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Principles a Practices of Management
Chapter 1. NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT
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Management is universal in modern industrial world. Every organization requires the making of decisions, the coordination of activities, handling of people, and the evaluation of the performance directed towards organizational objectives. Specialization and increase in the scale of operations have increased the importance of management. `Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups .ccomplish effectively selected aims. If we expand this definition we understanding that: Management is present in any kind of organization (business or non-business). Its aim is to create a surplus, i.e., management is concerned with productivity which is measured through effectiveness and efficiency. A manager works in coordination with both the internal and external environment. It is essentially decision making under various constraints. It is an integrated as well as continuous process. It is use of means to accomplish given ends. For achieving the objectives the Managers have to assume responsibility, achieve a balance among competing (and often conflicting) goals, and have to be conceptual thinkers. The term management is often used to refer to a group of managerial personnel of an enterprise. Sometimes, this term is used as a way of referring to the process of managing. On other occasions it is used as a substantive to describe the subject, the body of knowledge and practice as a whole, the discipline. Strictly speaking, management is a functional concept and does not include persons who practice management. Such persons are designated as Managers, Executives, etc. However, in our daily transaction we generally include the practitioners within the scope of this term. The managerial process is a complex social activity. It is a process because it comprises of a series of actions that lead to accomplishment of objectives. It is known as a social process because these actions are concerned with relations between people, i.e., inter-personal relationship. It is a continuous process, there is always fresh minds to stimulate, newer area and approaches to explore, and ever changing situations to tackle. Management is a mental or intellectual process involving thought, judgement and decision. the fundamental aim being achievement of certain objectives. echnological development has continuously changed the setting of management. However, the chief characteristics of management are the integration and application of the knowledge and analytical approaches developed by numerous disciplines. This involves: Formation of policy and its translation into plans, Execution and implementation of plans, and Exercising administrative control over the plans.
Utilisation of resources has been one of the most common and yet perhaps the most complex management activity. Maximum return and utility from limited available resources has been the main aim of any manager. Traditionally, only three factors of production were recognised i.e., Man, Machine, and Material. However, with the development of thought, a fourth factor of production was recognised, in the absence of which the other three factors could be rendered useless. This fourth vital factor of production was entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur could be a person having his own resources or a custodian of someone else's resources, organising it with a view to attain maximum output and efficiency with minimum input. As such, Management can also be defined as a process through which all the resources are organised and utilised to attain maximum output and efficiency through minimum input. A liberal point of view is not merely a sum of number of narrow approaches. Its emphasis is on freedom to choose from widest range of possibilities already available or newly evolved. The stress is on expanding the mental horizon with utmost freedom with an effort to strive towards an ultimate in life. The paradox of management is that it is based on identifiable and rigorous framework of concepts, but at the same time it continues to strive towards breaking out of any set discipline. The characteristics of a good manager may be described in broad terms as initiative, intelli- gence, judgement, dependability, integrity, perseverance, and so on. Thus, management can also be defined as a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge, skill, habits, and attitudes of the employees in an organization. In other words it refers to development of people in the organization. Management involves improvement in knowledge factors, attitude factors, and ability factors of the employee in an organization. Knowledge factors refer to ideas, concepts, or principles that are conscious, able to be expressed, and are accepted because they are subject to logical proof. Attitude factors relates to those beliefs, feelings, desires, and values that may be based on emotions and may not be subject to conscious verbalization. interest in ones work, desire to accept responsibilities, respect for the dignity of one's associates, and
desire for creative contribution are some of the attitude factors. Ability factors are too often treated as being unaffected by environment. Skill, art, judgement and wisdom are the four most important ability factors required in management. Although these are abstract, but nevertheless they can be developed and sharpened through practice. One of the most important characteristics regarding the nature of management is that its prin ciples have universal application. Management problems are present in all joint activity, be it a family, school, small-scale or large corporation, or a trade union. The head of these institutions use the same managerial techniques and principles in solving their problems and achieving their desired goals. Universality of managerial principles means that they are transferable, i.e., the same principles can be used by various departments regardless of the nature of their functions. Not only that, the universality of managerial principles also means that they can be transferred from one level to another. All managers perform the same managerial function regardless of their position in the organizational hierarchy. Different schools of thought have emerged and all of them define management in their own way : Classical School : Management is ordering people to do the job. Management is designing job structure. To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control (Fayol) Behavioural School : Management is managing men. Management is the development of people and not the direction. Modern Definition : Management is a multipurpose organ of the society, which aims at utilizing the resources of the country for creating a situation of plenty and comfort instead of scarcity and misery. The development of the theory of management is useful because it provides a broad basis for approaching management problems. In the recent time, there has been a growing concern about the proper role of a business firm within our society. Traditionally. this role was limited to production and distribution of economic goods and services, in return for profits. However, the term "social responsibility" is being referred to quite often in the present day situation. It has been increasing felt that the social consequences of business organization cannot be ignored any longer. Management is a 'process comprising of series of actions that lead to accomplishment of objectives. Since these actions are basically concerned with inter-personal relationships every management decision has a social impact. Therefore, management can also be called a social process. Is management and administration the same? According to one school of thought 'Management' is a comprehensive term 'mbracing within its scope the entire process of planning, policy-making, co-ordination of activities, maintaining discipline, as well as ,ontrolling the operations so as to attain best possible results. Thus, management activity can be classified into two broad heads -Administrative Management and Operative Management. The former is primarily concerned with policy-decision making, changing such decisions as and when necessary, preparing plans, fixing standards of performance and verifying the actual performance vis-a-vis pre-determined standards. On the other hand operative management is concerned with carrying out of these policies and plans to achieve the organizational objectives. However, another school of thought, led by eminent writer Oliver Sheldon, is of the view that management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of the policies formed by the top-body or administration. This school, narrows down the meaning of management by stating that administration determines the corporate policy. co-ordination of finance, and definition of goals, whereas, management uses the policies and strives towards the objectives. Administration is inherent in the performance of all normal business functions. Every manager discharges both administrative as well as managerial functions. Quantum of administrativ and managerial functions depends upon his position in the organizational hierarchy. Higher they are in the hierarchy, more is the time and effort devoted in administrative activities like formulation of policies, determination of objectives, etc. However, they too spend some time in managing and directing those directly under their command. The daily activity in the managerial hierarchy can be demonstrated as under: Management is a continuing and dynamic process. Fresh situations and problems arise every now and then, advocating the need for continuous development of theories and principles to solve the management problems and achieve the organizational objectives. No system, procedure or policy is perfect, there may be various drawbacks in every system. Just because some policies have worked wonderfully in one organization, there is no guarantee that they would be successfur in another organization. It can be said that the process of management is a mental or intellectual process involving thought, judgement, and decision. Management efforts are to provide an atmosphere in which efficiency and accomplishment are recognised and rewarded, employee self-development is emphasized, and employees' rights and privileges are fulfilled. The growth of the organization is a cumulative effect of the growth of the people working in the organization.
A question is always raised when we start management studies and this is concerning the basic nature of the subject i.e., Is management a science or an art? There is no straight answer to this question. But like all practices, managing is an art and using knowledge of management is a science. Therefore managing as a practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the practice maybe referred to as a science. Thus, it is both a science and an art, also both these are not mutually exclusive but are complementary. Science and art of management are interwoven and overlapping in nature. They complement each other and are not mutually exclusive. However, it may be added that although the art of management is very old, the science of management is an event of recent past. It was only in the later part of 19th century that management came to be regarded as a scientific process. Recently, considerable attention has been given to analytical approaches to management, resulting in emergence of mathematical formulae, business games, operations research, and scientific decision-making. A scientific approach requires clear concepts -by determining and analysing these facts scientists look for causal factors, when these are found true than they become principles, i.e., they are believed to be valid enough to be used for prediction. A theory is a systematic grouping of interdependent concepts and principles that give a framework for the gathering of significant knowledge. Management theory provides means of classifying significant and pertinent management knowledge principles. T herefore, it can be concluded that management contains elements of both science as well as art. The management science provides a body Jf principles or laws for guidance in the solution of specific management problems and objective evaluation of results. The analysis of basic management functions has led to the development of certain principles that can be applied as general guidelines for solving future problems. On the other hand, the art of management deals with the application of skill and effort for producing desirable results.
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Fayol says individual circumstances will determine the degree to which authority is concentrated or dispersed.Fayol said discipline requires good superiors at all levels. He said productivity suffered mainly due to ignorance and the tension of how to split profits but not how to increase profits. He stated that all operational activities in a business organization can be classified under six headings: Financial (search for and optimum use of capital) Accounting (including statistics) Commercial (buying. It evolved in various phases. These principles are flexible not absolute. commanding. Division of work .Fayol applies this principle to all kinds of work. Throughout his study he stressed on the universality of the principles. Authority and responsibility .Fayol found these are related. Remuneration .Principles of Scientific Management -1911 Replacing rule of thumb with science (Organized Knowledge) Obtaining harmony in group action rather than discord Achieving cooperation of humans not chaotic individuals Working maximum output. Centralisation . possible for their own and the companies higher prosperity 5.Single superior should give orders. not restricted output Developing all workers to the fullest extent. managerial as well as technical. Henri Fayol .Process Management theory: Fayol wrote a book called "General and Industrial Management". He is called the "Father of Scientific Management". exchange) Managerial (planning. He repeatedly pointed out that the principles apply not only to business but also to political. military and other undertakings. he also gave 14 general principles of management. organizing.Must be fair giving maximum possible satisfaction to employees and employer. W Taylor and Scientific Management : Taylor gave up college in 1875 and joined Midvale Steel Works as a machinist in 1878. philanthropic. Unity of command . selling. Taylor undertook Time and Motion studies. coordinating and controlling. He became the Chief Engineer (after doing an Engineering course). Subordination of individual to general interest . EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Management as a subject is relatively young. control) Technical (production) Security (protection of property and persons) Fayol stressed on managerial aspects and he regarded elements of management as its functions . organization. CLASSICAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT Fredrick. Unity of Direction . Taylor's .Each group of activities with the same objective must have one head and one plan. He had first hand knowledge about problems existing at various levels of management. with the latter arising from the former. religious. Discipline .AMITY EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT o We nurture talent GurukulOnlineLearning Solutions 1S0 9001 : 2000 Certifiod Principles and Practices of Management Chapter 2.Payol believed that "chain of superiors" from highest to lowest ranks should not be departed from needlessly but can . Scalar chain . command. co-ordination. His observations are still valid after 7 -8 decades.planing. Fayol is also called the real father of modern management theory. 9. Taylor 's major concern was Increasing efficiency in production not only to lower costs and raise profits but also to make possible increased pay for workers through higher productivity.
The manager considers subordinates to be lazy. Mayo concluded that improvement in productivity was due to social factors as morale and sense of belonging.The manager considers subordinates like to work if they are given work.. modifying rest periods. 14. Clear-cut division of work: Specific areas of competence should be determined on the basis of division of labour. Max Weber -Principle of Bureaucracy: He laid down three principles Hierarchy of authority: Hierarchy of positions should provide for supervision of each office by a higher authority.Unnecessary turnover can have high danger and costs. How a business can influence workers to obtain the best possible results from them. shortening workdays and varying incentive pay-systems did not seem to explain changes in productivity. 3. many scholars were thinking about experimenting with and writing on Industrial Psychology and Social Theory. This phenomenon of people being noticed came to be known as Hawthorne Effect. They found that whether illumination was increased or decreased the productivity went on increasing. Abraham Maslow -Need Hierarchy Theory: He said every human being has five needs: Physiological Security Affiliation Esteem Self-Actualization According to him these needs were seen in hierarchical order i. All administrative acts. Father of Industrial Psychology Hugo Muntserber in his book "Psychology and Industrial Efficiency" talked of: How to find people whose mental qualities best fit them for the work they are to do. was studying the effect of lumination on productivity. Espirit-De-Corps In union there is strength" emphasising the need for teamwork "and importance of communication in obtaining it Fayol concluded by saying that his list was not exhaustive but some kind of codification of principles appeared to be indispensable in every undertaking. . Continuing body of rules: All organizations work in accordance with these rules. Appointments and promotions on the basis of universalistic criterion of demonstrated competence.. National Research Council with Western Electric Co. Before this from 1924 to 1927. McGregor .e. only after one was fulfilled' the other showed its appearance. Under what psychological conditions the greatest and most satisfactory output can be obtained from every person. Stability of tenure . NEO CLASSICAL TIHEORIES OF MANAGEMENT Emergence of behavioral sciences: During Taylor and Fayol's time. They were going to declare the study a failure when Mayo and Roethlisberger continued the research. actions and decisions should be recorded in writing so as to provide for future scrutiny and permanent record. Initiative .Theory and Theory Y Theory X . After this study greater and deeper understanding of social and behavioural aspects of management was seen. Taylor & Fayol's work is complementary to a large extent.Managers must sacrifice personal vanity to permit subordinates to exercise initiative."A place for everything and everyone" Equity . Mayo found changing illumination. increasing wages and raising the "level of life" The Hawthorne studies : Elton Mayo and F J Roethlisberger undertook experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company >etween 1927 to 1932. Order .Loyalty can be elicited from personnel by combination of kindliness and justice. He was interested in reducing working time. Theory Y .be short-circuited when the need be.
a period of refinement. This subject mainly dealt with the role of people in organizations and how to understand.An individual in a group develops social wants that is the need to belong Participative Management . But these are limited in their application as the final decision is always the managers. so there can not be tailor made solutions to any problem. www. It stresses on the inter-relatedness and interdependence of all activities within an organization. Effective two-way communication is essential for managerial success. Work Groups (Informal Organizations) . Neo. Simulation etc. Game Theory. In a system all subsystems of the organization along with the supra-system of environment are interconnected and interrelated.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM .Since 1950.Classical theorists ignored the differences among the individuals. This approach uses the following basic inputs. OB was based on certain assumptions: Organizations are not just techno-economic system but a social system. Informal organizations and groups should be recognized and considered to be a reality because they are bound to exist. Queuing Theory. Every problem will have a unique solution. Democratic rather then authoritarian leadership is the key to effective leadership.technical System. predict and control the human behaviour. Management must develop social skills in addition to technical skills. Neo classical theorists stressed on individual differences.Situational Approach . People are not only motivated by economic incentives but their social and psychological wants also have to be fulfilled.According to this approach every firm is unique and so is every situation. extension and synthesis of management thought and practice. Contingency Approach .Operations Research -Linear Programming. Management Information Systems and Industrial Dynamics. Social . It includes Operations Research. Management must take greater interest in employee development and workers satisfaction.2006 . 3.Taylor opposed this he wanted specialists to give training. MODERN MANAGEMENT THEORIES Modern management theories have twin objectives: Productivity (Classical Approach) Satisfaction (Neo-Classical Approach) Quantitative Approach to Management . processes and outputs. The Neo Classical Theories of management led to the emergence of a new subject called Organizational Behavior. Systems Approach . System Approach to Management is a popular approach used widely. They said each person is unique.amityelearning.classical and Modern Management welcomes this.Elements of Neo Classical Theories The Individual . Behavioral Science.
control consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plans adopted. retain initiative to make use of the opportunity and anticipate problems before they actually arise. integrating people and tasks towards achievement of the overall objectives. This Function of management calls for the practice of a high degree of social skills based on an adequate understanding of human nature in different individuals. The process of motivation involves: providing effective leadership. and controlling involves various steps as under: lann in g is the determination of the objective of an organization to achieve maximum profit effectiveness. and budgets In other words. personnel must be selected and assigned to their jobs. Motivation is the core of management functions and can be regarded as the most vital element in the process of management. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS o GurukulOnlineLearning Solutions tS0 9001: 2000 Cortrfied Management process can be best analysed by studying the functional approach. Utilisation of resources has been one of the most common and yet perhaps the most complex management activity. Just as a manager is handicapped without authority. It involves combining of individual goals to that of organizational goals. Management can also be defined as a process through which all the resources are organised and utilised to attain maximum output and efficiency through minimum input. and delegation of authority is the key to organization. It operates on . and providing a climate for employee development. coordinating. Organising means coordinating the activities of various groups of employees. Authority is the key to a managerial job. and (b) appraising performance. an organization cannot be created in absence of delegation of authority. This may include (a) controlling adherence to plans. and establishment of structural relationship to secure co-ordination. prescribing limits of authority and its delegation. Its object is to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify them and prevent their recurrence. the instructions issued and the principles established. standards. He should adopt one that has the highest probability of yielding maximum benefit to the organization. The process of planning involves: crystallisation or determination of organizational objectives collection and classification of information development of alternative courses of action comparison of alternatives in terms of objectives feasibility and consequences selection of optimum course of action. organising. providing effective communication. systems. their common and individual needs factor and urges in relation to their work Controlling refers to the evaluation of performance of those who are responsible for executing the plans. They must be trained and motivated to perform to the best of their capability. money and time into efficient production of goods and services.AMITY nurture talent We Chapter 3. procedures. schedules. defining responsibilities. It enables the managers to be a step ahead of each activity. The process of organization involves: division of work into component activities. methods. Maximum return and utility from limited available resources has been the main aim of every commercial organization. the function of Management is principally a task of planning. Relevant information relating to the objectives should be properly collected and classified so as to enable the managers to use it without delay. The manager is always faced with alternative courses of action. the establishment of policies and innovating better ways of performing a given task. programmes. motivating. Plans must be detailed and flexible so that they are capable of being re-adjusted in case there is a change in the working conditions and / or objectives. planning means that targets to be achieved are well defined which requires laying down the objectives as far as possible in quantified terms. and establishment of policies. In an undertaking. and controlling the efforts of employees towards a specific objective. According to this approach. After the plans have been prepared. assets. The process of planning. motivating. assigning people to tasks.
Conceptual skills are seen more at the top level.. The liaison role (communicating particularly with outsiders).Is the ability of the manager to do the administrative work. The negotiator role (dealing with various persons and groups of persons). The disseminator role (passing information to subordinates).com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . It is no use having a control system whose benefits are lower than the cost involved in implementing it. All levels of managers require these skills. measuring performance against those standards. the requirement of clear and complete organizational structure helps in pin. www. but technical skills required more at the supervisory level. to enhence the productivity of the firm. Some of the main ones are: Technical skills . Human skills . Managers don't have to only be "problem watchers" they have to be able to design a workable solution to the problem in the light of the realities they face. 5. it is cooperative effort. From the above it can be inferred that the control process involves three steps: establishing standards. it is team . The most important aim of any manager is thus to create a surplus. the deviation and the corrective action required.Knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving methods processes and procedures. Aim of any manager is normally on reducing inputs but according to Peter F Drucker "The greatest opportunity for increasing productivity is surely to be found in knowledge work itself and especially in management". Through passage of time it has to be improved upon so that it remains reliable.Is the ability to see the "big picture" to recognize significant elements in a situation and to understand the relationships among the elements.Is the ability to solve problems in ways that will benefit the enterprise. The leader role. The plans become the standard by which the accomplishments are to be measured.2006 . and actions. 3.things. The spokes-person role (transmitting information to those outside the organization). it is the creation of an environment in which people feel secure and free to express their opinions. Human skills are helpful in interaction with subordinates and are needed equally at all levels.work. According to him a manager has: Interpersonal roles: Figurehead role (performing ceremonial and social duties as the organizational representative). Administrative ability . Decision roles: The entrepreneurial role. i. objective and cost . The resource allocator role. Design / Analytical ability . 3. The disturbance handler role.amityelearning.pointing the responsibility. Management controls should formulated keeping in view its organizational goals. All managers carry out all the managerial functions but the time spent on each function may differ depending in organizational hierarchy. Informational roles: The recipient role (receiving information about the operation of an enterprise).effective. Planning /Organizing Motivating Controlling Mintzberg has done lot of research on managerial roles. and reinforcing success / correcting deviation.Is the ability to work with people. Conceptual skills . people.e. Similarly. Various managerial skills are required for creating a surplus.
but not as narrow as operational planning. Types of Planning : Type of planning is determined by three factors. they are guides to action. Allocate Resources: Resources include people.Establish a required method of handling future activities. money.Specific required action.sources. and objectives. different types of plans could be: Purpose or Mission . herefore planning requires Decision Making -i.Ends towards which activity is aimed and end point of the organization. intermediate-term planning. and time. assignments steps to be taken. Planning is deciding in advance who will do what. the future course of action is consciously determined and decisions are based on purpose.General statements that guide decision-making. Operational planning . Steps in the Planning Process: Planning process involves four steps and then gives way to the implementation phase. . economic indicators. Planning is charting the future course of action at present. Depending upon these factors. Planning has to be systematic to ensures a timely. PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING Learning Solutions C? GurukulOnlineISO 9001 2000 Cartifiod www.. say that plans provide a rational approach and strongly imply managerial innovation. Tactical planning . In business. people must know what they are expected to accomplish. long-term. procedures.gurukulonline. more specific than strategic planning.co.Basic function assigned by society to the organization: Objectives / Goals . Objectives are short-term.Complex of goals. namely — Scope (The range of activities covered). rules. specific.Broad areas of an enterprise operation. thinking and action. resources to be employed and other elements necessary. Without: planning events are left to chance. and cost-effective process to achieve specific objectives. Planning is an intellectually demanding process. These steps are: Assess Current Conditions: Determine the current situation. and competitors. Programs . Establishing an Action Plan: An action plan is a specific set of behavior that will lead to the attainment of an objective. Decentralized planning occurs when responsibilities rest with managers and workers who actually execute the tasks.more narrow. short-term.e. Thus. planning could be: Strategic planning . orderly. Procedures . measurable targets that must be reached to accomplish organizational goals. Budget . and specific planning. The firm has to decide on its growth goal and desired profitability. knowledge and considered estimates. Determining Goals and Objectives: Goals are future states or conditions that contribute to the fulfillment of the organization's mission. goals. Policies encourage discretion and initiative within limits. If group effort has to be effective. policies. we can. tasks. planning is an ongoing effort since changes are continuous. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified aim or goal. and relatively general planning. It is a blueprint of action. Time frame (the period covered by the plan) and Level of Detail (the specificity of the plan). Planning should involve everyone centralized planning occurs when responsibility rests with top-level executives. Strategies . Rules . including examination of re. It is all pervasive activity -all levels of managers have to do planning. Policies .Statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms i. Planning is an analytical thought process that covers: Assessment of future Determination of objectives and goals Development of alternative courses of action Selection of best course of action Planning precedes all other functions -All plans must contribute to purpose and objectives. numerical program 5. allowing no discretion. Types of Plans : As opposed to the various types of planning.AMITY lie nurture talent Chapter 4.comprehensive. it is the first and the most important management function. choosing from alternatives the best possible option to solve the problem. market trends.focused. at a certain time and what is to be achieved.. Form a framework for guiding.in Planning is the process by which managers examine their internal and external environments and ask fundamental questions about their organization's mission.e. o lanning requires selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them. Therefore. Plans are effective if they achieve their purpose at a reasonable cost (in terms of time and money). normally its in light of competitors.
