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Principles a Practices of Management
Chapter 1. NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT

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Management is universal in modern industrial world. Every organization requires the making of decisions, the coordination of activities, handling of people, and the evaluation of the performance directed towards organizational objectives. Specialization and increase in the scale of operations have increased the importance of management. `Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups .ccomplish effectively selected aims. If we expand this definition we understanding that: Management is present in any kind of organization (business or non-business). Its aim is to create a surplus, i.e., management is concerned with productivity which is measured through effectiveness and efficiency. A manager works in coordination with both the internal and external environment. It is essentially decision making under various constraints. It is an integrated as well as continuous process. It is use of means to accomplish given ends. For achieving the objectives the Managers have to assume responsibility, achieve a balance among competing (and often conflicting) goals, and have to be conceptual thinkers. The term management is often used to refer to a group of managerial personnel of an enterprise. Sometimes, this term is used as a way of referring to the process of managing. On other occasions it is used as a substantive to describe the subject, the body of knowledge and practice as a whole, the discipline. Strictly speaking, management is a functional concept and does not include persons who practice management. Such persons are designated as Managers, Executives, etc. However, in our daily transaction we generally include the practitioners within the scope of this term. The managerial process is a complex social activity. It is a process because it comprises of a series of actions that lead to accomplishment of objectives. It is known as a social process because these actions are concerned with relations between people, i.e., inter-personal relationship. It is a continuous process, there is always fresh minds to stimulate, newer area and approaches to explore, and ever changing situations to tackle. Management is a mental or intellectual process involving thought, judgement and decision. the fundamental aim being achievement of certain objectives. echnological development has continuously changed the setting of management. However, the chief characteristics of management are the integration and application of the knowledge and analytical approaches developed by numerous disciplines. This involves: Formation of policy and its translation into plans, Execution and implementation of plans, and Exercising administrative control over the plans.

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Utilisation of resources has been one of the most common and yet perhaps the most complex management activity. Maximum return and utility from limited available resources has been the main aim of any manager. Traditionally, only three factors of production were recognised i.e., Man, Machine, and Material. However, with the development of thought, a fourth factor of production was recognised, in the absence of which the other three factors could be rendered useless. This fourth vital factor of production was entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur could be a person having his own resources or a custodian of someone else's resources, organising it with a view to attain maximum output and efficiency with minimum input. As such, Management can also be defined as a process through which all the resources are organised and utilised to attain maximum output and efficiency through minimum input. A liberal point of view is not merely a sum of number of narrow approaches. Its emphasis is on freedom to choose from widest range of possibilities already available or newly evolved. The stress is on expanding the mental horizon with utmost freedom with an effort to strive towards an ultimate in life. The paradox of management is that it is based on identifiable and rigorous framework of concepts, but at the same time it continues to strive towards breaking out of any set discipline. The characteristics of a good manager may be described in broad terms as initiative, intelli- gence, judgement, dependability, integrity, perseverance, and so on. Thus, management can also be defined as a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge, skill, habits, and attitudes of the employees in an organization. In other words it refers to development of people in the organization. Management involves improvement in knowledge factors, attitude factors, and ability factors of the employee in an organization. Knowledge factors refer to ideas, concepts, or principles that are conscious, able to be expressed, and are accepted because they are subject to logical proof. Attitude factors relates to those beliefs, feelings, desires, and values that may be based on emotions and may not be subject to conscious verbalization. interest in ones work, desire to accept responsibilities, respect for the dignity of one's associates, and

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desire for creative contribution are some of the attitude factors. Ability factors are too often treated as being unaffected by environment. Skill, art, judgement and wisdom are the four most important ability factors required in management. Although these are abstract, but nevertheless they can be developed and sharpened through practice. One of the most important characteristics regarding the nature of management is that its prin ciples have universal application. Management problems are present in all joint activity, be it a family, school, small-scale or large corporation, or a trade union. The head of these institutions use the same managerial techniques and principles in solving their problems and achieving their desired goals. Universality of managerial principles means that they are transferable, i.e., the same principles can be used by various departments regardless of the nature of their functions. Not only that, the universality of managerial principles also means that they can be transferred from one level to another. All managers perform the same managerial function regardless of their position in the organizational hierarchy. Different schools of thought have emerged and all of them define management in their own way : Classical School : Management is ordering people to do the job. Management is designing job structure. To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control (Fayol) Behavioural School : Management is managing men. Management is the development of people and not the direction. Modern Definition : Management is a multipurpose organ of the society, which aims at utilizing the resources of the country for creating a situation of plenty and comfort instead of scarcity and misery. The development of the theory of management is useful because it provides a broad basis for approaching management problems. In the recent time, there has been a growing concern about the proper role of a business firm within our society. Traditionally. this role was limited to production and distribution of economic goods and services, in return for profits. However, the term "social responsibility" is being referred to quite often in the present day situation. It has been increasing felt that the social consequences of business organization cannot be ignored any longer. Management is a 'process comprising of series of actions that lead to accomplishment of objectives. Since these actions are basically concerned with inter-personal relationships every management decision has a social impact. Therefore, management can also be called a social process. Is management and administration the same? According to one school of thought 'Management' is a comprehensive term 'mbracing within its scope the entire process of planning, policy-making, co-ordination of activities, maintaining discipline, as well as ,ontrolling the operations so as to attain best possible results. Thus, management activity can be classified into two broad heads -Administrative Management and Operative Management. The former is primarily concerned with policy-decision making, changing such decisions as and when necessary, preparing plans, fixing standards of performance and verifying the actual performance vis-a-vis pre-determined standards. On the other hand operative management is concerned with carrying out of these policies and plans to achieve the organizational objectives. However, another school of thought, led by eminent writer Oliver Sheldon, is of the view that management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of the policies formed by the top-body or administration. This school, narrows down the meaning of management by stating that administration determines the corporate policy. co-ordination of finance, and definition of goals, whereas, management uses the policies and strives towards the objectives. Administration is inherent in the performance of all normal business functions. Every manager discharges both administrative as well as managerial functions. Quantum of administrativ and managerial functions depends upon his position in the organizational hierarchy. Higher they are in the hierarchy, more is the time and effort devoted in administrative activities like formulation of policies, determination of objectives, etc. However, they too spend some time in managing and directing those directly under their command. The daily activity in the managerial hierarchy can be demonstrated as under: Management is a continuing and dynamic process. Fresh situations and problems arise every now and then, advocating the need for continuous development of theories and principles to solve the management problems and achieve the organizational objectives. No system, procedure or policy is perfect, there may be various drawbacks in every system. Just because some policies have worked wonderfully in one organization, there is no guarantee that they would be successfur in another organization. It can be said that the process of management is a mental or intellectual process involving thought, judgement, and decision. Management efforts are to provide an atmosphere in which efficiency and accomplishment are recognised and rewarded, employee self-development is emphasized, and employees' rights and privileges are fulfilled. The growth of the organization is a cumulative effect of the growth of the people working in the organization.

A question is always raised when we start management studies and this is concerning the basic nature of the subject i.e., Is management a science or an art? There is no straight answer to this question. But like all practices, managing is an art and using knowledge of management is a science. Therefore managing as a practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the practice maybe referred to as a science. Thus, it is both a science and an art, also both these are not mutually exclusive but are complementary. Science and art of management are interwoven and overlapping in nature. They complement each other and are not mutually exclusive. However, it may be added that although the art of management is very old, the science of management is an event of recent past. It was only in the later part of 19th century that management came to be regarded as a scientific process. Recently, considerable attention has been given to analytical approaches to management, resulting in emergence of mathematical formulae, business games, operations research, and scientific decision-making. A scientific approach requires clear concepts -by determining and analysing these facts scientists look for causal factors, when these are found true than they become principles, i.e., they are believed to be valid enough to be used for prediction. A theory is a systematic grouping of interdependent concepts and principles that give a framework for the gathering of significant knowledge. Management theory provides means of classifying significant and pertinent management knowledge principles. T herefore, it can be concluded that management contains elements of both science as well as art. The management science provides a body Jf principles or laws for guidance in the solution of specific management problems and objective evaluation of results. The analysis of basic management functions has led to the development of certain principles that can be applied as general guidelines for solving future problems. On the other hand, the art of management deals with the application of skill and effort for producing desirable results.

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Centralisation .Fayol found these are related. CLASSICAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT Fredrick. Unity of command . with the latter arising from the former. control) Technical (production) Security (protection of property and persons) Fayol stressed on managerial aspects and he regarded elements of management as its functions . He repeatedly pointed out that the principles apply not only to business but also to political.Fayol says individual circumstances will determine the degree to which authority is concentrated or dispersed. coordinating and controlling. He had first hand knowledge about problems existing at various levels of management. Throughout his study he stressed on the universality of the principles. 9. EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Management as a subject is relatively young. It evolved in various phases. He became the Chief Engineer (after doing an Engineering course).Fayol applies this principle to all kinds of work. Taylor's .AMITY EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT o We nurture talent GurukulOnlineLearning Solutions 1S0 9001 : 2000 Certifiod Principles and Practices of Management Chapter 2. exchange) Managerial (planning. He stated that all operational activities in a business organization can be classified under six headings: Financial (search for and optimum use of capital) Accounting (including statistics) Commercial (buying. His observations are still valid after 7 -8 decades.planing. commanding. Subordination of individual to general interest .Fayol said discipline requires good superiors at all levels. Unity of Direction . not restricted output Developing all workers to the fullest extent. organizing. command.Single superior should give orders.Each group of activities with the same objective must have one head and one plan. religious. Fayol is also called the real father of modern management theory. possible for their own and the companies higher prosperity 5.Principles of Scientific Management -1911 Replacing rule of thumb with science (Organized Knowledge) Obtaining harmony in group action rather than discord Achieving cooperation of humans not chaotic individuals Working maximum output. Taylor undertook Time and Motion studies. organization. W Taylor and Scientific Management : Taylor gave up college in 1875 and joined Midvale Steel Works as a machinist in 1878. Henri Fayol . Taylor 's major concern was Increasing efficiency in production not only to lower costs and raise profits but also to make possible increased pay for workers through higher productivity. philanthropic. He is called the "Father of Scientific Management". Scalar chain . managerial as well as technical. selling. Remuneration . He said productivity suffered mainly due to ignorance and the tension of how to split profits but not how to increase profits. Discipline .Must be fair giving maximum possible satisfaction to employees and employer. he also gave 14 general principles of management.Payol believed that "chain of superiors" from highest to lowest ranks should not be departed from needlessly but can . Division of work . military and other undertakings. These principles are flexible not absolute. co-ordination.Process Management theory: Fayol wrote a book called "General and Industrial Management". Authority and responsibility .

Under what psychological conditions the greatest and most satisfactory output can be obtained from every person. Order . Mayo concluded that improvement in productivity was due to social factors as morale and sense of belonging. Taylor & Fayol's work is complementary to a large extent. increasing wages and raising the "level of life" The Hawthorne studies : Elton Mayo and F J Roethlisberger undertook experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company >etween 1927 to 1932. actions and decisions should be recorded in writing so as to provide for future scrutiny and permanent record. Father of Industrial Psychology Hugo Muntserber in his book "Psychology and Industrial Efficiency" talked of: How to find people whose mental qualities best fit them for the work they are to do. Initiative . modifying rest periods. National Research Council with Western Electric Co."A place for everything and everyone" Equity . This phenomenon of people being noticed came to be known as Hawthorne Effect. They found that whether illumination was increased or decreased the productivity went on increasing. was studying the effect of lumination on productivity. 3.Theory and Theory Y Theory X . only after one was fulfilled' the other showed its appearance. How a business can influence workers to obtain the best possible results from them. Before this from 1924 to 1927. NEO CLASSICAL TIHEORIES OF MANAGEMENT Emergence of behavioral sciences: During Taylor and Fayol's time. Theory Y . After this study greater and deeper understanding of social and behavioural aspects of management was seen. 14.be short-circuited when the need be.The manager considers subordinates to be lazy. Continuing body of rules: All organizations work in accordance with these rules. McGregor . He was interested in reducing working time.Unnecessary turnover can have high danger and costs. All administrative acts. Mayo found changing illumination.Managers must sacrifice personal vanity to permit subordinates to exercise initiative. shortening workdays and varying incentive pay-systems did not seem to explain changes in productivity. Stability of tenure .. They were going to declare the study a failure when Mayo and Roethlisberger continued the research.The manager considers subordinates like to work if they are given work. Abraham Maslow -Need Hierarchy Theory: He said every human being has five needs: Physiological Security Affiliation Esteem Self-Actualization According to him these needs were seen in hierarchical order i. many scholars were thinking about experimenting with and writing on Industrial Psychology and Social Theory. Clear-cut division of work: Specific areas of competence should be determined on the basis of division of labour.Loyalty can be elicited from personnel by combination of kindliness and justice.e. Espirit-De-Corps In union there is strength" emphasising the need for teamwork "and importance of communication in obtaining it Fayol concluded by saying that his list was not exhaustive but some kind of codification of principles appeared to be indispensable in every undertaking. .. Max Weber -Principle of Bureaucracy: He laid down three principles Hierarchy of authority: Hierarchy of positions should provide for supervision of each office by a higher authority. Appointments and promotions on the basis of universalistic criterion of demonstrated competence.

This subject mainly dealt with the role of people in organizations and how to understand. OB was based on certain assumptions: Organizations are not just techno-economic system but a social system. Work Groups (Informal Organizations) . a period of refinement. System Approach to Management is a popular approach used widely. extension and synthesis of management thought and practice. In a system all subsystems of the organization along with the supra-system of environment are interconnected and interrelated. This approach uses the following basic inputs. The Neo Classical Theories of management led to the emergence of a new subject called Organizational Behavior. But these are limited in their application as the final decision is always the managers.An individual in a group develops social wants that is the need to belong Participative Management .Classical theorists ignored the differences among the individuals. It stresses on the inter-relatedness and interdependence of all activities within an organization. Management must develop social skills in addition to technical skills. Social . It includes Operations Research.Taylor opposed this he wanted specialists to give training.Elements of Neo Classical Theories The Individual . Simulation etc. They said each person is unique.Situational Approach . processes and outputs. Effective two-way communication is essential for managerial success.Operations Research -Linear Programming.2006 .Since 1950.amityelearning. Management Information Systems and Industrial Dynamics. Neo. Contingency Approach . Neo classical theorists stressed on individual differences. 3. Game Theory.According to this approach every firm is unique and so is every situation.technical System. People are not only motivated by economic incentives but their social and psychological wants also have to be fulfilled.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . MODERN MANAGEMENT THEORIES Modern management theories have twin objectives: Productivity (Classical Approach) Satisfaction (Neo-Classical Approach) Quantitative Approach to Management . Democratic rather then authoritarian leadership is the key to effective leadership. Queuing Theory.classical and Modern Management welcomes this. www. Behavioral Science. Every problem will have a unique solution. Informal organizations and groups should be recognized and considered to be a reality because they are bound to exist. Management must take greater interest in employee development and workers satisfaction. predict and control the human behaviour. Systems Approach . so there can not be tailor made solutions to any problem.

Maximum return and utility from limited available resources has been the main aim of every commercial organization. organising. This Function of management calls for the practice of a high degree of social skills based on an adequate understanding of human nature in different individuals. The process of planning. the function of Management is principally a task of planning. an organization cannot be created in absence of delegation of authority. and controlling the efforts of employees towards a specific objective.AMITY nurture talent We Chapter 3. procedures. It enables the managers to be a step ahead of each activity. retain initiative to make use of the opportunity and anticipate problems before they actually arise. programmes. personnel must be selected and assigned to their jobs. schedules. and delegation of authority is the key to organization. and controlling involves various steps as under: lann in g is the determination of the objective of an organization to achieve maximum profit effectiveness. the instructions issued and the principles established. assets. It involves combining of individual goals to that of organizational goals. The process of organization involves: division of work into component activities. Motivation is the core of management functions and can be regarded as the most vital element in the process of management. Its object is to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify them and prevent their recurrence. Organising means coordinating the activities of various groups of employees. standards. They must be trained and motivated to perform to the best of their capability. It operates on . motivating. Utilisation of resources has been one of the most common and yet perhaps the most complex management activity. providing effective communication. planning means that targets to be achieved are well defined which requires laying down the objectives as far as possible in quantified terms. integrating people and tasks towards achievement of the overall objectives. After the plans have been prepared. Relevant information relating to the objectives should be properly collected and classified so as to enable the managers to use it without delay. The manager is always faced with alternative courses of action. Plans must be detailed and flexible so that they are capable of being re-adjusted in case there is a change in the working conditions and / or objectives. He should adopt one that has the highest probability of yielding maximum benefit to the organization. the establishment of policies and innovating better ways of performing a given task. and establishment of structural relationship to secure co-ordination. defining responsibilities. and budgets In other words. Just as a manager is handicapped without authority. coordinating. motivating. The process of planning involves: crystallisation or determination of organizational objectives collection and classification of information development of alternative courses of action comparison of alternatives in terms of objectives feasibility and consequences selection of optimum course of action. methods. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS o GurukulOnlineLearning Solutions tS0 9001: 2000 Cortrfied Management process can be best analysed by studying the functional approach. assigning people to tasks. their common and individual needs factor and urges in relation to their work Controlling refers to the evaluation of performance of those who are responsible for executing the plans. In an undertaking. Management can also be defined as a process through which all the resources are organised and utilised to attain maximum output and efficiency through minimum input. money and time into efficient production of goods and services. and (b) appraising performance. According to this approach. control consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plans adopted. and providing a climate for employee development. prescribing limits of authority and its delegation. systems. Authority is the key to a managerial job. and establishment of policies. The process of motivation involves: providing effective leadership. This may include (a) controlling adherence to plans.

Is the ability to solve problems in ways that will benefit the enterprise.2006 .work. but technical skills required more at the supervisory level. Decision roles: The entrepreneurial role. Conceptual skills are seen more at the top level. Administrative ability . and reinforcing success / correcting deviation.amityelearning. Conceptual skills .Is the ability to work with people. Through passage of time it has to be improved upon so that it remains reliable. All levels of managers require these skills. The resource allocator role. The disturbance handler role. The liaison role (communicating particularly with outsiders). 3. Managers don't have to only be "problem watchers" they have to be able to design a workable solution to the problem in the light of the realities they face. The plans become the standard by which the accomplishments are to be measured. Human skills . 3. it is the creation of an environment in which people feel secure and free to express their opinions.Knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving methods processes and procedures. The negotiator role (dealing with various persons and groups of persons). The most important aim of any manager is thus to create a surplus. the requirement of clear and complete organizational structure helps in pin. and actions. it is team . Human skills are helpful in interaction with subordinates and are needed equally at all levels. Aim of any manager is normally on reducing inputs but according to Peter F Drucker "The greatest opportunity for increasing productivity is surely to be found in knowledge work itself and especially in management". Design / Analytical ability .pointing the responsibility. According to him a manager has: Interpersonal roles: Figurehead role (performing ceremonial and social duties as the organizational representative).e. people. Some of the main ones are: Technical skills .effective. Various managerial skills are required for creating a surplus.Is the ability to see the "big picture" to recognize significant elements in a situation and to understand the relationships among the elements.Is the ability of the manager to do the administrative work. it is cooperative effort. measuring performance against those standards. From the above it can be inferred that the control process involves three steps: establishing standards.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . objective and cost . All managers carry out all the managerial functions but the time spent on each function may differ depending in organizational hierarchy. Informational roles: The recipient role (receiving information about the operation of an enterprise). 5. the deviation and the corrective action required. www. Planning /Organizing Motivating Controlling Mintzberg has done lot of research on managerial roles. i. The leader role. The disseminator role (passing information to subordinates). Management controls should formulated keeping in view its organizational goals. to enhence the productivity of the firm.. It is no use having a control system whose benefits are lower than the cost involved in implementing it. The spokes-person role (transmitting information to those outside the organization).things. Similarly.

AMITY lie nurture talent Chapter 4.General statements that guide decision-making. and competitors. planning could be: Strategic planning . orderly. knowledge and considered estimates. planning is an ongoing effort since changes are continuous. Objectives are short-term. it is the first and the most important management function. intermediate-term planning. Allocate Resources: Resources include people. . people must know what they are expected to accomplish. they are guides to action. and objectives.Broad areas of an enterprise operation. Depending upon these factors. Operational planning .e.Basic function assigned by society to the organization: Objectives / Goals . It is a blueprint of action.more narrow.gurukulonline. money. numerical program 5. economic indicators.sources. different types of plans could be: Purpose or Mission . the future course of action is consciously determined and decisions are based on purpose. Policies encourage discretion and initiative within limits.. Planning is deciding in advance who will do what. namely — Scope (The range of activities covered). Planning has to be systematic to ensures a timely. Tactical planning . rules. Thus.comprehensive. normally its in light of competitors. and relatively general planning. If group effort has to be effective. and cost-effective process to achieve specific objectives. Plans are effective if they achieve their purpose at a reasonable cost (in terms of time and money). Planning is an analytical thought process that covers: Assessment of future Determination of objectives and goals Development of alternative courses of action Selection of best course of action Planning precedes all other functions -All plans must contribute to purpose and objectives.Establish a required method of handling future activities. but not as narrow as operational planning.. say that plans provide a rational approach and strongly imply managerial innovation. o lanning requires selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them. goals.in Planning is the process by which managers examine their internal and external environments and ask fundamental questions about their organization's mission. In business. Determining Goals and Objectives: Goals are future states or conditions that contribute to the fulfillment of the organization's mission. Programs .e. It is all pervasive activity -all levels of managers have to do planning. Planning is charting the future course of action at present. more specific than strategic planning. allowing no discretion. Decentralized planning occurs when responsibilities rest with managers and workers who actually execute the tasks. Therefore. Procedures .co. tasks.Complex of goals.Statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms i. including examination of re. and time. Form a framework for guiding. market trends. Time frame (the period covered by the plan) and Level of Detail (the specificity of the plan). short-term. resources to be employed and other elements necessary. choosing from alternatives the best possible option to solve the problem. Types of Planning : Type of planning is determined by three factors. long-term.Ends towards which activity is aimed and end point of the organization. assignments steps to be taken. herefore planning requires Decision Making -i. Steps in the Planning Process: Planning process involves four steps and then gives way to the implementation phase. These steps are: Assess Current Conditions: Determine the current situation. Planning should involve everyone centralized planning occurs when responsibility rests with top-level executives. Budget . The firm has to decide on its growth goal and desired profitability. thinking and action. we can. procedures. Without: planning events are left to chance. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified aim or goal. Rules . measurable targets that must be reached to accomplish organizational goals. Strategies . at a certain time and what is to be achieved. and specific planning. Establishing an Action Plan: An action plan is a specific set of behavior that will lead to the attainment of an objective.Specific required action. Types of Plans : As opposed to the various types of planning. policies. PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING Learning Solutions C? GurukulOnlineISO 9001 2000 Cartifiod www. Planning is an intellectually demanding process.focused. specific. Policies .

