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The widest range of products for power systems protection, control,
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ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 1
2014
ABB Protective Relay School Webinar Series
Disclaimer
ABB is pleased to provide you with technical information regarding protective
relays. The material included is not intended to be a complete presentation of
all potential problems and solutions related to this topic. The content is
generic and may not be applicable for circumstances or equipment at any
specific facility. By participating in ABB's web-based Protective Relay School,
you agree that ABB is providing this information to you on an informational
basis only and makes no warranties, representations or guarantees as to the
efficacy or commercial utility of the information for any specific application or
purpose, and ABB is not responsible for any action taken in reliance on the
information contained herein. ABB consultants and service representatives
are available to study specific operations and make recommendations on
improving safety, efficiency and profitability. Contact an ABB sales
representative for further information.

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 2
2014
ABB Protective Relay School Webinar Series

Generator Protection Fundamentals


Jack Chang
Aug 19 , 2014
Presenter
Jack Chang is the regional technical manager for ABB Inc. in
the Substation Automation business serving customers in
Canada and northern regions. He provides engineering,
commissioning and troubleshooting support to customers
applying ABBs high-voltage protective and automation
devices. Prior to joining ABB, Jack worked as a substation
P&C project engineer in two specialized consulting firms (now
Jack Chang ABB and Quanta Services, respectively) and also as an
engineering consultant to a public owned utility in their
transmission expansion and upgrade projects. Jack is a
registered professional engineer in the province of Alberta,
Canada.

ABB

August 18, | Slide


Learning objectives

Power Generation fundamentals


Generator Faults
Generator Abnormal Conditions
Modern Generator Protective IED Capabilities
Typical Generator Protection Functions

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 5
2014
Standards

C37.101: Guide for AC Generator Ground Protection


C37.102: Guide for AC Generator Protection
IEEE Tutorial On The Protection of Synchronous Generator
(PSRC)

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 6
2014
Power station is the most complex part of the power
system
MV SWITCHGEAR
HV SYSTEM STEP UP
TRANSFORMER LV DRIVES

CONTROL
AUXILIARY ROOM
TRANS-
FORMER COMMUNICATION CONTROL
INSTRUMENTATION
Temperature 1 SYSTEMS
HV- SUBSTATION
Pressure

TURBINE GENERATOR UNIT


ANALYZERS GOVERNOR CIRCUIT PROTECTION
BREAKER MV DRIVES
ACTUATOR
ON-OFF,
Controlled 1 PTs
CTs
LV SAs
SWITCHGEAR SYNCHRONIZATION
STAR
MV POINT EXCITATION
MOTORS CUBICLE TRANS- EXCITATION
LV
MOTORS
TURBINE
G FORMER SYSTEM

Power Island
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 7
2014
Typical Parts of a Power Plant
HV Substation
Busbar in HV Substation
HV - Breaker
Power plant

Main Transformer Auxiliary Transformer

Generator Breaker

Excitation Transformer

Excitation System
Turbine valve
Turbine - Generator G Field Circuit Breaker

Earthing System
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 8
2014
Different power plants electrical equipment layouts

G G G
G G G

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 9
2014
Damage to the stator core in case of earth-fault

Practically all unit


connected generators are
high-impedance earthed
Only industrial generators
may be low-impedance
earthed

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 10
2014
Stator winding earthing practices

Grounding Grounding
Resistive Transformer Transformer Isolated
Grounded (Neutral) (Terminal)
R ~ 3.0

G G G G

R ~ 1k R ~ 0.5

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 11
2014
Possible faults

Stator Earth Faults


Rotor Earth Faults
Stator Short Circuits
Stator/Rotor Interturn faults
Unit transformer faults
External faults

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 12
2014
Abnormal operating condition
overcurrent/overload
unbalanced load
overtemperature
over- and undervoltage
over- and underexcitation
over- and underfrequency
over-fluxing
asynchronous running
out of step
generator motoring
failures in the machine control system
(i.e. AVR or governor failure)
failures in the machine cooling system
failures in the primary equipment
(i.e. breaker head flashover)
ABB Group
open phase
August 18, | Slide 13
2014
Allocation of protection functions
87G/87O Differential
32 Reverse power 59 Over-voltage
81O/U Frequency 24V/Hz over-fluxing
Turbine
49S Stator over-load
21/51V Voltage/over-current
64S Earth fault stator
46 Unbalance Inter-turn
40 Loss of excitation 50AE Accidental energizing