Pressure to Reduce Cycle Times . Increased Organizational Complexity . Planning focuses on the future direction.the ability of the organization to use physical assets and capital to achieve objectives. Implementation: The commitment of organizational resources through the delegation of tasks. However. Your text lists measures that can be used to assess both product and service quality. not management authority. or the time to complete a process and to be ready to begin anew is deemed essential to success in current markets. Increased Global Competition . possibly.an efficiency measure that assesses how many resources were used to produce one unit of output. not periodic improvement. mission. Impact on Other Management Functions . not intuition. therefore managers must develop plans to meet short.based on the attainment of specific financial objectives such as re. it is complemented today by economy of time. or market share. It sets standards for performance and helps to control events rather than be controlled by them. Productivity Objectives . it has been observed that stretched goals lead to higher performance than easy ones. flexible or adaptable to new conditions. Where economy of scale was a key concept. intermediate and long-term objectives. goals and objectives. Unproductive work and waste of resources can be minimized. They can be framed as per following alternatives -Short-term Vs Long-term. Through planning adverse situations can be anticipated and mistakes or delays avoided. more competitors. constant and purposeful action is more easily achieved. Benefits of Planning: Planning can be very beneficial in four major areas: Coordination of Effort Preparation for Change Development of Performance Standards Development of Managers Integrated. Planning leads to systematic and thorough investigation of alternative methods. they should be prioritised to provide direction to employees.Cycle time reduction. Physical & Financial Objectives . Objectives need to be met by a specific time. Good planning involves the following values: Customer driven. Plans give control standards. Importance of Planning: Good plans are simple and easily understandable. Objectives: Objectives should be understandable and measurable. dollar volume.More products. Emphasis on continuous.turn on investment (R01). A budget is a predetermined amount of resources allocated to an activity which includes budgeting organizational resources for each step in the process.TFP . Fact-based decisions. Control the Implementation: The continuous management of plans to ensure that they meet objectives in the correct time horizon. Planning facilitates effective delegation of authority and removes communication difficulties . Through planning managers can relate decisions to each other and to goals of the enterprise. All efforts are directed towards desired objectives or results. not product-driven Employee participation. and minimize risks.can be expressed as increases in unit sales.More diversity is present in global markets. Planning is necessary because it establishes a clear relationship between decision-making. or change in net worth. Planning helps to plan for changes and also helps in managing change effectively. Profit margin Vs Competitive position. each function might use different. values and sense of purpose. A good plan must lead the. It uses available resources to the utmost before creating new resources. and training. present and intelligent forecasting of the future. Trouble can be more often easily corrected in its earlier stages than after a crisis "Forewarned is forearmed". or return on assets (ROA). Similarly.(Total Factor Productivity) is a measure of a firm's effectiveness in using its resources to create product values. managing. objective-driven actions. Reductions in time should not be made at the expense of quality or customer service. Cultural diversity is just another form of uncertainty to be reduced by the firm. values. Progressive management likes to be proactive rather than reactive. contradictory methods to meet objectives. and feedback of data. not detection of defects. It is balanced and gives equal importance to all vital areas of business. The need for planning arises from constant change in the environment. Prevention of defects. or Low-risk environment Vs High-risk environment. Quality Objectives .Plans influence such organizational activities as organizing. Without integrated plans. more product complexity. organization forward on the path of progress and prosperity. Marketing Objectives . selling. Planning enables a company to be competitive with other rivals. Other types of objectives could be: Profitability Objectives . Plans are based on adequate information of the past. Uncertainty in global exchanges is reduced through planning. all yield greater complexity in the planning process. It provides a unifying decision making framework and helps to identify potential opportunities and threats. Profit Vs Non-profit objectives.ability to achieve product quality and service quality objectives.
. while solving the problem. unique. if necessary. Contingency plans may need to be activated to overcome practical difficulties arising. Generate potential decisions: For most problems there are usually several solutions. and the named individuals who will carry them out.. giving opportunity for team 'recognition'. Implement solutions to problems that really do eliminate the problem through PREVENTION processes.e.Meager database unsure whether situation will change or not The degree of risk varies from decision to decision. where objectives. Alternatives are evaluated based on quantitative and qualitative factors. Use competitive benchmarking to adopt other's ideas. Decision making is at the core of all planned activities. Decisions are made under different conditions: Certainty conditions . Goals must be interconnected but often people within companies pursue paths good for their own departments but detrimental to the company as a whole. This will require collecting data which provides the facts needed rather than opinions.Probabilities can be drawn Uncertainty condition . 'Brainstorming' and 'building' on ideas are the most effective ways to find the right solutions. Value addition to the product or services rendered. The first idea is not always the best. It is the core of planning. Usually. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) A good plan is based on clearly defined objectives -Management by objectives (MBO) is now widely used for planning. or an OPPORTUNITY level at which the results could be.. the project must be monitored and evaluated. Decide and implement: The Project Teams are responsible for implementing the decision. Has the problem been solved? Is the customer satisfied? What added value has been achieved? It may be necessary to use the Decision Making Process again. Planning may give a false sense of security as standing plans are repetitive and lead to resistance to change. for effective decision making the decision maker must generate all the possible alternatives. Evaluating the decision: Following successful implementation. Seldom can 100% rationality be achieved as future entails uncertainties so the manager must settle for limited rationality. The most serious problems are those the customer experiences.Limitations of Planning: Planning is not a perfect measure against risk as reliability of forecasts are inversely proportional to time. there are several causes of a problem that require analysing and prioritising. ensuring that the benefits are gained. experimentation or research and analysis. Analyse the causes of the problem: Brainstorm all potential causes of the deviation. Planning is very costly and must justify its existence and often delays action. 5. time and certainty. Decision making process requires a structured approach involving six steps: Identify and select the problem: A 'problem' is a deviation between the ACTUAL results and the TARGET level at which the results should be. be able to analyze and evaluate alternatives and must have a desire to achieve the best solution. The decision may be Programmed (structured) i. Limitations are in terms of information. Decision making has been identified as the primary responsibility of any manager. i. DECISION MAKING It is the selection of the appropriate alternative from a set of alternative courses of action. Determine the root causes. . strategic.e. The proposed plan is then presented to the next higher manager for approval. Regular review of the Project is essential to control progress and costs.e. To ensure we do not jump to solutions before we have analysed the CAUSE(S) of our problems. A problem statement should be written based on the measurements taken.Cause effect known Risk condition . he must also have all the relevant information. Selection is done based on experience. repetitive and routine or Non-programmed (unstructured) i. Objectives of the Decision Making Process Improve the business by successfully solving problems that are causing external or internal customer dissatisfaction. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner and is consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational and individual objectives. Implement holding action. Select and plan the decision to be implemented: Prioritise the solutions identified using cost-benefit analysis together with the timetable demanded by the urgency of the problem. Provide a process (tool) that can be used by the team to maximise contribution from each individual and the creativity from the team. Effective decision making must le rational. policies and plans are set at all levels of management through meaningful participation between the superior and subordinate. A specific ACTION PLAN must be prepared identifying the key activities with start and finish dates.
Regularly review the status quo. Get expert 'help with problems that necessarily involve a language you are not fluent in Try using languages other than the norm. The difference between the actual and target level of performance where 'Actual' is worse than 'Tar• et'. We may miss good opportunities if we do not see the full picture.How to define a problem? There are five key measurements for each 'output' TARGET FORECAST The budget or target level of performance to be achieved. Perception: Difficulties can arise when we don't accurately perceive a problem or the information needed to solve it. Don't rely on single or obvious measures. Expression: the ability to express information and ideas clearly during problem solving is important. adapt to the audience's level of understanding. Following steps will help to ensure chat you see the full picture: Establish systems arid procedures to alert you to potential problems and opportunities. not all problems are best tackled using words alone. Following can be consequences of wrong perception: We may simply not recognise a problem. Not seeing a problem in proper perspective. Question whether you have used inaccurate information or made assumptions about what is and isn't relevant. How we respond to the world is shaped largely by experience that may result in providing skills necessary to solve a particular problem or we may learn things that actually hinder us. Routinely we use words to communicate and these often dominate our thinking. Ask for other people's points of view. There are four main dimensions to our psychological make-up which can be affected -perception. recognising only a part of the problem or the information required for solving it. )f all the psychological aspects of decision making. emotion and intellect. The opportunity for improving upon performance so that it is better than target at no extra cost.. others from the environment in which we try to solve problems. visuals instead of words. based on the obvious. Our solution may be inadequate. Difficulties with expression can include: Inability to articulate or express ideas adequately. ensuring you gather all relevant information. Unfamiliarity with the application of a language. We tend to jump to conclusions. As a result we may take too narrow a view. how we perceive situations is easiest to manipulate. . This includes: Seeing only what we expect to see. Some arise from our psychological make-up. In using language to express ideas to other people we must take account of their understanding of that language. Our solution may not be workable as we failed to take into account certain information /factors. Using the wrong "language" to work on a problem. However. The actual level of performance achieved to date. e. Not recognising problems effectively. This is reflected in the output specifications The forecast level of performance which may be better or worse than the target depending on current business situation The forecast also shows when the target will be reached. Use graphic representations to clarify the relationships between different aspects of a problem. We must recognise and try to counteract these influences in order to become better decision-makers. While communicating. Stereotyping -applying inappropriate labels. and look no further. Steps to improve our expressive abilities are as follows: Identify which languages are most likely to help you solve a particular problem. ACTUAL SHORTFALL OPPORTUNITY HINDRANCES TO EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING lany hidden factors hinder us in arriving at effective decisions.g. charts instead of raw data. expression.. Define and analyse problems carefully.
Practice using the various aids to problem solving (quality tools. Remember many people were ridiculed for what turned out to be great inventions. Emotions can encourage us to indulge in survival behaviour or give rise to needs for achievement. that is important. Accept that some mistakes are inevitable while looking for better ways of doing something. here conflicts arise) Norming ( group norms and behavioural rules are set) Performance (these are not essentially in this order) Committees can be just for information or for decision making If the authority involves decision making affecting subordinates responsible to it. Knowledge. it is advisory in nature then it's a Staff Committee. Identify the possible unpleasant outcomes while taking risks. Follow a strictly methodical approach to curb impatience. With practice we can start applying our mind flexibly and creatively. understanding and reasoning are fundamental in problem solving. Reduce anxiety by tackling problems in more manageable steps. Committees are widely used in all types of organizations and are popular because they lead to several benefits. However. Not being methodical. Intellect: How we apply our intellect to our problems rather than our ability. Group process in committees generally has four stages Forming ( getting to know each other) Storming ( determining objectives of meeting. Impatience. belonging. A formal committee may be temporary (if it is for solving only one problem). even though we may regard ourselves as sober. They include: Lack of knowledge or skills in problem solving process. If authority relationship is to a superior i. Its not "what you have got" but "how you use it". If you dislike change. self esteem and so on.Emotion : Our emotional make up can cause difficulties when it conflicts with the needs of problem solving. Fear of making mistakes or looking foolish in front of others is the most common manifestation .e. do some "wishful thinking" to see what benefits change would bring. Committees are often criticised but the problem is not in the existence of committees but in the way they are conducted and where they are used. and look for ways to minimise them. Avoiding anxiety. Following strategies would help: Be methodical and work systematically. If a problem does appear challenging. it is called a Line Committee. delegate authority and provide for accountability. rational individuals. This is more severe if senior colleagues are around. For example — Fear of making mistakes or looking foolish. Consider what approach is best for each problem. Lack of flexibility in thinking. imagine the greatest benefit that could be achieved with a totally new solution.of emotional conflict. A committee is a group charged with dealing with specific problems or problem areas. Some practical steps can help us to recognise and avoid the negative effects: Critically. Our desire for security tends to make us set objectives within easy reach or accept common. Those without any specific delegation of authority (usually by someone designing a group decision on a problem) are informal committees. we all account difficulties in applying it. Fear of taking risks. solutions without going in for creative ones. Emotion is deep seated and an integral part of us. Even more difficult is translating a creative idea into something more structured and logical. COMMITTEE AND GROUP DECISION-MAKING The purpose of formal organizations is to provide a framework for cooperation and to fix responsibilities. is the primary source of difficulties. . It is.). Not enough creative thinking. recognition. not easy to change. Emotions exert an incredibly powerful influence over our thoughts and actions.. question existing ideas and methods. Committees which are a part of the organization structure with specifically delegated duties and authority are FORMAL. etc.
It provides representation to interested groups and coordination of departments. transmission and sharing of information and motivation through participation. plans and policies.2006 . It also negates the fear of delegation.amityelearning.Advantages of committee approach to decision making: Group deliberation and judgment is considered better than individual judgment.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution Tm . It also results in splitting of responsibility leading to indecision. It avoids too much authority in a single person and is easily accepted due to its representative style Disadvantages of committee approach: One of the biggest disadvantages of group decision making is escalation of cost and time which may sometimes lead to compromise of decision making. www.
costs of facilities etc. Grouping of similar activities. TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS Formal organizations result from planning where the pattern or the structure has already been determined by the Chief Executive of the firm. more peons.We nurture talent Principles and Practices of Chapter 5. Span of management and organization levels: Organization levels exist because there is a limit to the number of persons a manager can supervise effectively (though this limit varies depending on situation.1111 o Learning Solutions GurukulOnlineISO soot MO Certified People working together in groups to achieve some goal must have roles to play. excessive distance comes up between top and lowest level of management. fast communication between sub-ordinates and superior. ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZING I Ty1"11111111. many levels of management leads to cost escalation. that is how he fits into the organization pattern. Duplication of activities is avoided. organizing involves establishing intentional structure of roles for people in all enterprise to fill. Informal organizations comprise of all kinds of groups which are not prescribed officially through formal organizing efforts but have evolved naturally bring cemented together through social interests. so that every individual knows what his esponsibility is. 2 + 2 = 5 effect). Expansion and growth is aided. It is also expensive leading to indirect costs. . type of work. Disadvantages of narrow span: Superior tend to get too involved in subordinates work. Disadvantages of wide span: Tendency of overloaded superiors to become decision bottlenecks. etc). Definition of responsibility and authority. Delegation of the requisite authority. It is a tool of managing and not an end in itself. Co-ordination is fostered by supplying framework for holding together the various functions in an orderly pattern and logical arrangement. Provision of adequate physical facilities to discharge duties. Effects of organizing Specialization is encouraged which enhances productivity. An informal organization is any joint personal activity without conscious joint purpose even though possibly contributing to joint results.. clear policies have to be made. and the end result is synergism (i. Advantages of narrow span: Close supervision. Establishment of clear structural relationships among individual and groups. Danger of superiors' loss of control requires exceptional quality of managers. close control. The purpose of organizing is to fit together individuals and their tasks as productively as possible. more managers. and subordinates are carefully selected. It also complicates planning & control Factors determining an effective span: Things like personal capacities of superior and subordinate like comprehending quickly commanding loyalty and respect lead to reducing time spent by superiors and subordinates. The span may be categorized as narrow or wide.e. also department levels complicate communication-omissions and misinterpretation of information may result. Basic elements of organizing Identifying the activities involved to attain the objectives of the enterprise. As a company grows in size it does more and more activities and organizing gets complicated. Advantages of wide span: Superiors are forced to delegate.
effective spans were narrower at lower and middle levels but increased at upper levels. if there are a lot of specialties. As the structure is filled by people. it must take into account people's limitations and customs.FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPAN OF MANAGEMENT Narrow span (a great deal of time spent with subordinates) relates to: Little or no subo r dinate training In adequate or unclear authority delegation Unclear pla ns for non-repetitive operations Non-variable objectives and standards Use of poor or inappropriate communication techniques. This governs the superior subordinate relationships. lack of variety of work has little effect at any level.subordinate relationships is inadequate authority delegation Clarity of plans: Routine jobs can have more accurate plans and if they are non-routine planning will be that much tougher. plans. therefore. Communication techniques: Effective communication of plans and instructions clearly and concisely increases a manager's span. Well-trained subordinates need less managers time and contact. authority available and the environment (political. THEORIES OF ORGANISING Classical Approach . tedious and unduly restrictive. :ate of change: It is also an important determinant of the degree to which policies can be formulated and stability of policies maintained. social. Organizing does not imply any extreme occupational specialization which normally makes labor uninteresting. Variation by organization level: A study has shown that specialization by individuals was an important variable affecting span. STRUCTURE AND PROCESS OF ORGANIZING Structure must reflect objectives.). Clarity of delegation of authority: The main reason for excessive time burdens on superior. technical etc. including vague instructions external and internal Fast changes in environments arid interaction of su periur Ineffective subordinate Ineffective meetings Greater number of specialties at lower and middle levels Incompetent and untrained man aster Corn pier task unwillingness to Subordinates responsibility and reasonable risks Immature subordinates Wide spans (very little time spent with subordinates) relates to : Thorough subordinate training Clear delegation of authority undertake welldefined tasks Well defined plans for repetitive operations Variable objectives used as standards Use of appropriate techniques such as oral structure.has four pillars Division of labor Scalar and functional processes (horizontal and vertical growth) Structure Span of control . Amount of personal contact needed in the business. ethical. Different businesses have different requirements. Use of objective standards: So that superior can know which subordinate is deviating and direct attention can be given to exceptional cases for successful execution of plans. written and org anizatio n communicatio n Slow changes in external and internal environments Effectrq e introduction between superior and subordinate Effective meetings Number of specialties of upper levels (top with external managers concerned environment) Competent and trained manger simple task assume willingness Subordinates to responsibility and reasonable risks Mature subordinates assume Subordinate training: Better the training of subordinates lesser the contact necessary by superior.
Staff functions help line persons to work more effectively in accomplishing the objectives. the need for innovation generating from environmental and decision making uncertainty. Sound organization provides the best mechanism for management in action. It reflects the philosophy or organization and management. Decentralization implies more than delegation.ptimum use of technical improvements. lawyers. stability and interaction among individuals and groups. Others are line (Finance. Under systems approach there are three main components Individuals. the function is to investigate. Multivariate Approach -Regards organization as a system of four interacting variables Task . group and intergroup behavior.) (physicians. practices. P R). Emphasis is on the need to adapt the organization to the demands of technology. 5. more effective organization communication will be. Neo Classical Approach Theory Y: Reflects human relations movement as well as behavioral science approach. It is the ability of an individual or group to induce or influence beliefs and actions of other persons and groups. The linking processes are communication. conduct research and give advice to line managers..Managers who believe in Theory X use Carrot (money) and Stick (punishment) approach. policies or other matters relating to activities undertaken by persons in other departments. computers should have organic structure with less emphasis in rules with necessary decentralization and liberal lateral communication. AUTHORITY AND POWER Power is a much broader concept than authority. Status and role patterns. provides effective management of change and gives premium to innovations. Well designed and balanced organization facilitates management and operations of the enterprise. Emphasis is on adaptability and efficiency. Organic management is most suitable for coping with unstable and changing conditions and unpredictable problems. Some departments are predominantly staff (R&D./ard power Coercive power (Kings. today's dynamic environment if a company is not innovative it is bound to die. Line authority is direct supervision by superior over a subordinate. Marketing. Authority is the right that is delegated to an individual or department to control specified processes. Structure . Decentralization of authority is the tendency to disperse decision-making authority in an organized structure. Line and staff are mainly authority relationships and not what people do. Power could be derived due to following basis: Due to position or birth Due to ex p ertness Referent power Re . professors) Due to peoples belief Clue 10 power to give reward Power to punish Line and staff concept: Line functions have a direct impact in the accomplishment of the objectives of the enterprise. Clearer the line of authority from ultimate management position in an enterprise to every subordinate position clearer will be the responsibility for decision-making. Dynamic technologies like electronics. Staff relationship is advisory. People oriented organizations came up which emphasized on informal organizations. concept of balance and decision process. provides . encourages stability.covering system of authority. leads to precise and effective delegation. Formal organization & Informal organization Contingency approach . Although often departments are referred to as line or staff but within each department there are line and staff relationships. enables growth and diversification. Technology. .Systems orientation with further modifications. Formal structure. Princes etc. . Physical environment of work. This approach stresses on motives.Basic business. The organizational system has three goals -growth. Authority on the other hand is the right due to a position to exercise discretion. People (Actors). Group or informal organization. A dehumanized organization structure was seen. A stable industry may have mechanistic organization. supervision. it is power in an organization setting. Organization is seen as an open and adaptable system which has five parts: The individual. and Production). Systems Approach Defines organization as a structured process in which the individuals interact for fulfillment of objectives. workflow and communication.