Trouble can be more often easily corrected in its earlier stages than after a crisis "Forewarned is forearmed". Planning leads to systematic and thorough investigation of alternative methods. not product-driven Employee participation. Profit Vs Non-profit objectives. Where economy of scale was a key concept. Benefits of Planning: Planning can be very beneficial in four major areas: Coordination of Effort Preparation for Change Development of Performance Standards Development of Managers Integrated.the ability of the organization to use physical assets and capital to achieve objectives. or return on assets (ROA). Increased Organizational Complexity . or the time to complete a process and to be ready to begin anew is deemed essential to success in current markets. therefore managers must develop plans to meet short. Good planning involves the following values: Customer driven. However. Increased Global Competition . and minimize risks. Profit margin Vs Competitive position. Productivity Objectives . Cultural diversity is just another form of uncertainty to be reduced by the firm. and feedback of data. Other types of objectives could be: Profitability Objectives . values.based on the attainment of specific financial objectives such as re. flexible or adaptable to new conditions. Reductions in time should not be made at the expense of quality or customer service. they should be prioritised to provide direction to employees. A budget is a predetermined amount of resources allocated to an activity which includes budgeting organizational resources for each step in the process. not intuition. Physical & Financial Objectives . or Low-risk environment Vs High-risk environment. objective-driven actions. dollar volume. mission. Implementation: The commitment of organizational resources through the delegation of tasks. Planning facilitates effective delegation of authority and removes communication difficulties .Plans influence such organizational activities as organizing. more product complexity. Your text lists measures that can be used to assess both product and service quality. It sets standards for performance and helps to control events rather than be controlled by them. values and sense of purpose.Cycle time reduction. Similarly. not periodic improvement. Uncertainty in global exchanges is reduced through planning. it has been observed that stretched goals lead to higher performance than easy ones. Planning enables a company to be competitive with other rivals. Quality Objectives . each function might use different. A good plan must lead the. managing. Marketing Objectives . Prevention of defects. more competitors. Control the Implementation: The continuous management of plans to ensure that they meet objectives in the correct time horizon. or market share.turn on investment (R01).can be expressed as increases in unit sales. Through planning managers can relate decisions to each other and to goals of the enterprise. Planning helps to plan for changes and also helps in managing change effectively. Fact-based decisions.an efficiency measure that assesses how many resources were used to produce one unit of output. present and intelligent forecasting of the future. They can be framed as per following alternatives -Short-term Vs Long-term. Impact on Other Management Functions . organization forward on the path of progress and prosperity. The need for planning arises from constant change in the environment.(Total Factor Productivity) is a measure of a firm's effectiveness in using its resources to create product values. goals and objectives. Unproductive work and waste of resources can be minimized. Importance of Planning: Good plans are simple and easily understandable. It uses available resources to the utmost before creating new resources. not detection of defects. intermediate and long-term objectives. contradictory methods to meet objectives. Plans give control standards. selling. constant and purposeful action is more easily achieved. It is balanced and gives equal importance to all vital areas of business. All efforts are directed towards desired objectives or results. Progressive management likes to be proactive rather than reactive. Without integrated plans. possibly. and training. or change in net worth. it is complemented today by economy of time. Objectives need to be met by a specific time.ability to achieve product quality and service quality objectives. Pressure to Reduce Cycle Times . not management authority. Emphasis on continuous.More products. Planning focuses on the future direction.More diversity is present in global markets. Through planning adverse situations can be anticipated and mistakes or delays avoided. Plans are based on adequate information of the past.TFP . all yield greater complexity in the planning process. Planning is necessary because it establishes a clear relationship between decision-making. It provides a unifying decision making framework and helps to identify potential opportunities and threats. Objectives: Objectives should be understandable and measurable.

Planning is very costly and must justify its existence and often delays action. Goals must be interconnected but often people within companies pursue paths good for their own departments but detrimental to the company as a whole. Select and plan the decision to be implemented: Prioritise the solutions identified using cost-benefit analysis together with the timetable demanded by the urgency of the problem. Evaluating the decision: Following successful implementation. To ensure we do not jump to solutions before we have analysed the CAUSE(S) of our problems. Decision making has been identified as the primary responsibility of any manager. . A specific ACTION PLAN must be prepared identifying the key activities with start and finish dates. Seldom can 100% rationality be achieved as future entails uncertainties so the manager must settle for limited rationality. there are several causes of a problem that require analysing and prioritising. Objectives of the Decision Making Process Improve the business by successfully solving problems that are causing external or internal customer dissatisfaction. Generate potential decisions: For most problems there are usually several solutions. repetitive and routine or Non-programmed (unstructured) i. It is the core of planning. where objectives. Contingency plans may need to be activated to overcome practical difficulties arising. Has the problem been solved? Is the customer satisfied? What added value has been achieved? It may be necessary to use the Decision Making Process again. Decision making is at the core of all planned activities.Cause effect known Risk condition .e.Probabilities can be drawn Uncertainty condition . Alternatives are evaluated based on quantitative and qualitative factors. be able to analyze and evaluate alternatives and must have a desire to achieve the best solution. Implement solutions to problems that really do eliminate the problem through PREVENTION processes. ensuring that the benefits are gained.. and the named individuals who will carry them out. policies and plans are set at all levels of management through meaningful participation between the superior and subordinate. experimentation or research and analysis. The first idea is not always the best.Meager database unsure whether situation will change or not The degree of risk varies from decision to decision. giving opportunity for team 'recognition'. Value addition to the product or services rendered. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner and is consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational and individual objectives. Selection is done based on experience. if necessary. Effective decision making must le rational. DECISION MAKING It is the selection of the appropriate alternative from a set of alternative courses of action. while solving the problem. Determine the root causes. Provide a process (tool) that can be used by the team to maximise contribution from each individual and the creativity from the team.. Decision making process requires a structured approach involving six steps: Identify and select the problem: A 'problem' is a deviation between the ACTUAL results and the TARGET level at which the results should be. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) A good plan is based on clearly defined objectives -Management by objectives (MBO) is now widely used for planning. Implement holding action. Analyse the causes of the problem: Brainstorm all potential causes of the deviation. Decisions are made under different conditions: Certainty conditions . he must also have all the relevant information. The most serious problems are those the customer experiences. Use competitive benchmarking to adopt other's ideas. Usually. time and certainty. The decision may be Programmed (structured) i. Limitations are in terms of information. i. for effective decision making the decision maker must generate all the possible alternatives. Regular review of the Project is essential to control progress and costs. The proposed plan is then presented to the next higher manager for approval. 5. Decide and implement: The Project Teams are responsible for implementing the decision. unique. strategic.Limitations of Planning: Planning is not a perfect measure against risk as reliability of forecasts are inversely proportional to time.e. A problem statement should be written based on the measurements taken.e. the project must be monitored and evaluated. Planning may give a false sense of security as standing plans are repetitive and lead to resistance to change. or an OPPORTUNITY level at which the results could be. This will require collecting data which provides the facts needed rather than opinions. 'Brainstorming' and 'building' on ideas are the most effective ways to find the right solutions..

Don't rely on single or obvious measures. Perception: Difficulties can arise when we don't accurately perceive a problem or the information needed to solve it. recognising only a part of the problem or the information required for solving it. Stereotyping -applying inappropriate labels. Not seeing a problem in proper perspective. charts instead of raw data. Following steps will help to ensure chat you see the full picture: Establish systems arid procedures to alert you to potential problems and opportunities. The opportunity for improving upon performance so that it is better than target at no extra cost. Expression: the ability to express information and ideas clearly during problem solving is important. expression. The difference between the actual and target level of performance where 'Actual' is worse than 'Tar• et'. How we respond to the world is shaped largely by experience that may result in providing skills necessary to solve a particular problem or we may learn things that actually hinder us. Not recognising problems effectively. based on the obvious. Our solution may be inadequate. Difficulties with expression can include: Inability to articulate or express ideas adequately. Following can be consequences of wrong perception: We may simply not recognise a problem. ACTUAL SHORTFALL OPPORTUNITY HINDRANCES TO EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING lany hidden factors hinder us in arriving at effective decisions. and look no further. As a result we may take too narrow a view. We tend to jump to conclusions. We may miss good opportunities if we do not see the full picture. Use graphic representations to clarify the relationships between different aspects of a problem. not all problems are best tackled using words alone. emotion and intellect. This includes: Seeing only what we expect to see.. . Using the wrong "language" to work on a problem. Our solution may not be workable as we failed to take into account certain information /factors. Some arise from our psychological make-up. Ask for other people's points of view. We must recognise and try to counteract these influences in order to become better decision-makers. However.How to define a problem? There are five key measurements for each 'output' TARGET FORECAST The budget or target level of performance to be achieved. Regularly review the status quo. Define and analyse problems carefully. There are four main dimensions to our psychological make-up which can be affected -perception.g.. ensuring you gather all relevant information. how we perceive situations is easiest to manipulate. In using language to express ideas to other people we must take account of their understanding of that language. Get expert 'help with problems that necessarily involve a language you are not fluent in Try using languages other than the norm. This is reflected in the output specifications The forecast level of performance which may be better or worse than the target depending on current business situation The forecast also shows when the target will be reached. Routinely we use words to communicate and these often dominate our thinking. visuals instead of words. e. )f all the psychological aspects of decision making. Unfamiliarity with the application of a language. adapt to the audience's level of understanding. others from the environment in which we try to solve problems. The actual level of performance achieved to date. While communicating. Question whether you have used inaccurate information or made assumptions about what is and isn't relevant. Steps to improve our expressive abilities are as follows: Identify which languages are most likely to help you solve a particular problem.

solutions without going in for creative ones. This is more severe if senior colleagues are around. Reduce anxiety by tackling problems in more manageable steps. A formal committee may be temporary (if it is for solving only one problem). Fear of taking risks. Those without any specific delegation of authority (usually by someone designing a group decision on a problem) are informal committees. Practice using the various aids to problem solving (quality tools. A committee is a group charged with dealing with specific problems or problem areas. and look for ways to minimise them.e. question existing ideas and methods. Fear of making mistakes or looking foolish in front of others is the most common manifestation . belonging. Follow a strictly methodical approach to curb impatience. Lack of flexibility in thinking. etc. Our desire for security tends to make us set objectives within easy reach or accept common.Emotion : Our emotional make up can cause difficulties when it conflicts with the needs of problem solving. it is called a Line Committee. is the primary source of difficulties. Following strategies would help: Be methodical and work systematically. recognition. Emotions exert an incredibly powerful influence over our thoughts and actions. not easy to change. Even more difficult is translating a creative idea into something more structured and logical. Impatience. If a problem does appear challenging. Intellect: How we apply our intellect to our problems rather than our ability. Emotions can encourage us to indulge in survival behaviour or give rise to needs for achievement. Knowledge. Consider what approach is best for each problem.). Identify the possible unpleasant outcomes while taking risks. Not being methodical. It is. . Committees are widely used in all types of organizations and are popular because they lead to several benefits. Committees are often criticised but the problem is not in the existence of committees but in the way they are conducted and where they are used. Not enough creative thinking. even though we may regard ourselves as sober. rational individuals. Group process in committees generally has four stages Forming ( getting to know each other) Storming ( determining objectives of meeting. self esteem and so on. If you dislike change. Committees which are a part of the organization structure with specifically delegated duties and authority are FORMAL. that is important. With practice we can start applying our mind flexibly and creatively. Accept that some mistakes are inevitable while looking for better ways of doing something.. here conflicts arise) Norming ( group norms and behavioural rules are set) Performance (these are not essentially in this order) Committees can be just for information or for decision making If the authority involves decision making affecting subordinates responsible to it. Its not "what you have got" but "how you use it". However. delegate authority and provide for accountability. do some "wishful thinking" to see what benefits change would bring. They include: Lack of knowledge or skills in problem solving process. we all account difficulties in applying it. understanding and reasoning are fundamental in problem solving. For example — Fear of making mistakes or looking foolish. Remember many people were ridiculed for what turned out to be great inventions. imagine the greatest benefit that could be achieved with a totally new solution. Avoiding anxiety. COMMITTEE AND GROUP DECISION-MAKING The purpose of formal organizations is to provide a framework for cooperation and to fix responsibilities. Some practical steps can help us to recognise and avoid the negative effects: Critically. If authority relationship is to a superior i.of emotional conflict. it is advisory in nature then it's a Staff Committee. Emotion is deep seated and an integral part of us.

amityelearning. plans and policies. It also results in splitting of responsibility leading to indecision.Advantages of committee approach to decision making: Group deliberation and judgment is considered better than individual judgment. It provides representation to interested groups and coordination of departments. transmission and sharing of information and motivation through participation. It also negates the fear of delegation. www. It avoids too much authority in a single person and is easily accepted due to its representative style Disadvantages of committee approach: One of the biggest disadvantages of group decision making is escalation of cost and time which may sometimes lead to compromise of decision making.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution Tm .2006 .

We nurture talent Principles and Practices of Chapter 5. Expansion and growth is aided. Disadvantages of narrow span: Superior tend to get too involved in subordinates work. so that every individual knows what his esponsibility is. that is how he fits into the organization pattern. It also complicates planning & control Factors determining an effective span: Things like personal capacities of superior and subordinate like comprehending quickly commanding loyalty and respect lead to reducing time spent by superiors and subordinates. ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZING I Ty1"11111111.1111 o Learning Solutions GurukulOnlineISO soot MO Certified People working together in groups to achieve some goal must have roles to play. fast communication between sub-ordinates and superior. An informal organization is any joint personal activity without conscious joint purpose even though possibly contributing to joint results. Span of management and organization levels: Organization levels exist because there is a limit to the number of persons a manager can supervise effectively (though this limit varies depending on situation. Disadvantages of wide span: Tendency of overloaded superiors to become decision bottlenecks. It is a tool of managing and not an end in itself. TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS Formal organizations result from planning where the pattern or the structure has already been determined by the Chief Executive of the firm. The purpose of organizing is to fit together individuals and their tasks as productively as possible. Grouping of similar activities. organizing involves establishing intentional structure of roles for people in all enterprise to fill. Danger of superiors' loss of control requires exceptional quality of managers. As a company grows in size it does more and more activities and organizing gets complicated. Advantages of wide span: Superiors are forced to delegate. costs of facilities etc.. Duplication of activities is avoided. Effects of organizing Specialization is encouraged which enhances productivity. The span may be categorized as narrow or wide. and the end result is synergism (i. more managers. clear policies have to be made. Co-ordination is fostered by supplying framework for holding together the various functions in an orderly pattern and logical arrangement. type of work. Informal organizations comprise of all kinds of groups which are not prescribed officially through formal organizing efforts but have evolved naturally bring cemented together through social interests. many levels of management leads to cost escalation. and subordinates are carefully selected. Basic elements of organizing Identifying the activities involved to attain the objectives of the enterprise. . more peons. 2 + 2 = 5 effect). It is also expensive leading to indirect costs. Definition of responsibility and authority. also department levels complicate communication-omissions and misinterpretation of information may result.e. Advantages of narrow span: Close supervision. Establishment of clear structural relationships among individual and groups. Delegation of the requisite authority. excessive distance comes up between top and lowest level of management. etc). close control. Provision of adequate physical facilities to discharge duties.

plans. lack of variety of work has little effect at any level. Different businesses have different requirements. Well-trained subordinates need less managers time and contact. authority available and the environment (political. :ate of change: It is also an important determinant of the degree to which policies can be formulated and stability of policies maintained. social. Amount of personal contact needed in the business. therefore. written and org anizatio n communicatio n Slow changes in external and internal environments Effectrq e introduction between superior and subordinate Effective meetings Number of specialties of upper levels (top with external managers concerned environment) Competent and trained manger simple task assume willingness Subordinates to responsibility and reasonable risks Mature subordinates assume Subordinate training: Better the training of subordinates lesser the contact necessary by superior.has four pillars Division of labor Scalar and functional processes (horizontal and vertical growth) Structure Span of control .FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPAN OF MANAGEMENT Narrow span (a great deal of time spent with subordinates) relates to: Little or no subo r dinate training In adequate or unclear authority delegation Unclear pla ns for non-repetitive operations Non-variable objectives and standards Use of poor or inappropriate communication techniques.subordinate relationships is inadequate authority delegation Clarity of plans: Routine jobs can have more accurate plans and if they are non-routine planning will be that much tougher. STRUCTURE AND PROCESS OF ORGANIZING Structure must reflect objectives. if there are a lot of specialties. including vague instructions external and internal Fast changes in environments arid interaction of su periur Ineffective subordinate Ineffective meetings Greater number of specialties at lower and middle levels Incompetent and untrained man aster Corn pier task unwillingness to Subordinates responsibility and reasonable risks Immature subordinates Wide spans (very little time spent with subordinates) relates to : Thorough subordinate training Clear delegation of authority undertake welldefined tasks Well defined plans for repetitive operations Variable objectives used as standards Use of appropriate techniques such as oral structure. ethical. Use of objective standards: So that superior can know which subordinate is deviating and direct attention can be given to exceptional cases for successful execution of plans. technical etc. Variation by organization level: A study has shown that specialization by individuals was an important variable affecting span. Communication techniques: Effective communication of plans and instructions clearly and concisely increases a manager's span. THEORIES OF ORGANISING Classical Approach . effective spans were narrower at lower and middle levels but increased at upper levels. Organizing does not imply any extreme occupational specialization which normally makes labor uninteresting. This governs the superior subordinate relationships. it must take into account people's limitations and customs.). As the structure is filled by people. Clarity of delegation of authority: The main reason for excessive time burdens on superior. tedious and unduly restrictive.

Group or informal organization. People oriented organizations came up which emphasized on informal organizations. Organic management is most suitable for coping with unstable and changing conditions and unpredictable problems. more effective organization communication will be. Staff relationship is advisory. AUTHORITY AND POWER Power is a much broader concept than authority. Marketing. Multivariate Approach -Regards organization as a system of four interacting variables Task . 5. Staff functions help line persons to work more effectively in accomplishing the objectives. Formal structure. P R). Princes etc. Some departments are predominantly staff (R&D. lawyers. Dynamic technologies like electronics. Emphasis is on adaptability and efficiency. Others are line (Finance. Power could be derived due to following basis: Due to position or birth Due to ex p ertness Referent power Re . provides .. A dehumanized organization structure was seen. the function is to investigate. This approach stresses on motives. Organization is seen as an open and adaptable system which has five parts: The individual. A stable industry may have mechanistic organization. leads to precise and effective delegation. today's dynamic environment if a company is not innovative it is bound to die. encourages stability. Technology. it is power in an organization setting.covering system of authority.Basic business. Line authority is direct supervision by superior over a subordinate. concept of balance and decision process. provides effective management of change and gives premium to innovations. conduct research and give advice to line managers. Well designed and balanced organization facilitates management and operations of the enterprise. stability and interaction among individuals and groups. computers should have organic structure with less emphasis in rules with necessary decentralization and liberal lateral communication. Physical environment of work./ard power Coercive power (Kings.) (physicians. Although often departments are referred to as line or staff but within each department there are line and staff relationships. Structure . It reflects the philosophy or organization and management. The organizational system has three goals -growth. Authority on the other hand is the right due to a position to exercise discretion. Status and role patterns.Managers who believe in Theory X use Carrot (money) and Stick (punishment) approach. enables growth and diversification. practices. Authority is the right that is delegated to an individual or department to control specified processes. Emphasis is on the need to adapt the organization to the demands of technology. Decentralization of authority is the tendency to disperse decision-making authority in an organized structure. group and intergroup behavior. and Production).ptimum use of technical improvements. policies or other matters relating to activities undertaken by persons in other departments.Systems orientation with further modifications. the need for innovation generating from environmental and decision making uncertainty. It is the ability of an individual or group to induce or influence beliefs and actions of other persons and groups. professors) Due to peoples belief Clue 10 power to give reward Power to punish Line and staff concept: Line functions have a direct impact in the accomplishment of the objectives of the enterprise. Line and staff are mainly authority relationships and not what people do. Neo Classical Approach Theory Y: Reflects human relations movement as well as behavioral science approach. Under systems approach there are three main components Individuals. . Sound organization provides the best mechanism for management in action. . Clearer the line of authority from ultimate management position in an enterprise to every subordinate position clearer will be the responsibility for decision-making. Decentralization implies more than delegation. Systems Approach Defines organization as a structured process in which the individuals interact for fulfillment of objectives. supervision. workflow and communication. People (Actors). Formal organization & Informal organization Contingency approach . The linking processes are communication.

tax etc.DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY Many managers fail due to poor delegation. Responsibility can not be . Authority. Delegation is not a process of abdication of responsibility. The acceptance of this obligation on the part of the subordinate creates responsibility. Splintered authority exists wherever a problem requires pooling of delegated authority of 2 or more managers. Delegation must have clarity so it should be written. similarly no one manager can exercise all authority for making decisions. Delegating of authority is the creation of an obligation on the part of the subordinate to the superior executive for the satisfactory performance of the assigned duties. Delegated authority can always be recovered.decentralized) Management philosophy Desire for independence Availability of managers Control techniques Decentralized performance Business dynamics Environmental influences (Government controls. Mutual trust is one of the important pre-requisites of delegation. He is overloaded with work he should not be doing -a good manager must learn to work with and through others. Delegation of authority for accomplishing these tasks.) Advantages of Decentralization Relieves top management of burden!: Encourages Decision making and assumption of authority Promotes use of controls Different organizational units pessiblIE Facilitate:: !eking up pr oft uentres Facilitates proiLot diversification's Promotes devlopment of general rn:ngers Limitations Difficult to have uniform policy Increases complexity of ic 0. delegate authority in the light of results expected Select the person in the light of the job to be done Maintain open lines of communication Establish proper controls Reward effective delegation and successful assumption of authority Factors determining the degree of decentralization of authority Cost of the decision (in cash or intangibles) Desire for uniformity of policy Size and character of the organization History and culture (Ford motors -centralized. but regular changes must be made in organization structure to keep it flexible. Those who are jealous of other doing well cannot delegate. No one person can do all the work for the group. Merged companies. Assignment of tasks to a position. Delegation is entrustment of responsibility and authority to another and the creation of accountability for performance. Personal attitudes towards delegation Perceptiveness to other ideas Willingness to let go (by superior) Willingness to let others make mistakes Willingness to trust subordinates Guidelines for overcoming weak delegation Define assignments and. Holding of people in positions responsible for accomplishment of tasks. An overworked executive is generally poor at delegation. The process of delegation involves: Determination of results expected from a position.o rd in at io n Results in loss of control by upper level managers rs rvlaybe limited by inadequate centrals Limited by quAly of pal fief triarifiers Limited by external forces Expensive to train managers Delegation is a device to meet the challenge of growth. Responsibility and accountability are the three elements of delegation in the absence of anyone of these delegations are impossible.

