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4.

0 Power and Refrigeration Cycles


Refrigeration Cycle Rankine Cycle (power plant)

phase change
phase change

Otto/Diesel Cycle (IC engine) Brayton Cycle (gas turbine)

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4.3 Otto & Diesel Cycles
Otto/Diesel Cycle cycle with purpose to transfer heat to useful work out (e.g. move
vehicle).
The cycle will be contained entirely within a piston/cylinder device
Otto/Diesel Cycle internal combustion (IC) engine

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4.3 Otto Cycle
Otto Cycle cycle with purpose to transfer heat to useful work out (e.g. move
vehicle).
The cycle will be contained entirely within a piston/cylinder device
Otto/Diesel Cycle internal combustion (IC) engine

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKF5dKo_r_Y

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4.3 Terminology for Reciprocating Devices

Top dead centre (TDC): pistons highest position


Bottom dead centre (BDC): pistons lowest position
Displacement volume: VD = BDCvolume - TDCvolume (volume swept by piston)
Bore: diameter of cylinder/piston
Stroke: distance piston moves up/down
= 2
4

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4.3 Terminology for Reciprocating Devices

Compression ratio (r): ratio of the Mean effective pressure (MEP): fictitious
maximum volume to the minimum pressure that, if it operated on the piston during
cylinder volume. the entire power stroke, would produce the same
amount of net work as that produced during the
real cycle.
V max VBDC Wnet wnet
r MEP
V min VTDC Vmax Vmin vmax vmin

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4.3 Otto Cycle
Otto cycle is the air-standard ideal cycle approximation for spark-ignition
reciprocating engines.
Heat release produced by spark, which ignites fuel and increases P & T

Four-stroke engine: piston executes four complete strokes


Compression stroke: piston forced upwards to compress gas to high P,T
Power (expansion) stroke: piston pushed downwards by increase in pressure
Exhaust stroke: piston moves upwards and outgases exhaust
Intake stroke: piston moves downwards to draw in new fuel and air mixture

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4.3 Otto Cycle Simplifying Analysis
Otto cycle made simple(ler)
Closed cycle analysis
Valves fixed Exhaust modelled as mere heat
Piston is merely swept (up/down) loss to surroundings
Woking fluid is air Intake is not modelled
Fuel is modelled as mere heat
addition at TDC (after compression)

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4.3 Otto Cycle Simplifying Analysis
Ideal Otto Cycle
Process Description
1-2 Isentropic compression
2-3 Constant volume heat addition
3-4 Isentropic expansion
4-1 Constant volume heat rejection

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4.3 Otto Cycle Simplifying Analysis
Ideal Otto Cycle
Air is treated as an ideal gas
Process 1-2: isentropic compression Air mass
Volume is reduced, increasing press. & temp. P, T, v
(2)
Adiabatic, reversible (s2 = s1)
1st Law: =
21, = 2 1 21,
21, = 2 1 (1)
2nd Law analysis

2 1 = + 2 1 = 0

Ideal gas: (lecture 12)
2 2 2 2
2 1 =
1
+
1
OR 2 1 =
1

1

If constant specific heat, T, P, v relationship If variable specific heat, T, P, v relationship


2 1 2 1 1 2
= = 2 = 1 +
1 2 1 2 1

2 2 2 2 1
= =
1 1 1 1

2 2 1 1 1 2 1 10
Isentropic relations: = = & =
1 1 2 1 2
4.3 Otto Cycle Simplifying Analysis
Ideal Otto Cycle 32,
Air is treated as an ideal gas
Process 2-3: constant volume heat addition Air mass
Heat addition P3 > P2, T3 > T2. P, T, v
(2,3)
1st Law: =
32, = 3 2
32, = 3 2

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4.3 Otto Cycle Simplifying Analysis
Ideal Otto Cycle
Air is treated as an ideal gas
Process 3-4: isentropic expansion Air mass
Volume increases, decreasing press. & temp. P, T, v
(3)
Adiabatic, reversible (s4 = s3)
1st Law: =
43, = 3 4 43,
43, = 3 4 (4)
2nd Law analysis

4 2 = + 4 3 = 0

Ideal gas: (lecture 12)
4 4 4 4
4 3 =
3
+
3
OR 4 3 =
3

3

If constant specific heat, T, P, v relationship If variable specific heat, T, P, v relationship


4 3 4 3 1 4
= = 4 = 2 +
3 4 3 4 3

4 4 4 4 1
= =
3 3 3 3

4 4 1 3 1 4 3 12
Isentropic relations: = = & =
3 3 4 3 4
4.3 Otto Cycle Simplifying Analysis
Ideal Otto Cycle
Air is treated as an ideal gas
Process 4-1: constant volume heat rejection Air mass
Heat addition P1 < P4, T1 > T4 P, T, v

1st Law: =
14, = 4 1
14, = 4 1 14,
(4,1)