Personal attitudes towards delegation Perceptiveness to other ideas Willingness to let go (by superior) Willingness to let others make mistakes Willingness to trust subordinates Guidelines for overcoming weak delegation Define assignments and. Splintered authority exists wherever a problem requires pooling of delegated authority of 2 or more managers. tax etc. Delegation of authority for accomplishing these tasks. Those who are jealous of other doing well cannot delegate.decentralized) Management philosophy Desire for independence Availability of managers Control techniques Decentralized performance Business dynamics Environmental influences (Government controls. Mutual trust is one of the important pre-requisites of delegation. delegate authority in the light of results expected Select the person in the light of the job to be done Maintain open lines of communication Establish proper controls Reward effective delegation and successful assumption of authority Factors determining the degree of decentralization of authority Cost of the decision (in cash or intangibles) Desire for uniformity of policy Size and character of the organization History and culture (Ford motors -centralized. The acceptance of this obligation on the part of the subordinate creates responsibility. No one person can do all the work for the group. Assignment of tasks to a position. Responsibility and accountability are the three elements of delegation in the absence of anyone of these delegations are impossible. Delegated authority can always be recovered. Responsibility can not be . Merged companies. similarly no one manager can exercise all authority for making decisions. Delegation is not a process of abdication of responsibility. The process of delegation involves: Determination of results expected from a position. Delegating of authority is the creation of an obligation on the part of the subordinate to the superior executive for the satisfactory performance of the assigned duties.DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY Many managers fail due to poor delegation. Holding of people in positions responsible for accomplishment of tasks. Authority. Delegation is entrustment of responsibility and authority to another and the creation of accountability for performance. Delegation must have clarity so it should be written. An overworked executive is generally poor at delegation.o rd in at io n Results in loss of control by upper level managers rs rvlaybe limited by inadequate centrals Limited by quAly of pal fief triarifiers Limited by external forces Expensive to train managers Delegation is a device to meet the challenge of growth.) Advantages of Decentralization Relieves top management of burden!: Encourages Decision making and assumption of authority Promotes use of controls Different organizational units pessiblIE Facilitate:: !eking up pr oft uentres Facilitates proiLot diversification's Promotes devlopment of general rn:ngers Limitations Difficult to have uniform policy Increases complexity of ic 0. but regular changes must be made in organization structure to keep it flexible. He is overloaded with work he should not be doing -a good manager must learn to work with and through others.
There is no one best way of departmentalization and departmentalization is not an end in itself. Various forms are seen in the industry. MATRIX organization Another kind of departmentalization is Matrix / Grid / Projects. marketing etc. www. Departmentalization by territory (Based on geographical territories). reduces coordination. simplifies training.2006 . Advantages of departmentalization: Logical and time proven. over specialization and narrow viewpoints of key personnel may result. pinpoints product-profit responsibility. improves coordination. However. also there is added prestige of major functions. Places responsibility at lower levels.. organizational hierarchy. the entire process of delegation can become ineffective unless authority delegated is commensurate with responsibility. Requires more persons with general manager abilities. Now Strategic Business Units (SBUs) are being seen within an organization for a product. Authority and responsibility should be coexisting and both must be present for smooth functioning of the organization. A matrix organization is oriented towards end-results. planning. emphasis on local markets. Customer Departmentalization (Grouping of activities to reflect a primary interest in customers is common in services industries).amityelearning.delegated so the superior even after delegating a job to the subordinate is ultimately responsible for its accomplishment so he must continue to supervise direct and control the subordinate to whom he has delegated the authority. Encourages concentration on customer needs. Departmentalization is just a means of organizing. Coordination may be achieved through rules. May be difficult to coordinate operations between customer demands. responsibility for profits is at top only. problem of top management control. it has a disadvantage that there is a possibility of disunity of command. Departmentalization by enterprise function (Grouping of activities in accordance with the functions of an enterprise -example Production. Product Departmentalization (In multi-line large-scale enterprises). There is no ideal way of Departmentalization applicable to all situations and organizations. requires managers effective in human relations. selling. slow adaptation to changes. advantage of economies of local operation.). such as: Departmentalization by simple numbers (Only useful at the lowest level). professional identity is maintained. financing etc.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . Hospitals). limits development of General Managers. Here a combining of functional and product departmentalization is seen in the same organization structure. measurable training ground for General Managers. maintains power. Disadvantages: De-emphasis of overall company objective over departmental objectives. A manager must realize that every business is a continuing entity and must work efficiently even in the absence of the top most efficient manager so the manager must delegate his power to subordinates so that they can deal with problems independently and use their own initiative.g. Functional Departmentalization (It is the most widely employed basis for organizing activities and is at present seen in almost every enterprise). It helps to expand organizations. customer groups may not always be clearly defined. specialization leads to efficiency. personal contacts and sometimes through the Liaison department. Departmentalization by time (Very old systems -shifts seen in organizations where normal working day does not suffice e. DEPARTMENTALIZATION Is grouping activities and people into departments. procedures. develops expertness in a customer area. facilitates tighter control. Process Departmentalization (Seen in manufacturing firms). This is seen in construction.
so whether anything is said or published. The best decision managers can make (although our gut instinct is to try to hide "bad news") is to provide employees with as much detailed information about the upcoming change as possible and to be as open. and move forward. and up-front as early as possible when the need for change is recognized. familiar. As work changes. Holding on to the 'old way of doing things' requires energy. The most successful change efforts carefully address both of these elements -in reverse order. the most vital part of change is the way in which we deal with it. but thrive! Having a positive mindset of 'embracing change will lead to more effective. Reluctance is very natural reaction to proposed change because it signifies the loss of something familiar or comfortable. you must take whatever appropriate action is required to move the company forward. and how to deal with the emotional and psychological sense of loss of the old. honest. join it!" Blaming others for change prevents us from accepting and adapting to the change. however.AMITY We nurture talent Principles and Practices of Management ELEMENTS OF CHANGE There are two main elements of change: raiw 1111111F GurukulOnlineLearning Solutions tS0 9001: 2000 Certified www. and uncertainty (emotion) Failure to see the need for the change (perception) Feeling that all change must be negative (attitude) Lukewarm acceptance of change or a wait-and-see attitude (reluctance) Failure or refusal to see the positive opportunities inherent in change (resistance) When change occurs. a location. Managers can begin a successful change intervention by first realizing that employees have a "sixth sense" about changes about to happen. organizations must change to survive. The change may involve a job. or at least when faced with it. accept the change. Controlling our response to change will empower us to do more! Realignments or quick adjustments will allow us to 'ride the waves' of change.co. landing a new job and being transferred to ∎nother division are both exciting but incite very different emotions. What can we do about these changes? It is clear that we can't control or stop change. Let's face it. BARRIERS TO CHANGE Fear. The attitude that all change must be negative is often a by-product of poorly handled previous change initiatives. Recognition of change before it hits. and stress.gurukulonline. this resiliency will prove to be a career success factor. What do we mean by 'embrace change'? Anticipate change if possible. and prioritize the 'essential work. Outright resistance must be addressed head-on.' By focusing on these . and it can be very significant. After all avenues have been exhausted. fear. or a manager. they can sense it. It lead us to re-evaluate our work.in what exactly is changing. a team.both positive and negative change. No wonder individuals feel lost and stressed by the changes that impact their lives. often without recognizing that they are forming these barriers. The healthy option is to 'embrace change'. Preserving 'status quo' is deadly during turbulent times. If it shows in an employee at the very outset of change. It takes time to work through this process. EMBRACING CHANGE No one can dispute that change is here to stay! The spiraling rate of change we have seen affects successful transition through one change before being hit with the next one. This results in a feeling of continuous 'wilderness'. we become more productive. anger. Emotion is always a part of change . and the air of uncertainty and suspicion among employees leads to counter-productivity. By choosing to invest energy in adapting to change. work through the process and try to get the person to see the need for change. employees are likely to put up several barriers to change. allows us to deal more effectively with it. We have to understand and allow for the letting go of the comfortable and amiliar for a new experience or situation. but it's also important to move people forward and get them involved in the new change and working toward positive goals for the future. Denying change will only increase its ultimate impact since it hits us when we are unprepared to adapt to it. adverse morale. change-adaptive behaviors. This change resiliency will allow us to not only survive. with or without this employee. It's naive to believe that management can hide change until it's about to happen. or routine. Failure to see the need for change (perception) may be a result of management's failure to fully explain the change and help people "buy into" the change. For example. The successful ones "don't fight it. job responsibilities.
Realignments or quick adjustments will enhance our change-resiliency. and readjustment period. Demonstrate the possible benefits of change: Enthusiastically show people the benefits once you have successfully implemented the changes. Share with them the dangers or repercussions of maintaining the status quo. but the loss can provide stability and competitiveness which can protect many other jobs. Disconnect and re-establish: Its important to allow a reasonable period of time for employees to adjust to the loss of the old and familiar." News of impending change travels fast. Reinventing our jobs lets us maintain high performance as the work requirement changes. Controlling our response to change will empower us to do more. as early as possible to head off the "grapevine" proclamations of doom and prevent employees from imagining the worst. Minimize potential disruption. and adjust. If change is something we see as a negative in our lives. By 'embracing change' with quick realignment. Encourage development of alternative perspectives: Encourage employees to find positive ways to accept change. within a reasonable period of time. Losing jobs and co-workers hurts. Watch out for the internal "grapevine": Never underestimate the power of the internal "grapevine. This serves to transform us from 'doing work right' to the more impactful contribution of 'doing the right work'. Change involves old habits and the development of new ones. and must admit that they are a convenience in our lives. acceptance. we have a better opportunity of maximizing the positive effects of change in our lives and work. but there has to be a reason and a benefit. Change presents us with new opportunities in our careers and personal lives. TIPS FOR MANAGING CHANGE SUCCESSFULLY Create an environment of openness: Give people as much information as possible. Be patient with them. To put change in perspective. Admit there is pain. and disillusionment that accompany change. Show them why the change is being made.newly established work priorities. A positive mindset about change will lead to more effective. Change-resiliency will prove to be a career success factor. it will be difficult for us to develop a change-adaptive mindset. Your employees need the same opportunity to understand. Be sensitive to subjectivity and emotion: We live in our own comfort zones and almost automatically reject anything that violates our zone. Denying change increases its negative impact. Embracing change starts with willingness to anticipate or accept change when faced with it. Change presents us with new opportunities. 11. Display empathy: Change is emotional. figures. Allow employees to ask questions and give them straight answers. answer the following question: "When was the last time you walked over to your television set and turned the dial to get a different channel?" We take our remote-controls for granted. Nonstop change makes it difficult to complete one transition before being hit with the next change. Give employees time to accept change: Remember that since you have been privy to the change before your employees. accept. There will be both good and bad changes that we experience. The process is not always popular. Is this change bad? Like everything else in life. and examples that support the reasons why a change is necessary and beneficial. and re-establish the new comfort zone as another experience to be enjoyed and learned from. By dreading or denying change. Change is all around us -at home and work alike. These opportunities allow us to grow. change always suggests losing or giving up something that may be very important and personal to the employee. Employees' trust and confidence in you will be stronger when they hear about change from you rather than through the rumour mill. A healthy approach to constant change is to 'embrace' it. you have had time to develop acceptance and direction. as the company moves forward. Communicate with your employees on a regular basis: Hold weekly meetings to keep your employees updated as to the nature of all ongoing changes at the company. even if it is uncomfortable. It involves a grieving. we will maximize the positive effects of change in our lives and work. begin to generate excitement and attain positive goals. Individual's response to constant change is a 'lost' feeling. and ask them for their input on the dangers as the employees see them. Investing energy in adapting to change will increase productivity. anger. Evaluating as many options as possible is a valuable technique to opening minds to the potential positive impacts of change. Function as objectively as possible: Be prepared with as many facts. we can give up old activities that are no longer value-added. Afterwards. Any change big or small is bound to affect at least one or more employees and you should . Employees worry because it's their lives and futures you're changing. Blaming others for change is counterproductive to adapting to change. Organizations must change to survive since 'status quo' can be deadly during turbulent times. By 'embracing change' with quick realignments. Share the facts: Provide employees with all the facts you have. You're dealing with human emotions and always need to be sensitive to that fact. By showing empathy and understanding. above all else. and while its essence is often in the ballpark. changeadaptive behaviors. Remember that. and its wisdom is even questionable. By its very nature it involves letting go of something one has become attached to. we are assuming that change is bad. you will help your employees understand why change is taking place and start building support for your change efforts. the accuracy can be questionable. it is equally important to get them focused on the new path.
amityelearning. Focus your efforts on doing "the right things. Investing energy in adapting to change will increase productivity. Organizations must change to survive since 'status quo' can be deadly during turbulent times. Controlling our response to change will empower us to do more. Change presents us with new opportunities in our careers and personal lives. Realignments or quick adjustments will enhance our change-resiliency. Stretch yourself today so you'll be in better shape tomorrow. we will maximize the positive effects of change in our lives and work. Embracing change starts with willingness to anticipate or accept change. A healthy approach to constant change is to 'embrace' it.have a regular forum to discuss these changes and encourage your employees to share their ideas and suggestions. Reach for new assignments that broaden your experience base. Nonstop change makes it difficult to adjust to one transition before being hit with the next change. KEY POINTS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS Reengineer your job. get rid of busywork. A positive mindset about change will lead to more effective." Ditch those duties that don't add value. change-adaptive behaviors.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . Eliminate unnecessary steps. and unload activities that don't contribute enough to the organization's current goals.2006 . Individuals' response to constant change is a 'lost' feeling. Change-resiliency will prove to be a career success factor. Remember that one of the best techniques for stress prevention is to keep updating your skills so you're highly employable. www. By 'embracing change' with quick realignments. Denying change increases its negative impact. Blaming others for change is counterproductive to adapting to change.
contingent ones. Some of these forces are internal. "Do incentives work? The answer depends on what we mean by 'work'. A person's motivation depends on two things: The strength of certain needs. suggesting that rewards may affect the process of task involvement as well as its motivational outcomes. What motivates them? A person's motivation is a combination of her desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. or to develop skills. mostly pecuniary needs. and only one thing: temporary compliance. If we believe that we could be fired for not completing the task. we have two burning needs -The desire to complete the task and the desire to go to lunch. True creativity or productivity comes into being only when learning is free from external constraints. But carrots and sticks are strikingly ineffective at producing lasting change in attitudes or even in behaviors. and all sorts of tasks (with the most destructive effect found when the task involves creativity). The main question is the following: does there exist such a thing as intrinsic motivation that incites people to work. This implies an advanced democracy. Others are external. . are extremely effective at producing one thing. Our perception of how we view those two needs will determine which one takes priority. There is a complex array of forces steering the direction of each person and these forces cannot always be seen or studied. not one controlled study has ever demonstrated a long-term improvement in the quality of performance as a result of rewards. values. and beliefs. There is no simple formula for motivation -you must keep a open viewpoint on human nature. but we must have a task completed by a nearing deadline. which has sometimes surprised the researchers themselves. which produced decrements relative to control conditions of no reward. This result. For example. If we believe that we will not get into trouble or perhaps finish the task in time. Rewards.. Knowing that different people react to different needs will guide your decisions and actions in certain situations. interests. If we are starving we will eat. which implies that the spiritual and educational realm is not under control of the state or economic forces. fear. A recall measure indicated that subjects receiving performance-contingent rewards remembered fewer performance-irrelevant details about the task. when )ecuniary incentives and/or external control are excluded? According to Steiner. change what we do. The perception that taking a certain action will help satisfy those needs . if the same forces are steering two different people.-gum= AMITY We nurture talent Principles and Practices of Management GurukulOnline Learning Solutions ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified A manager has to work through other people. and other such forces. WORK MOTIVATION A person's motivation is a combination of his desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. people develop intrinsic or true work motivation when they are in a position where they can shape their own social environment. then we will likely go to lunch. like punishments. Influencing someone's motivation means getting him to want to do what we know must be done.e. worthy . such as danger. has been found with all sorts of rewards. we will probably put off lunch and complete the task. Performance-contingent rewards were found to undermine intrinsic motivation more than task. such as needs. w4thout being compelled by external. The primary task of a manger is to guide peoples activity in the desired direction which requires knowing to the best of ability what leads people to do things. They do not create an enduring commitment to any value or action. People can be motivated by beliefs. the environment. i. He states that people develop motivation to develop skills when they are permitted to learn in a spirit of freedom. If we are slightly hungry we will finish the task at hand.auses. and temporarily. Other studies from the field of social psychology have shown conclusively that people who expect to receive a reward for completing a task (or for doing it successfully) simply do not perform as well as those who don't expect to receive anything. they merely. So he must know what motivates others. Also. and the possibility of the worker to freely choose his working place. For example. interests. or pressure from a loved one. we are hungry. Influencing someone's motivation -neans getting them to want to do what you know must be done. all sorts of people. All that is achieved is short-term boosts in the quantity of production. each one will act differently. In the workplace. Positive feedback enhanced intrinsic motivation and this effect was independent of reward effects.
all the theories lead to a situation of understanding the individual behavior. however. status. the quick answer is that there are no quick answers_ But three C's offer a gone framework: choice. food. However. These are: If I attempt this behavior how likely is it that I will succeed? (Expectancy) If I am successful. So far. Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality = Motivation Human motives are based on needs (conscious / subconscious): Primary needs . A person's motive structure can be referred to as a network of habits. they will pursue behavior for which they are rewarded and attempt to avoid behavior which leads to undesirable consequences. change with changing circumstances and advancing years. We are normally in the . In reality needs do not always lead to behavior but maybe a cause of it.g. that is.self esteem. A person's motive structure undergoes continuous though 'radual change. accomplishment. interests. we have laid stress on theories which attempt to identify what motivates individuals (employees). reluctantly. interests. Presented to his sensing and perceiving mechanisms. interests. Expectancy theory: People will adapt their behavior in order to achieve a desired outcome. individuals will try and make some assessment of three factors before deciding on a course of action. but there are differences of opinion however. In order to boost intrinsic motivation companies should pursue the same activity with which the autonomy-supporting or externally-controlling variables are associated. According to Vroom. Events that weaken self-determination or competence will decrease intrinsic motivation. Thus. needs and similar forces. needs. self assertion. affection. desires and goals screen out the proposals that catch our interest because we need them and they command our attention. Some investigators consider the physiological needs as primary and those which involve obtaining there satisfaction at a later time as secondary. collaboration.physiological requirements -water. content theories. sleep.. Motivators are .So what shou'd replace carrot-and-stick psychology. the network of motivation that screens one's input of stimuli. give them a good job to do. Choice means that employees should be able to p z. Sometimes behavior is what we do. what he covets openly or secretly as well as what he feels compelled to do. our habits. The others are suppressed so effectively that many of them are not consciously heard or seen. Selected refers to.rocess of becoming more or less secure. it could be that the person's sense of self-determination is enhanced not only in relation to that activity. but that there is an overall increase in his sense of personal autonomy. it could be that there is a 'spreading effect': for instance. and content. These needs vary in intensity and over time within various individuals. more or less pre-occupied with our self image and the opinions of us held by our associates. especially how `he individual perceives external factors. energy and money pursuing these alternatives. on the nature of the pattern. Collaboration concerns the need to structure effective teams. when a person is allowed to exercise choice with respect to some given activity. desires.rticipate in making decisions about what they do everyday. shelter. Variables are the wide range in amount of energy made available when a motive goes in pursuit of an alternative. Secondary needs . There is a general agreement that man's needs are somehow organized and they fall into some sort of pattern. Content refers to the tasks on which people work. If you want people motivated to do a good job.. what he wants out of life. A manager motivates his subordinates to do things which will satisfy their drives. desires and goals. not why we do. as Frederick Herzberg has put it.. sounds. smells etc. Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives. Our motive structures the network of our habits.. That is. causing a person to respond significantly to a few of the sights. This includes whatever is of importance to that individual. needs. There are two other kinds of approaches which are based on the ideas of process and reinforcement. Motives are the variable source of energy to pursue selected alternatives. We are all confronted with hundreds of opportunities to become interested in things suggested to us to spend time. will the outcome be desirable? (Instrumentality) and How much do I value the outcomes? ( Valence ) 3. air. The most important amongst these deals with how people decide on what behavior to engage in on le basis of their expectations. The answers to these questions will determine the level of an individual's intrinsic motivation. Cognitive theories: Cognitive theories are largely concerned with the interaction between the individual and the environment. goals and desires. e. affiliation. more or less concerned about our interactions with other people.
These basic needs are also called deficiency needs because if they are not met by an individual. Esteem -feeling of moving up in world. Motivation is a drive towards an outcome. The human motives are product of group life and the gains are for the group not just the individual. motivators (rewards / incentives) and it influences individual behavior. seniors. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Human needs are an important part of human nature. These include justice. Basic needs take priority over these growth needs. beauty. Belongingness and love -belong to a group. this differed from most psychology research studies which were based on the observation of disturbed people. 4. altruism. It is based on the interaction of the group and the individuals. Basic needs are physiological. The needs on the bottom of the list (1 to 4) must be met before the needs above it can be met. he higher needs are called meta needs or growth needs.come experienced. unity. potential. Motivation reflects wants. group individuals and environment which interact for activity. At the time. and self esteem. more curious about inner workings of all. A state of well-being. close friends to confine with. sex. we must be able to understand and motivate them. and customs differ from country to country and group to group. contribute knowledge. goodness. can be pursued in any order depending on a person's wants or circumstance. People who lack food or water cannot attend to justice or beauty. recognition. To understand and motivate people. water. creative people who used all their talents. So motivation is the drive and effort to satisfy a want or a goal. Maslow listed the following hierarchy of needs: 8. Values. such as affection. People behave according to certain principles of human nature. Cognitive -learning for learning alone. and unity consciousness. Theories of Motivation: There are a number of theories regarding motivation Carrot and Stick Approach: Use of rewards / penalties to induce desired behavior o o Carrot -Money / bonus etc. then that person will strive to make up the deficiency. They may be motivated. but all people have similar needs. This approach is based on Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. and other people whose support we need to accomplish our objectives. as long as all the other needs (1 to 4) have all been met. 3. 7. Self-transcendence -a transegoic level that emphasises visionary intuition. Behavioral Theories As a manager. water.such things which induce an individual to perform. Safety -feel free from immediate danger. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. 1. Abraham Maslow felt that the basic human needs were arranged in a hierarchical order. It means that by participation a worker feels involved and obeys the leader. Aesthetic -at peace. Self-actualisation know exactly who we are. where we are going. and psychological. These needs are listed below in hierarchical order. Satisfaction is the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. Participative Theory: Some management thinkers have said that participation in decision making is the motive. To gain their support. order. any kind of interaction. and sleep. few doubts about self. 5. There are two major groups of human needs: basic needs and meta needs. These principles govern our behavior. shelter. 2. sentiments and self interest. 6. The Interaction Theory: Organization has three variables. Pattern Concept: A man does something for the pleasure of achievement. security. As a leader we must understand these needs because they are powerful motivators. and what we want to accomplish. The top four needs (5 to 8). . and capabilities. Physiological -food. Stick -fear of loss of job. such as food. He based his theory on healthy. etc. we need to interact with peers. beliefs. other penalty It remained the main tool in the hands of managers for a long time. Satisfaction is the out. If positive achievement oriented frame of mind is created in individuals they may be favourable for work. we must know the human nature. The managers believed if they had power to punish or reward they would be able to direct human behavior.
