developed during the War of Liberation . and
rising day by day. after the founding of the People's Republic of
China. Mao Zedong Thought 'is Marxism-
Leninism applied and developed in China; it
constitutes a correct theory, a body of correct
Comrade llao Zedong's Hialorical Role principles and a summary of the experiences
And Mao Zedong Thought that have been confirmed in the practice of the
Chinese revolution, a crystallization of the
collective wisdom of the Chinese Communist
27. Comrade Mao Zedong was a great Party. Many outstanding leaders of our Party
Marxist and a great proletarian revolutionary, made important contributions to the formation
strategist and theorist. It is true that he made and development of Mao Zedong Thought, and
gmss mistakes during the "cultural revolution,"
they are synthesized in the scientific works of
but, if we judge his activities as a whole, his Comrade Mao Zedong
eontributions to the Chinese revolution far
outweigh his mistakes. His merits are primary 29. Mao Zedong Thought is wide-ranging
and his errors secondary. He rendered indelible in content. It is an original theory which has
meritorious service in founding and building up enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism in
our Party and the Chinese People's Liberation the following respects:
Army, in winning victory for the cause of
liberation of the Chinese people, in founding the 1) On the new-democratic revolution.
People's Republic of China and in advancing our Proceeding from China's historical and social
socialist cause. He made major contributions to conditions, Comrade Mao Zedong made a pro-
the liberation of the oppressed nations of the found study of the characteristics and laws of
world and to the progress of mankind. the Chinese revolution, applied and developed
the Marxist-Leninist thesis of the leadership of
28. The Chinese Communists, with Com- the proletariat in the democratic revolution, and
rade Mao Zedong as their chief representative, established the theory of new-democratic rev-
made a theoretical synthesis of China's unique
experience in its protracted revolution in ac-
- aandrevolution
against imperialism,
bureaucrat-capitalism waged b5l
cordance with the basic principles of Marxism- the masses of the people on the basis of the
Leninism. This synthesis constituted a scientific worker-peasant alliance under the leadership of
system of guidelines befitting China's conditions, the proletariat. His main works on this subject
and it is this synthesis which is Mao Zedong include: A'tralgsis of the Classes in Chinese
Thought, the product of the integration of the Societg,'Rep.rt on an lnrsestigatian of the Peos-
universal principles of Marxism-Leninism with arbt Movenent in Hu,nan, A Single Spark Can
the concrete practice of the Chinese revolution. Start a Prairie Fire, lntroducing "The Com.mat-
Making revolution in a }arge Eastern semi- nist," Om Neluu Dernocracg, On Coalition Gorsern-
colonial, semi-feudal country is bound to meet rnemt and, The Present Situation anil Our ?osks.
with many special, mmplicated problems, which The basic points of this theory are:
cannot be solved by recitiag the general princi-
ples of Marxism-Leninism or by copying foreign I) China's bourgeoisie consisted of two
experience in every detail. The erroneous sections, the big bourgeoisie (that is, the
tendency of making Marxism a dogma and comprador bourgeoisie, or the bureaucrat-
dei{ying Comintern resolutions and the ex- bourgeoisie) which was dependent on im-
perience of the Soviet Union prevailed in the perialism, and the national bourgeoisie
international communist movement and in our which had revolutionary leanings but waver-
Party mainly in the late 1920s and early 1930s, ed. The proletariat should endeavour to
and this tendency pushed the Chinese revolution get the national bourgeoisie to join iin the
to the brink of total failure. It was in the course united front under its leadership and in
of combating this wrong tendency and making special circumstances to include even part
a profound summary of our historical ex- of the big bourgeoisie in the united front,
perience in this respect that Mao Zedong so as to isolate the main enemy to the
July 6,7981 1 ":Y-
greatest possibleextent. When formiing a ting forward the thesis that the cvmbination of
united front with the bourgeoisie, the pre democracy for the people and dictatorship over
letariat must preserve its own independence the reactionaris. constitutes the. people's
and pursue the policy of "unity, struggle, demoeratic dictatorship, Comrade Mao Zedong
unity through struggle"; when forced to enriched the Marxist-Leninist theory of the
split with the bourgeoisie, chiefly the big dictatorship of the proletariat. After the estab-
bourgeoisie. it should have the courage and lishment of the socialist system, Comrade Mao
ability to wage a resolute armed struggle Zedong pointed out that, under socialism, the
against the big bourgeoisie, while continu- people had the same fundamental interests, but
ing to win the sympathy of the national that all kinds of contradictions still existed
bourgeoisie or keep it neutral. among them, and that contradictions between
the enemy and the people and contradictions
D Since there was no bourgeois de-
among the people should be strictiy distingtrish-
mocracy in China and the reactionary ruling
ed from each other and eoriectly handled. He
classes enforced their terroristic dictator- proposed that among the people we should fol-
ship over the people by armed force, the low a set of correct policies. We should follow the
revolution could not but essentially take the policy of "unity criticism unity" in political
form of protracted armed struggle. China,'s - -
matters, the policy of "long-{erm coexistence and
armed struggle was a revolutionary war
mutual supervisioni' in the Party's relations with
ied by the proletariat with the peasants as
the principal force. The peasantry was the
the democratie parties, the policy of "let a
hundred flowers blossom, let a hundred schools
most reliable aUy of the proletariat. of thought contend" in science and culture, and,
Through its vanguard, it was possible and
necessary for the proletariat, with its pro-
in the economic sphere the policy of overall ar-
rangement with regard to the different strata in
gressive ideology and its sense of organi-
zation and discipline, to raise the political
town and country'and of consideration for the
interests of the state, the collective and the in-
consciousness of the peasant masses, estab-
dividual, all three. He repeatedly stressed that
lish rural base areas, wage a protracted rev-
we should not mechanically transplant the ex-
olutionary war and build up and expand the
perience of foreign countries, but should find
revolutionary forces.