However. Encourages concentration on customer needs. maintains power. MATRIX organization Another kind of departmentalization is Matrix / Grid / Projects. DEPARTMENTALIZATION Is grouping activities and people into departments. Product Departmentalization (In multi-line large-scale enterprises). professional identity is maintained. marketing etc. Here a combining of functional and product departmentalization is seen in the same organization structure. organizational hierarchy. Departmentalization is just a means of organizing. There is no ideal way of Departmentalization applicable to all situations and organizations. limits development of General Managers. responsibility for profits is at top only. personal contacts and sometimes through the Liaison department. measurable training ground for General Managers. Hospitals). It helps to expand organizations. A matrix organization is oriented towards end-results.amityelearning. selling. Customer Departmentalization (Grouping of activities to reflect a primary interest in customers is common in services industries). Functional Departmentalization (It is the most widely employed basis for organizing activities and is at present seen in almost every enterprise)..com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . problem of top management control. financing etc. simplifies training. Departmentalization by enterprise function (Grouping of activities in accordance with the functions of an enterprise -example Production. May be difficult to coordinate operations between customer demands. the entire process of delegation can become ineffective unless authority delegated is commensurate with responsibility. emphasis on local markets.). such as: Departmentalization by simple numbers (Only useful at the lowest level). Authority and responsibility should be coexisting and both must be present for smooth functioning of the organization. A manager must realize that every business is a continuing entity and must work efficiently even in the absence of the top most efficient manager so the manager must delegate his power to subordinates so that they can deal with problems independently and use their own initiative.g. procedures. slow adaptation to changes. specialization leads to efficiency.2006 . Departmentalization by territory (Based on geographical territories). over specialization and narrow viewpoints of key personnel may result. Now Strategic Business Units (SBUs) are being seen within an organization for a product. Coordination may be achieved through rules. facilitates tighter control. Places responsibility at lower levels. advantage of economies of local operation. develops expertness in a customer area. Various forms are seen in the industry. Process Departmentalization (Seen in manufacturing firms). customer groups may not always be clearly defined. There is no one best way of departmentalization and departmentalization is not an end in itself. Disadvantages: De-emphasis of overall company objective over departmental objectives. improves coordination.delegated so the superior even after delegating a job to the subordinate is ultimately responsible for its accomplishment so he must continue to supervise direct and control the subordinate to whom he has delegated the authority. pinpoints product-profit responsibility. Advantages of departmentalization: Logical and time proven. This is seen in construction. Requires more persons with general manager abilities. also there is added prestige of major functions. www. Departmentalization by time (Very old systems -shifts seen in organizations where normal working day does not suffice e. reduces coordination. it has a disadvantage that there is a possibility of disunity of command. planning. requires managers effective in human relations.

the most vital part of change is the way in which we deal with it. however.co.both positive and negative change. and it can be very significant. organizations must change to survive. What can we do about these changes? It is clear that we can't control or stop change. job responsibilities. and prioritize the 'essential work. Recognition of change before it hits. Holding on to the 'old way of doing things' requires energy. allows us to deal more effectively with it. Managers can begin a successful change intervention by first realizing that employees have a "sixth sense" about changes about to happen. or at least when faced with it. Let's face it.in what exactly is changing. honest. and up-front as early as possible when the need for change is recognized. Controlling our response to change will empower us to do more! Realignments or quick adjustments will allow us to 'ride the waves' of change. employees are likely to put up several barriers to change. we become more productive. so whether anything is said or published. Denying change will only increase its ultimate impact since it hits us when we are unprepared to adapt to it. Preserving 'status quo' is deadly during turbulent times.' By focusing on these . a team. work through the process and try to get the person to see the need for change. landing a new job and being transferred to ∎nother division are both exciting but incite very different emotions. If it shows in an employee at the very outset of change. a location. but thrive! Having a positive mindset of 'embracing change will lead to more effective. and stress. but it's also important to move people forward and get them involved in the new change and working toward positive goals for the future. The change may involve a job. The healthy option is to 'embrace change'. The best decision managers can make (although our gut instinct is to try to hide "bad news") is to provide employees with as much detailed information about the upcoming change as possible and to be as open. this resiliency will prove to be a career success factor. often without recognizing that they are forming these barriers. familiar. We have to understand and allow for the letting go of the comfortable and amiliar for a new experience or situation. fear. This results in a feeling of continuous 'wilderness'. adverse morale. and uncertainty (emotion) Failure to see the need for the change (perception) Feeling that all change must be negative (attitude) Lukewarm acceptance of change or a wait-and-see attitude (reluctance) Failure or refusal to see the positive opportunities inherent in change (resistance) When change occurs. and how to deal with the emotional and psychological sense of loss of the old. accept the change. What do we mean by 'embrace change'? Anticipate change if possible. join it!" Blaming others for change prevents us from accepting and adapting to the change. with or without this employee. No wonder individuals feel lost and stressed by the changes that impact their lives. It takes time to work through this process. and the air of uncertainty and suspicion among employees leads to counter-productivity.AMITY We nurture talent Principles and Practices of Management ELEMENTS OF CHANGE There are two main elements of change: raiw 1111111F GurukulOnlineLearning Solutions tS0 9001: 2000 Certified www.gurukulonline. BARRIERS TO CHANGE Fear. Reluctance is very natural reaction to proposed change because it signifies the loss of something familiar or comfortable. This change resiliency will allow us to not only survive. you must take whatever appropriate action is required to move the company forward. Emotion is always a part of change . Outright resistance must be addressed head-on. It lead us to re-evaluate our work. or a manager. anger. After all avenues have been exhausted. As work changes. EMBRACING CHANGE No one can dispute that change is here to stay! The spiraling rate of change we have seen affects successful transition through one change before being hit with the next one. change-adaptive behaviors. they can sense it. The attitude that all change must be negative is often a by-product of poorly handled previous change initiatives. For example. The most successful change efforts carefully address both of these elements -in reverse order. and move forward. It's naive to believe that management can hide change until it's about to happen. The successful ones "don't fight it. or routine. Failure to see the need for change (perception) may be a result of management's failure to fully explain the change and help people "buy into" the change. By choosing to invest energy in adapting to change.

and ask them for their input on the dangers as the employees see them. above all else. Minimize potential disruption. but there has to be a reason and a benefit. To put change in perspective. Communicate with your employees on a regular basis: Hold weekly meetings to keep your employees updated as to the nature of all ongoing changes at the company. Show them why the change is being made." News of impending change travels fast. Afterwards. If change is something we see as a negative in our lives. Embracing change starts with willingness to anticipate or accept change when faced with it. Be sensitive to subjectivity and emotion: We live in our own comfort zones and almost automatically reject anything that violates our zone. begin to generate excitement and attain positive goals. and must admit that they are a convenience in our lives. Blaming others for change is counterproductive to adapting to change. and while its essence is often in the ballpark. you have had time to develop acceptance and direction. Change involves old habits and the development of new ones. figures. A positive mindset about change will lead to more effective. These opportunities allow us to grow. Disconnect and re-establish: Its important to allow a reasonable period of time for employees to adjust to the loss of the old and familiar. we can give up old activities that are no longer value-added. Function as objectively as possible: Be prepared with as many facts. and examples that support the reasons why a change is necessary and beneficial. By showing empathy and understanding. Reinventing our jobs lets us maintain high performance as the work requirement changes. change always suggests losing or giving up something that may be very important and personal to the employee. By 'embracing change' with quick realignment. TIPS FOR MANAGING CHANGE SUCCESSFULLY Create an environment of openness: Give people as much information as possible. accept. as the company moves forward. The process is not always popular. Watch out for the internal "grapevine": Never underestimate the power of the internal "grapevine. it will be difficult for us to develop a change-adaptive mindset. Is this change bad? Like everything else in life. Any change big or small is bound to affect at least one or more employees and you should . Share with them the dangers or repercussions of maintaining the status quo. Employees' trust and confidence in you will be stronger when they hear about change from you rather than through the rumour mill. answer the following question: "When was the last time you walked over to your television set and turned the dial to get a different channel?" We take our remote-controls for granted. Losing jobs and co-workers hurts. Change presents us with new opportunities. Change is all around us -at home and work alike. By 'embracing change' with quick realignments. Individual's response to constant change is a 'lost' feeling. the accuracy can be questionable. Admit there is pain. you will help your employees understand why change is taking place and start building support for your change efforts. and its wisdom is even questionable. Encourage development of alternative perspectives: Encourage employees to find positive ways to accept change. Share the facts: Provide employees with all the facts you have. and readjustment period. Controlling our response to change will empower us to do more. Your employees need the same opportunity to understand. Remember that. acceptance. Denying change increases its negative impact. it is equally important to get them focused on the new path. A healthy approach to constant change is to 'embrace' it. Display empathy: Change is emotional. It involves a grieving. Organizations must change to survive since 'status quo' can be deadly during turbulent times. we are assuming that change is bad. 11. anger. as early as possible to head off the "grapevine" proclamations of doom and prevent employees from imagining the worst. Nonstop change makes it difficult to complete one transition before being hit with the next change. we will maximize the positive effects of change in our lives and work. Investing energy in adapting to change will increase productivity. Demonstrate the possible benefits of change: Enthusiastically show people the benefits once you have successfully implemented the changes. By dreading or denying change. Be patient with them. By its very nature it involves letting go of something one has become attached to. Give employees time to accept change: Remember that since you have been privy to the change before your employees. You're dealing with human emotions and always need to be sensitive to that fact. and re-establish the new comfort zone as another experience to be enjoyed and learned from. and disillusionment that accompany change. Realignments or quick adjustments will enhance our change-resiliency. Employees worry because it's their lives and futures you're changing. Change-resiliency will prove to be a career success factor. Allow employees to ask questions and give them straight answers. This serves to transform us from 'doing work right' to the more impactful contribution of 'doing the right work'. we have a better opportunity of maximizing the positive effects of change in our lives and work. even if it is uncomfortable.newly established work priorities. but the loss can provide stability and competitiveness which can protect many other jobs. within a reasonable period of time. changeadaptive behaviors. and adjust. Evaluating as many options as possible is a valuable technique to opening minds to the potential positive impacts of change. Change presents us with new opportunities in our careers and personal lives. There will be both good and bad changes that we experience.

Focus your efforts on doing "the right things. KEY POINTS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS Reengineer your job. Denying change increases its negative impact. we will maximize the positive effects of change in our lives and work. Blaming others for change is counterproductive to adapting to change. Change-resiliency will prove to be a career success factor. Eliminate unnecessary steps.2006 . A healthy approach to constant change is to 'embrace' it." Ditch those duties that don't add value. get rid of busywork.amityelearning. Embracing change starts with willingness to anticipate or accept change. change-adaptive behaviors. Controlling our response to change will empower us to do more.have a regular forum to discuss these changes and encourage your employees to share their ideas and suggestions. Nonstop change makes it difficult to adjust to one transition before being hit with the next change. Investing energy in adapting to change will increase productivity. Remember that one of the best techniques for stress prevention is to keep updating your skills so you're highly employable. Change presents us with new opportunities in our careers and personal lives. Reach for new assignments that broaden your experience base. Stretch yourself today so you'll be in better shape tomorrow. By 'embracing change' with quick realignments.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . A positive mindset about change will lead to more effective. Realignments or quick adjustments will enhance our change-resiliency. and unload activities that don't contribute enough to the organization's current goals. Organizations must change to survive since 'status quo' can be deadly during turbulent times. www. Individuals' response to constant change is a 'lost' feeling.

Rewards. Also. fear. If we are slightly hungry we will finish the task at hand. This implies an advanced democracy. worthy . A person's motivation depends on two things: The strength of certain needs. True creativity or productivity comes into being only when learning is free from external constraints. we are hungry. But carrots and sticks are strikingly ineffective at producing lasting change in attitudes or even in behaviors. i. Other studies from the field of social psychology have shown conclusively that people who expect to receive a reward for completing a task (or for doing it successfully) simply do not perform as well as those who don't expect to receive anything. and temporarily. The main question is the following: does there exist such a thing as intrinsic motivation that incites people to work. then we will likely go to lunch. we have two burning needs -The desire to complete the task and the desire to go to lunch. They do not create an enduring commitment to any value or action. If we are starving we will eat. "Do incentives work? The answer depends on what we mean by 'work'. In the workplace. Others are external. Some of these forces are internal. or pressure from a loved one. we will probably put off lunch and complete the task. So he must know what motivates others. interests. and other such forces. There is no simple formula for motivation -you must keep a open viewpoint on human nature. values. This result. Influencing someone's motivation means getting him to want to do what we know must be done. If we believe that we could be fired for not completing the task. Performance-contingent rewards were found to undermine intrinsic motivation more than task. Knowing that different people react to different needs will guide your decisions and actions in certain situations. they merely. and all sorts of tasks (with the most destructive effect found when the task involves creativity).contingent ones. For example. The perception that taking a certain action will help satisfy those needs . such as danger. which has sometimes surprised the researchers themselves. has been found with all sorts of rewards. when )ecuniary incentives and/or external control are excluded? According to Steiner. People can be motivated by beliefs. interests. which implies that the spiritual and educational realm is not under control of the state or economic forces. if the same forces are steering two different people. All that is achieved is short-term boosts in the quantity of production. people develop intrinsic or true work motivation when they are in a position where they can shape their own social environment. A recall measure indicated that subjects receiving performance-contingent rewards remembered fewer performance-irrelevant details about the task.auses.e. but we must have a task completed by a nearing deadline. There is a complex array of forces steering the direction of each person and these forces cannot always be seen or studied. and the possibility of the worker to freely choose his working place. like punishments. are extremely effective at producing one thing. and only one thing: temporary compliance. the environment. Positive feedback enhanced intrinsic motivation and this effect was independent of reward effects. which produced decrements relative to control conditions of no reward. He states that people develop motivation to develop skills when they are permitted to learn in a spirit of freedom. not one controlled study has ever demonstrated a long-term improvement in the quality of performance as a result of rewards. What motivates them? A person's motivation is a combination of her desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. The primary task of a manger is to guide peoples activity in the desired direction which requires knowing to the best of ability what leads people to do things. each one will act differently.. suggesting that rewards may affect the process of task involvement as well as its motivational outcomes. or to develop skills. mostly pecuniary needs. all sorts of people. Our perception of how we view those two needs will determine which one takes priority. such as needs. For example. and beliefs. change what we do. . w4thout being compelled by external.-gum= AMITY We nurture talent Principles and Practices of Management GurukulOnline Learning Solutions ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified A manager has to work through other people. If we believe that we will not get into trouble or perhaps finish the task in time. Influencing someone's motivation -neans getting them to want to do what you know must be done. WORK MOTIVATION A person's motivation is a combination of his desire and energy directed at achieving a goal.

food. Motives are the variable source of energy to pursue selected alternatives. we have laid stress on theories which attempt to identify what motivates individuals (employees). There is a general agreement that man's needs are somehow organized and they fall into some sort of pattern. causing a person to respond significantly to a few of the sights. Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives. So far.rocess of becoming more or less secure. what he wants out of life. shelter. more or less concerned about our interactions with other people. when a person is allowed to exercise choice with respect to some given activity. However. A person's motive structure can be referred to as a network of habits. A person's motive structure undergoes continuous though 'radual change. interests. Selected refers to. reluctantly. Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality = Motivation Human motives are based on needs (conscious / subconscious): Primary needs . individuals will try and make some assessment of three factors before deciding on a course of action.So what shou'd replace carrot-and-stick psychology. That is. interests. There are two other kinds of approaches which are based on the ideas of process and reinforcement.physiological requirements -water. Expectancy theory: People will adapt their behavior in order to achieve a desired outcome. Our motive structures the network of our habits. our habits. but there are differences of opinion however. it could be that the person's sense of self-determination is enhanced not only in relation to that activity. Events that weaken self-determination or competence will decrease intrinsic motivation. Choice means that employees should be able to p z. Collaboration concerns the need to structure effective teams. Cognitive theories: Cognitive theories are largely concerned with the interaction between the individual and the environment.. desires and goals. This includes whatever is of importance to that individual. accomplishment. they will pursue behavior for which they are rewarded and attempt to avoid behavior which leads to undesirable consequences. affiliation. content theories.. In reality needs do not always lead to behavior but maybe a cause of it. The most important amongst these deals with how people decide on what behavior to engage in on le basis of their expectations. all the theories lead to a situation of understanding the individual behavior. According to Vroom. e. Presented to his sensing and perceiving mechanisms. interests. collaboration. We are all confronted with hundreds of opportunities to become interested in things suggested to us to spend time. especially how `he individual perceives external factors. that is. If you want people motivated to do a good job. Thus. change with changing circumstances and advancing years. sleep. Sometimes behavior is what we do. affection. needs. Motivators are . self assertion.g. it could be that there is a 'spreading effect': for instance.rticipate in making decisions about what they do everyday. needs and similar forces. These are: If I attempt this behavior how likely is it that I will succeed? (Expectancy) If I am successful. Some investigators consider the physiological needs as primary and those which involve obtaining there satisfaction at a later time as secondary.self esteem. Variables are the wide range in amount of energy made available when a motive goes in pursuit of an alternative. as Frederick Herzberg has put it. Content refers to the tasks on which people work. the network of motivation that screens one's input of stimuli. the quick answer is that there are no quick answers_ But three C's offer a gone framework: choice. will the outcome be desirable? (Instrumentality) and How much do I value the outcomes? ( Valence ) 3.. and content. status. A manager motivates his subordinates to do things which will satisfy their drives. what he covets openly or secretly as well as what he feels compelled to do. but that there is an overall increase in his sense of personal autonomy. smells etc. on the nature of the pattern. Secondary needs . energy and money pursuing these alternatives. not why we do. The others are suppressed so effectively that many of them are not consciously heard or seen. The answers to these questions will determine the level of an individual's intrinsic motivation. These needs vary in intensity and over time within various individuals. air. desires. more or less pre-occupied with our self image and the opinions of us held by our associates. desires and goals screen out the proposals that catch our interest because we need them and they command our attention. In order to boost intrinsic motivation companies should pursue the same activity with which the autonomy-supporting or externally-controlling variables are associated. We are normally in the .. needs. however. sounds. goals and desires. give them a good job to do.

we must be able to understand and motivate them. It means that by participation a worker feels involved and obeys the leader. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. 2. Physiological -food. These principles govern our behavior. A state of well-being. Basic needs take priority over these growth needs. Stick -fear of loss of job. Theories of Motivation: There are a number of theories regarding motivation Carrot and Stick Approach: Use of rewards / penalties to induce desired behavior o o Carrot -Money / bonus etc. we need to interact with peers. goodness. Cognitive -learning for learning alone. and unity consciousness. Values. shelter. Self-actualisation know exactly who we are. and other people whose support we need to accomplish our objectives. he higher needs are called meta needs or growth needs. beauty. etc. order. The top four needs (5 to 8). . These basic needs are also called deficiency needs because if they are not met by an individual. He based his theory on healthy. As a leader we must understand these needs because they are powerful motivators. beliefs. So motivation is the drive and effort to satisfy a want or a goal. altruism. group individuals and environment which interact for activity. They may be motivated. potential. Aesthetic -at peace. seniors. The human motives are product of group life and the gains are for the group not just the individual. The needs on the bottom of the list (1 to 4) must be met before the needs above it can be met. few doubts about self. Maslow listed the following hierarchy of needs: 8. Self-transcendence -a transegoic level that emphasises visionary intuition. To understand and motivate people. Motivation reflects wants. close friends to confine with. 3. we must know the human nature. At the time. creative people who used all their talents. more curious about inner workings of all. There are two major groups of human needs: basic needs and meta needs. The managers believed if they had power to punish or reward they would be able to direct human behavior. recognition. Belongingness and love -belong to a group. People who lack food or water cannot attend to justice or beauty. 6. 5. Esteem -feeling of moving up in world. 7. and psychological. where we are going. If positive achievement oriented frame of mind is created in individuals they may be favourable for work. The Interaction Theory: Organization has three variables. sentiments and self interest. These needs are listed below in hierarchical order. as long as all the other needs (1 to 4) have all been met. Basic needs are physiological. Satisfaction is the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied.come experienced. These include justice. 4. Safety -feel free from immediate danger. and sleep. any kind of interaction. and capabilities. other penalty It remained the main tool in the hands of managers for a long time. This approach is based on Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. unity. can be pursued in any order depending on a person's wants or circumstance. sex. motivators (rewards / incentives) and it influences individual behavior. but all people have similar needs. security. and what we want to accomplish. To gain their support. and customs differ from country to country and group to group. such as affection. and self esteem. Abraham Maslow felt that the basic human needs were arranged in a hierarchical order. then that person will strive to make up the deficiency. Satisfaction is the out. 1. Motivation is a drive towards an outcome. this differed from most psychology research studies which were based on the observation of disturbed people. water. Participative Theory: Some management thinkers have said that participation in decision making is the motive. such as food.such things which induce an individual to perform. People behave according to certain principles of human nature. Pattern Concept: A man does something for the pleasure of achievement. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Human needs are an important part of human nature. contribute knowledge. It is based on the interaction of the group and the individuals. Behavioral Theories As a manager. water.