Theory X People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. except it is more closely related to work: Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: 1. Working Con dition Quality of Supervision Interpersonal Relations Company Policy Quality of Policy Advancement Reco gnit ion Status Challenomq Achievement Growth of Job Affiliation Fteern Self Actuali7ation Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors: Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow':) Hierarchy of Needs. A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of behaviour as long as the needs below it have been satisfied.Maslow posited that people want and are forever striving to meet various goals. We constantly strive to move up it. . Fellow workers 2. and have little or no ambition. That is. i.. J. Policies and administrative practices Ll.e. Herzberg coined the term "job enrichment" to describe the process of redesigning work in order to build in Motivators. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate over unsatisfied higher needs and must first be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy. directed. Recognition 3 Advancement 5 Responsihility 2.. Stipervisin ni 6 Job secunt . come across a small prize or receive a well paying job. controlled. or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. Maslow's Five Needs Basic Needs Security Work Environment Salary Personal Requirement Job Securit w . do not want responsibility. People who have their basic needs met become much better workers. Herzberg's needs are specifically job related and reflect some of the distinct things that people want from their work as opposed to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs which reflect all the needs in a persons life. Working conditions 3 Salary and benefits 5. Those on the bottom get pushed up. For example.. Because the lower level needs are more immediate and urgent. we cannot use Motivators until all the Hygiene factors are met. Our goal as leaders is to help employees obtain the skills and knowledge that will push them up the hierarchy permanently. instead of consistently worrying about how to make ends meet. Building on this model. death of loved-one or an idea that does not work. they come into playas the source and direction of a person's goal. Personal life Motivators or Satisfiers 1. There are able to concentrate on fulfilling the visions put forth to them. These are two opposing perceptions about how people view human behaviour at work and organizational life. People must be coerced. Knowing where a person is located on this scale aids in determining an effective motivator. Those on top get pushed down for short time periods. McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y. motivating a middle-class person (who is in range 4 of the hierarchy) with a certificate will have a far greater impact than using the same motivator to motivate a minimum wage person from the ghettos who is struggling to meet needs 1 and 2. i. People prefer to be directed.e. Achievement 4 Growth 6 Jnh challenge Hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate that person. if they are not satisfied. while at the same time forces outside our control try to push us down it. It should be noted that almost no one stays in one particular hierarchy for an extended period. Status 7.
and like to build systems for the future. etc. Leaders need all four types of temperaments on their team to make it well rounded. Although we have the capacity for all four temperaments. They are the ultimate troubleshooters and negotiators. and procedures. while a leader takes the Theory Y approach. Epithean (Guardian) .An Apollonian sets extraordinary goals. leaders tend to choose people with their same type of personality. get satisfaction from giving. a team weak. policies. and goals must be imbued with "meaning" "They are hard workers.Briggs -Type-Indicator (MBTI) . They are described with the names of Greek Gods of mythology. and imagination are widely distributed among the population. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. thrive on challenges. Notice that Maslow. and are tireless in pursuit of a cause". or their favorite. in his Existence / Relatedness / Growth (ERG) Theory of Needs. we typically develop a basic attitude or predisposition for one of them. are keepers of traditions. Work. clothing.which is based on the work of Carl Jung. if the cause is deemed worthwhile. such as physiological and safety needs. here-and-now. They are the most self-critical of all and consistently set higher goals of perfection. McGregor's Theory X is based on workers caught in the lower levels (1 to 3) of Maslow's theory while his Theory Y is for workers who have gone above level 3. with whom they share preferences and behaviors: Dionysian (Artisan) . All to often. Theory X is the view that traditional management has taken towards the workforce. management's role is to coerce and control employees. They tend to dislike bosses. and McGregor's theories all tie together : Herzberg's theory is a micro version of Maslow's theory (concentrated in the work place). People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). They value competence in themselves and others. With Theory Y assumptions. Apollonian (Idealist) . theorised that there are three groups of needs: Existence . regardless of the goal or outcome. Existence / Relatedness / Growth (ERG): Clayton Alderfer. McGregor's Theory X is based on workers caught in Herzberg's hygiene or Dissatisfiers. analytical. efforts. while Theory Y is based on workers who are in the Motivators' or Satisfiers' section. in that it cannot approach problems and implementations from all sides of the spectrum. Balance our team and choose people from all walks of life. home. They prefer the big picture over details. predicts. They are almost never satisfied with accomplishments and are embarrassed by praise. Herzberg. They like making clear cut decisions and will follow established organizational protocol without question.This group of needs is concerned with providing the basic requirements for material existence. Many organizations are now taking the enlightened view of Theory Y. management's role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards Ammon goals. and resists being constrained or obligated. Promethian (Rationalist) . but will not request it. People have potential. They do things because the process of doing them is pleasing. There are four temperaments or characters that our personality is based on. They are optimists who are not easily controlled. They are imaginative. They strive to "be real" and are always in the process of "becoming". With Theory X assumptions. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. This need is satisfied by money earned in a job to buy food. Keirsey Temperament Sorter : David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates based their work on the Myers. even transcendent.People seek security above all else. They can be gadfly in pursuing one goal after another. hard for them to even explain. They want recognition and appreciation for they believe is merited. that are. are centred on people and relationships! and would rather focus on ideas than tasks. and have strong work ethics. Creativity. ingenuity. A boss can be viewed as taking the Theory X approach.This temperament seeks freedom. They will create sweeping changes if they see the need. . and strive to control situations. Theory Y Work is as natural as play and rest. People learn to accept and seek responsibility. explains and harness phenomena. a sense of duty. But this makes. They are action driven. relationships. and thrive on situations requiring immediate response. They are pessimists who elicit conformity to group norms.People with this temperament have strong affiliation needs. values spontaneity.This type of person understands.
If there are not factors present to relieve the pressure. the employee is not motivated to perform any harder. Vroom's Expectancy Theory: Vroom's Expectancy Theory states that an individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. they assert. expectancy. if an employee wants to move up through the ranks. Goals. For example. likely to put forward more effort. A person's job. But if the employee believes the company will not promote from within. research has found that where a task is new or a goal difficult. On the other hand a manager who finds his job does not fulfill his needs is likely to put forward less effort. career. For example. Instrumentality (Belief) = This is the belief that the reward will be received once the task is completed. ability and knowledge of task determine actual performance of job. Since. where they are dissatisfied with their current level of performance and have a high expectation that they will succeed in achieving their goal.amityelearning. something happens to threaten the job. For example. People may create equity in a variety of ways. A highly motivated manager is one who finds his job fulfills his needs and he is therefore. One of the more interesting critiques of goal setting theory concerns the issue of time horizon. and instrumentality is motivation. The reward and expectation of equitable reward leading to satisfaction also affect performance. then the employee has high expectancy.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution Tm . The product of valence. the person's basic needs are significantly threatened. provide task focus and encourage persistence. Valence (Reward) = Is the amount of desire for a goal. Equity theory: Equity theory is concerned with our sense of how justly we are treated at work in terms of the ratio between our inputs (experience. Therefore.Relationships . Locke and Latham's goal setting theory: Goal setting theory is centered around the notion that both explicit and implicit goals motivate. the job still provides for the basic physiological needs upon which one would then be focused. www. this need is normally satisfied at least to some degree by one's co-workers. If the gratification of a higher level need is frustrated. He identifies this phenomenon as the "Frustration .This group of needs centers on or is built upon the desire to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships.aggression dimension.2006 . If the employee believes that high performance will result in good reviews. the desire to satisfy a low level need will increase. to look for another job and to be absent a good deal. Growth . Effort. an individual who is undertaking a mind numbingly boring task might be more interested in setting high performance goals for themselves if he or she can return to more interesting work at the completion of the task. to take more initiative and responsibility and to be more creative in his approach to the job. It can be thought of as the strength of the drive towards a goal. leading to improved performance. then the employee has low instrumentality. or profession provides for significant satisfaction of growth needs. one usually spends approximately half of one's waking hours on the job. individuals will be more likely to be motivated.These needs are met by personal development. (What is the reward?) Expectancy (Performance) = Is the strength of belief that work related effort will result in the completion of the task. produce effort. Their work seems to be most effective where three conditions are present: Feedback Specific goals Difficult goals 3. If. promotion and status). then promotion has a high valence for that employee. at that point. the person may become desperate and panicky." Its relevance on the job is that even when the upper-level needs are frustrated. qualifications and effort) and outcomes (pay. When the individual becomes experienced however high expectations of success may actually lead to a reduction in effort and therefore declining performance. Alderfer's ERG theory also states that more than one needs maybe influential at the same time. What about those who already know that they will be engaged in boring work for the foreseeable future? How likely are they to feel good about setting high goals and targets for themselves? This research is interesting because it deals with tasks of different kinds and goals with varying degrees of difficulty.
In your employees' eyes.co. and move on to the next challenge.Although your position as a manager. they must be ethical. and what he does (implement. These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. Self serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them. People can learn leadership skills. attributes. take corrective action. The basis of good leadership is honourable character and selfless service to your organization. task. A respected leader concentrates on what he be (beliefs and haracter). This is the Great Events Theory. . knowledge. there are certain things you must. Some tasks are performed alone. know and do. Also. To gain respect. ethics. you have to under. This guide will help you through that process. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with.stand your be. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. He uses this observation to tell if you are a honourable and trusted leader. he does not think about your at. follow these eleven principles of leader. etc. Principles of Leadership: To help you be. supervisor. bosses tell people to accomplish a task or objective. and do. head. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. character. motivate. the greater the interaction. To inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork. And when things go wrong. This is the Trait Theory. Bass's theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders.ship (later sections will expand on gaining an insight into these principles and providing tools to perform them): Know yourself and seek self-improvement: In order to know yourself. provide direction). education. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. while. Analyse the situation. Be technically proficient: As a leader. do not blame others. What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction." Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission. self-study. your leadership is verything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well being. and towards what end. which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. People can choose to become leaders. this power does not make you a leader. human nature). not follow them. or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. If you have the desire and willpower. CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP o b nurture talent 60 9001 2000 Cortfiod www. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization. classes. and skills). tasks. These do not come naturally. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions: Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. Its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with.gurukulonline. you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' jobs. they will sooner or later. the greater the liking. When a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader. Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives. know. . values. This in turn leads to frequent interaction.AMITY Chapter 8. how often. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion. know. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. People tend to do what they are rewarded for. task. He observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. A person carries out this process by applying his leadership attributes (belief. on the other hand. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. what he knows Gob.in GurukulOnline" Learning Solutions Principles and Practices of Management Good leaders are made not born. This can be accomplished through reading. but are ‘cquired through continual work and study.tributes.it simply makes you the boss. 3. or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-study. and do. Leadership is defined as "a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission.. etc. and experience.. you can become an effective leader. but most are carried out in relationship with others. training. or a self serving person who misuses his authority to look good and get promoted. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people.
competence. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. know. The values they establish for the organization. a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. and accomplished: Communication is the key to this responsibility. What you do in one leadership situation will not always work in another situation. Communication: You lead through two-way communication. and how your company is organized. and do: BE a professional. Set the example: Be a good role model for you employees. know. then the results may prove ineffective. leader. KNOW yourself. you may need to confront a employee for inappropriate behavior. Use the full capabilities of your organization: By developing a team spirit. Ensure that tasks are understood. and how people respond to stress. and planning tools. then he will be uninspired. the skill of your people. department. Examples: Honesty. etc. commitment. The business and people concepts they establish. decision making. to its fullest capabilities Factors of leadership: The four major factors of leadership are: Follower: Different people require different styles of leadership. but also see. This is brought about by a heritage of its past leaders and its present leaders. Examples: goal setting. Environmental effect: Every organization has a particular work environment that dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. they are not really teams. decision making. To be successful you have to convince your followers.. etc. For example. not yourself or your superiors. evaluating. coach. Train your people as a team: Although many so called leaders call their organization. They must not only hear what they are expected to do. the informal leaders within your organization. Examples: Human needs and emotions. For example. that you are worthy of being followed. note that it is the followers. KNOW your organization. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors. Examples: communicating. section. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature: needs.. leaders exert influence on the environment by three types of actions: The goals and performance standards they establish. problem solving. counsels. and skills. BE a professional who possesses good character traits. Examples: develop moral and esprit in the organization. straightforward. integrity. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. and other key people within the organization. perform selfless service. You must know your employees' be. Develop a sense of responsibility in you people: Develop good character traits within your people that will help thl3m carry out their professional responsibilities.Make sound and timely decisions: Use good problem solving. Examples: where to go for help. and what you can do. To be a good leader. section. department. take personal responsibility. supervised. imagination. A person with a poor attitude requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. emotions. KNOW human nature. Attributes of an effective leader: If you are a leader that can be trusted. candour. planning DO implement. Much of it is non-verbal. Situation: All situations are different. situation. courage. too harsh or too weak. knowledge. Also. For instance. seniors. If a follower does not trust or lacks confidence in his leader. but if the confrontation is too late or too early.they are just a group of people doing their jobs. who the unofficial leaders are. Leader: You must have a honest understanding of who you are. and motivation. Various forces will affect these factors. co-coordinating. DO motivate. when you "set the example. then the people around you will learn to respect you. a team.. KNOW the four factors of leadership -follower. what you know. Examples: Be loyal to the organization. its climate and culture. communication. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character. supervising. DO provide direction. train. Know your people and look out for their well-being: Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. there are things that you must be." that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. KNOW your job. Keep you people informed: Know how to communicate with your people.. you will be able to employ your organization. not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. and do attributes. .
Such activities include: How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition. resolve internal clashes. This personality defines the roles. the 'eater the liking. On the other hand. quality. rules. and towards what end. and actions. past leadership. and the "way we do things. and rites that take place. values. current leadership. its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with. Leadership Theories 1. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that mayor may not be spelled out. co-ordinate and control. relationships. Therefore they need to: Use of persuasion Take calculated risk Encourage voluntary cooperation and discipline A leader has to define the group goals to make decisions. based on the values. customers. and punishments? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decision? What will happen if I make a mistake? Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader. The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. It is a combination of the founders. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted and what type of business the organization will engage in. That is. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right. rewards. complex phenomenon. Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees.Successful organizations have good leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum such as strategies. and friendship is a powerful reward. climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. and surrounding community. and customs. how often. Each organization has its own distinctive culture. While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems. as well as the priorities of the leader. direct. either. cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization. history. In human behavior. market leadership. People tend to do what they are rewarded for. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. plans. investors. The ethical climate then is the "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behaviour. and reliability. counsel. and size. culture is along-term. These goals. motivate. The climate is the feel of the organization. rituals. safeguard the interest of the group and individuals." These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs the appropriate behavior for each circumstance. This individual perception of the "feel of the organization" comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. develop rewarding system. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. new task and behaviors are expected of the present role holder because that role holder or a prior role holder developed a strong relationship in the past. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. there is a sense of accomplishment or challenge. Functions of a leader: Leadership functions are to lead. skills. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. traditions. Climate represents the beliefs about the "feel of the organization" by its members. There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization -culture and climate. but most are carried out in relationship with others. and we tend to seek out those we like. vendors. events. conduct. These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction. attributes. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior because money is paid for the performance of the role there is prestige attached to a role. Research shows these traits may just put a person in higher esteem. etc. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with. Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any jot incumbent. . rewards. The mature values that create "tradition" or the "way we do things here. direct growth. or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. presentations. empathize and precede. everything you do as a leader will effect the climate of the organization. This results in rites: the routines. But." Things are done differently in every organization. Individual leaders. is to guide. productivity. the greater the interaction. and concepts make up the organization's "personality" or how both outsiders and insiders observe the organization. the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members. Trait theory: Great man approach one who has the traits will be a leader in all situations. Also. crises. Some tasks are performed alone.
takes decision. Two models will be discussed. The autocratic leader is an authoritarian. The democratic leader wants to share some of the decision making responsibility centers with his followers. avoids power by effective delegation or he is a weak leader. Leader explains the problem to the subordinates gets their suggestions and takes the decision. praises. but within certain fixed limits of authority. Leader takes the decision but takes the trouble of selling it to his subordinates. Every leader has a particular behavior pattern and follows a distinctive style of functioning. This is known as leadership behavior continuum . he is the sole decision maker. 5. but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Laissez faire or free rein leadership: Leader depends entirely on his subordinates to establish their own goals and make their own decisions. directs and controls. Between these two extremes there can be various shades and hues. criticizes. create a sense of responsibility. Each leadership style is effective when it matches the needs of the situation. the attitudes and beliefs of the work group and attitudes and beliefs of the leader. This relies heavily on non financial incentives. motivates. lowers quality of performance. A leader is a moderator of the two way flow of communication. He consults. Leadership Models: Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do in certain situations. Composite view: leadership is neither the quality possessed by an individual nor a product of situation alone or of the group alone. consultation and participation. It demoralizes workers. Autocratic or dictatorial leadership: Leader assumes full responsibility for all actions. This gives a good Insight. The style can either be effective or ineffective. The leadership behavior continuum gives us the various levels of control that can be utilized by the leaders. Leader takes the decision and informs the subordinates. Structural Leaders focus . Democratic leadership: leader draws ideas and suggestions from his group by discussions. The ideal is not to lock yourself into a type of behavior discussed in the model. Leader suggests ideas and invites questions from his subordinates. participative or may even leave subordinates completely free. retards growth. the style may vary from a strong leadership where a high degree of control is exercised to a weak leadership where complete decision making is delegated to subordinates. Human Resource. while on the other end we have leaders who releases highest degree of control. On one extreme there are leaders who maintain a high degree of control. However. Degree of Freedom Thus. Situational approach: Work situation or environment must be taken into account. Political. Contingency theory of management supports situational influence on leadership.In an effective leadership situation the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. democratic and laissez faire. the leader may be exploitatively authoritative or benevolent -authoritative. consultative. or Symbolic. In short. Group approach: Success of a leader is influenced by the characteristics of the particular group leader should be best suited to articulate the group needs and desires. The laissez-faire leader is a 'free-reign' leader. He freely uses threats of punishment and penalty for motivation and obedience. In the Four Framework Approach. Bolman and Deal suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural. highly critical and negative attitude in his relations. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. He possesses all power. 3. Degree of Control 6. the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. Leader suggests the decision to his subordinates which are subject to change.4. • Structural Framework . A common model is given below to show the centers of power under the different styles of leadership. Effective leadership is a function of: the leader the led the situation Classification of leadership: The traditional classification of styles of leadership has been autocratic. depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations. gives opportunity to his subordinates to participate in problem solving and goal setting. Leaders have to work within certain limitations. Leader asks his subordinates to take the decisions. in practice we do not operate on these two extremes but somewhere in between. This give greater co-operation better morale.
Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief. they are visible and accessible. Authoritarian leader . they empower. . low relationship -9. Human Resource Framework . Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get. 1 on people). share information. strategy. They both have a range of 1 to 9. These two dimensions can be drawn on a graph or grid: 9 High 8 1:9 = Country Club 7 Team Leader = 9:9 P E 6 0 5 5:5 Middle of the road 4 3 P L E 2 1:1 = Impoverished 1 1 Low 2 3 Authoritarian = 9:1 4 5 TASK 6 7 8 9 High Most people would fall somewhere near the middle of the two axis. during a major organization change. a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style. However. advocate. Political Framework . people who score on the far end of the scales. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theatre to play certain roles and give impressions: these leaders use symbols to capture attention. increase participation. when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it. 9 on people). they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate. implementation. Anyone of these approaches alone would be inadequate.on structure.In an effective leadership situation the leader is an advocate. whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. and adaptation. use persuasion first. they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences. the visionary approach may be better. then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of our favored approach. 1 on people). we come up with four types of leaders: Authoritarian (9 on task. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a pushover. that is.In an effective leadership situation the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support. Highly task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules. and empowerment. while during a period when strong growth is needed. whose leadership style is manipulation. environment. 9 on people).1: People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. whose leadership style is coalition and building. Phis model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. whose leadership style is inspiration. Country Club (1 on task. Team Leader (9 on task. We should be conscious of all four approaches and not just rely on one. they assess the distribution of power and interests. whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a hustler. experimentation. they build linkages to other stakeholders.In an effective leadership situation the leader is a prophet. and Impoverished (1 on task. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis and "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis. they discover and communicate a vision. support. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a fanatic or fool. Symbolic Framework . and move decision making down into the organization. The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid uses two axis. For example. by going to the extremes.high task. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach.
Enable others to act . Country Club leader . find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.• they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity) so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop. Be a Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. Others believe that the position due to formal authority makes a true leader. liddle of the road leader points out firm but fair approach. This inability results from the leaders' fear that using such powers could jeopardize his relationships with the team members.First.a leader shows it can be done. The process of effective leadership: The road to great leadership (common to successful leaders): Challenge the process . high relationship -9. This person uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. a good communicator and he must have integrity. It is a vital ingredient for a manager's success so that he can direct and motivate his subordinates.high task. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible. you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Since he is not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance. both as team members and as people. empathy. do not entirely dismiss the other three. They endeavor to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential. Encourage the heart . Leadership is the ability to cause other to follow willingly. They form and lead the most productive teams. Model the way . Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times.1.. he essentially allows the team to do what ever it wishes and prefers to detach himself from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. honest. The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axis at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people. Only if a person with authority also happens to be a leader of the group he leads it in an ideal situation. Impoverished leader . Every person theoretically can be a leader but in the industrial situation a leader emerges and grows and is sustained till he satisfies the needs of the team. he should have warmth and sympathy. compounded of personality and vision its practice is an art. he should be able to define organization goals to the group he leads. Inspire a shared vision .low task.Share the glory with your followers' heart. low relationship-1.. www. you will know at what points along the axis you need to be in order to achieve the desired result. high relationship -1. he is almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. 5. A boss tells others what to do. share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. physically fit. competency of handling diverse situations. Team leader .Next.Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it. A good leader must have selfcontrol. Some people believe only if a person has certain personality traits he can be a leader.9: This type of leader leads by positive example. by playing the Impoverished Leader.When the process gets tough.2006 . However. Conversely. For example.com @GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . creative. the Team Leader.amityelearning. keep the pains in your heart.low task. get your hands dirty.9: This leader uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. He must be flexible. Leadership is of spirit. while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members.