our own way to industrialization, a way suited
Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that "the to China's condition, by proeeeding from the
united front and armed struggle are the two fact that China is a large agricullural country,
basic weapons for defeating the enemy." To- taking agriculture as the foundation of the econ-
gether with Party building, they constituted the omy, correctly handling the relationship !e-
tween heavy iridustry on the one hand and
"three magic 'rveapons" of the revolution. They
were the essential basis which enabled the Chi- agriculture and light industry on the other and
nese Communist Party to become ihe core of attaching due importance to the development
leadership of the whole nation and to chart the
of the latter. He stressed that in socialist con-
counse of encircling the cities from the country-
struction we should properly handle the rela-
side and finaliy winning countrywide victory: tionships between economic construction and
building up defence, between large-scale en-
2) On the socialist revolution and socialist terprises and small and medium-scale enter-
,construction. .On the basis of the economic and prises, between the Han nationality and the
political conditions for the transition to socialism minority nationalities, between the coastal re-
ensuing on victory in the new-democratic rev- gions and the interior, between the central and
olution, Comrade Mao Zedong and the Chinese the local authorities, and between self-reliance
Communist Party followed the path of effecting and learning from foreign countries' and that
socialist industrialization simultaneously with we should properly handle the relationship be'
socialist transformation and adopted concrete tween accumulation and consumption and pay
policies for the gradual transformation of the attention to overall b'alance. Moreover, he
private ownership of the means of production, stressed that the workers were the masters of
thereby providing a theoretical as well as their enterprises and that cadres must take part
practical solution of the difficult task of building in physical labour and workers in management,
socialism in a large country such as China, a that irrational rules and regulations must be re-
country which was economically and culturally formed and that the three-in-one combination
backward, with a population accounting for of technical personnel, workers and cadres must
nearly one-fourth of the world's total. By put- be effected. And he formulated the strategic
30 BeijLng Retsiero, No. 27
idea of bringing all positive faetors into play a set of strategies and tactics for the revolution-
and turning negative factors into positive ones ary army to wage people's war in conditions
so as to unite the whole Chinese people and when the enemy was strong and we were wea[.
build a powerful socialist country. The impor- These strategies and. tactics iriclude fighting a
tant ideas of Comrade Mao Zedong concerning protracted war strategically and campaigns and
the socialist revolution and socialist construc- battles of quick decision, turning strategic in-
tion are mainly contained in such major works feriority into superiority in campaigns and bat-
as Report to the Second, Plenary Sessiorc of the tles and concentrating a superior force to de-
Seoenth Central Commi.ttee of the Communist stroy the enemy forces one by one. During the
Partg of, On the People's Demaqatia War of Liberation, he formulated the celebrated
Qictatorship, On the Ten Major Relationships, 10 major principles of operation. All these
Otu the Comect Handling o! Controdictions ideas constitute Comrade Mao Zedorlg's out-
Arnong the People and ?ollc at an Enlarged" standing contribution to the military theory of
Work Conference Coruseneil by the Central Marxism-Leninism. After the founding of the
Committee of the,st Po,rty of Chtno." People's Republic, he put forward the important
guideline that we must strengthen our national
3) On the building of the revolutionary defence and build modern revolutionary armed
army and military strategy. Comrade Mao Ze- forces (including the navy, the air force and
dong methodically solved the problem of how technical branches) and develop modern de-
to,turn a revolutionary army chiefly made up fence technology (including the making of
of peasants'into a new type of people's army nuclear weapons for self-defence).
which is proletarian in character, observes
strict discipline and forms elose ties with the 4) On policy and tactics. Comrade Mao
masses. He laid it down that the sole purpose Zedong penetratingly elucidated the vital im-
of the people's army is to serve the people portance of policy and tactics in revolutionary
wholeheartddly, he put forward the principle struggles. He pointed out that policy and tac-
that the Party. commands the gun and not the tics were the life of the Party, that they were
other way round, he advanced the Three Main both the starting-point and the end-result of
Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points for all the practical activities of a revolutionary
Attention and stressed the practice of political, party and that the Party must formulate its
economic and military democracy and the prin- policies in the light of the existing political

ciples of the unity of officers and soldiers, the situation, class relations, actual circumstances
unity of army and people and the disintegration and the changes in them, combining principle
of the enemy forces, thus formulating by way and flexibility. He made many valuable sug-
of summation a set of policies and methods gestions concerning policy and tactics in the
concerning political work in the army. In his struggle agairist the enemy, in the united front
military writings such as On Comecting Mis- and other questions. He pointed out among
taken ld.eas i,n the Partg, Problems of Strategg other things:
in China's Reooluti;onary War, Problems of Strat- that, under changing subjeqtive and
egy in Guerti.lla War Agai,rit Japan, On Pro- objective conditions, a weak revolutionary
tracted, I[ar and Problems of War anilrstrategU, force could ultimately defeat a strong reac-
Comrade Mao Zedong summed up the experi- tionary force;
ence of China'i protracted revolutionary war ' that we should despise the enemy stra-
and advanced the comprehensive concept of tegically and take the enemy seriously tacti-
building a people's army and of building rural cally;
base areas and waging people's war by employ-
ing the people's army as the main force and that we should keep our eyes on the