Policies and administrative practices Ll. except it is more closely related to work: Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: 1. do not want responsibility.. Because the lower level needs are more immediate and urgent. There are able to concentrate on fulfilling the visions put forth to them. Fellow workers 2. and have little or no ambition. J. Herzberg coined the term "job enrichment" to describe the process of redesigning work in order to build in Motivators.. We constantly strive to move up it. Theory X People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. People must be coerced. directed. i. Those on the bottom get pushed up. Personal life Motivators or Satisfiers 1. McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y. come across a small prize or receive a well paying job. . or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. they come into playas the source and direction of a person's goal. People who have their basic needs met become much better workers. Herzberg's needs are specifically job related and reflect some of the distinct things that people want from their work as opposed to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs which reflect all the needs in a persons life. Maslow's Five Needs Basic Needs Security Work Environment Salary Personal Requirement Job Securit w . A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of behaviour as long as the needs below it have been satisfied.Maslow posited that people want and are forever striving to meet various goals. People prefer to be directed. Status 7. controlled. Those on top get pushed down for short time periods. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate over unsatisfied higher needs and must first be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy. instead of consistently worrying about how to make ends meet. if they are not satisfied. Knowing where a person is located on this scale aids in determining an effective motivator.. Our goal as leaders is to help employees obtain the skills and knowledge that will push them up the hierarchy permanently. Recognition 3 Advancement 5 Responsihility 2. we cannot use Motivators until all the Hygiene factors are met. while at the same time forces outside our control try to push us down it. i. Working conditions 3 Salary and benefits 5.e. death of loved-one or an idea that does not work. motivating a middle-class person (who is in range 4 of the hierarchy) with a certificate will have a far greater impact than using the same motivator to motivate a minimum wage person from the ghettos who is struggling to meet needs 1 and 2.e. Building on this model. For example. That is. These are two opposing perceptions about how people view human behaviour at work and organizational life. Working Con dition Quality of Supervision Interpersonal Relations Company Policy Quality of Policy Advancement Reco gnit ion Status Challenomq Achievement Growth of Job Affiliation Fteern Self Actuali7ation Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors: Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow':) Hierarchy of Needs. It should be noted that almost no one stays in one particular hierarchy for an extended period. Achievement 4 Growth 6 Jnh challenge Hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate that person. Stipervisin ni 6 Job secunt .

but will not request it. explains and harness phenomena. Promethian (Rationalist) . here-and-now. we typically develop a basic attitude or predisposition for one of them. while Theory Y is based on workers who are in the Motivators' or Satisfiers' section. and have strong work ethics. Apollonian (Idealist) .An Apollonian sets extraordinary goals. People learn to accept and seek responsibility. etc. They are action driven. . They like making clear cut decisions and will follow established organizational protocol without question. A boss can be viewed as taking the Theory X approach. They can be gadfly in pursuing one goal after another. and procedures. such as physiological and safety needs. even transcendent. predicts. Balance our team and choose people from all walks of life. a sense of duty. management's role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards Ammon goals. People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). They are pessimists who elicit conformity to group norms. and like to build systems for the future. Notice that Maslow. They value competence in themselves and others. McGregor's Theory X is based on workers caught in Herzberg's hygiene or Dissatisfiers. Epithean (Guardian) . With Theory Y assumptions. McGregor's Theory X is based on workers caught in the lower levels (1 to 3) of Maslow's theory while his Theory Y is for workers who have gone above level 3. ingenuity. All to often. Creativity. People have potential.This type of person understands. efforts.which is based on the work of Carl Jung. They will create sweeping changes if they see the need.People with this temperament have strong affiliation needs. They strive to "be real" and are always in the process of "becoming". are centred on people and relationships! and would rather focus on ideas than tasks. a team weak. There are four temperaments or characters that our personality is based on. clothing. thrive on challenges. With Theory X assumptions. Leaders need all four types of temperaments on their team to make it well rounded. and strive to control situations. They are described with the names of Greek Gods of mythology. Many organizations are now taking the enlightened view of Theory Y. and goals must be imbued with "meaning" "They are hard workers. values spontaneity. or their favorite. They do things because the process of doing them is pleasing. home. relationships. and resists being constrained or obligated. leaders tend to choose people with their same type of personality. Herzberg. But this makes. Although we have the capacity for all four temperaments. They are optimists who are not easily controlled. with whom they share preferences and behaviors: Dionysian (Artisan) .This temperament seeks freedom. Keirsey Temperament Sorter : David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates based their work on the Myers. They are almost never satisfied with accomplishments and are embarrassed by praise. They are the ultimate troubleshooters and negotiators. Work. and thrive on situations requiring immediate response. They prefer the big picture over details. if the cause is deemed worthwhile. in that it cannot approach problems and implementations from all sides of the spectrum. get satisfaction from giving.People seek security above all else. are keepers of traditions. while a leader takes the Theory Y approach. They tend to dislike bosses. management's role is to coerce and control employees. in his Existence / Relatedness / Growth (ERG) Theory of Needs. They are imaginative. theorised that there are three groups of needs: Existence . People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem.Briggs -Type-Indicator (MBTI) . They are the most self-critical of all and consistently set higher goals of perfection. This need is satisfied by money earned in a job to buy food.This group of needs is concerned with providing the basic requirements for material existence. policies. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. hard for them to even explain. and imagination are widely distributed among the population. regardless of the goal or outcome. and are tireless in pursuit of a cause". that are. Existence / Relatedness / Growth (ERG): Clayton Alderfer. Theory Y Work is as natural as play and rest. They want recognition and appreciation for they believe is merited. Theory X is the view that traditional management has taken towards the workforce. and McGregor's theories all tie together : Herzberg's theory is a micro version of Maslow's theory (concentrated in the work place). analytical.

expectancy.Relationships . Instrumentality (Belief) = This is the belief that the reward will be received once the task is completed. research has found that where a task is new or a goal difficult. On the other hand a manager who finds his job does not fulfill his needs is likely to put forward less effort. if an employee wants to move up through the ranks. to take more initiative and responsibility and to be more creative in his approach to the job. The product of valence. where they are dissatisfied with their current level of performance and have a high expectation that they will succeed in achieving their goal. Valence (Reward) = Is the amount of desire for a goal. then the employee has high expectancy. A person's job. ability and knowledge of task determine actual performance of job. It can be thought of as the strength of the drive towards a goal. this need is normally satisfied at least to some degree by one's co-workers. career. For example. People may create equity in a variety of ways. leading to improved performance. www. He identifies this phenomenon as the "Frustration . and instrumentality is motivation. What about those who already know that they will be engaged in boring work for the foreseeable future? How likely are they to feel good about setting high goals and targets for themselves? This research is interesting because it deals with tasks of different kinds and goals with varying degrees of difficulty. For example. Therefore. Since. Locke and Latham's goal setting theory: Goal setting theory is centered around the notion that both explicit and implicit goals motivate. If the employee believes that high performance will result in good reviews. or profession provides for significant satisfaction of growth needs. the person's basic needs are significantly threatened. an individual who is undertaking a mind numbingly boring task might be more interested in setting high performance goals for themselves if he or she can return to more interesting work at the completion of the task. likely to put forward more effort.These needs are met by personal development. the job still provides for the basic physiological needs upon which one would then be focused. then promotion has a high valence for that employee. But if the employee believes the company will not promote from within. Goals. provide task focus and encourage persistence. promotion and status). Effort. A highly motivated manager is one who finds his job fulfills his needs and he is therefore.This group of needs centers on or is built upon the desire to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships. at that point. One of the more interesting critiques of goal setting theory concerns the issue of time horizon. produce effort.amityelearning. individuals will be more likely to be motivated." Its relevance on the job is that even when the upper-level needs are frustrated. the desire to satisfy a low level need will increase. For example. (What is the reward?) Expectancy (Performance) = Is the strength of belief that work related effort will result in the completion of the task. If there are not factors present to relieve the pressure. Alderfer's ERG theory also states that more than one needs maybe influential at the same time. When the individual becomes experienced however high expectations of success may actually lead to a reduction in effort and therefore declining performance. qualifications and effort) and outcomes (pay. If the gratification of a higher level need is frustrated.2006 . Growth .com GurukulOnline Learning Solution Tm . then the employee has low instrumentality. Vroom's Expectancy Theory: Vroom's Expectancy Theory states that an individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. the person may become desperate and panicky. the employee is not motivated to perform any harder. Their work seems to be most effective where three conditions are present: Feedback Specific goals Difficult goals 3. to look for another job and to be absent a good deal. If. one usually spends approximately half of one's waking hours on the job. The reward and expectation of equitable reward leading to satisfaction also affect performance. Equity theory: Equity theory is concerned with our sense of how justly we are treated at work in terms of the ratio between our inputs (experience.aggression dimension. something happens to threaten the job. they assert.

Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions: Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. not follow them. Self serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them.AMITY Chapter 8. he does not think about your at.stand your be. This guide will help you through that process. This is the Trait Theory. Some tasks are performed alone. etc. on the other hand. People can learn leadership skills.ship (later sections will expand on gaining an insight into these principles and providing tools to perform them): Know yourself and seek self-improvement: In order to know yourself.in GurukulOnline" Learning Solutions Principles and Practices of Management Good leaders are made not born. the greater the liking. tasks. and skills). To inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion. task. which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives. and experience. The basis of good leadership is honourable character and selfless service to your organization. Also. Principles of Leadership: To help you be. . motivate. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with.tributes. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. know. head. and what he does (implement. In your employees' eyes. CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP o b nurture talent 60 9001 2000 Cortfiod www. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. your leadership is verything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well being. Its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with.Although your position as a manager.it simply makes you the boss." Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission. etc. or a self serving person who misuses his authority to look good and get promoted. Bass's theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. take corrective action. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. . gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization. These do not come naturally. education. and towards what end. character. provide direction).gurukulonline. supervisor. but are ‘cquired through continual work and study. What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. bosses tell people to accomplish a task or objective. Be technically proficient: As a leader. A person carries out this process by applying his leadership attributes (belief. To gain respect. you can become an effective leader. and do. attributes. He uses this observation to tell if you are a honourable and trusted leader. task. Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-study. or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. know.. Analyse the situation. they will sooner or later. self-study. follow these eleven principles of leader. there are certain things you must. And when things go wrong. Leadership is defined as "a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission. values. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. This is the Great Events Theory. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. knowledge. 3. These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. how often. they must be ethical. know and do. this power does not make you a leader. This can be accomplished through reading. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. while. training. you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' jobs. He observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. When a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader. the greater the interaction. human nature). This in turn leads to frequent interaction. but most are carried out in relationship with others. ethics. do not blame others. and do.. People tend to do what they are rewarded for. A respected leader concentrates on what he be (beliefs and haracter). you have to under. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. If you have the desire and willpower. classes. and move on to the next challenge. People can choose to become leaders.co. what he knows Gob.

know. the informal leaders within your organization. decision making. and what you can do. the skill of your people. supervising. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. communication. then the results may prove ineffective. To be a good leader.. then he will be uninspired. competence. . They must not only hear what they are expected to do. who the unofficial leaders are. courage. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature: needs. and planning tools.Make sound and timely decisions: Use good problem solving. they are not really teams. Much of it is non-verbal. Use the full capabilities of your organization: By developing a team spirit. its climate and culture. BE a professional who possesses good character traits. Environmental effect: Every organization has a particular work environment that dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. Set the example: Be a good role model for you employees. For instance. decision making. but if the confrontation is too late or too early. Keep you people informed: Know how to communicate with your people.. If a follower does not trust or lacks confidence in his leader. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character. note that it is the followers. etc. leaders exert influence on the environment by three types of actions: The goals and performance standards they establish. Situation: All situations are different. Also. KNOW yourself. perform selfless service. and other key people within the organization.they are just a group of people doing their jobs. what you know. there are things that you must be. leader. KNOW the four factors of leadership -follower. train. section. seniors. section. a team. integrity. This is brought about by a heritage of its past leaders and its present leaders. Examples: Human needs and emotions. evaluating." that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. knowledge. coach. emotions. A person with a poor attitude requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. you will be able to employ your organization. planning DO implement. Examples: goal setting. Know your people and look out for their well-being: Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. not yourself or your superiors. candour.. Ensure that tasks are understood. and do attributes. and skills. The values they establish for the organization. department. to its fullest capabilities Factors of leadership: The four major factors of leadership are: Follower: Different people require different styles of leadership. For example. straightforward. situation. take personal responsibility. that you are worthy of being followed. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. KNOW human nature. What you do in one leadership situation will not always work in another situation. KNOW your organization. problem solving. Examples: where to go for help. know. You must know your employees' be.. Examples: Honesty. DO provide direction. commitment. The business and people concepts they establish. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors. and how your company is organized. not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. For example. Communication: You lead through two-way communication. DO motivate. Leader: You must have a honest understanding of who you are. KNOW your job. and accomplished: Communication is the key to this responsibility. Various forces will affect these factors. co-coordinating. supervised. Develop a sense of responsibility in you people: Develop good character traits within your people that will help thl3m carry out their professional responsibilities. imagination. but also see. Examples: communicating. Train your people as a team: Although many so called leaders call their organization. too harsh or too weak. and how people respond to stress. Examples: Be loyal to the organization. then the people around you will learn to respect you. when you "set the example. counsels. department. a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. Examples: develop moral and esprit in the organization. you may need to confront a employee for inappropriate behavior. and motivation. etc. Attributes of an effective leader: If you are a leader that can be trusted. and do: BE a professional. To be successful you have to convince your followers.

Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. crises. Trait theory: Great man approach one who has the traits will be a leader in all situations. etc. presentations. new task and behaviors are expected of the present role holder because that role holder or a prior role holder developed a strong relationship in the past. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. It is a combination of the founders. either. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted and what type of business the organization will engage in. and surrounding community. and friendship is a powerful reward. and towards what end. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that mayor may not be spelled out. and the "way we do things. direct. Climate represents the beliefs about the "feel of the organization" by its members. vendors. The climate is the feel of the organization. This personality defines the roles. safeguard the interest of the group and individuals. quality. climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. events. and reliability. the 'eater the liking. That is. . and size. Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any jot incumbent. customers. The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. there is a sense of accomplishment or challenge. productivity. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior because money is paid for the performance of the role there is prestige attached to a role." Things are done differently in every organization. The mature values that create "tradition" or the "way we do things here. the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members. Also. past leadership. plans. rewards. rules. This individual perception of the "feel of the organization" comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. empathize and precede. and we tend to seek out those we like. relationships. everything you do as a leader will effect the climate of the organization. based on the values. current leadership. Leadership Theories 1. This results in rites: the routines. cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate. Some tasks are performed alone. and concepts make up the organization's "personality" or how both outsiders and insiders observe the organization. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business." These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs the appropriate behavior for each circumstance. traditions. Therefore they need to: Use of persuasion Take calculated risk Encourage voluntary cooperation and discipline A leader has to define the group goals to make decisions. rituals. values. and punishments? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decision? What will happen if I make a mistake? Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader. and customs. rewards. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. history. co-ordinate and control. Functions of a leader: Leadership functions are to lead. Each organization has its own distinctive culture. The ethical climate then is the "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behaviour. the greater the interaction. Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees. attributes. is to guide. complex phenomenon. Research shows these traits may just put a person in higher esteem. direct growth. skills. But. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with. These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction. its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with. On the other hand. how often. These goals. Such activities include: How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition. and rites that take place. but most are carried out in relationship with others. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right. as well as the priorities of the leader. and actions. investors. In human behavior. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. motivate. People tend to do what they are rewarded for. culture is along-term. While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems. resolve internal clashes. develop rewarding system. market leadership. There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization -culture and climate. counsel.Successful organizations have good leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum such as strategies. conduct. Individual leaders.

He consults. In short. The leadership behavior continuum gives us the various levels of control that can be utilized by the leaders. gives opportunity to his subordinates to participate in problem solving and goal setting. Democratic leadership: leader draws ideas and suggestions from his group by discussions. The style can either be effective or ineffective. while on the other end we have leaders who releases highest degree of control. Composite view: leadership is neither the quality possessed by an individual nor a product of situation alone or of the group alone. This is known as leadership behavior continuum . The democratic leader wants to share some of the decision making responsibility centers with his followers. A common model is given below to show the centers of power under the different styles of leadership. This gives a good Insight. Between these two extremes there can be various shades and hues. Two models will be discussed. democratic and laissez faire. Leader takes the decision but takes the trouble of selling it to his subordinates. The autocratic leader is an authoritarian. depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations. Leadership Models: Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do in certain situations. This relies heavily on non financial incentives. • Structural Framework . Leader asks his subordinates to take the decisions. consultation and participation. Situational approach: Work situation or environment must be taken into account. Political. Effective leadership is a function of: the leader the led the situation Classification of leadership: The traditional classification of styles of leadership has been autocratic. Leaders have to work within certain limitations. Degree of Control 6. Structural Leaders focus . Human Resource. This give greater co-operation better morale.In an effective leadership situation the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. lowers quality of performance. he is the sole decision maker. However. the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. Autocratic or dictatorial leadership: Leader assumes full responsibility for all actions. Group approach: Success of a leader is influenced by the characteristics of the particular group leader should be best suited to articulate the group needs and desires. the leader may be exploitatively authoritative or benevolent -authoritative. He possesses all power. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. The ideal is not to lock yourself into a type of behavior discussed in the model. In the Four Framework Approach. criticizes. highly critical and negative attitude in his relations. Each leadership style is effective when it matches the needs of the situation. Degree of Freedom Thus. He freely uses threats of punishment and penalty for motivation and obedience. Laissez faire or free rein leadership: Leader depends entirely on his subordinates to establish their own goals and make their own decisions. 3. motivates. participative or may even leave subordinates completely free. Leader explains the problem to the subordinates gets their suggestions and takes the decision. A leader is a moderator of the two way flow of communication.4. in practice we do not operate on these two extremes but somewhere in between. takes decision. Bolman and Deal suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural. create a sense of responsibility. On one extreme there are leaders who maintain a high degree of control. or Symbolic. retards growth. but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Every leader has a particular behavior pattern and follows a distinctive style of functioning. directs and controls. the style may vary from a strong leadership where a high degree of control is exercised to a weak leadership where complete decision making is delegated to subordinates. 5. the attitudes and beliefs of the work group and attitudes and beliefs of the leader. The laissez-faire leader is a 'free-reign' leader. It demoralizes workers. Contingency theory of management supports situational influence on leadership. Leader takes the decision and informs the subordinates. Leader suggests ideas and invites questions from his subordinates. consultative. but within certain fixed limits of authority. praises. avoids power by effective delegation or he is a weak leader. Leader suggests the decision to his subordinates which are subject to change.

they empower. they assess the distribution of power and interests. low relationship -9. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. we come up with four types of leaders: Authoritarian (9 on task. 1 on people). The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid uses two axis.high task. whose leadership style is inspiration. and empowerment. people who score on the far end of the scales. Human Resource Framework . implementation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get. strategy. they are visible and accessible. However. they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate. Authoritarian leader . Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theatre to play certain roles and give impressions: these leaders use symbols to capture attention. 9 on people). These two dimensions can be drawn on a graph or grid: 9 High 8 1:9 = Country Club 7 Team Leader = 9:9 P E 6 0 5 5:5 Middle of the road 4 3 P L E 2 1:1 = Impoverished 1 1 Low 2 3 Authoritarian = 9:1 4 5 TASK 6 7 8 9 High Most people would fall somewhere near the middle of the two axis. when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it.In an effective leadership situation the leader is a prophet. and adaptation. environment. Highly task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules. while during a period when strong growth is needed. they discover and communicate a vision. whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. use persuasion first. by going to the extremes. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of our favored approach.on structure. Team Leader (9 on task.1: People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). .In an effective leadership situation the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support. We should be conscious of all four approaches and not just rely on one. Phis model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. whose leadership style is coalition and building. and move decision making down into the organization. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis and "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a fanatic or fool. advocate. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. 9 on people). increase participation. and Impoverished (1 on task. They both have a range of 1 to 9. 1 on people). whose leadership style is manipulation.In an effective leadership situation the leader is an advocate. whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. that is. share information. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a hustler. they build linkages to other stakeholders. during a major organization change. experimentation. then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. Anyone of these approaches alone would be inadequate. support. In an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a pushover. the visionary approach may be better. Political Framework . Symbolic Framework . they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences. There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. For example. a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style. Country Club (1 on task.

amityelearning. the Team Leader. by playing the Impoverished Leader. Some people believe only if a person has certain personality traits he can be a leader. he is almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. A good leader must have selfcontrol. both as team members and as people. empathy. liddle of the road leader points out firm but fair approach. Leadership is of spirit. Model the way . Conversely. do not entirely dismiss the other three. However. high relationship -1.9: This type of leader leads by positive example. Team leader . Country Club leader . he should be able to define organization goals to the group he leads. 5.9: This leader uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. you will know at what points along the axis you need to be in order to achieve the desired result. Be a Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. It is a vital ingredient for a manager's success so that he can direct and motivate his subordinates. competency of handling diverse situations. physically fit. He must be flexible. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it. www. creative.Next. keep the pains in your heart. Leadership is the ability to cause other to follow willingly. Inspire a shared vision . Impoverished leader . Enable others to act .. share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers.high task.Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem.Share the glory with your followers' heart. compounded of personality and vision its practice is an art. The process of effective leadership: The road to great leadership (common to successful leaders): Challenge the process .1. you allow your team to gain self-reliance. high relationship -9. For example.com @GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . Every person theoretically can be a leader but in the industrial situation a leader emerges and grows and is sustained till he satisfies the needs of the team.a leader shows it can be done.When the process gets tough.low task. A boss tells others what to do.. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible. find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most. This inability results from the leaders' fear that using such powers could jeopardize his relationships with the team members. get your hands dirty. Others believe that the position due to formal authority makes a true leader. Encourage the heart . he essentially allows the team to do what ever it wishes and prefers to detach himself from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. They form and lead the most productive teams. low relationship-1.First.2006 .• they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity) so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop. This person uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. They endeavor to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential. honest. Since he is not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance. Only if a person with authority also happens to be a leader of the group he leads it in an ideal situation. a good communicator and he must have integrity.low task. The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axis at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people. he should have warmth and sympathy.