Controlling. Effective communication is the biggest challenge before the management today.Next. developing and appraising members. and what must be done with it. information exists in the mind of the sender. evaluate. ideas or attitudes and emotions between a sender (manager) and receiver (employee) or between two or more people. Each managerial position is a . transfer (exchange) of messages. What is involved in the communication process? Idea . body language. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Communication is defined as "the sharing. its level of importance. Encodes . and supervise through this process. Sharing or exchange is a two way process". Leading. counsel. uncertainty.We nurture talent . information.First. Studying the communication process is important because you coach. Selecting. motivating. He 'aid that communication is the means by which people are linked together to achieve a common purpose. Communication is essentially a bridge of meaning or understanding between people. It is the chain of understanding that integrates the members of an organization from top to bottom. or feelings. Planning Organising Motivating ‘1' Communication Leading Controlling 1 External environment Customers I Suppliers I Stockholders Government / Community / Others. the look in the sender's eye's.so : 200(1 c•rtiti•d u ru kulonline. A message has NOT been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver. directing. Content and Context. Organizing human and other resources effectively.co. idea. C GurukulOnline. This can be a concept. . Context is the way the message is delivered: tone of voice. fear. During the transmitting of the message. two processes will be received by the receiver.The receiver then translates the words or symbols into a concept or information. facts" opinion. all parties must participate to complete the information exchange. Decoding . and side to side. This feedback will tell the sender that the receiver understood the message.). Communication is an exchange. How do you know it has been properly received? By twoway communication or feedback. a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. Content is the actual words or symbols of the message. confidence.in Principles and Practices of Management Chapter 9. state of emotion (anger. According to Chester Bernard the first executive function is to develop and maintain an effective system of organizational communication. coordinate. bottom to top. etc.enter of decision making as well as a center of communication. not just to give. ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN organization Establishing and disseminating goals of the enterprise. Developing plans for their achievement. Learning Solutions . Effective communication = Receipt of message + Understanding + Acceptance + Action.
are all messages. Need or information to be transmitted. Decoder and Receiver: Receiver decodes message and attaches meaning to it. wrong meaning attached to words or symbols. Speed of communication and sharing of relevant information has acquired lot of importance in the post globalised scenario. facial expression. share interest. use of ambiguous symbols. television or being polite.. It requires the receiver to hear the various messages. Meaning: Meanings result from factors in the individual and the physical world around the receiver. It requires that the listener attends to the words and the feelings of sender for understanding. printed words. But he should be ready for it. Active listening. Communication is not complete unless it is understood. Noise is anything that reduces accuracy of communication. Does not finish the sentence of others. . This indicates the effectiveness of communication. Proper channel is vital for effective communication. feedback is essential. Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate. . on the other hand. In this connection. Upward communication from subordinate to superior generally gets hindered by managers filtering messages and not transmitting them to the organization. inaccurate reception caused by inattention. tv etc. The following are some of the traits of good listeners: Spends more time listening than talking. Faulty communication causes most problems. sight and sound.. Listening is a selective activity which involves the reception and the interpretation of aural stimuli. Crosswise communication includes horizontal flow with people on the same / similar organizational levels and diagonal flows with people at different levels. We need to control them. MIS (management information system) is a popular tool for organizational communication. The best communication channel is face to face interaction. It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural stimuli. Channel: Medium used to transfer message. Active listening: Hearing and listening is not the same thing. It involves decoding the sound into meaning. Sender is the source of some thought. Message: Spoken words. misprint in a book. In most effective organizations communication flows: horizontal downward upward diagonal Downward communication can be lost / distorted. Language is a popular code. This helps increasing understanding and coordinates efforts. Are aware of biases. newspaper.Source and Encoder: Information source is the origin of the message. involves listening with purpose. gesture etc. Does not answer questions with questions. Feedback: Receiver decodes an attempt to understand the message. He now becomes the source and gives response to receive the message. story telling. Passive listening is little more than hearing. It may be to gain information. Listening is broken down into two categories: passive and active. Managers either have too less information or are subjected to information overload for decision making. It occurs when the receiver or the message has little motivation to listen carefully. phone. office grapevine. understand the meaning. such as music.4oise: Is any kind of interference in interpersonal and organizational communication. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. solve problems. Static in channel. who don't directly report to each other. The channel links sender with the receiver. The message is put into a code before it is transmitted. It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking. We all have them. graphic drawing. Receiver's response is called the feedback. Therefore. In organizational communication source is brain transmitter is voice mechanism channel is air receiver is ear decoder is brain Noise are the other sounds which create difficulty in hearing the speech. understand others. Hearing is the act of perceiving sound. and then verify the meaning by offering feedback. see how another person feels. Noise could be physical error in typing. or show support. He is also the encoder. obtain directions. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. Effective upward communication requires an environment in which subordinates feel free to communicate.
So. some of them are listed below: Noise . or sucking air In deeply and blowing it hard shows that you are also exasperated with the situation.NOT on what interests them. friendliness. Many physical and psychological barriers exist. warmth. Your words should be saying... The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us). Gestures : If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. People who make eye contact. facial expressions and body gestures. Posture and body orientation : You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. or appropriateness of the other person's statement. Analyses by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. leg swinging. Ourselves . NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOURS OF COMMUNICATION Lot of information is communicated orally through face to face addressing. loudness. friendly. or clarify a point. receptive and friendly. pitch. Walks the person through your analysis (summarise). They are as follows: Eye contact : This helps to regulate the flow of communication. They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations. and gaze aversion. Listening can be our most powerful communication tool! Be sure to use it! Feedback: The purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the second communicator understands the intention of the original communicator. Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the other communicator means by his statements. concern. but also ionverbal ones. Vocal : Speaking can signal non-verbal communication when you include such vocal elements as: tone. Notice that we make judgements more often than we try to understand: Evaluative: Making a judgement about the worth. use non-verbal behaviours to raise the channel of interpersonal communication. Keeps the conversation on what the speaker says.. Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest. but saying "I appreciate suggestions" is contradictory. For maximum teaching effectiveness. rhythm. Does not dominate the conversation. makes the conversation more interesting. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably. warm and approachable. i. Actions of. and liking. rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. and credibility. This forces them to concentrate on what is being said. Facial expressions : Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness.Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication. To deliver the full impact of a message. and inflection. Takes brief notes. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. A manager looking angry and disgusted. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. tapping. Communication barriers are symptoms of deep-rooted problems. learn to vary these six elements of your voice. continue the discussion. . The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication. Therefore. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable. What we say can be reinforced / contradicted by non-verbal communication..Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others talk. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention. warmth. Carl Roger listed five main categories of feedback. am I correct?" It not only includes verbal responses. Barriers can be related to the sender. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likeable. Providing feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing the words of the sender. and facilitates understanding. rather than repeating their words. Supportive: Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator Probing: Attempting to gain additional information.. "This is what I understand your feelings to be. non-verbal communication can support or contradict verbal communication. goodness. the receiver or the environment. 5. Proximity : Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others.NOT while they are speaking. Interpretative: Paraphrasing -attempting to explain what the other persons statement mean. timbre. Provides feedback but do not interrupt incessantly. Plans responses after the other person has finished speaking. One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice.Focusing on ourselves. Lets the other speaker talk. It includes verbal and non verbal responses to another person's message. Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other. It generally is a consequence of lack of planning on the part of the communicator. open the flow of communication and convey interest.e. mode of transmission. Some of these are: rocking. Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreement.ten speak louder than words. dipping your eyebrows shows you don't quite understand meaning of their last phrase. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more..
remove distraction.g. Impersonal communication .Bright lights. Message . and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity). or any other stimulus pro. On the other hand the placement department assumes he would make his own arrangement for staying. Distrust. Environment .People hear and see what they want to and ignore other relevant information.requisites to understanding. the word chairman instead of chairperson may cause you to focus on the word and not the message. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. Consider needs of receivers of information and clearly show them the long term benefits of a short-term communication which may not be appealing right now. Information overload . Loss by transmission and poor retention . e. and goals. Sender must use )articipative tools before sending message e.People do not see things the same way when under stress. Chester Bernard ranked communication along with common purpose and willingness to serve as one of the three primary elements of the organization. There is a delay in processing and task of communication is defeated. there is confusion. Time empathy and concentration on the communicators messages are pre. and ask questions. a candidate called for an interview for a period of two/three days usually assumes he will be provided boarding and lodging. don't argue. Therefore. etc. show talker you want to listen.ready aware of the facts.. understanding and empathy are required for communication. empathize with the talker. Attitude leads to a predisposition to act / not to act in a particular way.vides a potential distraction. people don't read carefully. don't criticize.Lack of clarity and expression can be a cause for communication breakdown.Affects communication between superior and subordinate. International environment . Henkel detergent in Muslim countries used the following advertisement dirty clean This failed miserably since Muslims read from right to left. threat or fear . does not articulate clearly. One third of a manager's time is spent for routine communication work. He said that communication shapes and forms the internal economy of a firm.. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions.This undermines communication.Too much information leads to a disregard for it.People unnecessarily assume things which do not exist. values. For example. Errors in processing emerge. not fluent. Semantic distortion . Status and power are the different levels in an organization through which communication flow often distorts message. listening is the key to understanding. etc. . we may dismiss the person. put talker at ease.To avoid such a loss. Poor expression . let someone else read the message before sending it. Selective perception . For example. Companies do a lot of repetition and use various channels to transmit their message.superiority (we feel we know more that the other). an attractive person. Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are al. According to Keith Davis. extra classes. The tone of voice and choice of language must be right. Distribution of managers activities: A decision is 90% information and 10% inspiration.Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Therefore listening. Try to get feedback The responsibility of affective communication lies with both the sender and listener. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references -our beliefs. hold your temper.Different languages and different feelings are present globalized companies a cross cultural problem. experiences. Generally people make hasty judgement leading to communication breakdowns.Listening is very important for communication.. Perception . Also our pre-conceived attitudes affect our ability to listen.Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. be patient. Smothering . Therefore. specially in an organizational setup. Poor listening and premature evaluation . knowledge. guide to improving listening are: stop talking. For honest feedback there should be an atmosphere of trust and confidence and a supportive leadership style.If we feel the person is talking too fast. Stress . Unclarified assumptions . They have to be sensitive to all such differences or influences. Guidelines for improving communication or overcoming barriers: Sender must be clear about purpose of message.We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. unusual sights.g.
In the modern perspective, a study by Fred Luthans on how managers really communicate shows:The humanistic inter-actor is one who frequently interacts both upward and downwards. Mechanistic isolate communicates very little except formally. Formal controller uses formally scheduled communication interaction and exhibits monitoring/controlling activities. Informal developer communicates spontaneously.
Infromal developer •
► Fromal controller
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION organizational communication: This is the middle ground between MIS and non verbal communication. In classical management style, downward communication is followed from one to the next in the organizational hierarchy. Upward communication is from subordinate to the immediate superior. Interpersonal communication: Interpersonal style is used for perception, learning, and motivation and for transferring information. Listening, sensitivity, empathy and non-verbal communication are used here. Non-verbal communication or the silent dimensions of communication: It is the perceived characteristics of environment through which the human verbal and non verbal messages are transmitted. Gestures, facial expression, hands, feet, posture, eyes, all communicate messages. Even a person's clothing, how close one sits during meetings, the firmness of a hand- shake communicate messages. This form of non-verbal communication is known as body language. Para-language: Pitch, tone, tenor, fluency, voice modulation, volume, form a part of this form of communication. Conversation as communication: Communication is best achieved through simple planning and control; lets look at approaches which might help you to do this and specifically at meetings, where conversations need particular care. Most conversation sort of drift along; in business, this is wasteful as a manager, you seek communication rather than chatter. To ensure an efficient and effective conversation, there are three considerations: you must make your message understood you must receive/understand the intended message sent to you you should exert some control over the flow of the communication Thus, you must learn to listen as well as to speak. Those who dismiss this as a mere platitude are already demonstrating an indisposition to listening: the phrase may be trite. but the message is hugely significant to your effectiveness as a manager. If you do not explicitly develop the skill of listening, you may not hear the suggestion/information which should launch you to fame and for tune. Avoid ambiguity: As a manager (concerned with getting things done) your view of words should be pragmatic rather than philosophical. Thus, words mean not what the dictionary says they do but rather what the speaker intended. The greatest source of difficulty is that words often have different meanings depending upon context or culture. Thus, a "dry" country lacks either water or alcohol; a "couple" is either a few or exactly two. If you recognise that there is a potential misunderstanding, you must stop the conversation and ask for the valid interpretation. A second problem is that some people simply make mistakes. Your job is not simply to spot ambiguities but also to counter inconsistencies. Thus, if I now advocate that the wise manager should seek out (perhaps humorous) books on entomology (creepy crawlies) you would deduce that the word should have been etymology. More usual, however, is that in thinking over several alternatives you may suffer a momentary confusion and say one of them while meaning another. There are good scientific reasons (to do with the associative nature of the brain) why this happens, you have to be aware of the potential problem and counter for it. Finally, of course, you may simply mishear. The omission of a simple word could be devastating. For instance, how long would you last as an explosives engineer if you failed to hear a
simple negative in: "whatever happens next you must [not] cut the blue w ..."? So, the problem is this: the word has multiple meanings, it might-not be the one intended, and you may have misheard it in the first place how do you know what the speaker meant? Rule 1 : PLAY BACK for confirmation Simple, you ask for confirmation. You say "let me see if I have understood correctly, you are saying that ..." and you rephrase what the speaker said. If this "play back" version is acknowledged as being correct by the original speaker, then you have a greater degree of confidence in your own understanding. For any viewpoint/message/decision, there should be a clear, concise and verified statement of what was said: without this someone will get it wrong. Rule 2 : WRITE BACK for confidence But do not stop there. If your time and effort depend upon it, you should write it down and send it to everyone involved as a double check. This has several advantages: Consistency check -the act of writing may highlight defects/omissions A formal stage -a statement of the accepted position provides a spring board from which to proceed Evidence -hindsight often blurs previous ignorance and people often fail to recall their previous errors Rule 3 : GIVE BACKGROUND for context When speaking yourself, you can often counter for possible problems by adding information, and so providing a broader context in which your words can be understood. Thus, there is less scope for alternative interpretations since fewer are consistent. When others are speaking, you should deliberately ask questions yourself to establish the context in which they are thinking. When others are speaking, you should deliberately ask questions yourself to establish the context in which they are thinking. The Techniques of Speech Every speaker has a set of "tricks of the trade" which he or she holds dear -the following are a short selection of such advice taken from various sources. Make an Impression: The average audience is very busy -they have husbands and wives, schedules and slippage, cars and mortgages; and although they will be trying very hard to concentrate on your speech, their minds will inevitably stray. Your job is to do something, anything, which captures their attention and makes a lasting impression upon them. Once you have planned your speech and honed it down to its few salient points, isolate the most important and devise some method to make it stick. Repeat, Repeat: The average audience is very busy: they have husbands or wives etc., -but repetition makes them hear. The average audience is easily distracted, and their attention will slip during the most important message of your speech- so repeat it. You don't necessarily have to use the resonant tonal sounds of the repeated phrase, but simply make the point again and again and again with different explanations and in different ways. The classic advice of the Sergeant Major is: "First you tell 'em what you are going to tell 'em, then you tell 'em, then you tell 'em what you told 'em!" Draw a Sign: Research into teaching has yielded the following observation: 'We found that students who failed to get the point did so because they were not looking for it". If the audience knows when to listen. they will. So tell them: the important point is ...
Draw a Picture: The human brain is used to dealing with images, and this ability can be used to make the message more memorable. This
means using metaphors or analogies to express your message. Thus, a phrase like "we need to increase the market penetration before there will be sufficient profits for a pay related bonus" becomes "we need a bigger slice of the cake before the feast". Jokes: The set piece joke can work very well, but it can also lead to disaster. You must choose a joke which is apt, and one which will not offend any member of the audience. This advice tends to rule out all racist, sexist or generally rude jokes. If this seems to rule out all the jokes you can think of, then you should avoid jokes in a speech. Amusing asides are also useful in maintaining the attention of the audience, and for relieving the tension of the speech. If this comes naturally to you, then it is a useful tool for pacing your delivery to allow periods of relaxation in between your sign-posted major points. Plain Speech, Yes! Short and Sweet: One way to polish the presentation of the main 'point of your speech is to consider it thus. The day before your presentation, you are called to to the office of the divisional vice-president; there you are introduced to the managing director and a representative of the company's major share holder; "OK" says the vice president "we hear you have got something to say, we'll give you 30 seconds, GO". Can you do it? If you can crystallize your thoughts and combine your main message with some memorable phrase or imagery, and present them both in 30 seconds then you have either the perfect ending or the basis for a fine presentation.
The Narrative: Everyone loves a story and stories can both instruct and convey a message: Zen Philosophy is recorded in its stories, and Christianity was originally taught in parables. If you can weave your message into a story or a personal anecdote, then you can have them wanting to hear your every word -even if you have to make it tip. Rehearsal: There is no substitute for rehearsal. You can do it in front of a mirror, or to an empty theatre. In both cases, you should accentuate your gestures and vocal projection so that you get used to the sound and sight of yourself. Do not be put off by the mirror remember: you see a lot less of yourself than your friends do. Relaxation: If you get nervous just before the show, either concentrate on controlling your breathing or welcome the extra adrenaline. The good news is that the audience will never notice your nerves nearly as much as you think. Similarly, if you dry-up in the middle -smile, look at your notes, and take your time. The silence will seem long to you, but less so to the audience. Once the speech is over and you have calmed down, you should try to honestly evaluate your performance. Either alone, or with the help of a friend in the audience, decides what was the least successful aspect of your presentation and resolve to concentrate on that point in the next talk you give. If it is a problem associated with the preparation, then deal with it there; if it is a problem with your delivery, write yourself a reminder note and put it in front of you at the next talk. Practice is only productive when you make a positive effort to improve - try it.
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Principle of continuous co-ordination . it will cost you far more later on. Normally. Effective coordination requires following steps: Laying down the specifications: A specification is the definition of your project: a statement of the problem. people tend to forget what they originally thought. changes cost time (and money). the specification contains errors. in either of the teams.AMITY We nurture talent oGurukulOnlineLearning Solutions LSO 9001 : 2000 Cartifiod Principles and Practices of Management Chapter 10. The existence of a demonstrably-agreed specification enables you to resist or to charge for (possibly in terms of extra time) such changes. Principle of reciprocal relations . Some of the work given to you may actually be undone or duplicated by others. This means that all the elements are to be pulled together and pushed together which is the coordinating job of the manager. if you fail to spend the time initially. and this must be agreed by all involved. time-scale: we always underestimate the time involved for work. the rigor of the analysis will expose technical and practical details. At these points something gets transferred.Co-ordination is best brought about by direct face to face contact or direct access between the concerned members of the organization by cutting across departments and management levels. you may need proof that you have been working as instructed The places to look for errors in a specification are: the global context: often focus too narrowly on the work of one team and fail to consider how it fits into the larger picture. there are interfaces. The detail should include a precise understanding of the extent of any intermediate stages of the task. Coordinating the Effort: The success of a project will depend critically upon the effort. It cannot be taken for granted or be left to chance but is consciously and continuously ensured. the interfaces: between your team and both its customers and suppliers. Once the project is underway. Define and agree your interfaces and maintain a friendly contact throughout the project. Some of the proposed work may be incompatible with that of others. All the activities of the organization have to be coordinated to achieve the final objective. misunderstandings and enough rope to hang you and your entire team. According to Mary Parker Follet there are four principles of co-ordination.This principle highlights the need to integrate co.from this perspective the creation of the specification clearly merits a large investment of time. since. how and when should be discussed and agreed from the very beginning. If there are no time-scales in the specification. The work on the specification can be seen as the first stage of Quality Assurance. COORDINATING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFORT 11011111 ‘ Coordination has often been called the essence of management. You must add realistic dates. Never assume a common understanding. The outcome of this deliberation should be a written definition of what is required. because you will be wrong. Principle of direct control .ordination effort at the stage of planning itself so that things can move smoothly at later stages. external dependencies: our work may depend upon that of others. The agreement upon a written specification has several benefits: the clarity will reveal misunderstandings. Further. Exactly what. you are looking for and countering problems in the very foundation of the project . co-ordination is not a one-time task but is a never ending and all-time function. care and skill you apply in its initial planning and subsequent coordination. Principle of early stage co-ordination . the completeness will remove contradictory assumptions. Highlight the effect that problems with these would have upon your project so that everyone is quite clear . the agreement forces all concerned to actually read and think about details. by when. ambiguities.The principle assumes that an organization is a system of inter-related elements. particularly those that have to be delivered. All it takes for your habitual understandings to evaporate is the arrival of one new member. you can assume that one will be imposed upon you (which will be impossible). not the solution.According to this principle. Make this very clear so that these people too will receive warning of your needs. There are no short cuts to this.