relying on the masses. Raising guerrilla war to main target of struggle and not hit out
the sirbtegic plarte, he maintained that guerrilla
in all directions;
warfare and mobile warfare of a guerrilla char- that we should differentiate between
acter would for a long time be the main forms and disintegrate our enemies, and adopt
of operation in Ghina's revolutionary war. He the tactic of making use of contradictions,
explained that it would be 'necessary to effect an winning over the many, opposing the few
appropriate change in military strategy simul- and crushing our enemies one by one;
taneously with the changing balance of that, in aleas under reactionary rule,
forces between the enemy and ourselves and we should combine legal and illegal strug-
with the progress of the war. He worked out gle and, organizationally, adopt the policy
luly 6, 1981 37
of assigning picked cadres to work under- identify themselves with the workers and peas-
ground; ants and that they should acquire the prole-
' tarian world outlook by studying Marxism-
that, as for members of the defeated Leninism, by studying society and through prac-
reactionar, classes and reactionary elements, tical work. He pointed out that "tJris question
we should give them a chance to earn a liv- of 'for whom?' is fundarnental; it is a question
ing and to become working people living of principle" and stressed that we should serve
by their own labour, so long as they did the people wholeheartedly, be highly respon-
not rebel or create trouble; and sible in revolutionary work, wage arduous
that the proletariat and its party must struggle and fear no sacrifice. Many notable
fulfil two conditions in order to exercise works written, by Comrade Mao. Zedong on
leadership over their allies: (a) Lead their ideology, politics and culture, such as The
followers in waging resolute struggles Orientation of the Yottth Mouem,ent, Rcqllit
. against the common enemy and achieving Large Numbers of Intellectuals, Talks ot the
victories; (b) Bring material benefits to Yanan Forum of Literatrne and Art, In'Memora
their followerr or at least avoid damaging of Norman Betltune, Serue the People and ?he
their interests and at the same time give Foolish Oid Man Who Remoued, the Mountains,
them political education are of tremendous significance eveh today.

These ideas of Comrade Mao Zedong's concern- . 6) On Party building. It was a most dif-
ing policy and tactics are embodied in many of ficult task to build a Marxist, proletarian Party
his writings, particularly in such works as Cur- of a mass character in a country where the peas-
rent Problems of Tactics in the Anti-Japanese antry and other sections of the petty bourgeoi-
tJnited, Front, On Policg, Conclusions on the sie constituted the majority of the population,
Repulse of the Seconil Anti-Commu,nist Orw while the proletariai was small in number yet
slar.tght, Om Some lrryortant Problems of the strong in combat effectiveness. Comrade Mao
Partg's Present Poli,ey, Don't Hit Out in All Zedong's theory on Party building provided a
Directi,onsand On the Questinn of Whether successful solution to this question. His main
Imperialism anit Atl Reartionaries Are Reol works in this area include Combat Liberolism,
Tigers. The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in
the Nati,o'nal War, Reform Our Study, RectifA
5) On ideological and political work and the Partg's Style of Work, Oppose Stereotgped
cultural work. In his On Neut Democroq, Com- Pa:rty Wri.ti:nq, Our Studg anil the Ctstent Situa-
rade Mao 7.d,on:g stated: tion, On Strengtheni,ng the Partg Com.mittee
System and Methods of Work of Party Commit-
Any given culture (as an ideological tees. He laid particular stress on building the
form) is a reflection of the politics and eco- Party ideologically, saying that.a Party member
nomics of a given society, and the former should join the Party not only organizationally
in turn has a tremendous influence and but also ideologically and should constantly try
effect upon the latter; economics is the base to reform his non-proletarian ideas and replace
and politics the concentrated expression of them with proletarian ideas. He indicated that
economics. the style of work which entailed integrating
In accordance with this basic view, he put for-
theory with practice, forging close links with
ward many important ideas of far-reaching and the masses and practising self-criticism was
long-term significance. For instance, the theses the hallmark distinguishing the Chinqse Com-
that ideological and political work is the life- munist Party from all other political parties in
blood of economic and all other work and that China. To counter the erroneous "Left" policy
it is necessary to unite politics and economics of "ruthless struggle and merciless blows" once
and to unite politics and professional skills, and followed in inner-Party struggle, he proposed
to be both red and expert; the policy of develop- the correct policy of "learning from past mis-
ing a natioiral, .scientific and mass culture and takes to avoid future onqs and curing the sick-
of letting a hundred flowers blossom, weeding ness to save the patient," emphasizing the need
through the old to bring forth the new, and to achieve the objective of clarity in ideology
making the past serve the present and foreign and unity among comrades in inner-Party
things serve China; and the thesis that intellec- struggle. He initiated the rectification cam-
tuals have an important role to play in revolu- paign as a form of ideological education in
tion and construction, that intellectuals should Marxism-Leninism throughout the Party, which

32 Beiiang Retsiero, No. 27

applied the method of criticism and self- other works rich in philosophical content,
criticism. In view of the fact that our Party Comrade Mao Zedong showed great profundity
was about to become and then became a party in expounding and enriching the Marxist
in .power leading the whole country, Comrade theory of knowledge and dialectics. He stressed
Mao Zedong urged time and again, first on the that the dialectical materialist theory of
eve of the founding of the People's Republic and knowledge is the dynamic, revolutionary theory
then later, that we should remain modest and of reflection and that full scope should be given
prudent, guard against arrogance and rashness bo man's conscious dynamic role which is based
and keep to plain living and hard struggle in on and is in conformity with objective reality.