and what must be done with it. Communication is an exchange. uncertainty.co. developing and appraising members. Organizing human and other resources effectively. its level of importance. or feelings. motivating. bottom to top. and side to side.in Principles and Practices of Management Chapter 9. ideas or attitudes and emotions between a sender (manager) and receiver (employee) or between two or more people. This can be a concept.The receiver then translates the words or symbols into a concept or information. Communication is essentially a bridge of meaning or understanding between people. Selecting. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Communication is defined as "the sharing.We nurture talent . and supervise through this process. Sharing or exchange is a two way process". the look in the sender's eye's.so : 200(1 c•rtiti•d u ru kulonline. Context is the way the message is delivered: tone of voice. Effective communication = Receipt of message + Understanding + Acceptance + Action. idea. not just to give. Encodes . body language. This feedback will tell the sender that the receiver understood the message. C GurukulOnline. Content and Context. ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN organization Establishing and disseminating goals of the enterprise. Decoding . It is the chain of understanding that integrates the members of an organization from top to bottom. Controlling. Learning Solutions . facts" opinion. Developing plans for their achievement. information.First. evaluate. Each managerial position is a . a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.Next. Leading. According to Chester Bernard the first executive function is to develop and maintain an effective system of organizational communication. transfer (exchange) of messages. Planning Organising Motivating ‘1' Communication Leading Controlling 1 External environment Customers I Suppliers I Stockholders Government / Community / Others. fear.). confidence. . counsel. Content is the actual words or symbols of the message. directing. all parties must participate to complete the information exchange. information exists in the mind of the sender. A message has NOT been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver. How do you know it has been properly received? By twoway communication or feedback. etc. What is involved in the communication process? Idea . state of emotion (anger. coordinate. Studying the communication process is important because you coach. During the transmitting of the message. Effective communication is the biggest challenge before the management today.enter of decision making as well as a center of communication. He 'aid that communication is the means by which people are linked together to achieve a common purpose. two processes will be received by the receiver.

are all messages. Are aware of biases. understand the meaning. misprint in a book. wrong meaning attached to words or symbols. Channel: Medium used to transfer message. or show support. . Decoder and Receiver: Receiver decodes message and attaches meaning to it. phone. The following are some of the traits of good listeners: Spends more time listening than talking. gesture etc. and then verify the meaning by offering feedback. Crosswise communication includes horizontal flow with people on the same / similar organizational levels and diagonal flows with people at different levels. Listening is a selective activity which involves the reception and the interpretation of aural stimuli. Need or information to be transmitted. The best communication channel is face to face interaction. In most effective organizations communication flows: horizontal downward upward diagonal Downward communication can be lost / distorted. newspaper. Noise is anything that reduces accuracy of communication. We all have them. The message is put into a code before it is transmitted. use of ambiguous symbols. Proper channel is vital for effective communication. But he should be ready for it. Static in channel. This helps increasing understanding and coordinates efforts. . In this connection. Active listening. This indicates the effectiveness of communication. The channel links sender with the receiver. Passive listening is little more than hearing. Hearing is the act of perceiving sound. It requires that the listener attends to the words and the feelings of sender for understanding. tv etc. He is also the encoder. Communication is not complete unless it is understood. In organizational communication source is brain transmitter is voice mechanism channel is air receiver is ear decoder is brain Noise are the other sounds which create difficulty in hearing the speech. It occurs when the receiver or the message has little motivation to listen carefully. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking. graphic drawing. share interest. Meaning: Meanings result from factors in the individual and the physical world around the receiver. who don't directly report to each other. Managers either have too less information or are subjected to information overload for decision making.Source and Encoder: Information source is the origin of the message. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. We need to control them. feedback is essential. Active listening: Hearing and listening is not the same thing. Noise could be physical error in typing.4oise: Is any kind of interference in interpersonal and organizational communication.. on the other hand. obtain directions. Message: Spoken words. MIS (management information system) is a popular tool for organizational communication. Sender is the source of some thought. solve problems. It requires the receiver to hear the various messages. Does not answer questions with questions. Feedback: Receiver decodes an attempt to understand the message. see how another person feels. It may be to gain information. Therefore. Effective upward communication requires an environment in which subordinates feel free to communicate.. Upward communication from subordinate to superior generally gets hindered by managers filtering messages and not transmitting them to the organization. Does not finish the sentence of others. sight and sound. He now becomes the source and gives response to receive the message. Listening is broken down into two categories: passive and active. Receiver's response is called the feedback. printed words. Speed of communication and sharing of relevant information has acquired lot of importance in the post globalised scenario. Language is a popular code. It involves decoding the sound into meaning. It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural stimuli. Faulty communication causes most problems. story telling. office grapevine. understand others. facial expression. television or being polite. such as music. involves listening with purpose. inaccurate reception caused by inattention. Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate.

5. "This is what I understand your feelings to be. goodness. or appropriateness of the other person's statement. but saying "I appreciate suggestions" is contradictory. Vocal : Speaking can signal non-verbal communication when you include such vocal elements as: tone. Gestures : If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. Takes brief notes. Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreement. use non-verbal behaviours to raise the channel of interpersonal communication. continue the discussion.NOT on what interests them. Your words should be saying. Notice that we make judgements more often than we try to understand: Evaluative: Making a judgement about the worth. tapping.. Plans responses after the other person has finished speaking.Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others talk. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more. To deliver the full impact of a message. They are as follows: Eye contact : This helps to regulate the flow of communication. warmth. Posture and body orientation : You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication. Provides feedback but do not interrupt incessantly. and credibility. timbre. Lets the other speaker talk. but also ionverbal ones. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. So. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention. warm and approachable. facial expressions and body gestures. and inflection. Providing feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing the words of the sender. Communication barriers are symptoms of deep-rooted problems. People who make eye contact...e. friendly. friendliness. the receiver or the environment. i. Actions of. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable. and gaze aversion. Therefore. and facilitates understanding. Walks the person through your analysis (summarise). Keeps the conversation on what the speaker says. Does not dominate the conversation. open the flow of communication and convey interest. some of them are listed below: Noise . A manager looking angry and disgusted. or sucking air In deeply and blowing it hard shows that you are also exasperated with the situation. and liking. They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations. learn to vary these six elements of your voice. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other. . It includes verbal and non verbal responses to another person's message.. concern. warmth.NOT while they are speaking.. It generally is a consequence of lack of planning on the part of the communicator. makes the conversation more interesting.ten speak louder than words. Proximity : Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. What we say can be reinforced / contradicted by non-verbal communication. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us). Analyses by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. pitch. dipping your eyebrows shows you don't quite understand meaning of their last phrase. or clarify a point. Barriers can be related to the sender. This forces them to concentrate on what is being said. Carl Roger listed five main categories of feedback. Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other. Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words. For maximum teaching effectiveness.Focusing on ourselves. Many physical and psychological barriers exist. Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the other communicator means by his statements. if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likeable. Facial expressions : Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOURS OF COMMUNICATION Lot of information is communicated orally through face to face addressing.. One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Ourselves . Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably. Interpretative: Paraphrasing -attempting to explain what the other persons statement mean. loudness. Listening can be our most powerful communication tool! Be sure to use it! Feedback: The purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the second communicator understands the intention of the original communicator. rather than repeating their words. am I correct?" It not only includes verbal responses. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. Supportive: Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator Probing: Attempting to gain additional information. Some of these are: rocking. non-verbal communication can support or contradict verbal communication. mode of transmission. receptive and friendly. rhythm. leg swinging.

superiority (we feel we know more that the other).vides a potential distraction. empathize with the talker.This undermines communication. There is a delay in processing and task of communication is defeated. Also our pre-conceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. He said that communication shapes and forms the internal economy of a firm. For honest feedback there should be an atmosphere of trust and confidence and a supportive leadership style. Guidelines for improving communication or overcoming barriers: Sender must be clear about purpose of message. we may dismiss the person. not fluent. Impersonal communication . hold your temper. On the other hand the placement department assumes he would make his own arrangement for staying.People do not see things the same way when under stress.Lack of clarity and expression can be a cause for communication breakdown. Perception . show talker you want to listen. Message . Status and power are the different levels in an organization through which communication flow often distorts message.. etc. experiences. For example. Therefore listening. Semantic distortion . and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity). an attractive person.requisites to understanding. extra classes.People unnecessarily assume things which do not exist. Loss by transmission and poor retention . International environment . Generally people make hasty judgement leading to communication breakdowns.ready aware of the facts. Sender must use )articipative tools before sending message e. does not articulate clearly. Distribution of managers activities: A decision is 90% information and 10% inspiration. Attitude leads to a predisposition to act / not to act in a particular way. Companies do a lot of repetition and use various channels to transmit their message. there is confusion. let someone else read the message before sending it.To avoid such a loss. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references -our beliefs. threat or fear . Selective perception . They have to be sensitive to all such differences or influences. people don't read carefully. listening is the key to understanding. and goals. values.Bright lights. Distrust. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions. Poor listening and premature evaluation . knowledge. understanding and empathy are required for communication. The tone of voice and choice of language must be right. don't criticize. Therefore. and ask questions. put talker at ease. Chester Bernard ranked communication along with common purpose and willingness to serve as one of the three primary elements of the organization. Time empathy and concentration on the communicators messages are pre. Consider needs of receivers of information and clearly show them the long term benefits of a short-term communication which may not be appealing right now.g.If we feel the person is talking too fast.Affects communication between superior and subordinate. e.Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. don't argue. the word chairman instead of chairperson may cause you to focus on the word and not the message. remove distraction.Listening is very important for communication.Too much information leads to a disregard for it. Henkel detergent in Muslim countries used the following advertisement dirty clean This failed miserably since Muslims read from right to left. Poor expression .g. a candidate called for an interview for a period of two/three days usually assumes he will be provided boarding and lodging.Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer.People hear and see what they want to and ignore other relevant information. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. specially in an organizational setup. Errors in processing emerge. be patient..Different languages and different feelings are present globalized companies a cross cultural problem. unusual sights. According to Keith Davis. One third of a manager's time is spent for routine communication work. Unclarified assumptions . For example.We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. or any other stimulus pro. etc. Smothering . Try to get feedback The responsibility of affective communication lies with both the sender and listener. Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are al. Information overload . Environment . Therefore. Stress . . guide to improving listening are: stop talking..

In the modern perspective, a study by Fred Luthans on how managers really communicate shows:The humanistic inter-actor is one who frequently interacts both upward and downwards. Mechanistic isolate communicates very little except formally. Formal controller uses formally scheduled communication interaction and exhibits monitoring/controlling activities. Informal developer communicates spontaneously.

Humanistic inter-actor

Infromal developer •

► Fromal controller

Mechanistic isolates
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION organizational communication: This is the middle ground between MIS and non verbal communication. In classical management style, downward communication is followed from one to the next in the organizational hierarchy. Upward communication is from subordinate to the immediate superior. Interpersonal communication: Interpersonal style is used for perception, learning, and motivation and for transferring information. Listening, sensitivity, empathy and non-verbal communication are used here. Non-verbal communication or the silent dimensions of communication: It is the perceived characteristics of environment through which the human verbal and non verbal messages are transmitted. Gestures, facial expression, hands, feet, posture, eyes, all communicate messages. Even a person's clothing, how close one sits during meetings, the firmness of a hand- shake communicate messages. This form of non-verbal communication is known as body language. Para-language: Pitch, tone, tenor, fluency, voice modulation, volume, form a part of this form of communication. Conversation as communication: Communication is best achieved through simple planning and control; lets look at approaches which might help you to do this and specifically at meetings, where conversations need particular care. Most conversation sort of drift along; in business, this is wasteful as a manager, you seek communication rather than chatter. To ensure an efficient and effective conversation, there are three considerations: you must make your message understood you must receive/understand the intended message sent to you you should exert some control over the flow of the communication Thus, you must learn to listen as well as to speak. Those who dismiss this as a mere platitude are already demonstrating an indisposition to listening: the phrase may be trite. but the message is hugely significant to your effectiveness as a manager. If you do not explicitly develop the skill of listening, you may not hear the suggestion/information which should launch you to fame and for tune. Avoid ambiguity: As a manager (concerned with getting things done) your view of words should be pragmatic rather than philosophical. Thus, words mean not what the dictionary says they do but rather what the speaker intended. The greatest source of difficulty is that words often have different meanings depending upon context or culture. Thus, a "dry" country lacks either water or alcohol; a "couple" is either a few or exactly two. If you recognise that there is a potential misunderstanding, you must stop the conversation and ask for the valid interpretation. A second problem is that some people simply make mistakes. Your job is not simply to spot ambiguities but also to counter inconsistencies. Thus, if I now advocate that the wise manager should seek out (perhaps humorous) books on entomology (creepy crawlies) you would deduce that the word should have been etymology. More usual, however, is that in thinking over several alternatives you may suffer a momentary confusion and say one of them while meaning another. There are good scientific reasons (to do with the associative nature of the brain) why this happens, you have to be aware of the potential problem and counter for it. Finally, of course, you may simply mishear. The omission of a simple word could be devastating. For instance, how long would you last as an explosives engineer if you failed to hear a

simple negative in: "whatever happens next you must [not] cut the blue w ..."? So, the problem is this: the word has multiple meanings, it might-not be the one intended, and you may have misheard it in the first place how do you know what the speaker meant? Rule 1 : PLAY BACK for confirmation Simple, you ask for confirmation. You say "let me see if I have understood correctly, you are saying that ..." and you rephrase what the speaker said. If this "play back" version is acknowledged as being correct by the original speaker, then you have a greater degree of confidence in your own understanding. For any viewpoint/message/decision, there should be a clear, concise and verified statement of what was said: without this someone will get it wrong. Rule 2 : WRITE BACK for confidence But do not stop there. If your time and effort depend upon it, you should write it down and send it to everyone involved as a double check. This has several advantages: Consistency check -the act of writing may highlight defects/omissions A formal stage -a statement of the accepted position provides a spring board from which to proceed Evidence -hindsight often blurs previous ignorance and people often fail to recall their previous errors Rule 3 : GIVE BACKGROUND for context When speaking yourself, you can often counter for possible problems by adding information, and so providing a broader context in which your words can be understood. Thus, there is less scope for alternative interpretations since fewer are consistent. When others are speaking, you should deliberately ask questions yourself to establish the context in which they are thinking. When others are speaking, you should deliberately ask questions yourself to establish the context in which they are thinking. The Techniques of Speech Every speaker has a set of "tricks of the trade" which he or she holds dear -the following are a short selection of such advice taken from various sources. Make an Impression: The average audience is very busy -they have husbands and wives, schedules and slippage, cars and mortgages; and although they will be trying very hard to concentrate on your speech, their minds will inevitably stray. Your job is to do something, anything, which captures their attention and makes a lasting impression upon them. Once you have planned your speech and honed it down to its few salient points, isolate the most important and devise some method to make it stick. Repeat, Repeat: The average audience is very busy: they have husbands or wives etc., -but repetition makes them hear. The average audience is easily distracted, and their attention will slip during the most important message of your speech- so repeat it. You don't necessarily have to use the resonant tonal sounds of the repeated phrase, but simply make the point again and again and again with different explanations and in different ways. The classic advice of the Sergeant Major is: "First you tell 'em what you are going to tell 'em, then you tell 'em, then you tell 'em what you told 'em!" Draw a Sign: Research into teaching has yielded the following observation: 'We found that students who failed to get the point did so because they were not looking for it". If the audience knows when to listen. they will. So tell them: the important point is ...

Draw a Picture: The human brain is used to dealing with images, and this ability can be used to make the message more memorable. This
means using metaphors or analogies to express your message. Thus, a phrase like "we need to increase the market penetration before there will be sufficient profits for a pay related bonus" becomes "we need a bigger slice of the cake before the feast". Jokes: The set piece joke can work very well, but it can also lead to disaster. You must choose a joke which is apt, and one which will not offend any member of the audience. This advice tends to rule out all racist, sexist or generally rude jokes. If this seems to rule out all the jokes you can think of, then you should avoid jokes in a speech. Amusing asides are also useful in maintaining the attention of the audience, and for relieving the tension of the speech. If this comes naturally to you, then it is a useful tool for pacing your delivery to allow periods of relaxation in between your sign-posted major points. Plain Speech, Yes! Short and Sweet: One way to polish the presentation of the main 'point of your speech is to consider it thus. The day before your presentation, you are called to to the office of the divisional vice-president; there you are introduced to the managing director and a representative of the company's major share holder; "OK" says the vice president "we hear you have got something to say, we'll give you 30 seconds, GO". Can you do it? If you can crystallize your thoughts and combine your main message with some memorable phrase or imagery, and present them both in 30 seconds then you have either the perfect ending or the basis for a fine presentation.

The Narrative: Everyone loves a story and stories can both instruct and convey a message: Zen Philosophy is recorded in its stories, and Christianity was originally taught in parables. If you can weave your message into a story or a personal anecdote, then you can have them wanting to hear your every word -even if you have to make it tip. Rehearsal: There is no substitute for rehearsal. You can do it in front of a mirror, or to an empty theatre. In both cases, you should accentuate your gestures and vocal projection so that you get used to the sound and sight of yourself. Do not be put off by the mirror remember: you see a lot less of yourself than your friends do. Relaxation: If you get nervous just before the show, either concentrate on controlling your breathing or welcome the extra adrenaline. The good news is that the audience will never notice your nerves nearly as much as you think. Similarly, if you dry-up in the middle -smile, look at your notes, and take your time. The silence will seem long to you, but less so to the audience. Once the speech is over and you have calmed down, you should try to honestly evaluate your performance. Either alone, or with the help of a friend in the audience, decides what was the least successful aspect of your presentation and resolve to concentrate on that point in the next talk you give. If it is a problem associated with the preparation, then deal with it there; if it is a problem with your delivery, write yourself a reminder note and put it in front of you at the next talk. Practice is only productive when you make a positive effort to improve - try it.

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you may need proof that you have been working as instructed The places to look for errors in a specification are: the global context: often focus too narrowly on the work of one team and fail to consider how it fits into the larger picture. the completeness will remove contradictory assumptions. The detail should include a precise understanding of the extent of any intermediate stages of the task. Coordinating the Effort: The success of a project will depend critically upon the effort. time-scale: we always underestimate the time involved for work. There are no short cuts to this. since. Make this very clear so that these people too will receive warning of your needs. Principle of continuous co-ordination . people tend to forget what they originally thought. it will cost you far more later on. Never assume a common understanding. It cannot be taken for granted or be left to chance but is consciously and continuously ensured.The principle assumes that an organization is a system of inter-related elements. co-ordination is not a one-time task but is a never ending and all-time function. At these points something gets transferred. and this must be agreed by all involved.Co-ordination is best brought about by direct face to face contact or direct access between the concerned members of the organization by cutting across departments and management levels. All it takes for your habitual understandings to evaporate is the arrival of one new member. not the solution. ambiguities.AMITY We nurture talent oGurukulOnlineLearning Solutions LSO 9001 : 2000 Cartifiod Principles and Practices of Management Chapter 10. The work on the specification can be seen as the first stage of Quality Assurance. because you will be wrong. Define and agree your interfaces and maintain a friendly contact throughout the project. The outcome of this deliberation should be a written definition of what is required. external dependencies: our work may depend upon that of others. Once the project is underway. Principle of direct control . by when. the specification contains errors. in either of the teams. you are looking for and countering problems in the very foundation of the project .ordination effort at the stage of planning itself so that things can move smoothly at later stages. Exactly what. You must add realistic dates. changes cost time (and money). there are interfaces. Further. According to Mary Parker Follet there are four principles of co-ordination. Principle of early stage co-ordination . Normally. care and skill you apply in its initial planning and subsequent coordination. The existence of a demonstrably-agreed specification enables you to resist or to charge for (possibly in terms of extra time) such changes. Some of the work given to you may actually be undone or duplicated by others. Effective coordination requires following steps: Laying down the specifications: A specification is the definition of your project: a statement of the problem. Some of the proposed work may be incompatible with that of others.This principle highlights the need to integrate co. If there are no time-scales in the specification.from this perspective the creation of the specification clearly merits a large investment of time. the agreement forces all concerned to actually read and think about details. COORDINATING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFORT 11011111 ‘ Coordination has often been called the essence of management. if you fail to spend the time initially. All the activities of the organization have to be coordinated to achieve the final objective. how and when should be discussed and agreed from the very beginning. the interfaces: between your team and both its customers and suppliers. you can assume that one will be imposed upon you (which will be impossible). Highlight the effect that problems with these would have upon your project so that everyone is quite clear . The agreement upon a written specification has several benefits: the clarity will reveal misunderstandings.According to this principle. Principle of reciprocal relations . misunderstandings and enough rope to hang you and your entire team. particularly those that have to be delivered. the rigor of the analysis will expose technical and practical details. This means that all the elements are to be pulled together and pushed together which is the coordinating job of the manager.