If circumstances. however. The degree. but also to protect your team from being expected to do the impossible. using these. To be sure. First. To gain some hope. since the specification is so vital.about their importance. unambiguous targets of what. can be a long and painful process. to which you can predict the future is limited. There are two key elements to the control of a project: milestones (clear. Not only will they provide information and ideas. especially if the project. Task allocation is not simply a case of handing out the various tasks on your final lists to the people you have available. you could attempt the first level(s) of the work breakdown structure to help you communicate the project to the team and then ask for comments. the work is a series of unrelated tasks which provides little sense of achievement and no feeling of advancement. you can then enjoy the roller coaster that follows. the "doing" phase begins. the final levels could be refined by the people to whom the tasks will be allocated. you have to provide some form of framework both to plan and to communicate what needs doing. As a manager. The ordering of the tasks is really quite simple. Task Allocation: The next stage is a little complicated. Fortunately. but sketches will suffice. You should check that the actual numbers are practical and/or correct.when the project is done. you need to establish at the start (within the plan) the means to monitor and to influence the project's progress. especially in the lower levels of the work breakdown structure. Once it is in motion. plan the project based upon all the available experience and creative ideas. The allocation of tasks should thus be seen as a means of increasing the skills and experience of your team . You now have to allocate the tasks to different people in the team and. you will be under pressure from senior management to deliver quickly. This does not mean that your projects should be planned by committee -rather than you as manager. and often it can be futile. Getting the details exactly right. by when) established means of communication The artistry in coordinating: At the planning stage. If the team has no grasp of how individual tasks fit together towards an understood goal. The agreement should include a commitment by your managers to allocate or to fund them. You can also shape the overall pattern of your team's working using the division and type of activities you assign. equipment and manpower that are needed for the project. Guesstimation: At the initial planning stage the main objective is to get a realistic estimate of the time involved in the project. then the work will seem pointless and they will feel only frustration. is being sold competitively. and sufficient detail to assign each task when it needs to be started. but do not hesitate to change it as necessary. and how to do it. To take the planning forward. but beyond that -stop and do something useful instead. however. these two requirements are met at the same time since the derivation of such a structure is the simplest method of arriving at a list of tasks. If you change the content everyone must know. are omitted. Establishing controls: When the planning phase is over (and agreed). Of course. concise and unambiguous glory. Second. Then. your next problem is to decide what you and your team actually need to Jo. so should be the detail of your planning. all the team should vet the penultimate draft. then the specification will be out of date. The specification should identify the materials. common understanding of the project. at the same time. This seems to make the specification sound like a long document. Each of the above could be a simple sub-heading followed by either bullet points or a table -you are not writing a brochure. Juesstimating schedules is notoriously difficult but it is helped by two approaches: make your guesstimates of the simple tasks at the bottom of the work break down structure and look for the longest path through the sequence diagram use the experience from previous projects to improve your guesstimating skills There are two practical problems in Guesstimation. you can deal with far more than the mere project at hand. Without a structure. However. Pert charts are the accepted outcome. . The most important technique for achieving this is known as Guesstimation. a project acquires a direction and momentum that is totally independent of anything you predicted. you are stating the definition of the project in clear. it is far more subtle (and powerful) than that. the specification may change. If they. you are simply too optimistic. you need to turn the specification into a complete set of tasks with a linking structure. If you come to terms with that from the start. As an initial approach. Involve your team in the planning of projects. add them -there is bound to be differences in their assumed values. You should not regard it as cast in stone but rather as a display board where everyone involved can see the current. order these tasks so that they are performed in a sensible sequence. You must have the broad outlines by which to monitor progress. but also they will feel ownership in the final plan. therefore. contact these people yourself and ask if they are able to fulfill the assumptions in your specification. resources: we tends to ignore resources. the team should have gained. roviding structure: Having decide what the specification intends. It should not be. or simply your knowledge change. although you may find that sketching a sequence diagram helps you to think it through (and to communicate the result). You must establish this not only to assist higher management with their planning.
The point. If you have motivated your team well. with open discussion. Even though the situation may have changed since the last review. Another possibility is to apply a different strategy. If you want your projects to run this way -then you must invest time in planning. . Fighting for time: As a manager. Maintaining Communication: Your most important tools are: Clarification -always clarify: the purpose of the meeting. Thus. when the inevitable does happen. With planning. Fitness for purpose: Another reason for stating the testing criteria at the beginning is that you can avoid futile quests for perfection. you should look for alternative positions. The risky areas might then be given a less stringent time-scale -actually planning-in time for the mistakes. projects can run on time and interact effectively with both customers and suppliers. this will take . Secondly. Once you have arrived at what you consider to be a realistic schedule. Planning for the future: With all these considerations in merely the "planning" stage of a project. Never let the outside world deflect you from what you know to be practical. Pick a point on the horizon and walk confidently towards it. You establish this philosophy for your team by including testing as a justified (required) cost. but also: "how long will the testing take". you will know that this should e part of each individual phase of the project. This means that no activity is completed until it has passed the (objectively) defined criterion which establishes its quality. this is where we have reached. but essential. way of asking your team for their analysis of your plan. Post-mortem: At the end of any project. or you might parallel the work with the foundation of a fall-back position. You need to avoid generalities and to stipulate boundaries not easy. however. it is perhaps surprising that projects get done at all. When devising the schedule. but seldom in the predicted manner and often as much by brute force as by careful planning. think of the effect it will have on future communications with your customers and suppliers. and each project has to overcome the same problems as the last. this work itself is part of the new situation: it has been done. then they are more likely to stop when that has been achieved. fight for it. Decide objectively. since a flat NO will be seen as obstructive. Always try to build upon the existing achievements of your team.There are two pitfalls to avoid in project reviews: They can be too frequent. you do not want to abandon it since the team will be demotivated feeling that they have achieved nothing. often this wastes time. Planning for error: The most common error in planning is to assume that there will be no errors in the implementation: in effect. Often this means polishing their work until is shines. you must protect them from the unreasonable demands of the rest of the company. you should summarise the current position and progress: this is what we have achieved/agreed. however. recognising that errors will occur is the reason for implementing a monitoring strategy on the project. you must include allocated time for this part of each activity. For instance. You must decide the balance. If they impose a deadline upon you which is impossible. As a wise manager. Summary -at each stage of the proceedings. Of course. you have to regulate the pressure and work load which is imposed upon your team. They can be too drastic. Since you want to help the company. If you think that this might be thought a waste of time by your own manager. You will need to give some room for compromise. it is important to recognise the work which has been accomplished during the interim. your question is not only: "how long will it take". Quite simply. Everyone involved understands what is wanted and emerging problems are seen (and dealt with) long before they cause damage. If it is clear at the onset exactly what is needed. to such activities to minimize the disruption. By asking both questions together you raise the issue of "how do we know we have done it right" at the very beginning and so the testing is more likely to be done in parallel with the implementation. and explain beforehand. In fact projects do get done. those your team has done often before). the rules to be observed (if agreed) by everyone. those involving new equipment) and those which are quite secure (for instance. they will each take pride in their work and want to do the best job possible. Customers feel let down by late delivery. By examining the activities' list you can usually pinpoint some activities which are risky (for instance. you could include training or consultancy for new equipment. or more resources. You can try to predict where the errors will occur. by carefully considering errors in advance you can make changes to the original plan to enhance its tolerance. is that this method is non-optimal. your )Banning should include time where you stand back from the design and ask: "what can go wrong?". clearly state this and give your reasons. it should provide a foundation for the next step or at least the basis of a lesson well learnt. The constant trickle of new information can lead to a vicious cycle of planning and revising which shakes the team's confidence in any particular version of the plan and which destroys the very stability which the structure was designed to provide. the time allowed. with the whole team and all customers and suppliers. the schedule is derived on the basis of "if nothing goes wrong. when the review phases will occur and make this a scheduled milestone in itself. and these are best defined (objectively) at the beginning as part of the planning. corners get cut which harm your reputation. Thus. therefore. this is an excellent. You should allocate time to review the lessons and information on both the work itself and the management of that work: an open meeting... Firstly. However. Testing and quality: No plan is complete without explicit provision for testing and quality.". you can react and adapt the plan to compensate. indeed. staff are demotivated by constant pressure for impossible goals.
once you have paused to ask yourself the questions: what is the purpose of the meeting and how can it be most effectively achieved. etc. often by merely stating it and asking for any objections (which will only be accepted if a demonstrably better system is proposed). naive contributions without being made to feel stupid. managers should demonstrate the qualities of an effective counselors (respect. Empathy: This quality entails understanding a subordinate's situation. and individual growth counseling. Not only is this supportive to the speaker. It involves much more that simply telling someone what to do about a problem. you might all agree at the onset that all contributions should be limited to two minutes (which focuses the mind admirably). But basically people should be able to make. establish the criteria to be applied. Avoid direct criticism of any person. the meeting would start with a short (clear) statement of the topic/problem and then an open discussion supported by notes on a display. timing. Major categories include performance counseling. otherwise you may never hear the best ideas of all. You should merely seek an undertaking for the missing preparation to be done: we need to know this before we can proceed. Thus. and empathy) and employ the skills of communication. you must refrain from projecting you own values onto them. implementing. if you explicitly rebuke that person. and biases. if the purpose is: to convey information. and then do it to ratify/explain decisions. and kindness. As always. if the group contains opinionated wind-bags. or a formal brainstorming session to make a decision. Counseling is talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to improve his behaviour. the meeting might begin with a formal presentation followed by questions to seek information. then it is diffuse and general. Coordinating through Performance Appraisals: The performance appraisal is one of the most powerful tools available to a manager. It involves thinking.Focus on stated goals -at each divergence or pause. The more you are aware of your own values. As you attempt to develop people through Counseling. could you circulate it to us by tomorrow lunch? Coordination through counseling: Counseling has a powerful. While the reason for counseling is to develop subordinates. You can then impose this with the full backing of the whole group. if someone has not come prepared then that fault is obvious to all. statements and actions. Code of conduct: In any meeting. re-focus the proceedings on the original goals. Empathetic managers will be better able to help subordinates identify the situation and develop a plan to improve the situation The reason for counseling is to help employees develop in order to achieve organizational or individual goals. the less likely you will be to project your feelings onto your employees. Regardless of the topic of the counseling session. Support: The success of a meeting will often depend upon the confidence with which the individuals will participate.awareness: This quality is an understanding of yourself as a leader. Manage the process of the meeting and the meeting will work. No one should be laughed at or dismissed ("laughed with" is good. If you leave the criticism as being simply that implicit in the peer pressure. then it is personal and from you (which may raise unnecessary conflict). You just have to deliberately pause. At times. Credible managers are straightforward with their subordinates and behave in such a manner that subordinates respect and trust their words. compassion. Managers must demonstrate the following qualities in order to counsel effectively. and a counseling session focused on performance may also include a discussion of opportunities for growth. knowing human nature. all ideas should be welcome. Regardless of the nature of the counseling. managers should choose to counsel to develop employees. the counseling is directed by policy. they must not be viewed as separate and distinct types of counseling. and skills. needs. For instance. Thus. agree who should make the decision and how. This means that even bad ideas should be treated seriously -and at least merit a specific reason for not being pursued further. managers often categorise counseling based on the topic of the session. For instance. It includes an awareness of a persons individuality though unique values. It has three main objectives: . credibility. Self. long-term impact on people and the effectiveness of the organization. and at other times. The (stated) purpose of a meeting may suggest to you a specific way of conducting the event. Respect for employees: This quality includes the belief that individuals are responsible for their own actions and ideas. it could also be that a good idea has been misunderstood and would be lost if merely rejected. Credibility: This quality is achieved through both honesty and consistency between the managers. "laughed at" is destructive). problem counseling. attributes. Matching method to purpose. and each section might be conducted differently. it is possible to begin the proceedings by establishing a code of conduct. your common sense will then suggest a working method to expedite the proceedings. sincerity. While these categories help managers to organise and focus counseling sessions. you should follow the same basic format to prepare for and conduct counseling. the meeting might review the background and options. For example a counseling session which focuses on resolving a problem may also have a great impact on improving job performance. self-awareness.
feedback. Principles of preventive control: The higher the quality of managers in a managerial system. It gives the employee a pretty clear understanding of what to expect from the job and makes him aware of his strengths and weaknesses. the manager could learn some insightful information which could help boost performance in the future. Moreover. To develop career goals so that the worker may keep pace with the requirements of a fast paced organization. CONTROLLING WORK EFFORT The purpose and nature of control: The task of control is to ensure that plans succeed by detecting deviations from plans and furnishing a basis for taking action to correct potential or actual undesired deviations. and responsibility for certain objectives rest in individual managers.. is better than not looking at all. Most controls are based in large part on the fact that human beings make mistakes and often do not react to problems by undertaking their correction adequately and promptly. on the questionable assumption that "what is past is prologue" . and the more that controls are designed to reflect such plans. it folios that control over this work should be exercised by each of these managers. The more qualified managers are. An individual manager's responsibility cannot be waived without changes in the organization structure.To measure performance fairly and objectively against job requirements. Just because a worker is performing effectively in his job now. largely because the present state of the art in managing has not regularly provided for systems of feed forward control. It is not possible for a system of controls to be devised without plans. No one knows the job better than the person performing it. which may be adequate for collecting taxes and determining stockholders earnings but are not good enough for the most effective control. Detailed budget controls that hamstring a subordinate. does not mean he will be able to perform effectively in the future. The appraisal allows the worker to target specific areas for job growth. complex.it should be a time to plan for better performance on the job. Principles of efficiency of controls: Control techniques and approaches are efficient if they detect and illuminate the nature and deviations from plans with a minimum of costs or other unsought consequences. the more effective they will be. But time lags in the system of management control make it imperative that greater efforts be undertaken to make future-directed control a reality. complete. Structure of Control Principle of reflection of plans: The more that plans are clear. the more they will perceive deviations from plans and take timely action to prevent them. He must be allowed to grow with the job and the organization. complex mathematical controls that thwart innovation. If you blindside him. you have not done your job as a manager. and integrated. Helping your people to grow is not a once or twice yearly duty. Managers may become so engrossed in control that they spend more than it is worth to detect a deviation. causes of Control techniques have a way of becoming costly. and one-on-ones are the best coordinating effort put in by a manager. There can be no doubt that the more clear. These two principles emphasize that the purpose of control in any system of managerial action is ensuring that objectives are achieved through detecting deviations and taking corrective action designed to attain them. To increase performance by identifying specific development goals. Managers have generally been dependent on historical data. any road will take you there". This allows effective workers to be rewarded for their efforts and ineffective workers to be put on the line for poor performance. Principle of control responsibility: The primary responsibility for the exercise of control rests in the manager charged with the performance if the particular plans involved.. and integrated these plans are. the more a control system is based on feed forward rather than simple feedback of information. the more managers have the opportunity to perceive undesirable deviations form plans before they occur and to take action in time to prevent them. every job in an organization becomes more demanding with new requirements. like planning. . Since delegation of authority. "If you don't know where you are going. reference to history. assignment of tasks. This principle is often disregarded in practice. should ideally be forwardlooking. complete. The appraisal should be a joint effort. and purchasing controls that delay deliveries and cost more than the item purchased are instances of inefficient controls. control. By turning the appraisal into a real discussion. and the more that control techniques are designed to follow the progress of these plans. the more effectively controls will serve the needs of mangers. Post appraisal counseling / discussion sessions. If means of looking forward are lacking. but a daily duty. More and more. and burden some. Principle of future-directed controls: Because of time lags in the total system of control. the less will be the need for direct controls. since the task of control is to ensure that plans work out as intended.
and integrated. It may require replacing subordinates or training them to do the task desired. Perhaps all managers can ask themselves what things in their operations will best show them whether the plans for which they are responsible are being accomplished. This shows relative profitability of various product lines and suggests areas where revenues can be enhanced and costs reduced. serve as a device for coordinating the complex operations of the business. often being so much a matter of technique. Principle of critical-point control: Effective control requires special attention to those factors critical to evaluating performance against plans. provide a medium for communicating the plans of the firms. The situation may call for reorganization. organizing. staffing and leading. Budgets are useful in many ways. For preparing a budget the first requirement is the strategy for planning and budgeting . Control is a wasteful use of managerial and staff time unless it is followed by action. Note that this principle applies to failures of plans. any important deviations from plans. :ompany Presidents as well as supervisors have thrown up their hands in dismay (often for quite different reasons) at the unintelligible nature and inappropriate form of control information. A budget is just a numerical plan which is comprehensive and coordinated for the operations and resources of the firm.the corporate strategy or long range plan gives major programs in various areas. serve as a standard against which actual performance may be judged. . and suitable standards. Another aspect of individuality is the tailoring of controls to the kind and level of managers understanding. However. What they must know is that plans are being implemented. Although some control techniques and information can be utilized in the same form by various kinds of enterprises and managers. According to this principle. therefore. Principle of individuality of controls: The more that control techniques and information are understandable to individual managers who must utilize them. they induce management to think systematically about the future. accurate. However. while the exception principle has to so with watching the size of deviations at these points. without watching everything. on know-how in given instances. Principle of action: Control is justified only if indicated or experienced deviations from plans are corrected through appropriate planning. If strategy is not articulators a broad guideline has to be given. good standards of performance. objectively applied. If deviations are found in experienced or projected performance. In any case. Principle of standards: Effective control requires objective. Deviations from plans must be the responsibility primarily of managers who are entrusted with the task of executing planning programs. it follows that controls must be designed to affect the role in which responsibility for performance of a plan lies. Since it is the function of an organization structure to define a system of roles. There are instances in practice in which this simple truth is forgotten. The Process of control: Control. specific and verifiable way to measure whether a planning program is being accomplished. It would ordinarily be wasteful and unnecessary for managers to follow every detail of plan execution. complete. criticalpoint control has to do with recognizing the points to be watched. flexibility is required in heir design. controls must not be so inflexibly tied in with a plan as to be useless if the entire plan fails or is suddenly changed. in the form of either redrawing plans or making additional plans to get back on course. Control is accomplished through people. Or it may indicate that the fault is a lack of direction and leadership in getting a subordinate to understand the plans or in motivating him or her to accomplish them. The budget can either be programme budgets or responsibility budgets. Budgeting system A popularly used control technique in both industry and government is the budget. Programme budgets are normally developed for products.Principle of organizational suitability: The more that an organizational structure is clear. action is indicated. Plans are implemented by people. Even the best manager cannot help being influenced by personal factors. There should be a simple. Control information that a manager cannot or will not use has little practical value. the more they will facilitate correction of deviations from plans. will more likely be accepted by subordinates as fair and reasonable. the more they will actually be used and the more they will result in effective control. not failures of people operating under plans. and actual performance is sometimes camouflaged by a dull or a sparkling personality or by a subordinates ability to sell a deficient performance. This principle holds that managers should concern themselves with significant deviations -the especially good or the especially bad situations. 'rinciple of flexibility of controls: If controls are to remain effective despite failure or unforeseen changes of plans. action is implied. as noted in the previous principle. By the same token. the more efficient will be the results of their control. It is often confused with the principle of critical-point control. as a general rule controls should be tailored to meet the individual needs of managers. motivate managers at all levels to perform well. Some of this individuality is related to position in the organization structure. rests heavily on the art of managing. and the more that controls are designed to reflect the place in the organization structure where responsibility for action lies. and the two do have some kinship. The exception principle: The more that managers concentrate control efforts on significant exceptions. there are certain principles which experience has shown have wide applicability.
If instead you said to empty the bins as often as necessary. If the bins overflow on Wednesday.Art of Delegation Delegation is one of the most important skills required to become an effective manager and a manager. and the sources of relevant information and knowledge. .. they will be emptied on Friday.if there is any trouble call me at . Staggered Development: To understand delegation. This means that they can act and 'nitiate independently. you really have to think about people. In engineering terms: if maintaining control is truly your concern. your staff will need to know also if they are to do your (delegated) job for you. people have been writing about it for nearly half a millennium.. To enable someone else to do the job for you. the manager who recognises that the staff may have additional experience and knowledge (and so may enhance the decision-making process) will welcome their input. once that access is opened to many others.. you remain responsible since ou are the manager. the trick is to delegate in such a way that things get done but do not go (badly) wrong Objective of Delegation The objective of delegation is to get the job done by someone else. then only he/she is able to make decisions which rely upon that information. Certain pre-requisites to be fulfilled before effective delegation can take place: Sharing Information: Such a system can only operate successfully if the decision-makers (your staff) have full and rapid access to the relevant information. If you tell the janitor to empty the bins on Tuesdays and Fridays. this is what you do if . can you construct an instruction to cover all possible contingencies? If not. This must at least include regular exchanges between your staff so that each is aware of what the others are doing. By leaving the decision up to the janitor you will apply his/her local knowledge to the problem. Delegation cannot be viewed as an abstract technique. Delegation is a skill of which we have all heard -but which few understand. Delegation depend upon communicating clearly the nature of the task. This means that you must establish a system to enable the flow of information. it depends upon individuals and individual needs. they too can make decisions -and challenge those of the manager according to additional criteria. It should also include briefings by you on the information which you have received in your role as manager. And since they will witness many more situations over which control may be exercised (you can't be in several places at once) then that control is exercised more diversely and more rapidly than you could exercise it by yourself. Most managers hear about it in the cradle as mother talks earnestly to the baby-sitter: "just enjoy the television. delegation is primarily about entrusting your authority to others. and that they assume responsibility with you for certain tasks. the bins will be emptied on Tuesdays and Fridays. delegation ensures that the staff will practise decision-making and will feel that their views are welcome. but you should understand the premise.. then you should distribute the control mechanisms to enable parallel and autonomous processing. a manager loses control. Consider this frankly: do you want to be an expert on bin emptying. This need not be the case. the extent of their discretion. yet few actually under. delegate to someone who gets paid for it. The manager who fears this challenge will never delegate effectively. Some protagonists even suggest that such systems will instigate changes in managerial power sharing rather than merely support them: that the "acknowledged" workforce will rise up. you must ensure that: they know what you want they have the authority to achieve it they know how to do it. Without delegation. If a manager restricts access to information. or as a dynamic tool for motivating and training your team to realise their full potential. With delegation. If you train your staff to apply the same criteria as you would yourself (by example and full explanations) then they will be exercising your control on you behalf. the janitor would decide how often and adapt to special circumstances. You may not believe this vision. but also the decision making and changes which depend upon new information. One of the main claims being made for computerised information distribution is that it facilitates the rapid dissemination of information.. Delegation underpins a style of management which allows your staff to use and develop their skills and knowledge to the full potential. Not just the simple tasks of reading instructions and turning a lever.stand it. your staff have the authority to react to situations without referring back to you. If something goes wrong. Everyone knows about delegation. Effective Control: One of the main phobias about delegation is that by giving others authority. As the ancient quotation above suggests. since if you need to know this information to do your job. you lose their full value.. Let us take a lowly member of staff who has little or no knowledge about the job which needs to be done.". It can be used either as an excuse for dumping failure onto the shoulders of subordinates. assume control and innovate spontaneously.