our style of work and that we should be on the Basing himself on social practice, he compre-
lookout against the corrosive influence of bour- hensively and systematically elaborated the
geois ideology and should oppose bireaucratism dialectical materialist theory on the sources, the
wtdch would alienate us from the masses. proces.s and the purpose of knowledge and on
the criterion of truth. He said that as a rule, cor-
30. Ttre living soul of Mao Zedong rect knowledge can be arrived at and developed
Thought is the stand, viewpoint and method only after many repetitions of the process lead-
embodied ih its component parts mentioned ing from matter to consciousness and then back
above. This stand, viewpoint and'method boil to matter, that is; leading from practice to
down to three basic points: to seek truth from knowledge and then back to practiee. He
facts, the mass line, and independence. Com- pointed out that truth exists by contrast with
rade Mao Zedong applied dialectical and histor-
falsehood and grows in struggle ivith it, that
ical to the entire work of the pro- truth is inexhaustible and that the truth of any
letarian party, giving shape to this stand, view- piece of knowledge, namely, whether it
point and method so characteristic of Chinese corresponds to o'bjective reality, can ultimately
Communists in the course of the Chinese revo- be decided onl;r through social pfactice. He
lution and its arduous, protracted struggles and further elaborated the law of the unity of
thus enriching Marxism-Leninism. They find opposites, the nucleus of Marxist dialectics. He
expnession not only in such important works as
indicated that we should riot only study the
Oprpose Book Worsh.ip, On Practice, On Ccn-
universality of crontradiction in objective exist-
trailiction, Preface anl. Postscript to ,,Ru,ral
Surlteys," Som.e Questions Concerning Methods ence, but, what is more important, we should
of Lea.flership and Wltere Do Comect, ldeas Come study the particularity of contradiction, and that
Frorn?, but in all his scientific writings and we should resolve.contradictions which are dif-
in the revolutionary activities of the Chinese ferent in nature by different methods. There-
Communists. fore, dialectics should not be viewed as a formula
to be learnt by rote and applied mechanically,
1) Seeking truth from facts. This means but should be closely linked with practice and
proceediqg from re4lity and combining theory with investigation and study and should be ap-
with' praetice, .that is, integrating the universal plied flexibly. He forged philosophy into a sharp
principles of Marxism-Leninism with the con- weapon in the hands of the proletariat and the
crete practice of the Chinese revolution. Com- people for knowing and changing the world. His
rade Mao Zedong was always against studying distinguished works on China's revolutionary
Marxism in isolation from the realities of Chi- war, in particular, provide outstandingly shining
nese society and the Chinese revolution. As ear- examples of applying and developing the Marx-
ly as 1930, he opposrid blind book worship by ist theory of knowledge and dialectics in prac- that investigation and study is the tice. Our Party must always adhere fo the above
first step in all work and that one has no right ideological line formulated by Comrade Mao
to speak without investigation. On the eve of Zedong.
the rectification movement in Yanan, he affirm-
ed that subjectivism is a formidable enemy of
2) The mass line means everything for the
masses, reliance on the masses in everything and
the Communist Party, a manifestation of "fiom the masses, to the masses." The Party's
impurity in Party spirit, These brilliant mass line in all its work has come into being
these helped people break through ths sha- through the systematic application in all its ac-
ekles of dogmatism and greatly emancipate tivities of the Marxist-Leninist principle that the
their minds. While sum,marizing the exper- people are the makers of history. It is a summa-
ienee and lessons of the Chinese revolu- tion of our Part5r's invaluable historical
tion in his philosophical works and many experience in conducting revolutionary activities

July 6, I98I 33
over the years under difficult circumstances in Chinese people,and rely on their wisdom and
which the enemy's strength far outstripped ours. strength; otherwise, it wiII be impossible for our
Comrade Mao Zedong stressed time and again revolution and cpnstruction to succeed or to be
that as long as we rely on the people, believe consolidated even if success is won. Of course,
firrnly in the inexhaustible creative power of the China's revolution and national construction are
masses and hence trust and identify ourselves not and cannot be carried on in isolation from
with them, no enemy can crush us while we can the rest of the world. It is always necessary for
eventually crush every enemy and overcome us to try to win foreign aid and, in particular,
every difficulty. He al.o pointed out that in to learn all that is advanced and beneficial from
leading the masses. in all practical work, the other eountries. The closed-door policy- blind
leadership can form its correct ideas only by opposition to everything foreign and any theory
adopting the method of "from the masses, to the or practice of great-nation chauvinism are all
masses" and by combining the leadership with entirely wrong. At the same time, although
the masses and combining the general call with China is still comparatively backward econom-
particular guidance. This means concentrating ically and culturally, we must maintain our
the ideas of the masses and turning them into own national dignity and confidence and there
systematic ideas, then going to the masses so must be no slavishness or submissiveness in any
that the ideas are persevered in and carried form in dealing with big, powerful or rich coun-
through, and testing the-correctness of these tries. Under the leadership of the Party and
ideas in the prgctice of the masses. And this Comrade Mao Zedong,'no matter what fifficulty
process goes on, over and over again, so that the we encountered, we never wavered, whether
understanding of the leadership becomes more before or after the founding of New China, in
correct, keener and richer each time. This is how our determination to remain independent and
Comrade Mao Zedong united the Marxist ttreory self-reliant and we never submitted to any
of knowledge with the Party's mass line. As the pressure from outside; we showed the dauntless
vanguard of the proletariat, the Party exists and and heroic. spirit of the Chinese Communist
fights for the interests of the people. But it Farty'and the Chinese people. We stand for the
always cpnstitutes' only a small part of the peaceful coexistence of the people of all coun-
people, so that isolation from the people wilI tries and their mutual assistance dn an equal
render all the Party's struggles and ideals devoid footing. While upholding our own independence,
of content as well'as impossible of success. To we respect other people's right to independence.
persevere in the revolution and advance the The road of reriolution and construetion suited
socialist cause, our Party must upholcl the mass to the characteristics of a country has to be ex-
line. plored, decided on and blazed by its own people.