but also to protect your team from being expected to do the impossible. then the specification will be out of date. you are simply too optimistic. to which you can predict the future is limited. especially if the project. You should not regard it as cast in stone but rather as a display board where everyone involved can see the current. To be sure. Each of the above could be a simple sub-heading followed by either bullet points or a table -you are not writing a brochure. equipment and manpower that are needed for the project. add them -there is bound to be differences in their assumed values. . Task Allocation: The next stage is a little complicated. resources: we tends to ignore resources. but sketches will suffice. your next problem is to decide what you and your team actually need to Jo. Task allocation is not simply a case of handing out the various tasks on your final lists to the people you have available. by when) established means of communication The artistry in coordinating: At the planning stage. but also they will feel ownership in the final plan. the final levels could be refined by the people to whom the tasks will be allocated. To gain some hope. although you may find that sketching a sequence diagram helps you to think it through (and to communicate the result). Getting the details exactly right. It should not be. or simply your knowledge change. so should be the detail of your planning. especially in the lower levels of the work breakdown structure. you need to establish at the start (within the plan) the means to monitor and to influence the project's progress. You now have to allocate the tasks to different people in the team and. The agreement should include a commitment by your managers to allocate or to fund them.about their importance. Establishing controls: When the planning phase is over (and agreed). Then. however. Second. If you change the content everyone must know. The ordering of the tasks is really quite simple. If you come to terms with that from the start. The allocation of tasks should thus be seen as a means of increasing the skills and experience of your team . but beyond that -stop and do something useful instead. and sufficient detail to assign each task when it needs to be started. then the work will seem pointless and they will feel only frustration. all the team should vet the penultimate draft. Pert charts are the accepted outcome. the "doing" phase begins. common understanding of the project. you are stating the definition of the project in clear. If they. First. The most important technique for achieving this is known as Guesstimation. using these. a project acquires a direction and momentum that is totally independent of anything you predicted. contact these people yourself and ask if they are able to fulfill the assumptions in your specification. plan the project based upon all the available experience and creative ideas. these two requirements are met at the same time since the derivation of such a structure is the simplest method of arriving at a list of tasks. therefore. the work is a series of unrelated tasks which provides little sense of achievement and no feeling of advancement. can be a long and painful process. You must establish this not only to assist higher management with their planning. since the specification is so vital. If circumstances. are omitted. This does not mean that your projects should be planned by committee -rather than you as manager. order these tasks so that they are performed in a sensible sequence. Once it is in motion. you have to provide some form of framework both to plan and to communicate what needs doing. If the team has no grasp of how individual tasks fit together towards an understood goal. As an initial approach. you could attempt the first level(s) of the work breakdown structure to help you communicate the project to the team and then ask for comments. and often it can be futile. the specification may change. you can then enjoy the roller coaster that follows. Of course. but do not hesitate to change it as necessary. and how to do it. Juesstimating schedules is notoriously difficult but it is helped by two approaches: make your guesstimates of the simple tasks at the bottom of the work break down structure and look for the longest path through the sequence diagram use the experience from previous projects to improve your guesstimating skills There are two practical problems in Guesstimation. You should check that the actual numbers are practical and/or correct. You can also shape the overall pattern of your team's working using the division and type of activities you assign.when the project is done. The degree. The specification should identify the materials. Involve your team in the planning of projects. however. Guesstimation: At the initial planning stage the main objective is to get a realistic estimate of the time involved in the project. at the same time. Without a structure. concise and unambiguous glory. you will be under pressure from senior management to deliver quickly. However. Fortunately. the team should have gained. There are two key elements to the control of a project: milestones (clear. you can deal with far more than the mere project at hand. roviding structure: Having decide what the specification intends. it is far more subtle (and powerful) than that. To take the planning forward. is being sold competitively. As a manager. Not only will they provide information and ideas. unambiguous targets of what. you need to turn the specification into a complete set of tasks with a linking structure. This seems to make the specification sound like a long document. You must have the broad outlines by which to monitor progress.

you will know that this should e part of each individual phase of the project. or you might parallel the work with the foundation of a fall-back position. With planning. fight for it. they will each take pride in their work and want to do the best job possible. By examining the activities' list you can usually pinpoint some activities which are risky (for instance. and explain beforehand. or more resources. by carefully considering errors in advance you can make changes to the original plan to enhance its tolerance. Even though the situation may have changed since the last review. Planning for the future: With all these considerations in merely the "planning" stage of a project. often this wastes time. you should look for alternative positions. recognising that errors will occur is the reason for implementing a monitoring strategy on the project. you must protect them from the unreasonable demands of the rest of the company. If it is clear at the onset exactly what is needed. those involving new equipment) and those which are quite secure (for instance. therefore. it is important to recognise the work which has been accomplished during the interim. The constant trickle of new information can lead to a vicious cycle of planning and revising which shakes the team's confidence in any particular version of the plan and which destroys the very stability which the structure was designed to provide. it should provide a foundation for the next step or at least the basis of a lesson well learnt. projects can run on time and interact effectively with both customers and suppliers. when the review phases will occur and make this a scheduled milestone in itself. you could include training or consultancy for new equipment. Always try to build upon the existing achievements of your team. You can try to predict where the errors will occur. You establish this philosophy for your team by including testing as a justified (required) cost. You must decide the balance.". the time allowed. Fitness for purpose: Another reason for stating the testing criteria at the beginning is that you can avoid futile quests for perfection. If they impose a deadline upon you which is impossible. you should summarise the current position and progress: this is what we have achieved/agreed. If you think that this might be thought a waste of time by your own manager. the schedule is derived on the basis of "if nothing goes wrong. staff are demotivated by constant pressure for impossible goals. Pick a point on the horizon and walk confidently towards it. However. Fighting for time: As a manager. it is perhaps surprising that projects get done at all. this work itself is part of the new situation: it has been done. Since you want to help the company.. then they are more likely to stop when that has been achieved. Often this means polishing their work until is shines. and each project has to overcome the same problems as the last. you do not want to abandon it since the team will be demotivated feeling that they have achieved nothing. you have to regulate the pressure and work load which is imposed upon your team. Decide objectively. however. think of the effect it will have on future communications with your customers and suppliers. this is an excellent. If you have motivated your team well. If you want your projects to run this way -then you must invest time in planning. Firstly. You should allocate time to review the lessons and information on both the work itself and the management of that work: an open meeting. this will take . and these are best defined (objectively) at the beginning as part of the planning. When devising the schedule. you must include allocated time for this part of each activity. Thus. with open discussion. By asking both questions together you raise the issue of "how do we know we have done it right" at the very beginning and so the testing is more likely to be done in parallel with the implementation. however. indeed. They can be too drastic. You will need to give some room for compromise. is that this method is non-optimal. As a wise manager. Planning for error: The most common error in planning is to assume that there will be no errors in the implementation: in effect. but seldom in the predicted manner and often as much by brute force as by careful planning. but also: "how long will the testing take". your )Banning should include time where you stand back from the design and ask: "what can go wrong?". Post-mortem: At the end of any project. Once you have arrived at what you consider to be a realistic schedule. Quite simply. way of asking your team for their analysis of your plan. Maintaining Communication: Your most important tools are: Clarification -always clarify: the purpose of the meeting. since a flat NO will be seen as obstructive. with the whole team and all customers and suppliers. Never let the outside world deflect you from what you know to be practical. corners get cut which harm your reputation. the rules to be observed (if agreed) by everyone.There are two pitfalls to avoid in project reviews: They can be too frequent. you can react and adapt the plan to compensate. to such activities to minimize the disruption. this is where we have reached. This means that no activity is completed until it has passed the (objectively) defined criterion which establishes its quality. clearly state this and give your reasons. In fact projects do get done. Testing and quality: No plan is complete without explicit provision for testing and quality. Secondly. For instance. The risky areas might then be given a less stringent time-scale -actually planning-in time for the mistakes.. Everyone involved understands what is wanted and emerging problems are seen (and dealt with) long before they cause damage. The point. Another possibility is to apply a different strategy. Of course. but essential. Customers feel let down by late delivery. Thus. . those your team has done often before). You need to avoid generalities and to stipulate boundaries not easy. Summary -at each stage of the proceedings. when the inevitable does happen. your question is not only: "how long will it take".

and then do it to ratify/explain decisions.Focus on stated goals -at each divergence or pause. For instance. Matching method to purpose. compassion. etc. Major categories include performance counseling. implementing. "laughed at" is destructive). You can then impose this with the full backing of the whole group. Self. and a counseling session focused on performance may also include a discussion of opportunities for growth. if the group contains opinionated wind-bags. agree who should make the decision and how. timing. the less likely you will be to project your feelings onto your employees. Not only is this supportive to the speaker. Regardless of the nature of the counseling. Regardless of the topic of the counseling session. otherwise you may never hear the best ideas of all. if the purpose is: to convey information. knowing human nature. You should merely seek an undertaking for the missing preparation to be done: we need to know this before we can proceed. you must refrain from projecting you own values onto them. problem counseling. it is possible to begin the proceedings by establishing a code of conduct. could you circulate it to us by tomorrow lunch? Coordination through counseling: Counseling has a powerful. For example a counseling session which focuses on resolving a problem may also have a great impact on improving job performance. and skills. You just have to deliberately pause. often by merely stating it and asking for any objections (which will only be accepted if a demonstrably better system is proposed). But basically people should be able to make. you should follow the same basic format to prepare for and conduct counseling. Respect for employees: This quality includes the belief that individuals are responsible for their own actions and ideas. It involves much more that simply telling someone what to do about a problem. all ideas should be welcome. Manage the process of the meeting and the meeting will work. It includes an awareness of a persons individuality though unique values. Credibility: This quality is achieved through both honesty and consistency between the managers. statements and actions. it could also be that a good idea has been misunderstood and would be lost if merely rejected. Thus. re-focus the proceedings on the original goals. the meeting might review the background and options. then it is diffuse and general.awareness: This quality is an understanding of yourself as a leader. As you attempt to develop people through Counseling. No one should be laughed at or dismissed ("laughed with" is good. Credible managers are straightforward with their subordinates and behave in such a manner that subordinates respect and trust their words. your common sense will then suggest a working method to expedite the proceedings. This means that even bad ideas should be treated seriously -and at least merit a specific reason for not being pursued further. then it is personal and from you (which may raise unnecessary conflict). Empathy: This quality entails understanding a subordinate's situation. self-awareness. managers should demonstrate the qualities of an effective counselors (respect. attributes. if someone has not come prepared then that fault is obvious to all. long-term impact on people and the effectiveness of the organization. Coordinating through Performance Appraisals: The performance appraisal is one of the most powerful tools available to a manager. It has three main objectives: . credibility. For instance. While the reason for counseling is to develop subordinates. and each section might be conducted differently. Empathetic managers will be better able to help subordinates identify the situation and develop a plan to improve the situation The reason for counseling is to help employees develop in order to achieve organizational or individual goals. the meeting would start with a short (clear) statement of the topic/problem and then an open discussion supported by notes on a display. naive contributions without being made to feel stupid. Code of conduct: In any meeting. or a formal brainstorming session to make a decision. managers often categorise counseling based on the topic of the session. While these categories help managers to organise and focus counseling sessions. the meeting might begin with a formal presentation followed by questions to seek information. Avoid direct criticism of any person. sincerity. and biases. The (stated) purpose of a meeting may suggest to you a specific way of conducting the event. managers should choose to counsel to develop employees. The more you are aware of your own values. Managers must demonstrate the following qualities in order to counsel effectively. It involves thinking. and empathy) and employ the skills of communication. they must not be viewed as separate and distinct types of counseling. the counseling is directed by policy. and kindness. Support: The success of a meeting will often depend upon the confidence with which the individuals will participate. establish the criteria to be applied. As always. At times. needs. If you leave the criticism as being simply that implicit in the peer pressure. once you have paused to ask yourself the questions: what is the purpose of the meeting and how can it be most effectively achieved. Thus. Counseling is talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to improve his behaviour. you might all agree at the onset that all contributions should be limited to two minutes (which focuses the mind admirably). if you explicitly rebuke that person. and at other times. and individual growth counseling.

The appraisal allows the worker to target specific areas for job growth. If means of looking forward are lacking. The more qualified managers are. and burden some. and the more that controls are designed to reflect such plans.To measure performance fairly and objectively against job requirements. He must be allowed to grow with the job and the organization. the more managers have the opportunity to perceive undesirable deviations form plans before they occur and to take action in time to prevent them.. reference to history. does not mean he will be able to perform effectively in the future. This principle is often disregarded in practice. CONTROLLING WORK EFFORT The purpose and nature of control: The task of control is to ensure that plans succeed by detecting deviations from plans and furnishing a basis for taking action to correct potential or actual undesired deviations. It is not possible for a system of controls to be devised without plans. An individual manager's responsibility cannot be waived without changes in the organization structure. complex mathematical controls that thwart innovation. More and more. Principles of preventive control: The higher the quality of managers in a managerial system. Structure of Control Principle of reflection of plans: The more that plans are clear. Post appraisal counseling / discussion sessions. the manager could learn some insightful information which could help boost performance in the future. To develop career goals so that the worker may keep pace with the requirements of a fast paced organization. and integrated. Since delegation of authority. The appraisal should be a joint effort. and responsibility for certain objectives rest in individual managers. the more they will perceive deviations from plans and take timely action to prevent them. like planning. the more effective they will be. complete. on the questionable assumption that "what is past is prologue" . the less will be the need for direct controls. Moreover. It gives the employee a pretty clear understanding of what to expect from the job and makes him aware of his strengths and weaknesses. and the more that control techniques are designed to follow the progress of these plans. Detailed budget controls that hamstring a subordinate. every job in an organization becomes more demanding with new requirements.it should be a time to plan for better performance on the job. but a daily duty. and purchasing controls that delay deliveries and cost more than the item purchased are instances of inefficient controls. "If you don't know where you are going. No one knows the job better than the person performing it. Principle of future-directed controls: Because of time lags in the total system of control. By turning the appraisal into a real discussion. it folios that control over this work should be exercised by each of these managers. Principles of efficiency of controls: Control techniques and approaches are efficient if they detect and illuminate the nature and deviations from plans with a minimum of costs or other unsought consequences. the more a control system is based on feed forward rather than simple feedback of information. since the task of control is to ensure that plans work out as intended. assignment of tasks. feedback. Managers have generally been dependent on historical data. Principle of control responsibility: The primary responsibility for the exercise of control rests in the manager charged with the performance if the particular plans involved. and integrated these plans are. But time lags in the system of management control make it imperative that greater efforts be undertaken to make future-directed control a reality. To increase performance by identifying specific development goals. should ideally be forwardlooking. and one-on-ones are the best coordinating effort put in by a manager.. These two principles emphasize that the purpose of control in any system of managerial action is ensuring that objectives are achieved through detecting deviations and taking corrective action designed to attain them. There can be no doubt that the more clear. the more effectively controls will serve the needs of mangers. complete. complex. causes of Control techniques have a way of becoming costly. Managers may become so engrossed in control that they spend more than it is worth to detect a deviation. Most controls are based in large part on the fact that human beings make mistakes and often do not react to problems by undertaking their correction adequately and promptly. Helping your people to grow is not a once or twice yearly duty. . This allows effective workers to be rewarded for their efforts and ineffective workers to be put on the line for poor performance. you have not done your job as a manager. Just because a worker is performing effectively in his job now. If you blindside him. any road will take you there". largely because the present state of the art in managing has not regularly provided for systems of feed forward control. is better than not looking at all. control. which may be adequate for collecting taxes and determining stockholders earnings but are not good enough for the most effective control.

action is implied. The situation may call for reorganization. However. controls must not be so inflexibly tied in with a plan as to be useless if the entire plan fails or is suddenly changed. any important deviations from plans. as a general rule controls should be tailored to meet the individual needs of managers. action is indicated. 'rinciple of flexibility of controls: If controls are to remain effective despite failure or unforeseen changes of plans. Another aspect of individuality is the tailoring of controls to the kind and level of managers understanding. and suitable standards. motivate managers at all levels to perform well. not failures of people operating under plans. . The Process of control: Control. By the same token. This principle holds that managers should concern themselves with significant deviations -the especially good or the especially bad situations. There should be a simple. specific and verifiable way to measure whether a planning program is being accomplished. often being so much a matter of technique. Programme budgets are normally developed for products. Since it is the function of an organization structure to define a system of roles. For preparing a budget the first requirement is the strategy for planning and budgeting . without watching everything. Although some control techniques and information can be utilized in the same form by various kinds of enterprises and managers. Principle of standards: Effective control requires objective. Budgeting system A popularly used control technique in both industry and government is the budget. serve as a device for coordinating the complex operations of the business. Deviations from plans must be the responsibility primarily of managers who are entrusted with the task of executing planning programs. Principle of action: Control is justified only if indicated or experienced deviations from plans are corrected through appropriate planning. rests heavily on the art of managing. It is often confused with the principle of critical-point control. complete. The budget can either be programme budgets or responsibility budgets. According to this principle. It may require replacing subordinates or training them to do the task desired. Perhaps all managers can ask themselves what things in their operations will best show them whether the plans for which they are responsible are being accomplished. If deviations are found in experienced or projected performance. This shows relative profitability of various product lines and suggests areas where revenues can be enhanced and costs reduced. the more they will facilitate correction of deviations from plans. Principle of critical-point control: Effective control requires special attention to those factors critical to evaluating performance against plans. organizing. while the exception principle has to so with watching the size of deviations at these points. therefore. Control information that a manager cannot or will not use has little practical value.Principle of organizational suitability: The more that an organizational structure is clear. If strategy is not articulators a broad guideline has to be given. The exception principle: The more that managers concentrate control efforts on significant exceptions.the corporate strategy or long range plan gives major programs in various areas. Plans are implemented by people. there are certain principles which experience has shown have wide applicability. Control is a wasteful use of managerial and staff time unless it is followed by action. and actual performance is sometimes camouflaged by a dull or a sparkling personality or by a subordinates ability to sell a deficient performance. There are instances in practice in which this simple truth is forgotten. as noted in the previous principle. However. and integrated. accurate. the more they will actually be used and the more they will result in effective control. What they must know is that plans are being implemented. in the form of either redrawing plans or making additional plans to get back on course. criticalpoint control has to do with recognizing the points to be watched. Note that this principle applies to failures of plans. A budget is just a numerical plan which is comprehensive and coordinated for the operations and resources of the firm. :ompany Presidents as well as supervisors have thrown up their hands in dismay (often for quite different reasons) at the unintelligible nature and inappropriate form of control information. staffing and leading. it follows that controls must be designed to affect the role in which responsibility for performance of a plan lies. and the two do have some kinship. and the more that controls are designed to reflect the place in the organization structure where responsibility for action lies. Some of this individuality is related to position in the organization structure. Control is accomplished through people. will more likely be accepted by subordinates as fair and reasonable. provide a medium for communicating the plans of the firms. on know-how in given instances. good standards of performance. In any case. Principle of individuality of controls: The more that control techniques and information are understandable to individual managers who must utilize them. It would ordinarily be wasteful and unnecessary for managers to follow every detail of plan execution. Or it may indicate that the fault is a lack of direction and leadership in getting a subordinate to understand the plans or in motivating him or her to accomplish them. the more efficient will be the results of their control. flexibility is required in heir design. objectively applied. serve as a standard against which actual performance may be judged. they induce management to think systematically about the future. Budgets are useful in many ways. Even the best manager cannot help being influenced by personal factors.

Delegation depend upon communicating clearly the nature of the task. And since they will witness many more situations over which control may be exercised (you can't be in several places at once) then that control is exercised more diversely and more rapidly than you could exercise it by yourself.if there is any trouble call me at . . You may not believe this vision. then only he/she is able to make decisions which rely upon that information. This means that you must establish a system to enable the flow of information. It should also include briefings by you on the information which you have received in your role as manager. In engineering terms: if maintaining control is truly your concern. Effective Control: One of the main phobias about delegation is that by giving others authority. This means that they can act and 'nitiate independently.". If the bins overflow on Wednesday. delegation is primarily about entrusting your authority to others. Consider this frankly: do you want to be an expert on bin emptying. can you construct an instruction to cover all possible contingencies? If not. One of the main claims being made for computerised information distribution is that it facilitates the rapid dissemination of information. the janitor would decide how often and adapt to special circumstances. The manager who fears this challenge will never delegate effectively. This need not be the case.. As the ancient quotation above suggests. If a manager restricts access to information. Delegation cannot be viewed as an abstract technique. the extent of their discretion. If instead you said to empty the bins as often as necessary. then you should distribute the control mechanisms to enable parallel and autonomous processing. yet few actually under. your staff have the authority to react to situations without referring back to you. Delegation is a skill of which we have all heard -but which few understand. or as a dynamic tool for motivating and training your team to realise their full potential. but you should understand the premise. assume control and innovate spontaneously. Some protagonists even suggest that such systems will instigate changes in managerial power sharing rather than merely support them: that the "acknowledged" workforce will rise up.. you lose their full value. and that they assume responsibility with you for certain tasks. To enable someone else to do the job for you. Certain pre-requisites to be fulfilled before effective delegation can take place: Sharing Information: Such a system can only operate successfully if the decision-makers (your staff) have full and rapid access to the relevant information. If you train your staff to apply the same criteria as you would yourself (by example and full explanations) then they will be exercising your control on you behalf. you really have to think about people. delegate to someone who gets paid for it. the bins will be emptied on Tuesdays and Fridays.stand it. This must at least include regular exchanges between your staff so that each is aware of what the others are doing. you remain responsible since ou are the manager. it depends upon individuals and individual needs. Staggered Development: To understand delegation. a manager loses control. With delegation. Not just the simple tasks of reading instructions and turning a lever. By leaving the decision up to the janitor you will apply his/her local knowledge to the problem.. Without delegation. and the sources of relevant information and knowledge. If something goes wrong.. It can be used either as an excuse for dumping failure onto the shoulders of subordinates.. people have been writing about it for nearly half a millennium. since if you need to know this information to do your job. Everyone knows about delegation. you must ensure that: they know what you want they have the authority to achieve it they know how to do it. they will be emptied on Friday. the manager who recognises that the staff may have additional experience and knowledge (and so may enhance the decision-making process) will welcome their input. this is what you do if . Delegation underpins a style of management which allows your staff to use and develop their skills and knowledge to the full potential. they too can make decisions -and challenge those of the manager according to additional criteria. delegation ensures that the staff will practise decision-making and will feel that their views are welcome. the trick is to delegate in such a way that things get done but do not go (badly) wrong Objective of Delegation The objective of delegation is to get the job done by someone else. If you tell the janitor to empty the bins on Tuesdays and Fridays. once that access is opened to many others.. Let us take a lowly member of staff who has little or no knowledge about the job which needs to be done. your staff will need to know also if they are to do your (delegated) job for you.Art of Delegation Delegation is one of the most important skills required to become an effective manager and a manager. but also the decision making and changes which depend upon new information. Most managers hear about it in the cradle as mother talks earnestly to the baby-sitter: "just enjoy the television.