stage. pros and cons. You used to do them when you were junior. To control the delegation. but this will only take you a little time while the delegation of the remainder of the task will save you much more. when that is achieved. In general. If you present someone with a task which is daunting. The starting point is to consider the activities you used to do before you were promoted.The key is to delegate gradually. and you must take a long term view on this: you want to delegate as much as possible to develop you staff to be as good as you are now. regular encounters (except for emergencies) so that Jimmy has to think about issues and questions before raising them. suggest and implement changes to the task itself. the insistence upon evaluation of alternatives promotes good decision making practices. you need to establish at the beginning the task itself. and so on. When you delegate a task. You are the manager. Negotiating Delegation Since delegation is about handing over authority. rather than task assignment. ' second formalism is to refuse to make a decision unless Jimmy has provided you with a clear statement of alternatives. you never criticise him for finding an error. so someone junior to you can do them now. upgraded. if not. and sprinkle the more exciting ones as widely. you should distribute the more mundane tasks as evenly as possible. you decided that your subordinate could cope.especially if they are important to the staff. Tasks in which you have experience are the easiest for you to explain to others and so to train them to takeover. with you there to check his decisions. you will be able to check upon progress and even spur it on a little. There is the difference between asking people to scale a sheer wall. first a small task leading to a little development. When you delegate. The point you need to get across is that the task may be changed. and you gave him enough rope to hang himself. you cannot dictate what is delegated nor how that delegation is to be managed. Here the emphasis is placed upon checking/testing/monitoring of ideas. agree beforehand how often and when you actually need information and decide the reporting schedule at the onset. and providing them with a staircase. You must enable failure. Decisions are a normal managerial function: these too should be delegated . This is my favourite. but especially with the boring tasks. then you are at fault. Outcomes and Failure: Let us consider your undoubtedly high standards. You thus use your experience to ensure that the task is done well. enhance the data processing. but rather by fitness for purpose. add another . They will then expect these encounters and even feel encouraged by your continuing support. When you delegate a job. you should always praise him for his prompt and wise action in spotting and dealing with the errors rather that castigate him for causing them. developed. it does not have to be done as well as you could do it (given time). only for not having safe-guards in place. the reporting schedule. but only as well as necessary: never judge the outcome by what you expect you would do (it is difficult to be objective about that). What to Delegate There is always the question of what to delegate and what to do yourself. In this way you gain time for your other duties and someone else becomes as good as you once were (increasing the strength of the group). In practice. then the failure is yours. Task delegation. One successful strategy to avoid this is to formalize the manner in which these conversation take place. If you wish to promote such behaviour. then the task will not be done and your staff will be severely de-motivated. and is recommendation. To be a good manager though. In terms of motivation. Tasks in which your staff have more experience must be delegated to them. Avoid making decisions of which they are capable themselves. Instead you should build-up gradually. One formalism is to allow only fixed. This does not mean that you relinquish responsibility because they are expert. but it does mean that the default decision should be theirs. The safest ethos to cultivate is one where your subordinate actually looks for and anticipates mistakes. Each task delegated should have enough complexity to stretch that member of staff -but only a little. These you must negotiate with your staff: only by obtaining both their input and their agreement can you hope to arrive at a workable procedure. you should be careful to delegate not only the performance of the task but also its ownership. the sources of information. Constrained Availability: There is a danger with "open access" that you become too involved with the task you had hoped to delegate. and the criteria of success. you should be able to catch mistakes before they are catastrophic. agree then upon the criteria and standards by which the outcome will be judged. So someone who collates the monthly figures should not feel obliged to blindly type them in every first-Monday. It allows Jimmy to rehearse the full authority of decision making while secure in the knowledge that you will be there to check the outcome. . Of course. Thus. but should feel empowered to introduce a more effective reporting format. one with which he/she does not feel able to cope. then another small task which builds upon the first. if necessary or desirable. rather than to actually perform the task yourself. Further. you should ensure that they spend some time in explaining these decisions to you so that you learn their criteria. enables innovation. you will need to establish the boundaries of these decisions so that you an live with the outcome. what do you do then? You still need to monitor the tasks you have delegated and to continue the development of your staff to help them exercise their authority well. your availability. With appropriate monitoring. Once you have delegated everything. you might even insist that he draw-up an agenda. The whole idea is for them to learn to take over and so he must be encouraged to do so.
In case you have decided to acquire power. Gaining power in an organization requires confrontation. "mediation". If you are not ready to invest time. In present day organizations many sources of power have been legislated. training. Assume authority. As a manager. With position power comes from above personal. or policied away. 3. Power is an influential potential -the resource that enables a manager to gain compliance or commitment from others. Sources and Types of Power Position Power: It is the authority to use the rewards. The amount of power available does not expand in different situations. you have a responsibility to represent and to develop the effectiveness of your group within the company. If someone else has it. it becomes imperative that managers examine their possession and use of power. If organization demands are congruent with your personal style. Determine who has power and get to know these people. team-building. . Develop your power skills. Position power is not inherent in the office. you must seek it actively and skillfully. you must decide consciously whether you want power and are ready to do what it takes to acquire it. praising. Conduct Force Field Analysis to learn the power lines. you don't. "co-ordination". Let us look at some of the definitions for power: Stephen Robbins defines power as "the ability to influence and control anything that is of value to others. punishments and sanctions to bring to bear in order to get organizational objectives fulfilled by the subordinates (followers). Meet the boss's needs -try to out think him by understanding his thinking pattern." Weber broadly defines power as the "probability to secure obedience.There are managerial functions which you should never delegate -these are the personal / personnel ones which are often the most obvious additions to your responsibilities as you assume a managerial role. " Maciver states that social power means the "capacity to command the service or the compliance of others. "collaboration". organization." Power is finite. to protect yourself from frustration and burnout. How to acquire power: If you want to climb the career ladder you have not only to understand power. following twelve -step strategy may help you: Learn and use your organization's language and symbols. Personal Power: It is the extent to which managers gain confidence of those people who are attempting to influence. reprimanding. even if it means taking on additional jobs / responsibilities. Learn and use your organization's priorities. "authority". "influence". negotiated. and "arbitration". Specifically. but the extent to which those people to whim managers report are willing to delegate authority and responsibility down to them. power flows from the followers. Thus. promotion. one distinctly effects the other. reviewing performances. they include: motivation. However. There is only so much of power around. Be PROACTIVE. these are tasks you can expand to fill your available time -delegation is a mechanism for creating that opportunity. Therefore. It is one of the means by which a manager influences the behaviour of followers. but is often avoided because of negative connotations associated with it. Bezinger suggests three guidelines for acquiring power: Earning power requires substantial time commitment. Beat your own drum -"I'm the best". Take care of yourself -"No one wants a martyr amongst their midst". Keep on developing your professional knowledge base. Concept of Power: The concept of power is closely related to the concept of leadership. \uthority is power that is legitimized by virtue of individual's formal role in a social organization. then you may function with a greater degree of comfort. Concept of power embraces several group processes such as 'leadership". It is not a matter of office having power. Take risks -go for creative problem solving. However. If you are not ready to get on top and stay there -then you may not wish to seek power. today's manager must learn ways to use the limited amount of power he has in realistic and meaningful ways. perhaps gaining power is not the right thing for you.
Basic elements of supervision Building and maintaining an efficient organization Creating and maintaining efficient working force Controlling the work These elements of supervision interact together and help the supervisor improve his performance. Skills Required for Supervision and Control Technical Skills Job know-how Knowledge of industries: Processes Machinery. The scope of duties also include. such as. understand and motivate employees develop and maintain good communication. subordinates) . Supervisor is any person who is given authority and responsibility for planning and controlling the work of a group by close contact. setting procedures. controlling wastage and cost reduction. It implies operating at close range by actually overseeing or controlling on the shop floor. keeping adequate records and control costs as budgeted. budgeted cost of performing the work.You may discover that "being powerful is not as exhaustive as some people might have you believe". Success and productivity are directly related to a person's attitude. a worker or workers or a project. using work study techniques to develop the department. quality control and following up progress. planning. He: has the authority to engage. It is basically concerned with day to day running of the section. cost reduction. regulation of work performance. apply the right techniques and principles t the right time and makes correct decisions. transfer. deals with grievances and take appropriate action. Controlling the work: Field of control includes division and delegation of responsibility to individuals. What's more you might discover "having power is fun -it gets things you want done". superiors. dealing with situations on the spot as they arises. achieving and maintaining quality and keeping records. or reprimand an employee under his control. etc Administrative Skills Knowledge of organization and co-ordination Ability to plan and control work Human Relation Skills Knowledge of human behaviour Ability to work with individuals and group (peers. Supervision and Control Supervision is the management of a process. The competitive market demands of high quality output at the least cost. and influences employees and their work attitude. quality and quantity of output. is responsible for: discipline. To accomplish this task he must posses various supervisory skills and must be able to: foster good working relationships maintain general discipline and conduct generates supports from his superiors effectively lead people. Decisions on the work. makes recommendation to management.
com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . www.amityelearning." Ability to see 'big-picture' and understand the overall effect.2006 .Conceptual Skills Ideas. etc. directives. plan.
most of the companies the hierarchical pyramid was replaced by a two-class structure comprised of a larger. The upper managerial pyramid could be visualised as divided into three bands. skill and authority. company or industry is dying. then in five years or so he or she might begin the transition upward into the middle skill band. though. management education is becoming essential for a chance of making it to general management levels. transition some 10 to 15 years later. A happier model is the generalising specialist able to reinvigorate an overly narrow company. particularly in integrating the company's various functions. organizations want young managers to acquire all these skills at an earlier stage. Increasingly. The skills at the upper levels were described a bit more ambiguously. Today. but generally were seen as conceptual or integrating skills that is. each defined by the skills most relevant to effective performance. New educational and organizational design models that facilitate functional synthesis are being sought. of course. disciplined focus on core competencies within an industry is in. continues as broader interpersonal aptitudes are developed. synthesising skills are vital. Conglomerate diversification is out. as is a preparedness sometimes to discard painfully gained specialist knowledge. Size and complexity have sharply undermined the time = level = knowledge assumption. Effective general management includes the ability to communicate. As a result. If a young person did well. The point. Size and complexity have undermined the traditional three-tier upward climb. which starts with technical knowledge and qualifications.1980s or the 'habitual' entrepreneur who creates multiple new business ventures. and ends with mastery of the big picture and an ability to integrate all the company's functions. Emerging are models of the 'generalising specialist' and the 'specialising generalist'. Here one would have to supplement technical ability with skill in communicating. Vision and leadership. Increasingly. the lower portion into which a new graduate entered was primarily defined by technical or knowledge-based skills. we need to examine an older view of how generalists were developed. to encourage and respond to the upward flow of ideas. more difficult. to be approachable. directing and leading others. For many engineers and technocrats. Thus. it would set the stage for a second. Indeed. while finance gained more importance as competition for debt and equity increased in the inflationary 1970s. Unfortunately. Those operating white-collar. are no substitute for the nitty-gritty. Marketing people became more assertive in the 1960s. The prominence of engineering/manufacturing made sense after the Second World War. the notion of general management is in a state of transition. is not what function should be dominant today: the current environment calls for people and processes that effectively synthesize specialist functions into general management. Creative. the transition into the synthesising duties of senior general management became increasingly difficult with a consequent loss of visionary leadership at the top. one had to have the appropriate higher education to get access to the lower rungs of the upper pyramid which was entered directly.GurukulOnlineG) Learning Solutions ISO 9001 2000 Cartirvixl Principles and PraCtices of Management Chapter 11. however. . died a virtual death due to the universal requirement that one have at least a college education to get one's foot on the lower rung of the professional and managerial ladder. but if successfully navigated. The old certainties in general management are breaking down. complexity has forced increased focus in a career so that a manager's upward movement became increasingly restricted within a specialised silo. though. such as the 'turnaround' executives of the late. GENERAL MANAGEMENT PAST AND FUTURE As with everything else today. and to adopt great behavioural flexibility. the power axis of management has also changed over the last 50 years. The boundary between the two pyramids has become less permeable. the ability to see the big picture. The myth that a determined young person could enter via the mail room and by dint of hard work and pluck move upward to the executive suite. this could be a difficult transition. Also going is the assumption that a lifetime of geographic and functional moves will prepare a manager for general executive responsibilities. Assumed in this model was that the 15 to 20-year climb upward would be characterised by diagonal moves that would expose the future general manager to the organization's relevant activities so that in time there would emerge a happy congruence of level. usually right out of college. blue-collar and white-coverall personnel in the lower pyramid have been increasingly restricted. truncated lower pyramid of operating employees topped by a smaller pyramid of specialist managers and executives. The pace of technical innovation and environmental change means that beyond the smaller firm no individual's career can embrace all the relevant dimensions. this assumption has collapsed. One broad type is the specialising generalist. To understand these concepts. which would draw on interpersonal aptitudes or people skills. The concept of the generalist executive who could utilise his or her general management principles effectively in any country.
negotiations and communications while also encouraging greater 'depth' in their 'breadth'. Hence. only one has a functional background primarily in human resource management. Other functions were distant from the axis. They have to make the transition from functional to general management without which they would never get a chance to operate on the larger canvas of the organizational decision making due to their specialising in narrow functional areas. came out of the war with an emphasis on manufacturing. companies have rediscovered the centrality of these functional skills. dismissing staff and reducing costs in the case of Scott) to the detriment of relations with surviving employees. interpersonal relations. given the sophistication of the specialities brought to bear on 'roblems today. Those who had already been promoted to cross-functional responsibilities. As recently as the 1960s. It was not until the rampant inflation of the 1970s and the dramatic increase in competition for equity and debt. Trends in Power Axis Functions The years since the second world war have seen significant changes in the power of the various functional specialties to control senior general management. What is called for are people and processes that effectively synthesize the specialist functions into general management.000 most valuable US companies. selling was easy. along with the escalating ophistication of financial instruments. and the latest generation of chief executives in many companies are drawn from the production function. The point is not what function should be dominant nor what country has the greatest relevant functional strength. Entrepreneurship. 144 were company founders.The Managerial Pyramid The concept of technical. since in the early days of a new firm the entrepreneur must play many roles because staff tends to be very thin. increasingly. 73 from law. immediate demand was met. Hence. coupled with encouraging thinking about the ambiguous and even paradoxical duties that confront senior executives. financial specialists were generally not seen as candidates for senior general management. they do not offer a model for general executives because the challenge they face is relatively simple at least in comparison with the long-run building of a viable business strategy. 217 from marketing. Given pent-up civilian demands. But. even the most courageous entrepreneur will probably be more successful if he or she has had significant work experience as . emphasises has to be on heterogeneity and functional interdependence. The prominence of engineering and manufacturing made sense in the immediate post-war era because it reflected the central challenge then confronting North American companies: the conversion from wartime to peacetime products. organizations want their young managers to be stronger in multiple areas. Today. Academic programmes stagnated or disappeared. Strong production managers tended to be selected for the post of chief executive officer. 110 from production / manufacturing. such as personnel. human relations and conceptual skills is still relevant. The US . In recent years. Accordingly. felt they were lacking in the integrating skills. organizations are demanding that young specialists and managers possess all three skills sooner in their careers. is the most 'on-the-job' training for general management that exists because it demands daily action in multiple functional areas. that the finance function moved to the power axis. Such creators are the ultimate generalists. In addition. The strengthening of shareholder demands for emphasis on total return from dividends and share price appreciation led to the emergence of a general manager who was a turnaround specialist. among the chief executives of the 1. the production function was closest to an imaginary power axis up through the centre of the managerial pyramid. competition for discretionary dollars intensified and an increased need to differentiate products and services emerged. customers and communities. the most dramatic innovations in Wharton's programme are the required team-oriented experiential courses in foundations of leadership and a cross-functional immersion in a real company. Even today. young professionals no longer have time to work alone while developing their interpersonal skills. however. multi-product service. Specialising Generalists The post-1991 open environment led to an era of unprecedented downsizing.000 most valuable US companies. Another version of the specialising generalist is the 'habitual' entrepreneur who creates multiple new business ventures. The 'bean counter'. but competition is forcing convergence. Whatever the merits of such turnaround specialising generalist executives. Such a specialising generalist focuses on the functional areas having the quickest payback (on closing plants. Given today's common matrix-like structures that demand cross-functional. National culture and tradition have affected these trends differently. In a short time. Experience in the industry was deemed less important than the will to impose a cost-cutting vision that would rapidly improve corporate profits and make the company more attractive to a prospective acquirer. inter-regional teams. and seven from corporate planning. for example. which had mostly been designed years before in the 1930s. 264 are from finance backgrounds. of chief executives of the 1. 193 from engineering / technical. therefore. on the pyramid's surface. These skills are increasingly required from the beginning. Nonetheless. They needed to strengthen their skills in teamwork. Interest in manufacturing and production declined. understandable the recent dominance of the marketing and financial functions did create problems. with some. However. 'green eye-shade' stereotype was still strong and they were judged as lacking the synthesising big-picture skills necessary for the top. With this need the modern marketing function began to move toward the power axis so that by the early 1960s it became the number-one supplier of US chief executives.
is the ability to receive them: that is. My own research on how managers spend their time suggests that the most effective general executives spend less time on communications they initiate and more time talking to others who start the conversations. former chief executive of General Electric .how inferior and less important than leadership. Verbal articulation is increasingly important to general managers. silent buzzers that prompt a secretary 'accidentally' to interrupt a meeting to remind the executive of some real or . have commented admiringly on this skill. is one of the most rapidly expanding time demands on senior executives. The unhappy experience of Wang Laboratories after the death of its namesake founder is all too common. Some dramaturgy is involved in creating this environment. who represents a specialist able to generalise his expertise so that it reinvigorates an overly narrow company. The distinction can cause great mischief when embodied in the belief that a senior executive need only be a good leader rather than an effective manager. Louis Gerstner. but clearly it must be shared and converted into management practice. leading to an unfortunate distinction between management and leadership with the pernicious implication that good management is some. Colleagues of as diverse a set of leader-managers as Winston Churchill and Reginald Jones. They are uneasy with the 'interdependence' that management requires. Influential leaders who did not know how to manage have done much damage in human affairs as they raised expectations without the ability to deliver on them. Because of the world wide competition for capital speaking to stockholders.5 hours responding to others). General Management Attributes We hear that firms are 'over-managed' and 'under-led'. Thus.like bureaucracy and sells and/or departs the company. The more effective executives control less by self-initiated interrogation and more by availability and receptivity to subordinates and colleagues. In the long run such narrow people can also reduce human liberties )nd spirit. and more may mean excessive conservatism). primarily interested in personal achievement and uncomfortable with exercising power over a large organization. And no effective number-two executive officer/chief operating officer/executive vice-president type can totally compensate for the destructive effects of a charismatic leader who has no aptitude for the nitty-gritty of actual management. which may explain why the most common training requested by newly appointed senior executive is speech making. By taking a marketing orientation approach and integrating it into a strong but complementary organizational culture.an employee in the industry and market in which they expect to lead a new company (seven years or so appears to be the optimal time. chief executive at IBM. willingness to create an environment of approachability. longer run possibilities emerge. Fostering Approachability Even more important than initiating communications. The Generalising Specialist The generalising specialist takes a critical skill and generalises it for the total organization's benefit. of course: not talking across a crowded desk but rising to move to another chair when a visitor enters. (Those rated more effective spent 16 hours per week communicating in response to others. Their personal career anchors tend toward 'autonomy/independence' or 'functional/ technical' rather than aspiring personally to lead a large company. blocks the development of subordinate managers. the entrepreneur becomes frustrated with the emergence of big-company. as adherence to rules becomes an end instead of a means. The chief executive alone does not have . offers a happier general executive model. Proactive communication skills are important and the ability and willingness to initiate communications to stakeholders is critical. Developing informal relationships and looking for synergistic opportunities is every manager's responsibility. the chronic problem is often succession. not just the top's. An organizational design philosophy emphasises every manager's responsibility to network within the family of companies. Some studies suggest that public speaking is our most feared activity. less effective executives spent 11. Often. The vision may be more collective in origin than one individual. Of course. Entrepreneurs seldom provide models of general management in large corporations. and only 9. individually or in groups. once the company is successfully launched and has grown beyond a size that he or she can control personally. They tend to be loners. The core consumer marketing function orientation he brought to IBM seems to be exercising a beneficial influence on the company's technical culture to help it better define its product and service strategy in a way that prospective customers can understand. Less means inadequate knowledge of the business. Personal technical knowledge and leadership charisma coupled with a disinclination to delegate significant authority.5 hours on conversations they initiated.3 hours per week on self-initiated conversations and only 6. They best create an atmosphere of tranquillity and focus that communicates to their visitors that their presence is enjoyable and is at the moment the most important activity that the executive could be doing. however. but does need an ability to uncover vision and convert it into action. The worldwide scepticism about government-run business reflects this unhappy experience. The effective general executive does not need to be an improbable philosopher-king. the intent is to disperse a synthesizing perspective throughout the organization. the good manager/non-leader can be boringly bureaucratic.to be the creator of the unifying vision. Even when the entrepreneurial founding general executive stays and is effective.