No one has the right to impose his views on
3) Independence and self-reliance are the others. OnIy under these cpnditions can there
inevitable corollary of carrying out the Chinese be genuine internationalism. Otherwise, there
revolution and construction by proceeding from can only be hegemonism. We will always pdhere
Chinese reality and reiying on the masse* The to this principled stand ip our'internitional
proletarian revolution is an internationalist cause
which calls for the mutual support of the pro-
letariats of different countries. But for the cause 31. Mao Zedong Thought is the valuable
to triumptr, each proletariat should primarily spiritual asset of our Party. It will be our guide
base itself on its own country's realides, rely on to action for a Iong time to come. The Party
the efforts of its own ma."ises and revolutionary leaders and the large groirp of cadres nurtured
forces, integrate the universal principles of by Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought
Marxism-Leninism with the concrete practice of were the backbone forces in winning great
its own revolution and thus achieve victory. victories for our cause; they are and will remain
Comrade Mao Zedong always stressed that our our treasured mainstay in the cause of socialist
policy should rest on our own strength and that modernization. While many of Comrade Mao
we should find our own road of advance in ac- Zedong's important works were written during
cordance with our own conditions. In a vast the periods of new-democratic revolution and of
country like China, we must all the more rely socialist transformation, we must still constantly
mainly on our own efforts to promote the revolu- study them. This is not only because one cannot
tion and construction. We must be determined cut the past off from the present and'failure to
to carry the struggle through to the end and unterstand the past will hamper our understand-
must have faith in the hundreds of millions of ing of present-day problems, but also besause
34 Beijrng Reuieut, No. 27
many of the basic theories, principles and embrace of the motherland.' The fundamental
scientific approaches set forth in these works are aim of summing up the historical experienee of
of universal significance and provide us with in- the 32 years since the founding of the Peo-
valuable guidance now and will cpntinue to do ple's Republic is to accomplish the great objective
so in the future. Therefore, we must continue of building a lrcwerful and modern socialirst coun-
to uphold Mao Zedong firought, study it in try by further rallying the will and strength of
earnest and apply its stand, viewpoint and meth- the whole Party, the whole army and the whole
od in studying the new situation and solving people on the basis of upholding the four funda-
the new problems arising in the course of prac- mental principles, namely, upholding the social-
tice. Mao Zedong Thought has added much that ist road, the people's democratic dictatorship
is new to the treasure-house of Marxist-L,eninist (i.e., the dictatorship of the proletariat), the
theory. We must combine our study of the leadership of the Communist Party, and
scientific works of Comrade Mao Zedong with Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought.
that of the scientific writings of Marx, Engels, lhese four principles constitute the common
Lenin and Stalin. It is entirely wrong to try to political basis of the unity of the whole Party and
negate the scientific value of Mao Zedong the unity of the whole people as well as the
Thought and to deny its guiding role in our rev- basic guarantee for the realization of socialist
olution and construction just because Comrade modernization. Any word or deed which
Mao Zedong made mistakes in his later years. deviates from these four principles is wrong.
And it is likewise entirely wrong to adopt a Any word or deed which denies or undermines
dogmatic attitude towards the sayings of Com- these four principles cannot be tolerated.
rbde Mao Zedong to regard whatever he said as
the immutable truth which must be mechanical- 33. Socialism and socialism alone can save
ly applied everywhere, and to be unwilling to China. This is the unalterable conclusion drawn
admit honestly.that he made mistakes in his by all our people from their own experience
later years, and even try to stick to them in our over the past century or so; it likewise consti-
new activities. Both these attitudes fail to make tutes our fundamental historical experience in
a distinction bdtween Mao Zedong Thought the 32 years since the founding of our Peo-
- a
scientific theory formed and tested over a Iong ple's Republie. Although our socialist system is
period of time * and the mistakes Comrade still in its early phase of development, China has
Mao Zedong made in his later years. And it is undoubtedly established a socialist system and
absolutely necessary that this distinction should entered the stage of socialist sociegl. Any view
be made. \4re must treasure all the positive ex- denying this basic fact is wrong. Under social-
perience obtained in the course of integrating the ism, we have achieved successes which were
universal prin'ciples of Marxism-Leninism with absolutely impossible in old China. This is a
the concrete practice of China's revolution and preliminary and at the same time convincing
construction over 50 years or so, apply and carry manifestation of the superiority of the socialist
forward this experience in our new work, enrich system. The fact that we have been and are able
and develop Party theory with new principles to overcome all kinds of difficulties through our
and new conclusions corresponding to reality, so own efforts lestifies to its great vitality. Of
as to ensure the continued progiress of our cause course, our systerh will have to undergo a long
along the scientific course of Marxism-Leainism process of development before it can be
and Mao Zedong Thought. perfected. Given the premise that we uphold the
basic system of socialism, therefore, we must
strive to reform those specific features which are
Unite and Strive to Build a Powerful, not in keeping with the expansion of the pro-
Modern Socialist China ductive forces and the interests of the people,
and to staunchly mmbat ali activities det-
' 32. The objective of our Party's struggJ.e rimental to socialism. With the development
in of our cause, the immense superiority of
the new historital period is to turn China step socialism will become more and more apparent.