upgraded. There is the difference between asking people to scale a sheer wall. Here the emphasis is placed upon checking/testing/monitoring of ideas. regular encounters (except for emergencies) so that Jimmy has to think about issues and questions before raising them. you need to establish at the beginning the task itself. If you present someone with a task which is daunting. You used to do them when you were junior. enhance the data processing.The key is to delegate gradually. if not. you cannot dictate what is delegated nor how that delegation is to be managed. One formalism is to allow only fixed. When you delegate a job. first a small task leading to a little development.stage. rather than task assignment. What to Delegate There is always the question of what to delegate and what to do yourself. Each task delegated should have enough complexity to stretch that member of staff -but only a little. You are the manager. when that is achieved. you will be able to check upon progress and even spur it on a little. the reporting schedule. you decided that your subordinate could cope. add another . you will need to establish the boundaries of these decisions so that you an live with the outcome. you should distribute the more mundane tasks as evenly as possible. Avoid making decisions of which they are capable themselves. what do you do then? You still need to monitor the tasks you have delegated and to continue the development of your staff to help them exercise their authority well.especially if they are important to the staff. and sprinkle the more exciting ones as widely. If you wish to promote such behaviour. you should be able to catch mistakes before they are catastrophic. developed. pros and cons. one with which he/she does not feel able to cope. and you must take a long term view on this: you want to delegate as much as possible to develop you staff to be as good as you are now. you should always praise him for his prompt and wise action in spotting and dealing with the errors rather that castigate him for causing them. rather than to actually perform the task yourself. Negotiating Delegation Since delegation is about handing over authority. then the failure is yours. In terms of motivation. Tasks in which you have experience are the easiest for you to explain to others and so to train them to takeover. and providing them with a staircase. but especially with the boring tasks. but it does mean that the default decision should be theirs. agree beforehand how often and when you actually need information and decide the reporting schedule at the onset. ' second formalism is to refuse to make a decision unless Jimmy has provided you with a clear statement of alternatives. but should feel empowered to introduce a more effective reporting format. and you gave him enough rope to hang himself. but rather by fitness for purpose. your availability. One successful strategy to avoid this is to formalize the manner in which these conversation take place. suggest and implement changes to the task itself. In this way you gain time for your other duties and someone else becomes as good as you once were (increasing the strength of the group). you never criticise him for finding an error. The point you need to get across is that the task may be changed. Tasks in which your staff have more experience must be delegated to them. only for not having safe-guards in place. . This is my favourite. and the criteria of success. Constrained Availability: There is a danger with "open access" that you become too involved with the task you had hoped to delegate. You thus use your experience to ensure that the task is done well. then the task will not be done and your staff will be severely de-motivated. When you delegate a task. then you are at fault. but only as well as necessary: never judge the outcome by what you expect you would do (it is difficult to be objective about that). To be a good manager though. you should be careful to delegate not only the performance of the task but also its ownership. Instead you should build-up gradually. but this will only take you a little time while the delegation of the remainder of the task will save you much more. In general. then another small task which builds upon the first. it does not have to be done as well as you could do it (given time). Decisions are a normal managerial function: these too should be delegated . You must enable failure. the insistence upon evaluation of alternatives promotes good decision making practices. They will then expect these encounters and even feel encouraged by your continuing support. and is recommendation. Once you have delegated everything. if necessary or desirable. The starting point is to consider the activities you used to do before you were promoted. Task delegation. so someone junior to you can do them now. With appropriate monitoring. the sources of information. you should ensure that they spend some time in explaining these decisions to you so that you learn their criteria. The safest ethos to cultivate is one where your subordinate actually looks for and anticipates mistakes. Further. you might even insist that he draw-up an agenda. and so on. Of course. It allows Jimmy to rehearse the full authority of decision making while secure in the knowledge that you will be there to check the outcome. agree then upon the criteria and standards by which the outcome will be judged. Thus. When you delegate. In practice. These you must negotiate with your staff: only by obtaining both their input and their agreement can you hope to arrive at a workable procedure. The whole idea is for them to learn to take over and so he must be encouraged to do so. Outcomes and Failure: Let us consider your undoubtedly high standards. with you there to check his decisions. So someone who collates the monthly figures should not feel obliged to blindly type them in every first-Monday. enables innovation. To control the delegation. This does not mean that you relinquish responsibility because they are expert.

Thus. Let us look at some of the definitions for power: Stephen Robbins defines power as "the ability to influence and control anything that is of value to others. Concept of power embraces several group processes such as 'leadership". and "arbitration".There are managerial functions which you should never delegate -these are the personal / personnel ones which are often the most obvious additions to your responsibilities as you assume a managerial role. Take care of yourself -"No one wants a martyr amongst their midst"." Weber broadly defines power as the "probability to secure obedience. 3. . even if it means taking on additional jobs / responsibilities. but the extent to which those people to whim managers report are willing to delegate authority and responsibility down to them. Power is an influential potential -the resource that enables a manager to gain compliance or commitment from others. following twelve -step strategy may help you: Learn and use your organization's language and symbols. In present day organizations many sources of power have been legislated. Specifically. power flows from the followers. Concept of Power: The concept of power is closely related to the concept of leadership. Therefore. Beat your own drum -"I'm the best". There is only so much of power around. punishments and sanctions to bring to bear in order to get organizational objectives fulfilled by the subordinates (followers). Assume authority. they include: motivation. Develop your power skills. team-building. If you are not ready to get on top and stay there -then you may not wish to seek power. Conduct Force Field Analysis to learn the power lines. to protect yourself from frustration and burnout. It is not a matter of office having power. it becomes imperative that managers examine their possession and use of power. Gaining power in an organization requires confrontation. With position power comes from above personal. Sources and Types of Power Position Power: It is the authority to use the rewards. \uthority is power that is legitimized by virtue of individual's formal role in a social organization. training. one distinctly effects the other. then you may function with a greater degree of comfort. you must decide consciously whether you want power and are ready to do what it takes to acquire it. Determine who has power and get to know these people. If someone else has it. " Maciver states that social power means the "capacity to command the service or the compliance of others. reprimanding. perhaps gaining power is not the right thing for you. Be PROACTIVE. "co-ordination". Meet the boss's needs -try to out think him by understanding his thinking pattern. you must seek it actively and skillfully. In case you have decided to acquire power. As a manager. Bezinger suggests three guidelines for acquiring power: Earning power requires substantial time commitment. promotion. today's manager must learn ways to use the limited amount of power he has in realistic and meaningful ways. However. Personal Power: It is the extent to which managers gain confidence of those people who are attempting to influence. Keep on developing your professional knowledge base. However. but is often avoided because of negative connotations associated with it. The amount of power available does not expand in different situations. If you are not ready to invest time. these are tasks you can expand to fill your available time -delegation is a mechanism for creating that opportunity. reviewing performances. organization. Take risks -go for creative problem solving. or policied away. "collaboration". "mediation". Position power is not inherent in the office. you don't. negotiated. "influence". It is one of the means by which a manager influences the behaviour of followers. If organization demands are congruent with your personal style. "authority"." Power is finite. Learn and use your organization's priorities. praising. you have a responsibility to represent and to develop the effectiveness of your group within the company. How to acquire power: If you want to climb the career ladder you have not only to understand power.

keeping adequate records and control costs as budgeted. controlling wastage and cost reduction. Controlling the work: Field of control includes division and delegation of responsibility to individuals. planning. setting procedures. cost reduction. deals with grievances and take appropriate action. subordinates) . makes recommendation to management. dealing with situations on the spot as they arises. To accomplish this task he must posses various supervisory skills and must be able to: foster good working relationships maintain general discipline and conduct generates supports from his superiors effectively lead people. He: has the authority to engage. The scope of duties also include. achieving and maintaining quality and keeping records. or reprimand an employee under his control. quality and quantity of output. The competitive market demands of high quality output at the least cost. It is basically concerned with day to day running of the section. quality control and following up progress. Decisions on the work. regulation of work performance. Basic elements of supervision Building and maintaining an efficient organization Creating and maintaining efficient working force Controlling the work These elements of supervision interact together and help the supervisor improve his performance. Success and productivity are directly related to a person's attitude. What's more you might discover "having power is fun -it gets things you want done". apply the right techniques and principles t the right time and makes correct decisions. a worker or workers or a project. Skills Required for Supervision and Control Technical Skills Job know-how Knowledge of industries: Processes Machinery. and influences employees and their work attitude. budgeted cost of performing the work. is responsible for: discipline. Supervision and Control Supervision is the management of a process.You may discover that "being powerful is not as exhaustive as some people might have you believe". It implies operating at close range by actually overseeing or controlling on the shop floor. Supervisor is any person who is given authority and responsibility for planning and controlling the work of a group by close contact. superiors. such as. using work study techniques to develop the department. transfer. etc Administrative Skills Knowledge of organization and co-ordination Ability to plan and control work Human Relation Skills Knowledge of human behaviour Ability to work with individuals and group (peers. understand and motivate employees develop and maintain good communication.

www. directives." Ability to see 'big-picture' and understand the overall effect.com GurukulOnline Learning Solution TM . plan. etc.amityelearning.Conceptual Skills Ideas.2006 .

most of the companies the hierarchical pyramid was replaced by a two-class structure comprised of a larger. Increasingly. and to adopt great behavioural flexibility. One broad type is the specialising generalist. then in five years or so he or she might begin the transition upward into the middle skill band. the lower portion into which a new graduate entered was primarily defined by technical or knowledge-based skills. Assumed in this model was that the 15 to 20-year climb upward would be characterised by diagonal moves that would expose the future general manager to the organization's relevant activities so that in time there would emerge a happy congruence of level. it would set the stage for a second. GENERAL MANAGEMENT PAST AND FUTURE As with everything else today. The skills at the upper levels were described a bit more ambiguously. Marketing people became more assertive in the 1960s.GurukulOnlineG) Learning Solutions ISO 9001 2000 Cartirvixl Principles and PraCtices of Management Chapter 11. but if successfully navigated. The concept of the generalist executive who could utilise his or her general management principles effectively in any country. complexity has forced increased focus in a career so that a manager's upward movement became increasingly restricted within a specialised silo. blue-collar and white-coverall personnel in the lower pyramid have been increasingly restricted. died a virtual death due to the universal requirement that one have at least a college education to get one's foot on the lower rung of the professional and managerial ladder. Also going is the assumption that a lifetime of geographic and functional moves will prepare a manager for general executive responsibilities. such as the 'turnaround' executives of the late. A happier model is the generalising specialist able to reinvigorate an overly narrow company. is not what function should be dominant today: the current environment calls for people and processes that effectively synthesize specialist functions into general management. but generally were seen as conceptual or integrating skills that is. directing and leading others. continues as broader interpersonal aptitudes are developed. though. particularly in integrating the company's various functions. more difficult. the notion of general management is in a state of transition. though. each defined by the skills most relevant to effective performance. To understand these concepts. while finance gained more importance as competition for debt and equity increased in the inflationary 1970s. management education is becoming essential for a chance of making it to general management levels. Thus. one had to have the appropriate higher education to get access to the lower rungs of the upper pyramid which was entered directly. Today. the transition into the synthesising duties of senior general management became increasingly difficult with a consequent loss of visionary leadership at the top. Creative. The upper managerial pyramid could be visualised as divided into three bands. Here one would have to supplement technical ability with skill in communicating. to encourage and respond to the upward flow of ideas. this assumption has collapsed. Vision and leadership. transition some 10 to 15 years later. The pace of technical innovation and environmental change means that beyond the smaller firm no individual's career can embrace all the relevant dimensions. Size and complexity have sharply undermined the time = level = knowledge assumption. For many engineers and technocrats. usually right out of college. synthesising skills are vital. truncated lower pyramid of operating employees topped by a smaller pyramid of specialist managers and executives. of course. The boundary between the two pyramids has become less permeable. The myth that a determined young person could enter via the mail room and by dint of hard work and pluck move upward to the executive suite. skill and authority. as is a preparedness sometimes to discard painfully gained specialist knowledge. The old certainties in general management are breaking down. to be approachable. Unfortunately. Conglomerate diversification is out. which starts with technical knowledge and qualifications. the power axis of management has also changed over the last 50 years. Increasingly. organizations want young managers to acquire all these skills at an earlier stage. company or industry is dying. The prominence of engineering/manufacturing made sense after the Second World War. however. we need to examine an older view of how generalists were developed. this could be a difficult transition. New educational and organizational design models that facilitate functional synthesis are being sought. which would draw on interpersonal aptitudes or people skills. Emerging are models of the 'generalising specialist' and the 'specialising generalist'.1980s or the 'habitual' entrepreneur who creates multiple new business ventures. . Size and complexity have undermined the traditional three-tier upward climb. and ends with mastery of the big picture and an ability to integrate all the company's functions. Effective general management includes the ability to communicate. If a young person did well. Those operating white-collar. The point. disciplined focus on core competencies within an industry is in. are no substitute for the nitty-gritty. As a result. Indeed. the ability to see the big picture.

along with the escalating ophistication of financial instruments. Even today. Hence. Strong production managers tended to be selected for the post of chief executive officer. felt they were lacking in the integrating skills. Those who had already been promoted to cross-functional responsibilities. 110 from production / manufacturing. competition for discretionary dollars intensified and an increased need to differentiate products and services emerged. and seven from corporate planning. Other functions were distant from the axis. Academic programmes stagnated or disappeared. but competition is forcing convergence. In addition. such as personnel. dismissing staff and reducing costs in the case of Scott) to the detriment of relations with surviving employees. They have to make the transition from functional to general management without which they would never get a chance to operate on the larger canvas of the organizational decision making due to their specialising in narrow functional areas. 193 from engineering / technical. In recent years. 73 from law. Whatever the merits of such turnaround specialising generalist executives. came out of the war with an emphasis on manufacturing. financial specialists were generally not seen as candidates for senior general management. 144 were company founders. and the latest generation of chief executives in many companies are drawn from the production function. Accordingly. interpersonal relations. organizations are demanding that young specialists and managers possess all three skills sooner in their careers. The strengthening of shareholder demands for emphasis on total return from dividends and share price appreciation led to the emergence of a general manager who was a turnaround specialist. understandable the recent dominance of the marketing and financial functions did create problems. immediate demand was met. emphasises has to be on heterogeneity and functional interdependence. Trends in Power Axis Functions The years since the second world war have seen significant changes in the power of the various functional specialties to control senior general management. 'green eye-shade' stereotype was still strong and they were judged as lacking the synthesising big-picture skills necessary for the top. increasingly. Specialising Generalists The post-1991 open environment led to an era of unprecedented downsizing. customers and communities. Hence.000 most valuable US companies. The point is not what function should be dominant nor what country has the greatest relevant functional strength. with some. The 'bean counter'. With this need the modern marketing function began to move toward the power axis so that by the early 1960s it became the number-one supplier of US chief executives. selling was easy. However. young professionals no longer have time to work alone while developing their interpersonal skills. therefore. negotiations and communications while also encouraging greater 'depth' in their 'breadth'.000 most valuable US companies. Another version of the specialising generalist is the 'habitual' entrepreneur who creates multiple new business ventures. Such creators are the ultimate generalists. is the most 'on-the-job' training for general management that exists because it demands daily action in multiple functional areas. 264 are from finance backgrounds. human relations and conceptual skills is still relevant. 217 from marketing. coupled with encouraging thinking about the ambiguous and even paradoxical duties that confront senior executives. only one has a functional background primarily in human resource management. that the finance function moved to the power axis. the most dramatic innovations in Wharton's programme are the required team-oriented experiential courses in foundations of leadership and a cross-functional immersion in a real company. Given pent-up civilian demands. The US . It was not until the rampant inflation of the 1970s and the dramatic increase in competition for equity and debt. Such a specialising generalist focuses on the functional areas having the quickest payback (on closing plants. What is called for are people and processes that effectively synthesize the specialist functions into general management. Entrepreneurship. companies have rediscovered the centrality of these functional skills. on the pyramid's surface. These skills are increasingly required from the beginning. even the most courageous entrepreneur will probably be more successful if he or she has had significant work experience as . they do not offer a model for general executives because the challenge they face is relatively simple at least in comparison with the long-run building of a viable business strategy. given the sophistication of the specialities brought to bear on 'roblems today. In a short time. National culture and tradition have affected these trends differently. organizations want their young managers to be stronger in multiple areas. But. since in the early days of a new firm the entrepreneur must play many roles because staff tends to be very thin. Nonetheless. The prominence of engineering and manufacturing made sense in the immediate post-war era because it reflected the central challenge then confronting North American companies: the conversion from wartime to peacetime products. which had mostly been designed years before in the 1930s. Today. however.The Managerial Pyramid The concept of technical. They needed to strengthen their skills in teamwork. Experience in the industry was deemed less important than the will to impose a cost-cutting vision that would rapidly improve corporate profits and make the company more attractive to a prospective acquirer. inter-regional teams. As recently as the 1960s. among the chief executives of the 1. of chief executives of the 1. for example. Interest in manufacturing and production declined. Given today's common matrix-like structures that demand cross-functional. the production function was closest to an imaginary power axis up through the centre of the managerial pyramid. multi-product service.

Because of the world wide competition for capital speaking to stockholders. Developing informal relationships and looking for synergistic opportunities is every manager's responsibility. and only 9. individually or in groups. The chief executive alone does not have . Some dramaturgy is involved in creating this environment. former chief executive of General Electric . Personal technical knowledge and leadership charisma coupled with a disinclination to delegate significant authority.to be the creator of the unifying vision. The core consumer marketing function orientation he brought to IBM seems to be exercising a beneficial influence on the company's technical culture to help it better define its product and service strategy in a way that prospective customers can understand. offers a happier general executive model. the good manager/non-leader can be boringly bureaucratic. is one of the most rapidly expanding time demands on senior executives. which may explain why the most common training requested by newly appointed senior executive is speech making.like bureaucracy and sells and/or departs the company.5 hours on conversations they initiated. longer run possibilities emerge. not just the top's. primarily interested in personal achievement and uncomfortable with exercising power over a large organization.an employee in the industry and market in which they expect to lead a new company (seven years or so appears to be the optimal time. and more may mean excessive conservatism). And no effective number-two executive officer/chief operating officer/executive vice-president type can totally compensate for the destructive effects of a charismatic leader who has no aptitude for the nitty-gritty of actual management. the intent is to disperse a synthesizing perspective throughout the organization. blocks the development of subordinate managers. Some studies suggest that public speaking is our most feared activity. as adherence to rules becomes an end instead of a means. By taking a marketing orientation approach and integrating it into a strong but complementary organizational culture. who represents a specialist able to generalise his expertise so that it reinvigorates an overly narrow company.5 hours responding to others). Fostering Approachability Even more important than initiating communications. the chronic problem is often succession. however. less effective executives spent 11. leading to an unfortunate distinction between management and leadership with the pernicious implication that good management is some. The more effective executives control less by self-initiated interrogation and more by availability and receptivity to subordinates and colleagues. chief executive at IBM. have commented admiringly on this skill. the entrepreneur becomes frustrated with the emergence of big-company. Their personal career anchors tend toward 'autonomy/independence' or 'functional/ technical' rather than aspiring personally to lead a large company. Colleagues of as diverse a set of leader-managers as Winston Churchill and Reginald Jones. is the ability to receive them: that is. once the company is successfully launched and has grown beyond a size that he or she can control personally. willingness to create an environment of approachability. of course: not talking across a crowded desk but rising to move to another chair when a visitor enters. Verbal articulation is increasingly important to general managers. (Those rated more effective spent 16 hours per week communicating in response to others. Entrepreneurs seldom provide models of general management in large corporations. An organizational design philosophy emphasises every manager's responsibility to network within the family of companies. The worldwide scepticism about government-run business reflects this unhappy experience.how inferior and less important than leadership. The distinction can cause great mischief when embodied in the belief that a senior executive need only be a good leader rather than an effective manager. Even when the entrepreneurial founding general executive stays and is effective. Less means inadequate knowledge of the business. The unhappy experience of Wang Laboratories after the death of its namesake founder is all too common. Proactive communication skills are important and the ability and willingness to initiate communications to stakeholders is critical. The vision may be more collective in origin than one individual. They tend to be loners. General Management Attributes We hear that firms are 'over-managed' and 'under-led'. Often. My own research on how managers spend their time suggests that the most effective general executives spend less time on communications they initiate and more time talking to others who start the conversations. silent buzzers that prompt a secretary 'accidentally' to interrupt a meeting to remind the executive of some real or . but does need an ability to uncover vision and convert it into action. In the long run such narrow people can also reduce human liberties )nd spirit. but clearly it must be shared and converted into management practice. Of course. They are uneasy with the 'interdependence' that management requires. Louis Gerstner. Thus.3 hours per week on self-initiated conversations and only 6. The effective general executive does not need to be an improbable philosopher-king. The Generalising Specialist The generalising specialist takes a critical skill and generalises it for the total organization's benefit. Influential leaders who did not know how to manage have done much damage in human affairs as they raised expectations without the ability to deliver on them. They best create an atmosphere of tranquillity and focus that communicates to their visitors that their presence is enjoyable and is at the moment the most important activity that the executive could be doing.