of course. in general management the ability to conceptualise how parts and functions fit together is critical. Short. As we have seen. People who are more creative tend to expose them. which expand or contract among fish scales. or breaking-apart.selves to a more heterogeneous mix of incoming stimuli for example. variety of experience provides the potential cues for borrowing synthesising ideas. and then articulates it at the propitious moment. Being authoritarian all the time is the easiest style. Such creative synthesizing ability is not totally understood. This synthesising ability is related to creativity. however. One of the paradoxes of management development is that one must sometimes throwaway specialised knowledge. It is not that the subordinates habitually come to the executive with a request for permission to do something. The time horizons and decision demands. Rather they come for advice. the challenge seems to be how to help the specialist gain himself or herself a generalised expertise as rapidly as possible. The Japanese have a most descriptive term for the person who can do this. Jeveloping Generalised Skills Since specialised skills and education will remain critical to a viable organizational career. are much longer than those for an operating supervisor. withstanding the temptation to intervene prematurely after they have supposedly delegated authority. Even here. especially of subordinates. or synthesising. cannot accept all proposals. by periodically changing functional responsibilities. so painfully gained. service managers and other specialised positions. Research on conflict resolution strongly supports the conclusion that homogeneous groups composed of people with no personal experience of an opposed group are much less likely to resolve their differences with that group than when at least some members in each group have had experience in the other. Most such conversations do not end with the general executive's directive. the senior general executive must issue the decisive word. He recognised that a creative idea is most venerable shortly after birth. Rather. and listening through a subordinate's proposal when they could simply tell him or her what to do in a fraction of the time. white balloons expanding to reflect heat. more varied reading. More fundamentally. most of which consists not of conjuring up totally new ideas but in putting common elements together in novel ways. Among all kinds of specialist and manager positions. Thus. For example. but necessary vetoes can be issued on a somewhat delayed and more private basis so that the future floating of ideas is not discouraged.imaginary pressing matter. This is an integrating. his subordinates were not afraid to voice new ideas so the rganization was rich with creativity. effective general executives intrinsically enjoy conversation when people come to them and this enjoyment reinforces the willingness. to approach thern. The greatest advantage of general executive receptivity is the encouragement of an upward flow of communications that helps top managers to understand better the operating and environmental realities. general management allows the incumbent the greatest discretionary control of personal behaviour and requires the greatest behavioural flexibility. a professional architect/amateur fisherman who was designing a roof for a tropical building wondered how the flounder changes its colour depending on the sea bottom. with entrepreneurial start-ups and in many corporate turnaround situations where the objectives are clearly defined and the problem relatively simple intellectually if not behaviourally. however. for example. but they do offer a mutual learning experience (and of course the opportunity for a veto if the subordinate's intended action promises disaster). Tolerance for Error Encouraging candid upward communication requires substantial tolerance for error and even foolishness. was adopted to the building of the roof. accepting results inferior to those they could have achieved by doing the task themselves. More importantly. It will work in lower management levels.term individual and corporate performance must be harmed in the interest of building stronger integrating forces. He is the one who listens with an 'inner ear' to the implicit consensus of which the management team is not yet aware. The technology of small bubbles. Such a leader-manager. odder hobbies and a wider diversity of people with whom they talk. In those circumstances when consensus cannot be reached. but there are some instructive lessons for developing general executives. general managers have the potential for personality to be reflected in how they spend their time. approach). Unlike functional control managers. but the intention at most such institutions is to combine the analytical development of a technical education with the integration of liberal arts development. However. he 'expressed boyish enthusiasm about the most unrealistic ideas. This means that general managers must have a wider repertoire of behaviours -enduring periods of uncertainty about what subordinates are doing. constant authoritarianism will be disastrous in a competitive and changing environment where the company's success depends on the ability to utilise all the divergent skills present among its key players. talk must eventually come to an end and action commences. Churchill reportedly never criticised a subordinate's proposal at first hearing. It is not clear what the impact is of undergraduate business education. often by borrowing from a separate context. Senior general executives require great behavioural flexibility. skill (in contrast to the specialist's analysing. As 'a native American saying puts it: 'Walking a mile in the moccasins of your opponent enables you to . contracting to absorb it. General executives must know when their leadership style should be participative and when authoritarian.
It can certainly save a lot of time as we fit current problems into the learned categories of the past. only a monopoly can ignore them. Rather. This means building into our daily lives regular repetition of the process of letting go of the known and confronting the unknown change for the sake of change. when in fact it is new and unique. Concentrating on the present is often rewarded. experimenting with changing the mode of performance feedback. They are unsuitable for longer range. to lose touch with customers and markets. With time we tend to lose the ability to distinguish the new from the old. to see differences. As a result. Many executives simply do not believe they have up to 90 minutes alone each day. One study of 2. of course. The answer to this problem could be to focus on one unsatisfactory more senior subordinate for a few months. power flows upward rapidly and lower-level discretion is squeezed out. the pruning is accompanied by viable product and service innovation that draws on close-to-the market multi-functional teams. staffing and directing. immediate issues. based on annual measures of costs. The new approach mayor may not work. Whether reducing bureaucratic levels aids or hinders development of future general managers appears to depend on the causes of the pruning. Morale declines and personal development slows down even among the survivors. rather than letting unrecorded impressions pile up until a fruitless annual interview ritual. Men over 50 particularly demonstrate a propensity to insulate themselves. they will be dead or transferred. Many general executives offer vocal support for the hiring of humanities and liberal arts students for managerial careers. structuring. Experience can be a great source of learning. We interpret cues as warranting previously successful responses inappropriate to the changed situation. Unfortunately it can also waste time and cause disaster if we categorise issues prematurely and erroneously. In the long run. As we master our jobs and grow older.000 executives concluded that the single most important attribute of those who handled success well (and were able to maintain it) was their ability to embrace change. Short-term performance measures also encourage executives to concentrate on it now. talking in many short conversations covering multiple topics. Dominated by response behaviour for long periods. the dramatic pruning of corporate staff and middle managers in recent years has led to new concerns about the elimination of general management positions crucial to developing people for top executive jobs. It is the very 'busy-ness: of managerial life that contributes to the problem. but the very action of confronting a . while sacrificing for the future is ignored (or punished). Unhappily. broken by five or so previously scheduled meetings per day. Such people may treat a new problem as if it were like past ones. Finally. Continual dominance by immediate demands means inadequate time for future-oriented reading and thinking. drink a cup of coffee or even take a deep breath before being interrupted by a ringing telephone. Nonetheless. The reality of most executives' days is not like that implied in management textbooks. they feel that they scarcely have time to start a new task. an uninvited visitor or a clanging bell on the computer announcing another incoming e-mail message. Short-term busy-ness contributes to habits and preoccupations that are the ultimate threats of success. In addition. it is a seeming chaos of time. Every competitive business system requires short-term performance results. If. But the operating departments doing the actual hiring mainly look for more narrowly educated technocrats. Losing touch with their own values and aspirations. Time-harried people take insufficient time for exploration of the different. the unique from the regular. controlling. an unexpected fax. then they could schedule time every week to discuss these observations while they are fresh. but do not have 20 years experience. however. a sort of sleepwalking through our lives allowing our perceptive skills to atrophy.understand his grievance'. Now making transitions from short-run emergencies to longer-run challenges is tough. performance tends to be measured over too limited a time span. the opportunities for general management training increase. they can lose track of who they are and what they believe. neatly divided into periods of planning. less-structured projects. To stay so vital requires maintaining the ability to perceive uniquely. they merely repeated the first year 20 times. Keeping alive this ability to perceive deeply requires frequent exercise. they find it impossible to initiate fundamental changes. the rhetorical gap between senior executives and recruiting managers should be bridged. If the drive is to reduce expenses and quickly improve profits. Confronting the Unknown You have heard of people who have worked for 20 years. many executives tend to be narrow in their interests. earnings and growth. Perhaps the managers could write a note to themselves every time they observe the subordinate in action. concentrating on technical and business reading. we tend to behave without thinking. . The future is never confronted.'he Threat of Success Personal career success can be a grave threat to those who have climbed to the general management ranks. ten minutes alone are helpful only for work on small. even given world-wide competition. such success often leads to inflexibility as one loses the motivation and courage to change. to draw back from the competitive fray. They feel that they are rewarded or punished for this 'ear.
short-range activity. unstructured and seemingly non-directed.standing these you can adapt yourself and the work environment so that your team and the company are both enriched. but they become less concerned with winning and happier with merely running. Would Jimmy feel pleased at your attention? Would he look forward to these little chats and prepare simple questions to clarify aspects of his work? Or would he develop a Pavlovian hatred for coffee and be busy elsewhere whenever you pass by? Of course you would never be so destructive -provided you thought about it. time-transcending general executives should have the detachment of people who accomplish great things while refusing to be levoured by current events. but you do have influence over many factors which affect your people and so it is your responsibility to ensure that your influence is a positive one. The key to this turning point lies in accepting oneself and giving up the tyranny of external evaluations. encourages constant.' The present is not unimportant nor is the world an illusion. It discourages speculation and fosters guilt feelings when one is not busy. No one of course can truly 'transcend' time. This article looks briefly at your behaviour and at what motivates people. Numerous senior executives have said to me that they never really felt comfortable in their careers until they 'transcended' their ambitions. executives can define personal growth objectives that encourage focusing on a new activity: learning to play the piano at age 35. Executives tend to avoid thought about the future because it is ambiguous. and as a manager you have to deal with it. In contrast. what will happen? . you have the authority to sanction. the human factor is crucial to success. In these encounters it is less important that the new be actually mastered than that a good effort be made. As the leader of a team. this very lessening of career centrality can promote personal success as we become less fearful of making mistakes and more willing to act on intuition. efficiency-minded people. attributes counter to time-haunted. studying a foreign language at age 40. It is not that they give up the race. conceiving what we want the future to be and perceiving the future as history is difficult and threatening. Humans can 'deny' death (psychologically if not physically) by exercising the capacity to give up the well-known task and confronting the new. and suppose (as a busy manager) you respond brusquely to questions and interruptions. You can only underestimate the impact which you personally have upon the habits and effectiveness of your group. but ultimately.run problems may be difficult but they are satisfying to solve. We tend to fear the kind of time necessary for such thought. organizations and society. and this places you in a position of power -and responsibility. rationally: you do not want a disgruntled employee bitching about life. off the job. Similarly. some are totally beyond your control and can only be contained. associated with this perspective. chronic unemployment. They need to value today less and tomorrow more. starting to paint at 50. for many seemingly simple habits can have a huge "impact upon your rapport with your team. quickly. All of these can be vehicles for keeping alive the ability to perceive uniquely because they involve modest but repeated confrontations with the unknown. short. because by under. you do not want a worker who avoids work. formulating wishes about the future. When the fight is really on and the battle is undecided. As we wrestle with problems of international competitiveness. The Human Factor In the management of a small team.difficult new behaviour will help preserve executive vitality. Behaviour: Consider your behaviour. And this means defining fundamental values of management. we do not even pretend to explain it. The paradox for general executives is that they need to relax a little in order to work more effectively relax the intensity of their work on present problems and address themselves more to future possibilities. Paradoxically. you do not want your key engineer being tired all day because the baby cries all night. 'lost achievement-oriented managers are dominated by a Newtonian view of time as constant. Consider the effect you would have if every morning after coffee you walked over to Jimmy's desk and told him what he was doing wrong. think about it. such clarification is critical for all of our futures. When you are struggling with a deadline or dealing with delicate decisions. An old native American proverb states: 'All that is seen is temporary. The activist ethic. encourage or restrict most aspects of their working day. Since human psychology is a vast and complex subject. Few "people problems" can be solved quickly. but futureoriented. Defining Fundamental Values In addition. incorporating concern about the future into the present necessitates clarifying what we really want. Take another example: suppose (as a good supportive manager) you often give public praise for independence and initiative displayed by your team. unvarying motion in which each interval is unique but equal. you want your team to act co-operatively. But this is what happens. It must be open. Wide-open time like space can be frightening. the article then outlines a simple model of behaviour and a systematic approach to analysing how you can exert your influence to help your team to work. Lets consider possible motivators and a simple framework for dealing with people. Clear-cut. Instead. government debt and global environmental pollution. the most effective general executives seem to lift their time horizons. the last thing you want to deal with is "people". And you must.
broader experience. Firstly. salary rises. This is not easy. Never say anything as unhelpful or uninformative as "do better" or "shape up" -if you cannot be specific and say how. the acquisition of new skills. Secondly. what needs improving (be constructive) and what is expected of them in the future (something to aim at). What you can influence is the local environment and particularly the way in which you interact with your team. Thus. As a manager. working conditions and company policy. then keep quiet. And while this is common sense. responsibility is the most lasting. Herzberg in the 1950's when he formulated the "Motivation-Hygiene" theory. Motivation: When thinking about motivation it is important to take the long-term view. So if you do want to hear about problems. Indeed. While your team will soon realize that this IS a formula. make sure that everyone (including yourself) has a share of the interesting and of the dull. This turns dull into challenging. and might even improve the efficiency of the team. If you stretch your staff. taking minutes in meetings is dull on a weekly basis but quite interesting/educational once every six weeks (and also heightens a sense of responsibility). the work itself. once a fair level of pay is established. The work itself: The work itself should be interesting and challenging. and always constructive. money ceases to be a significant motivator for long term performance. Since it can impact greatly. When talking about improvements. progress is punctuated and celebrated with small but marked achievements.able) expectations. In opposite terms. I'm . This is a management problem for you to solve. These are what your team needs. you must design the work assignment so that each member of the team feels: "I'm learning. recognition. no one cares if they are scrubbed even harder. They will not raise problems (you will be left in the dark). misdirected activity and utter frustration. challenging work to distribute: there is always the boring and mundane to be done.which is fortunate since few team leaders have creative control over company organization or remuneration packages. The best time to give feedback is when the event occurs. You must actually consider how interesting are the tasks you assign and how to deal with the boring ones. You must not stint in praising good work. Responsibility: Of all of Herzberg's positive motivators. if people do something well and then feel it is ignored -they will not bother to do it so well next time (because "no one cares"). Advancement: There are two types of advancement: the long-term issues of promotion. Ideally. The feedback you give your team about their work is fundamental to their motivation. Herzberg called these the "Hygiene" factors to apply the analogy that if the washrooms are kept clean. Achievement: As the manager. for which of your team could you write these down now (try it)? Your staff need to know where they stand. the feedback should be honest. loads-of-money is nice but not nearly as good as being valued and trusted. delegating responsibility deserves another article in itself (see the article on Delegation). the manager. Recognition: Recognition is about feeling appreciated. This is helped by the fact that what is dull to some might be new and fascinating to others -so match tasks to people. But few managers have only interesting. tell the team so and react positively when you hear of problems in-time rather than too-late. if only to offer some recognition of the effort which has been put into the work. Here are two suggestions. job prospects. it may not be repeated simply because no one knew you approved. Interesting because this makes your staff actually engage their attention. you have a dramatic effect upon your team's sense of achievement. if the task is dull perhaps the method can be changed -by the person given the task. If in doubt. they will not question your instructions (ambiguities will remain). you should provide a series of targets which are easily recognised as stages towards the ultimate completion of the task. responsibility. simple. and the short-term issues (which you control) of increased responsibility. It is knowing that what you do is seen and noted. right now? Perhaps more importantly. ask yourself how many on your team know these things. they will struggle on bravely (and feel unsupported). and preferably by the whole team as well as by you. the team will feel failure. and possibly share the worst tasks around. and advancement. they will still enjoy the benefits of the information (and training). Your team members will be looking for the former. The point is that you can not enhance your team's performance through these Hygiene factors . For example. follow the simple formula of: highlight something good point out what needs improving suggest how to improve You must always look for something positive to say.Probably your team will leave you alone. If you make them too hard. Your simple behaviour may result in a quagmire of errors. if too easy. You can achieve this through a structured review system. this is how you should work towards it. For instance. If you do not acknowledge it. What you need is a sustainable approach to maintain enthusiasm and commitment from your team. One reason is that gaining responsibility is itself seen as an advancement which gives rise to a sense of achievement and can also improve the work itself: a multiple motivation! Assigning responsibility is a difficult judgement since if the person is not confident and capable enough. such as salary levels. but such systems often become banal formalities with little pr no communication. The positive motivators identified by Herzberg are: achievement. Classic work on motivation was undertaken by F. They should know what they do well (be positive). Herzberg identified several factors. you have to provide the latter and convince them that these are necessary (and possibly sufficient) steps for the eventual advancement they seek. you will be held responsible for the resulting failure. but it is essential to your effectiveness. which demotivated (by being poor) rather that motivated (by being good). the team feels little. challenging because this maintains the interest and provides a sense of personal achievement when the job is done. you set the targets -and in selecting these targets. be specific: this is what is wrong. and how they are performing against your (reason. adds responsibility. they know you know they can meet that challenge. this is what I want/need.
If Aman had not realised there was a problem. Stage 1 is often missed -ask Aman for his solution. you can focus upon Aman's own view of the problem (why is this happening?) and Aman's own solution (what can Aman do about it. if this does not happen. . by addressing one. or a short training course to deal with a technical short-coming. On the one hand. By giving Aman the responsibility for solving his own problem. if there is a schedule change. if every time Chetan informs his boss Deepa about a schedule change (action). then Chetan will be less inclined to approach Deepa with information in the future. There are two solutions: 1) modify the payoff either by blocking it. continue. Aman goes for coffee break "to think about if (action). or 2) create a positive payoff for the alternative. Thus Aman learns that he will receive help and support IF he gets the report in on time Stage 5 is necessary because such plans do not always work. So. other related problems are often affected also. He will either deny the problem. For instance. Thus baby is hungry (trigger). For instance Aman might still be helping someone with his old job. No generalities. he now knows differently. good behaviour is blocked by negative payoffs. desired "good" behaviour.getting on" Problems: We are going to look at a simple system for addressing people-problems. you can actually motivate him beyond the specific problem: he may suggest on improved reporting system. Secondly. some are not worth you time and effort. he might act quickly to solve it. Once you have analysed the problem. and is followed by a consequence or payoff. If. This is where you have to be creative.30 make a habit of responding to it on Monday morning: if there is an issue raised. Do not worry.as a manager. Aman will be defensive. talk it over -but make it clear (say it) that you are only able to do this because you had time on Friday to read over his report. We are simply recognising that staff behaviour is modified by the work environment and by your influence upon it. the latter is preferable since it is better for motivation to offer encouragement rather than reprimand. you have to solve or at least contain them. With most people-problems at work. Before proceeding. we have a starting point and something which can be measured. Finally. This sort of interview can be quite difficult because you run the danger of making personal criticism. . It is best to work on one problem at a time because this simplifies the analysis. baby wails (action). or by adding another consequence which is negative. The underlying philosophy of BM is that you should concentrate upon specific. Deepa vents her annoyance on Chetan (payoff). Sometimes. such people can poison the working environment. For instance "Aman is lazy" should be transformed into "Aman is normally late with his weekly report and achieves less than Alice does in anyone week". Let us consider "late reporting". It is a step-by. State explicitly that you need the report by 3. In the long term. 8M provides a manageable focus and a framework for analysis. proceed to . add a negative consequence to Aman's current behaviour. if the plan has failed. help Aman to solve it. that it is impossible to offer more than generalities as advise. the demonstration alone that you are interested in Aman's work may be enough to make him improve. review your progress. Stage 4 is to find a solution. You ignore them at your peril. baby gets fed (payoff). on the other hand. you present the situation in terms of the specific events. Stage 2 will sometimes be sufficient. these descriptions are totally unhelpful. you. is forthcoming. Firstly. if Aman does get the report in by 3. devise a new one. Further. but does it actually help? Your objective is to get Aman to work well. Now you may feel that Aman deserves criticism. Never assume that you know better.can you help?). The technique is merely a method for analysing that influence to ensure that it is positive and to focus it to best use. always ask first -then if no solution. Thus. so each solution must be carefully crafted. if the plan has worked. One work of warning: this technique is often referred to as Behavioural Modification (BM) and many balk at the connotations of managementdirected mind control. Look for aspects of motivation -any problem which stems from lack of commitment or interest can only successfully be addressed by providing motivation. This will probably ruin his "hour before the weekend" and he will wish to avoid it. Aman has a relaxing afternoon (payoff).step procedure which avoids complex psychological models (which few managers can/should handle) and which focuses upon tangible (and so controllable) quantities.. If you make it personal. summon Aman at four o'clock to demand the report before he leaves for the weekend. In any group of people there are bound to be problems . each situation is different. This being said. not to indulge in personal tyranny.30 on Friday (so that you can prepare your weekly schedule update) -and. Such problems are usually described in terms like: "Aman is just lazy" or "Brenda is a bad-tempered old has-been". Each person is different. tangible actions over which you have influence. tell you that he knows best or some combination of the above. optimally you should implement both. blame the weather. blame someone else. If the plan is working. Stage 3 is the analysis stage and is based upon a simple model of behaviour: every action is preceded by a trigger. as manager. One of the problems with communication in Ancient Greece was that the bearer of bad news was often executed.. observable behaviour. the other hand. it is worth checking that the problem is real -some "problems" are more appearance than substance. or the report is due today (trigger). Stage 1 is to monitor the identified problem to check that it is real and to seek simple explanations. you will find that the "bad" behaviour is reinforced by a payoff which that person finds attractive. and any of the motivators described earlier can be applied. here are a few ideas. If he had thought his behaviour would pass unnoticed. must provide the solution. Where to Seek Solutions: The range of problems is so large. only specific. look for a new problem to solve. You must continue to monitor the problem and after a trial period.
work with it. You lose nothing if you gain a skilled. committed. look carefully at the "systems" which exist in your team. No parent is immune to the "joys" of a new born baby. Constant pressure will eventually destroy your team members. For instance. For instance if you sanction half a day's "sick-leave" to see a solicitor. Take a long-term view.amityelearning. So why not devote half-a-day to: peer-group teaching. and the team.Be flexible with regards to personal problems. enthusiastic team. schedule slippage) and deal with that in the existing situation.2006 . Some of these can work against you. or all four on a four-weekly cycle. you might save a week's worry and distraction. look carefully at how you behave and whether the current situation is due to your previous inattention to the human factor: you might be the problem. On a larger scale. adapt. If you acknowledge that a relaxed yet engaged workforce is (say) 10% more efficient than one which is over-stressed and fretful.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution Tm . the way you reward the exceptional may de-motivate those responsible for the mundane. at those work practices which you and they follow through habit. and the solution. no one is unaffected by bereavement. Finally. guest lectures on work tools. Focus upon the problem (say. since you cannot change it. then you should realize that this amounts to half-a-day per week. visits to customers (internal and external). the way you hold team meetings may suppress contributions (at 4 o'clock on a Friday. www. When circumstances and the human factor impinge upon your ordered plans. say). brainstorming on enhanced efficiency.
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