by step into a powerful socialist country with
modern agriculture, industry, national defence 34. Without the Chinese Communist Party,
and seience and technology and with a high level there would have been no New China. Likewise,
of democracy and culture. We must also accom- without the Chinese Communist Party, there
plish the great cause of reunification of the would be no modern socialist China. The Chi-
country by getting Taiwan to return to the nese Communist Party is a proletarian party

Jutg 6, 1981
armed with Marxism-Leninism and lVlao Zedong unique importance of productive forces,,, a view
Thought and imbued with a strict serrse of dis- diametrically opposed to historial materialism,
cipline and the spirit of self-criticism, and its was put forward during the "cultural revolu-
ultimate historical mission is to realize c,om- tion." We must never deviate from this focus,
munism. Without the leadership of such a party, except in tlre event of large-scale invaaion by a
without the flesh-and-blood ties it has formed foreign enerny (and even then it will stilI be
with the masses through protracted struggles necessary to carry on such economic cronstruction
and without its painstaking and effective work as wartirne cunditi,ons require and perm:it). All
among the people and the high prestige it cpn- our Party work must be subordinated to and
sequentJy enjoys, our country-for a variety of serve this eentral. task econornic construetion.
reasorls, both internal and external:- would All our Party cadres, and- particularly those in
inexorably fall apart and the future of our nation economic departments, must diligently study ec"o-
and people would inexorably be forfeited. The nomic theory and economic practice as well as
Party leadership cannot be exempt from mis- science and technology.
takes, but there is no doubt that it can correct
them by relying on the close unity betweerr'the 2) In our socialist economic construction,
Party and the people, and in no case should one we must strive to reach the goal of moderniza-
use the Party's mistakes as a pretext for weaken- tion systematically and in stages, according to
ing, breaking away from or even sabotaging its the conditions and resources of our country. Ttte
Ieadership. That would only lead to even greater prolonged "Left" mistakes we made in our eco-
mistakes and court grievous disasters. We must nomic work in the past co,nsisted chiefly in
improve Party leadership in order to uphold it. departing from Chinese realities, trflng to
We must resolutely overcome the many short- exceed our actual eapabilities and ignoring the
comings that still exist in our Party's style of economic returns of constiuction and manage-
thinking and work, in its system of organization ment as well as the scientific confirmation of our
and leadership and in its contacts with the economic plans, policies and meaSures, with their
masses. So long as we earnestly uphold and concomitants of colossal waste and losse.s. Vfe
constantly improve Party leadership, our Party must adopt a scientific attitude, gain a thorough
will definitely be better able to undertake the knowledge of the realities and make a deep
tremendous tasks entrusted to it by history. analysis of the situation, earnestly listen to the
opinions of the cadres, masses and specialists in
35. Since the Third Plenary Session of its the various fields and try our best to act in ac-
l1th Central Committee, our Party has gradually cordance with objective economic and natural
mapped out the correct path for soeialist mod- laws and bring about a proportionate and har-,
ernization suited to China's conditions. In the monious development of the various branches of
course of practice, the path will be broadened economy. We must keep in mind the funda-
and become more clearly defined, but, in essence, mental fact that China's economy and culture are
the key pointers can already be determined on still relatively backward. At the same time, we
the basis of the summing up of tJre negative'as must keep in mind such favourable domestic
well as positive experience since the founding and international conditions as the achievements
of the People's Republic, and particularly of the we have already scored and the experience we
leslons of the "cultural revolution." have gained in our economic construction and
the expansion of economic and technological ex-
1) After socialist transformation was fun- changes with foreign countries, and we must
darnentally completed, the principal cpntradic- make full use of tlese favourable conditions. We
tion our country has had to resolve is that be- must oppose both impetuosity and passivity.
tween the growing rrraterial and cul$ural needs
of the people and the backwardness of social 3) The reform and lmprovement of the
production. It was imperativ6 that the focus of socialist relations of produetion must be in con-
Party and government work be shifted to social- formity with the level of the productive forces
ist modernization centring on economic construc- and conducive to the expansion of produetion.
tion and that the people's material arid cultural The state economy and the collective economy
life be gradually irrlproved by means of an im- are the basic forms of the Chinese economy. The
mense expansion of produciive iorces. In the working people's individual economy within
final analysis, the mistake we made in the past certain prescribed limits is a necqssary comple-
was that we failed to persevere in making this ment to public economy. It ls necessary to er
strategic shift. What is more, the preposterous tablish specific systems of management and dis-
view opposing the so-called "theory of the tribution suited to the various sectors of the
36 Beijr,ng Reuieto, No, 27
economy. It is necessary to have planned econ- improve our Constitution and laws and ensure
omy and at the same time give play to the sup- their strict observance and inviolability. We
l.lementary, regulatory role of the market on the must turn the socialist legal system into a power-
basis of public ownership. We must strive to ful instrument for protecting the rights of the
promote commodity production and exchange on people, ensuring order in production, work ar,rd
a socialist basis. There is no rigid pattern for other activities, punishing criminals and erack-
ttle development of the socialist relations of pro- ing down on the disruptive activities of class
duction. At every stage our task is to create enemies. The kind of ehaotic situation that
those specific forms of the relations of production obtained in the "cultural revolution" must never
that correspond to the needs of the growing be allowed to happen again in any sphere.