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4.3 Otto Cycle Example
Example 4-5: An Otto cycle operates with a compression ratio (r) of 9. At the beginning of the
compression stroke the pressure is 100 kPa, 15oC. The maximum pressure achieved is 6000
kPa. Assuming an ideal Otto cycle, with m = 1 kg air as the working fluid and constant specific
heats, determine:

a) The heat from combustion (Qin or Q23)


b) The maximum temperature
c) The heat rejected
d) The IMEP and net thermal efficiency

Air properties: R = 0.287 kJ/kgK, CV = 0.717kJ/kgK 14


4.3 Otto Cycle Example
Process 1-2: Isentropic compression Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion
1st Law: 21, = 2 1 = 2 1 1st Law: 43 = 3 4 = 3 4
Need state 2 information Need state 4 information
2nd law: 2 1 = + 2nd law: Isentropic: 4 3 = 0
4 3
Isentropic: 2 1 = 0 Ideal gas: =
3 4
2 1
Ideal gas: = 4 3 1 1 1
1 2 = = 4 = 797.7
1 3 4
2 1
= = 1 2 = 693.9 43 = 3 4 = 746.5
1 2
21, = 2 1 = 290.9

Process 2-3: Const. Vol heat addition Process 4-1: Const. Vol heat rejection
1st Law: 23 = 3 2 = 3 2 1st Law: 41 = 1 4 = 1 4
Need state 3 information = = .
1 1
3 = 2 = 1 = 1 1
9 9
Cycle Efficiency and IMEP:
3 = 0.09193
34 21
3 = 3 3 = K = = = .
23
= = .

= = .
1 2 15
4.3 Otto Cycle Thermal Efficiency
Net thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle can be expressed as a function of
temperatures in the cycle
.

, = = =1

4 1
, = 1
3 2
4 1 1 4 1 1
, = 1 =
3 2 2 3 2 1

2 1 1 3 4 1
Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic = and =
1 2 4 3

2 3 4 3
Since V3 = V2 and V4 = V1 = and =
1 4 1 2

1
Otto cycle efficiency: , =1
2

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4.3 Otto Cycle Thermal Efficiency
Compression ratio T1
Otto cycle efficiency is th , Otto 1
T2

1
2 1 1
Process 1-2 is isentropic, so = =
1 2

And, hence 1
th , Otto 1
r k 1

where the compression


ratio is r = V1/V2

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4.3 Otto Cycle Thermal Efficiency
Compression ratio 1
th , Otto 1
r k 1
Increasing the compression ratio (r) increases the thermal efficiency (k=1.4)
The limit on r depends upon the fuel. Fuels under high temperature resulting from high
compression ratios will prematurely ignite, causing knock (i.e. unwanted auto-ignition).

P 3

Otto

Fuel Injector

Spark plug

Throttle
P2 2 plate

4
1
P1 1Otto
V2 V2 =V3 V1 = V4 v
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4.3 Otto Cycle Ideal vs. Reality
The thermal efficiency of an actual spark- 1st Law Analysis
ignition engine is less than that of an ideal Simplifying Assumptions
Otto cycle because of irreversibilities, such Compression
as friction, incomplete combustion, etc. Not adiabatic nor reversible
2 1
Isentropic relations: 2 = 2
1
P 3 Must have additional state information
3
12 12 = 2 1
Otto 1-2-3-4
Constant volume heat addition
Combustion is not instantaneous
Combustion efficiency 100%

2
P2

4
4


1
P1 1Otto

V2 =V3 V1 = V4 v
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4.3 Otto Cycle Ideal vs. Reality
For a given compression ratio the thermal 1st Law Analysis
efficiency of an actual spark-ignition engine is Simplifying Assumptions
less than that of an ideal Otto cycle because
Compression
of irreversibilities, such as friction, incomplete
Not adiabatic nor reversible
combustion, etc. 2 1
Isentropic relations: 2 = 1
2

P Must have additional state information


3
12 12 = 2 1
3
Otto 1-2-3-4 Constant volume heat addition
Combustion is not instantaneous
Combustion efficiency 100%

Expansion
Not adiabatic nor reversible
3 1
Isentropic relations: 4 = 3
4

2 Must have additional state information


P2 34 34 = 4 3
Constant volume heat rejection
4
4 Open cycle analysis needed

= 0.55; = 0.3 0.4


1
P1 1Otto Conventional operation
V2 =V3 V1 = V4 v 20
4.0 IC Engine Extra two-stroke engine
Two-stroke engines
In two-stroke engines all four functions described in the 4-stroke cycle are executed in just 2 strokes:
1) the power stroke and 2) the compression stroke.
In these engines the crankcase is sealed and the outward motion of the piston is used to slightly
pressurise the air-fuel mixture in the crankcase. Also the intake and exhaust valves are replaced by
openings in the lower portion of the cylinder wall.
During the latter part of the power stroke, the piston uncovers first the exhaust port, allowing the
exhaust gases to be partially expelled, and then the intake port, allowing the fresh air-fuel mixture to
rush in and drive most of the remaining gases out of the cylinder. This mixture is then compressed as
the piston moves upward during the compression stroke and is subsequently ignited by a spark plug.

A. Crankcase intake/ B. Ignition/ Power/ C. Cylinder Intake/ 21


Cylinder Compression Crankcase pressure Cylinder Exhaust