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a) Optical Smoke Detector

A smoke detector utilizing a light source and a photosensitive sensor so

arranged that the rays from the light do not normally shine on the
photosensitive sensor. When smoke enters the light path, some of the light
reflects off the smoke onto the sensor, causing the detector to respond.

Usually, the smoke detector was placed at the ceiling. When smoke rise
upwards, the detector has slits around its case (1), which lead to the main detection
chamber. An invisible, infrared light beam shoots into the chamber from a light-
emitting diode (LED) (2). The same chamber contains a photocell (3), which is an
electronic light detector that generates electricity when light falls on it. Normally, when
there is no smoke about, the light beam from the LED does not reach the detector. An
electronic circuit (4), monitoring the photocell, detects that all is well and nothing
happens. The alarm (5) remains silent. But if a fire breaks out, smoke enters the
chamber (6) and scatters some of the light beam (7) into the photocell (3). This triggers
the circuit (8), setting off the shrill and nasty alarm (9) that wakes you up and saves
your life.
b) Ionization Smoke Detector

A smoke detector that has a small amount of radioactive material which

ionizes the air in the sensing chamber, thus rendering it conductive and
permitting a current to flow between two charged electrodes. This gives the
sensing chamber an effective electrical conductance. When smoke particles
enter the sensing chamber they decrease the conductance of the air by
attaching themselves to the ions, causing a reduction in mobility. When
conductance is reduced to less than a predetermined level, the detector

Inside the detector, there's an ionization chamber open to the air (1) filled with
ions (2), which, in this case, are atoms that have lost electrons to make positively
charged nuclei. Inside the chamber, there's a small piece of a chemical element called
americium (3). It constantly spews out tiny radioactive particles (called alpha particles),
which leak into the detection chamber. As they do so, they crash into air molecules
and turn them into positively charged ions (shown here as big red blobs) and
negatively charged electrons (shown as smaller black blobs). The ions and electrons
whiz in opposite directions between two electrodes (electrical contacts, rather like the
terminals of a battery). As long as the ions and electrons are moving, a current flows
between the electrodes and a circuit (4) in the smoke detector thinks all's well, so the
alarm (5) remains silent. However, if a fire breaks out, smoke particles get into the
detector and start to clog up the ionization chamber (6). They attach themselves to the
ions and effectively shut off the electric current (7). The circuit in the detector spots
that change straight away (8) and sounds the alarm (9). Once the fire is out and the
smoke is gone, the detection chamber clears, the ions travel back and forth between
the electrodes as before, the circuit shuts down, and the alarm stops sounding.

Break glass usually being used when there is an emergency that stop the in or
out. : A local system sounding an alarm at the protected premises as the result of the
operation of automatic or manual initiating devices.
The glass-break detector may be used for internal perimeter building
protection. Glass-break acoustic detectors are mounted in close proximity to the glass
panes and listen for sound frequencies associated with glass breaking.
Seismic glass-break detectors, generally referred to as shock sensors, are
different in that they are installed on the glass pane. When glass breaks it produces
specific shock frequencies which travel through the glass and often through the
window frame and the surrounding walls and ceiling. Typically, the most intense
frequencies generated are between 3 and 5 kHz, depending on the type of glass and
the presence of a plastic interlayer. Seismic glass-break detectors feel these shock
frequencies and in turn generate an alarm condition.
Window foil is a less sophisticated, mostly outdated detection method that
involves gluing a thin strip of conducting foil on the inside of the glass and putting low-
power electric current through it. Breaking the glass is practically guaranteed to tear
the foil and break the circuit.

A device that detects abnormally high temperature or rate of temperature rise.

Heat detectors are not considered life safety equipment, they are for property
protection only. 2. Heat detectors should be installed where conditions are not
favourable for smoke detectors such as kitchens, garages, attics, boiler rooms, etc. 3.
The maximum ceiling temperature in the area where the heat detector is installed must
be 20 degrees or more below the operating temperature of the heat detector.

Emergency lighting is often referred to as egress lighting. Emergency lights are

used in commercial buildings as a safety precaution to power outages, so that people
will be able to find their way out of a building. Exit signs are often used in conjunction
with emergency lighting.
When the filament gets hot, it causes the strip to bend, breaking the current and
extinguishing the bulb. As the strip cools, it bends back, reconnects the post and re-
lights the filament so the cycle repeats. The integrated circuit simply turns on a triac
to light one of the four strands.

An electric bell contains an electromagnet, consisting of coils of insulated wire

wound round iron rods. When the current flows through the circuit, the electromagnet
makes a magnetic field. Then, the electromagnet attracts the springly metal arm and
the arm hits the gong and produce sounds. When the arm is out of position, it means
that the circuit was broken. Electromagnet was turned off and the springy metal alarm
moves back. Then the circuit was completed. The cyles keep on repeating as long as
the switch is closed.

Motion sensors are devices that use various forms of technology to detect
movement. The technology typically found in motion sensors to trigger an alarm
includes infrared, ultrasonic, vibration and contact. Dual technology sensors combine
two or more forms of detection in order to reduce false alarms as each method has its
advantages and disadvantages. Traditionally motion sensors are an integral part of a
home security system. These devices are typically installed to cover a large area as
they commonly cover up to 40 ft with a 135 field of vision.

An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of

fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a
fire alarm system is either classified as automatic, manually activated, or both.
Automatic fire alarm systems can be used to notify people to evacuate in the event of
a fire or other emergency, to summon emergency services, and to prepare the
structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.

As a conclusion, the important of these is it gives sound from fire alarm when fire attacks the
buildings. It is efficient, simple and complex circuit which can be designed as a small equipment and
can provide security awareness and can be a good home security too.