productive forces and facilitate their continued
advance. 6) Life under socialism must attain a high
ethical and cultural level. We must firmly
4) Class struggle no longer constitutes the eradicate such gross fallaciqs as the denigration
principal sontradiction after the exploiters have of education, science and culture and discrimina-
been eliminated as classes. However, owing to tion against intellectuals, fallaeies which had
certain domestie factors and influences from long existed and found extreme expression dur-
abroad, class struggle will continue to exist ing the "cultural revolution"; we must strive to
within certain limits for a long time to come and raise the status and oxpand the role of education,
may even grow acute under certain conditions. science and culture in our drive for moderniza-
It is necessary to oppose both the view that the tion. We unequivocally affirm that, together
scope of class struggle must be enlarged and the with the workers and peasants, the intellectuals
view that it has died out. It is imperative to are a force to rely on in the cause of socialism
maintain a high 1eve1 of vigilance and conduct and that it is impossible to carry out socialist
effective struggle against all those who are construction without culture and the intel-
hostile to socialism and try to sabotage it in the lectuals. It is imperative for the whoie Party to
political, economic, ideological and cultural fields engage in a more diligent study of Marxist
and in community life. We must correcily theories, of the past and present in China and
understand that there are diverse social con- abroad, and of the different branches of the
tradictions in Chinese society which do not faU natural and social scielces. We must strengthen
within the scope of class struggle and that and improve ideological and political work and
methods other than class struggle must be used educate the people and youth in the Marxist
for their appropriate revolution. Otherwise, world ouilook and communist morality; we must
social stability and unity will be jeopardized. We persistently carry out the educational policy
must uns'wervingly unite aII forces that can be which calls for an all-round development moral-
united with and consolidate and expand the Iy, intellectually and physically, for being both
patriotic united front.
red and expert, for integration of the intel-
5) A fundamental task of the socialist rev- lectuals with the workers and peasants and the
olution is gradually to establish a highly dem- combination of mental and physical labour; and
ocratic sociaiist political system. Inadequate we must counter the irifiuence of decadent
attention was paid to this matter after the found- bourgeois ideology and the decadent remnants of
ing of the People's Republic, and this was one feudal ideology, overcome the influence of petty-
of tJre major factors contributing to the initiation bourgeois ideology and foster the patriotism
of the "cultural revolution." Here is a grievous which puts the interests of the mottrerland above
lesson for us to learn. It is necessary to streng:th-
everythlng else and the pioneer spirit of selfless
en the building of state organs at all levels in
accordance with the principle of democratic devotion to modernization.
centralism, make the people's congresses at all 7) It is of profound significance to our
levels and ttreir permanent organs authoritative
multi-national country to improve and promote.
organs of the people's political power, gradually
socialist relations among our various nationali-
realize direct popular participation fur the dem-
ocratic process at the grass ruots of political ties and strengthen national unity. In the past,
power and community life and, in particular, particularly during the "cultural revolution," we
stress democratic management by the working c.ommitted, on the question of nationalities, the
masses in urban and rural enterprises over ttte grave mistake of widening the scope of class
affairs of their establishments. It is essential to struggle and wronged a large number of cadres
consolidate the people's democratic dictatorship, and masses of the minority nationalities. In our

Julg 6, 1981 JI
work among them, we did not show due respect Party, it is imperative to build up a sound system
for their right to autonorrry. We must never ol democratic centmlism inside the Party. We
forget this lesson. We must have a clear under-. must cafry out the Marxist principle of the
standing that relations among our nationalities exercise of cpllective Party leadership by leaders
today are, in the main, relations among the who have emerged from mass struggles and who
working people of the various nationalities. It compine political integrity with professional
is necessary to persist in their regional autonomy competence, and we must prohibit the per-
and enact Iaws and regulations to ensure this sonality cult in any form. It is imperative to
a'utonomy antl their decision-making power in
uphold the prestige of Party leaders and at the
apptying Party and government policies accord-
same tirne ensure that t}eir activities come under
ing to the actual conditions in their regions. We
the supervision of the Party and the people. We
must take effective measures to assist economic
and cultural development in regions inhabited by
must have a high degree of based on
minolity nationalities, actiyely train and promote a high degree of democracy and insist that the
cadres from ampng them and resolutely oppose minority is subordinate to tJre majority, the in-
all words and deeds undermining national unity dividual to the organization, the lower to the
and equality. It is imperative to continue to im- higher level and the entire membership to the
plement the policy of freedom of religious belief. Central Committee. The style of work of a polit-
To uphold the four fundamental principles does ical party in power is a matter that determines
nott mean that religious believers should re- its very existenee. Party organizations at all
nounce their faith but that they must not engage levels and all Party cadres must go deep among
in propaganda against Marxism-Leninisrn and tlre masses, plunge themselves into practical
struggle, remain modest and prudent, share weal
Mao Zedong Thought and that they must not
interfere.with politics and. eduiation in their re- and woe with the masses and firmly overcome
ligious activities.