cannot accept all proposals. Jeveloping Generalised Skills Since specialised skills and education will remain critical to a viable organizational career. Most such conversations do not end with the general executive's directive. general managers have the potential for personality to be reflected in how they spend their time. skill (in contrast to the specialist's analysing. One of the paradoxes of management development is that one must sometimes throwaway specialised knowledge.selves to a more heterogeneous mix of incoming stimuli for example. As we have seen. More fundamentally. effective general executives intrinsically enjoy conversation when people come to them and this enjoyment reinforces the willingness. It is not that the subordinates habitually come to the executive with a request for permission to do something. accepting results inferior to those they could have achieved by doing the task themselves. and listening through a subordinate's proposal when they could simply tell him or her what to do in a fraction of the time. but there are some instructive lessons for developing general executives. which expand or contract among fish scales. Being authoritarian all the time is the easiest style. or synthesising. Rather they come for advice. People who are more creative tend to expose them. withstanding the temptation to intervene prematurely after they have supposedly delegated authority.imaginary pressing matter. For example. Senior general executives require great behavioural flexibility. General executives must know when their leadership style should be participative and when authoritarian. This synthesising ability is related to creativity. The Japanese have a most descriptive term for the person who can do this. The time horizons and decision demands. More importantly. most of which consists not of conjuring up totally new ideas but in putting common elements together in novel ways. often by borrowing from a separate context. Even here. The technology of small bubbles. however. and then articulates it at the propitious moment. to approach thern. for example. He recognised that a creative idea is most venerable shortly after birth. in general management the ability to conceptualise how parts and functions fit together is critical. Short. This is an integrating. It is not clear what the impact is of undergraduate business education. Rather. are much longer than those for an operating supervisor. approach). a professional architect/amateur fisherman who was designing a roof for a tropical building wondered how the flounder changes its colour depending on the sea bottom. but necessary vetoes can be issued on a somewhat delayed and more private basis so that the future floating of ideas is not discouraged. talk must eventually come to an end and action commences. by periodically changing functional responsibilities. He is the one who listens with an 'inner ear' to the implicit consensus of which the management team is not yet aware. but the intention at most such institutions is to combine the analytical development of a technical education with the integration of liberal arts development. Such a leader-manager. Among all kinds of specialist and manager positions. Research on conflict resolution strongly supports the conclusion that homogeneous groups composed of people with no personal experience of an opposed group are much less likely to resolve their differences with that group than when at least some members in each group have had experience in the other. so painfully gained. Tolerance for Error Encouraging candid upward communication requires substantial tolerance for error and even foolishness. service managers and other specialised positions. Thus. the senior general executive must issue the decisive word. It will work in lower management levels. Unlike functional control managers. Such creative synthesizing ability is not totally understood. white balloons expanding to reflect heat. contracting to absorb it. especially of subordinates. constant authoritarianism will be disastrous in a competitive and changing environment where the company's success depends on the ability to utilise all the divergent skills present among its key players. As 'a native American saying puts it: 'Walking a mile in the moccasins of your opponent enables you to . however. of course. the challenge seems to be how to help the specialist gain himself or herself a generalised expertise as rapidly as possible. he 'expressed boyish enthusiasm about the most unrealistic ideas. odder hobbies and a wider diversity of people with whom they talk. but they do offer a mutual learning experience (and of course the opportunity for a veto if the subordinate's intended action promises disaster). more varied reading. variety of experience provides the potential cues for borrowing synthesising ideas. Churchill reportedly never criticised a subordinate's proposal at first hearing. However. with entrepreneurial start-ups and in many corporate turnaround situations where the objectives are clearly defined and the problem relatively simple intellectually if not behaviourally. In those circumstances when consensus cannot be reached. or breaking-apart.term individual and corporate performance must be harmed in the interest of building stronger integrating forces. general management allows the incumbent the greatest discretionary control of personal behaviour and requires the greatest behavioural flexibility. This means that general managers must have a wider repertoire of behaviours -enduring periods of uncertainty about what subordinates are doing. his subordinates were not afraid to voice new ideas so the rganization was rich with creativity. The greatest advantage of general executive receptivity is the encouragement of an upward flow of communications that helps top managers to understand better the operating and environmental realities. was adopted to the building of the roof.

staffing and directing. Confronting the Unknown You have heard of people who have worked for 20 years. It is the very 'busy-ness: of managerial life that contributes to the problem. the pruning is accompanied by viable product and service innovation that draws on close-to-the market multi-functional teams.understand his grievance'. to draw back from the competitive fray. Dominated by response behaviour for long periods. controlling. earnings and growth. the rhetorical gap between senior executives and recruiting managers should be bridged. based on annual measures of costs. If the drive is to reduce expenses and quickly improve profits. a sort of sleepwalking through our lives allowing our perceptive skills to atrophy. Finally. But the operating departments doing the actual hiring mainly look for more narrowly educated technocrats. Whether reducing bureaucratic levels aids or hinders development of future general managers appears to depend on the causes of the pruning. To stay so vital requires maintaining the ability to perceive uniquely. Morale declines and personal development slows down even among the survivors. the dramatic pruning of corporate staff and middle managers in recent years has led to new concerns about the elimination of general management positions crucial to developing people for top executive jobs. Nonetheless. This means building into our daily lives regular repetition of the process of letting go of the known and confronting the unknown change for the sake of change. when in fact it is new and unique. The future is never confronted. but do not have 20 years experience. Time-harried people take insufficient time for exploration of the different. They are unsuitable for longer range. the opportunities for general management training increase. The reality of most executives' days is not like that implied in management textbooks. then they could schedule time every week to discuss these observations while they are fresh. concentrating on technical and business reading. Men over 50 particularly demonstrate a propensity to insulate themselves. to see differences. The new approach mayor may not work. One study of 2. With time we tend to lose the ability to distinguish the new from the old. even given world-wide competition. neatly divided into periods of planning. Many executives simply do not believe they have up to 90 minutes alone each day. immediate issues. they merely repeated the first year 20 times. Keeping alive this ability to perceive deeply requires frequent exercise. drink a cup of coffee or even take a deep breath before being interrupted by a ringing telephone. As a result. an unexpected fax. Rather. . they feel that they scarcely have time to start a new task. They feel that they are rewarded or punished for this 'ear. Unhappily. while sacrificing for the future is ignored (or punished). In addition. an uninvited visitor or a clanging bell on the computer announcing another incoming e-mail message. such success often leads to inflexibility as one loses the motivation and courage to change. the unique from the regular. broken by five or so previously scheduled meetings per day. we tend to behave without thinking. Such people may treat a new problem as if it were like past ones. Every competitive business system requires short-term performance results. Concentrating on the present is often rewarded. less-structured projects. We interpret cues as warranting previously successful responses inappropriate to the changed situation. of course. they find it impossible to initiate fundamental changes. but the very action of confronting a . Losing touch with their own values and aspirations. they can lose track of who they are and what they believe. performance tends to be measured over too limited a time span. As we master our jobs and grow older.'he Threat of Success Personal career success can be a grave threat to those who have climbed to the general management ranks. only a monopoly can ignore them. In the long run. to lose touch with customers and markets. Many general executives offer vocal support for the hiring of humanities and liberal arts students for managerial careers. Now making transitions from short-run emergencies to longer-run challenges is tough. Experience can be a great source of learning. structuring. it is a seeming chaos of time. Unfortunately it can also waste time and cause disaster if we categorise issues prematurely and erroneously. many executives tend to be narrow in their interests. It can certainly save a lot of time as we fit current problems into the learned categories of the past. however. Short-term busy-ness contributes to habits and preoccupations that are the ultimate threats of success. talking in many short conversations covering multiple topics. rather than letting unrecorded impressions pile up until a fruitless annual interview ritual. they will be dead or transferred. Short-term performance measures also encourage executives to concentrate on it now. experimenting with changing the mode of performance feedback. ten minutes alone are helpful only for work on small. Continual dominance by immediate demands means inadequate time for future-oriented reading and thinking. The answer to this problem could be to focus on one unsatisfactory more senior subordinate for a few months. Perhaps the managers could write a note to themselves every time they observe the subordinate in action. If. power flows upward rapidly and lower-level discretion is squeezed out.000 executives concluded that the single most important attribute of those who handled success well (and were able to maintain it) was their ability to embrace change.

but you do have influence over many factors which affect your people and so it is your responsibility to ensure that your influence is a positive one. executives can define personal growth objectives that encourage focusing on a new activity: learning to play the piano at age 35. what will happen? . Similarly. we do not even pretend to explain it. Humans can 'deny' death (psychologically if not physically) by exercising the capacity to give up the well-known task and confronting the new. you do not want your key engineer being tired all day because the baby cries all night. unstructured and seemingly non-directed. And this means defining fundamental values of management. All of these can be vehicles for keeping alive the ability to perceive uniquely because they involve modest but repeated confrontations with the unknown. starting to paint at 50. Defining Fundamental Values In addition. But this is what happens. but futureoriented. short-range activity. They need to value today less and tomorrow more. When the fight is really on and the battle is undecided. The activist ethic. studying a foreign language at age 40. you want your team to act co-operatively. unvarying motion in which each interval is unique but equal. Executives tend to avoid thought about the future because it is ambiguous. You can only underestimate the impact which you personally have upon the habits and effectiveness of your group. you have the authority to sanction. No one of course can truly 'transcend' time. such clarification is critical for all of our futures. Few "people problems" can be solved quickly. for many seemingly simple habits can have a huge "impact upon your rapport with your team. you do not want a worker who avoids work. quickly. formulating wishes about the future. Clear-cut.standing these you can adapt yourself and the work environment so that your team and the company are both enriched.' The present is not unimportant nor is the world an illusion. Consider the effect you would have if every morning after coffee you walked over to Jimmy's desk and told him what he was doing wrong. and this places you in a position of power -and responsibility.difficult new behaviour will help preserve executive vitality. Would Jimmy feel pleased at your attention? Would he look forward to these little chats and prepare simple questions to clarify aspects of his work? Or would he develop a Pavlovian hatred for coffee and be busy elsewhere whenever you pass by? Of course you would never be so destructive -provided you thought about it. the article then outlines a simple model of behaviour and a systematic approach to analysing how you can exert your influence to help your team to work. And you must. Take another example: suppose (as a good supportive manager) you often give public praise for independence and initiative displayed by your team.run problems may be difficult but they are satisfying to solve. chronic unemployment. The paradox for general executives is that they need to relax a little in order to work more effectively relax the intensity of their work on present problems and address themselves more to future possibilities. but ultimately. An old native American proverb states: 'All that is seen is temporary. the most effective general executives seem to lift their time horizons. off the job. associated with this perspective. In these encounters it is less important that the new be actually mastered than that a good effort be made. but they become less concerned with winning and happier with merely running. As the leader of a team. Lets consider possible motivators and a simple framework for dealing with people. Wide-open time like space can be frightening. The Human Factor In the management of a small team. think about it. and as a manager you have to deal with it. Since human psychology is a vast and complex subject. time-transcending general executives should have the detachment of people who accomplish great things while refusing to be levoured by current events. because by under. We tend to fear the kind of time necessary for such thought. It discourages speculation and fosters guilt feelings when one is not busy. organizations and society. As we wrestle with problems of international competitiveness. This article looks briefly at your behaviour and at what motivates people. 'lost achievement-oriented managers are dominated by a Newtonian view of time as constant. efficiency-minded people. this very lessening of career centrality can promote personal success as we become less fearful of making mistakes and more willing to act on intuition. attributes counter to time-haunted. government debt and global environmental pollution. the last thing you want to deal with is "people". Paradoxically. In contrast. When you are struggling with a deadline or dealing with delicate decisions. the human factor is crucial to success. The key to this turning point lies in accepting oneself and giving up the tyranny of external evaluations. and suppose (as a busy manager) you respond brusquely to questions and interruptions. short. Instead. It must be open. Numerous senior executives have said to me that they never really felt comfortable in their careers until they 'transcended' their ambitions. conceiving what we want the future to be and perceiving the future as history is difficult and threatening. incorporating concern about the future into the present necessitates clarifying what we really want. some are totally beyond your control and can only be contained. It is not that they give up the race. rationally: you do not want a disgruntled employee bitching about life. encourage or restrict most aspects of their working day. encourages constant. Behaviour: Consider your behaviour.

What you can influence is the local environment and particularly the way in which you interact with your team. challenging because this maintains the interest and provides a sense of personal achievement when the job is done. Herzberg in the 1950's when he formulated the "Motivation-Hygiene" theory. if too easy. recognition. But few managers have only interesting.which is fortunate since few team leaders have creative control over company organization or remuneration packages. When talking about improvements. no one cares if they are scrubbed even harder. The feedback you give your team about their work is fundamental to their motivation. then keep quiet. the team feels little. and advancement. Achievement: As the manager. and preferably by the whole team as well as by you. The work itself: The work itself should be interesting and challenging. which demotivated (by being poor) rather that motivated (by being good).able) expectations. You must not stint in praising good work.Probably your team will leave you alone. for which of your team could you write these down now (try it)? Your staff need to know where they stand. Classic work on motivation was undertaken by F. Interesting because this makes your staff actually engage their attention. and might even improve the efficiency of the team. the acquisition of new skills. the feedback should be honest. This is not easy. Here are two suggestions. and how they are performing against your (reason. You can achieve this through a structured review system. once a fair level of pay is established. working conditions and company policy. it may not be repeated simply because no one knew you approved. they know you know they can meet that challenge. ask yourself how many on your team know these things. This is helped by the fact that what is dull to some might be new and fascinating to others -so match tasks to people. challenging work to distribute: there is always the boring and mundane to be done. they will struggle on bravely (and feel unsupported). right now? Perhaps more importantly. adds responsibility. responsibility is the most lasting. you have a dramatic effect upon your team's sense of achievement. It is knowing that what you do is seen and noted. If in doubt. taking minutes in meetings is dull on a weekly basis but quite interesting/educational once every six weeks (and also heightens a sense of responsibility). you must design the work assignment so that each member of the team feels: "I'm learning. if the task is dull perhaps the method can be changed -by the person given the task. and always constructive. but it is essential to your effectiveness. Responsibility: Of all of Herzberg's positive motivators. if only to offer some recognition of the effort which has been put into the work. and the short-term issues (which you control) of increased responsibility. For example. this is what I want/need. you have to provide the latter and convince them that these are necessary (and possibly sufficient) steps for the eventual advancement they seek. this is how you should work towards it. the manager. So if you do want to hear about problems. and possibly share the worst tasks around. salary rises. broader experience. follow the simple formula of: highlight something good point out what needs improving suggest how to improve You must always look for something positive to say. Advancement: There are two types of advancement: the long-term issues of promotion. if people do something well and then feel it is ignored -they will not bother to do it so well next time (because "no one cares"). One reason is that gaining responsibility is itself seen as an advancement which gives rise to a sense of achievement and can also improve the work itself: a multiple motivation! Assigning responsibility is a difficult judgement since if the person is not confident and capable enough. Recognition: Recognition is about feeling appreciated. be specific: this is what is wrong. If you stretch your staff. In opposite terms. you will be held responsible for the resulting failure. These are what your team needs. Your simple behaviour may result in a quagmire of errors. Your team members will be looking for the former. Since it can impact greatly. you should provide a series of targets which are easily recognised as stages towards the ultimate completion of the task. Firstly. They will not raise problems (you will be left in the dark). tell the team so and react positively when you hear of problems in-time rather than too-late. Motivation: When thinking about motivation it is important to take the long-term view. they will still enjoy the benefits of the information (and training). Thus. I'm . The best time to give feedback is when the event occurs. loads-of-money is nice but not nearly as good as being valued and trusted. They should know what they do well (be positive). such as salary levels. And while this is common sense. money ceases to be a significant motivator for long term performance. What you need is a sustainable approach to maintain enthusiasm and commitment from your team. make sure that everyone (including yourself) has a share of the interesting and of the dull. If you make them too hard. Never say anything as unhelpful or uninformative as "do better" or "shape up" -if you cannot be specific and say how. Herzberg identified several factors. responsibility. but such systems often become banal formalities with little pr no communication. you set the targets -and in selecting these targets. The positive motivators identified by Herzberg are: achievement. what needs improving (be constructive) and what is expected of them in the future (something to aim at). the team will feel failure. As a manager. the work itself. Secondly. they will not question your instructions (ambiguities will remain). While your team will soon realize that this IS a formula. If you do not acknowledge it. Herzberg called these the "Hygiene" factors to apply the analogy that if the washrooms are kept clean. Ideally. The point is that you can not enhance your team's performance through these Hygiene factors . This turns dull into challenging. progress is punctuated and celebrated with small but marked achievements. delegating responsibility deserves another article in itself (see the article on Delegation). You must actually consider how interesting are the tasks you assign and how to deal with the boring ones. This is a management problem for you to solve. misdirected activity and utter frustration. For instance. simple. job prospects. Indeed.

you can focus upon Aman's own view of the problem (why is this happening?) and Aman's own solution (what can Aman do about it. so each solution must be carefully crafted. you will find that the "bad" behaviour is reinforced by a payoff which that person finds attractive. Thus. He will either deny the problem. . With most people-problems at work. You must continue to monitor the problem and after a trial period. that it is impossible to offer more than generalities as advise. blame someone else. For instance. or 2) create a positive payoff for the alternative. review your progress. If the plan is working. By giving Aman the responsibility for solving his own problem. each situation is different. proceed to . the latter is preferable since it is better for motivation to offer encouragement rather than reprimand. here are a few ideas. summon Aman at four o'clock to demand the report before he leaves for the weekend. on the other hand.. good behaviour is blocked by negative payoffs. If. You ignore them at your peril. if Aman does get the report in by 3. if the plan has worked. Never assume that you know better. Aman has a relaxing afternoon (payoff). look for a new problem to solve. you have to solve or at least contain them. Stage 1 is often missed -ask Aman for his solution. you can actually motivate him beyond the specific problem: he may suggest on improved reporting system. If he had thought his behaviour would pass unnoticed. Look for aspects of motivation -any problem which stems from lack of commitment or interest can only successfully be addressed by providing motivation. This will probably ruin his "hour before the weekend" and he will wish to avoid it. If you make it personal. We are simply recognising that staff behaviour is modified by the work environment and by your influence upon it.getting on" Problems: We are going to look at a simple system for addressing people-problems. Now you may feel that Aman deserves criticism. as manager. you. Where to Seek Solutions: The range of problems is so large. he might act quickly to solve it. continue. add a negative consequence to Aman's current behaviour.as a manager. State explicitly that you need the report by 3. always ask first -then if no solution. blame the weather. only specific. This being said. then Chetan will be less inclined to approach Deepa with information in the future. Further. he now knows differently. if there is a schedule change. or a short training course to deal with a technical short-coming. tangible actions over which you have influence. There are two solutions: 1) modify the payoff either by blocking it. Stage 2 will sometimes be sufficient. these descriptions are totally unhelpful. Each person is different. Aman will be defensive. Thus baby is hungry (trigger). No generalities. The underlying philosophy of BM is that you should concentrate upon specific. such people can poison the working environment.. but does it actually help? Your objective is to get Aman to work well. This sort of interview can be quite difficult because you run the danger of making personal criticism. It is a step-by. by addressing one. In any group of people there are bound to be problems . baby wails (action). must provide the solution. observable behaviour. One of the problems with communication in Ancient Greece was that the bearer of bad news was often executed. it is worth checking that the problem is real -some "problems" are more appearance than substance. we have a starting point and something which can be measured. One work of warning: this technique is often referred to as Behavioural Modification (BM) and many balk at the connotations of managementdirected mind control. tell you that he knows best or some combination of the above. So. Do not worry. Secondly. Deepa vents her annoyance on Chetan (payoff). if this does not happen. It is best to work on one problem at a time because this simplifies the analysis. Sometimes. In the long term.30 make a habit of responding to it on Monday morning: if there is an issue raised. Stage 1 is to monitor the identified problem to check that it is real and to seek simple explanations. For instance "Aman is lazy" should be transformed into "Aman is normally late with his weekly report and achieves less than Alice does in anyone week". some are not worth you time and effort. baby gets fed (payoff). Once you have analysed the problem. Thus Aman learns that he will receive help and support IF he gets the report in on time Stage 5 is necessary because such plans do not always work. if the plan has failed. not to indulge in personal tyranny. and any of the motivators described earlier can be applied. if every time Chetan informs his boss Deepa about a schedule change (action). other related problems are often affected also. optimally you should implement both. and is followed by a consequence or payoff. If Aman had not realised there was a problem. Firstly. Stage 3 is the analysis stage and is based upon a simple model of behaviour: every action is preceded by a trigger. Before proceeding. desired "good" behaviour. Finally. or by adding another consequence which is negative. The technique is merely a method for analysing that influence to ensure that it is positive and to focus it to best use.30 on Friday (so that you can prepare your weekly schedule update) -and. you present the situation in terms of the specific events. On the one hand. Stage 4 is to find a solution. the demonstration alone that you are interested in Aman's work may be enough to make him improve. is forthcoming. the other hand. Let us consider "late reporting". talk it over -but make it clear (say it) that you are only able to do this because you had time on Friday to read over his report. devise a new one.step procedure which avoids complex psychological models (which few managers can/should handle) and which focuses upon tangible (and so controllable) quantities. help Aman to solve it. 8M provides a manageable focus and a framework for analysis. This is where you have to be creative. Such problems are usually described in terms like: "Aman is just lazy" or "Brenda is a bad-tempered old has-been". .can you help?). For instance Aman might still be helping someone with his old job. or the report is due today (trigger). Aman goes for coffee break "to think about if (action).

guest lectures on work tools. You lose nothing if you gain a skilled. no one is unaffected by bereavement. If you acknowledge that a relaxed yet engaged workforce is (say) 10% more efficient than one which is over-stressed and fretful. at those work practices which you and they follow through habit. For instance if you sanction half a day's "sick-leave" to see a solicitor. then you should realize that this amounts to half-a-day per week. and the solution. Focus upon the problem (say.amityelearning. since you cannot change it. So why not devote half-a-day to: peer-group teaching. Some of these can work against you. work with it. say). and the team. you might save a week's worry and distraction. On a larger scale. Finally. adapt. committed. visits to customers (internal and external). brainstorming on enhanced efficiency. Constant pressure will eventually destroy your team members.Be flexible with regards to personal problems. No parent is immune to the "joys" of a new born baby. the way you reward the exceptional may de-motivate those responsible for the mundane. the way you hold team meetings may suppress contributions (at 4 o'clock on a Friday. When circumstances and the human factor impinge upon your ordered plans.2006 .com GurukulOnline Learning Solution Tm . look carefully at how you behave and whether the current situation is due to your previous inattention to the human factor: you might be the problem. enthusiastic team. Take a long-term view. schedule slippage) and deal with that in the existing situation. or all four on a four-weekly cycle. For instance. www. look carefully at the "systems" which exist in your team.

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