bureaucratism. We must properly wield the
weapon of criticism and self-criticism, overcome
8) In the present international situation in erroneous ideas that deviate from the Party's
which the danger of war still exists, it is oorrect . principles, uproot factionalism, oppose
necessary to strengthen the modernization of our anarchism and ultra-individualism and eradicate
national defence. The building up of national such unhealthy tendencies as the practice of
defence must be in keeping with the building up seeking perks and privileges. We must con-
of the economy. The People's Liberation Army solidate the Pdrty organization, purify the Party
shogld strengthen its military training, political ranks and weed out degenerate elements'who
wofk, logiEtic service and study of military oppress and bully the people. In exercising
science and further raise its combat,effectiveness leadership over state affairs and work in the eco-
so as gradually to become a still more powerful nomic and cultural fields as well as community
modern revolutionary army. It is necessary to life, the Party must correctly handle its relations
restore and carry forward the fine tradition of with other organizations, ensure by every means
unity inside the arrny, between the army and the the effective functioning of the organs of state
government and between the army and the power and administrative, judicial and economic
people. The buiiding of the people's militia must and cultural organizations and see to it that trade
also be further strengthened. unions, the Youth League, the Women's Federa-
9) In our external relations, we must con- tion, the Science and Technology Association, the
tinue to oppose imperialism, hegemonism, colo- Federation of Literary and Art Circles and other
nialism and racism, and safeguard world peace.. mass organizations carry out their work respon-
We must actively promote relations. and ecu sibly and on their oivn initiative. The Party
nomie and cultural exchanges with other coun- m-ust strengthen its co-operation with public
tries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peace- figures outside the Party, give full play to the
ful Coexistence. We must uphold proletarian role of the Chinese People's Political Consultative
internationalism and support the cause of the Conference, hold eonscientious consultations
liberation of oppressed nations, the national con-
with democratic parties and personages without
struction of newly independent courtries and
party affiliation on major issues of state affairs
the just struggles of the peoples everywhere.
and respect their.opinions and the opinions of
10) In the light of the lessons of the "cul- spedalists in various fields. As with other
tural revolution" and the present situation in the social organizations, Party organizations at
38 Reoiew, No. 27
all levels must conduct their actiyities within the years, have helped to raise immensely the polit-
limits permitted by the Constitution and the law. ical consciousness of all Party comrades and of
36. In firmly
correcting the mistake of the
all patriots. Obviously, our Party now has a
higher level of understanding of socialist rev-
so.called "continued revolution under the
dictatorship of the proletariat," a slogan whieh
olution and construction than at any other
pgriod since liberation. Our Party has both the
was advanced during the "cultural revolution"
courage to acknowledge and correct its mistakes
and which call.ed for the overthrow of one class
and the determination and ability to prevent
by another, we absolutely do not mean that the
repetition of the serious mistakes of the past.
tasks of the revolution have been accornplished
After all, from a long-term historical point of
and that there is no need to earry on reiolu-
view the mistakes and setbacks of our Party
tionary struggles with determination. Socialism
were onl;r temporary ryhereas the consequent
aims not just at eliminating all systems of ex-
steeiing of our Party and peoptre, the greater
ploitation and all exploiting, classes but also at
greatly expanding the productive forces, im- maturity'of the core force.ftirmed among our
proving and developing the socialist relatiops o{ Party cadres through protracted struggle, the
production and the superstmcture and, on this
growing sr.lpqriorit5r of our soctalist system and
basis, gradually eliminating all class differences the'increasingly keen and common aspiration of
and all major social distinctions and inequalities our P4rty," army and people for the prosperity
which are chiefly due to the inadequate develop- of the:motherland will be decisive factors in the
ment of the productive forces until communism long run. A great future is in store for our
is finally realized. This is a great revolution, socialist cause and for the Chinese people in
unprecedented in human history. Our present their hundreds of millions.
endeavour to build a modern socialist China
constitutes but one stage of this great revolu- 38. Inner-Party unity and unity between
tion. Differing from the revolutions before the the Party and the people are the basic guarantee
overthrow of the syStem of exploitation, this for new victories in our socialist modernization.
revolution is carried out not through fierce class Whatever the difficulties, as long as the Party
aonfrontation and conflict, but through the is closely united apd remains closely united with
strength of the socialist sy$tem itself, under the people, our Party ayrd the cause of socialism
leadership, step by step and in an orderly way. it leads will certainly prosper day by day.
Ttris revolution which has entered the period of
peaceful development is more profound and The Resolution on Certain Questions ln the
arduous than any previous revolution and will History of Our Party unanimously adopted in
not only take a very long historical period to f945 by the Enlarged Seventh Plenary Session
accomplish but also demand the unswerving and of the Sixth Central Committee of the Party
disciplined hard work and heroic sacriJiqes of unified the thinking of the whole Party, con-
many generations. In this historical period of. solidated its unity, promoted the rapid advance
peaceful development, revolution can never bg of the people's revolutiongry. cadse and aeceler-
plain sailing. There are still overt and covert ated its eventual triumph. The Sixth Plenary
enemies and other saboteurs who watch for Session of the llth Central Committee of the
opportunities to create trouble. We must main-
Party believes that the present resolution it has
tain high revolutionary vigilance and be ready
at all tiines to come out boldly to safeguard the unanimously adopted will play a similar his-
interests of the revolution. In this new historical torical role. This session calls upon the whole
period, the whole membership of the Chinese "Party, the whole army and the people of all our
Communist Party and the whole people must nationalities to act under the great banner of
never cease to cherish lofty revolutionary ideals, Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Ttrought,
maintain a dynamic revolutionary fighting closely rally around the Central Committee of
spirit and carry China's great socialist revolu- the Party, preserve the spirit of the legendary
tion and socialist construction through to the Foolish Old Man who removed mountains and
end. work together as one in defiance of all difficul-
3?. Repeated assessmentof our successes ties so as to turn China step by step into a
a.nd failures,of our correct and incorrect prac- powerful modern socialist country which is
tices, of the 32 yeans since the founding of our highly democratic and, highly cultured. *.,.Our
People's Republic, and particularly deliberation goal must be attained! Our goal can unques-
over and review of the events of the past few tionably be attained! n
JuLy 6, 1981 39