78 Pole slipping
64R Earth fault rotor
49R Rotor overload

Rotor Stator

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 14
2014
Generator protection

Gen Diff + Back-up 12AI

<
Y
Y 60FL 81 f< 81 f>
SDD RFUF SA PTUF SA PTOF

78 Ucos
PSP PPAM

51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>


OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV
U 64R Re< 37 P< 59 3U>
G CV GAPC
+ RXTTE4
87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
I
GEN PDIF 40 < 59N 3Uo>
LEX PDIS ROV2 PTOV

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Option
Other functions available from the function library
59N UN> 59THD U3d/N
ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ 25 50 3I>> 51/27 U</I> 32N P0-> 64S RSE<
REG 670*1.2 A20 SES RSYN PH PIOC CV GAPC SDE PSDE STTI PHIZ

52PD PD 51/67 3I> 51V I>/U 87CT I2d/I 64R RRE<


CC RPLD OC4 PTOC CV GAPC CCS RDIF ROTI PHIZ
Function alternatives for 87G/GEN PDIF
87T 3Id/I 87 IdN
T2W PDIF HZ PDIF

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 15
2014
Generator protection with 87T (87O)

Unit Trafo
Y

Overall Diff + Back-up 12AI

50/51 3I> 50BF 3I> BF


OC4 PTOC CC RBRF

<
Y 60FL 81 f<
Y
SDD RFUF SA PTUF

78 Ucos 81 f>
PSP PPAM SA PTOF

21 Z< 24 U/f>
ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

87O 3Id/I 32 P 27 3U<


T2W PDIF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV
U 64R Re< 37 P< 59 3U>
G CV GAPC
+ RXTTE4
GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
I
40 < 59N 3Uo>
LEX PDIS ROV2 PTOV

46 I2> 49 Ith 50AE U/I> Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR AEG GAPC CV MMXU

Option

59N UN> 59THD U3d/N


ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ
ABB Group REG 670*1.2 A20

August 18, | Slide 16


2014
Function allocations with older generation relays

Older type of design:


M1 and M2 with
different function
allocations

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 17
2014
Complete Protection Scheme

Generator M1 & M2 protection


Two identical IEDs with 87G
(low/high impedance based)

Complete Unit Protection for Smaller


Machines
One with 87G
One with 87T or 87O

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 18
2014
Generator protection & optional transformer protection
Gen Diff + Back-up 24AI
50/51 3I> 50BF 3I> BF
OC4 PTOC CC RBRF

51N IN> 87N IdN/I 87T 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC REF PDIF T3W PDIF
Y
Unit Trafo
D 50/51 3I>
OC4 PTOC

50/51 3I>
OC4 PTOC

< 59N 3Uo>


Y
Y ROV2 PTOV

Back-up Protection
Excitation Trafo

Main Protection
Auxiliary Trafo

<
Y 60FL 81 f< 81 f>
Y
SDD RFUF SA PTUF SA PTOF

78 Ucos
PSP PPAM

51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>


OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH
Auxiliary Bus 50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<
CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV
U 64R Re< 37 P< 59 3U>
G CV GAPC
+ RXTTE4
87G 3Id/I
GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
I
GEN PDIF 40 < 59N 3Uo>
LEX PDIS ROV2 PTOV

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU
Other functions available from the function library
Option
25 50 3I>> 51/27 U</I> 64S RSE< 87T 3Id/I
59N UN> 59THD U3d/N
SES RSYN PH PIOC CV GAPC STTI PHIZ T2W PDIF
ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ
REG 670*1.2 B30
52PD PD 87CT I2d/I 51V I>/U 64R RRE< 32N P0->
CC RPLD CCS RDIF CV GAPC ROTI PHIZ SDE PSDE

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 19
2014
Complete generator-transformer unit protection
Generator and block transformer protection 24AI

< 60FL 59 3U> Meter.


Y
Y SDD RFUF OV2 PTOV CV MMXU

87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith


REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR

87T 3Id/I
T2W PDIF

50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF
Unit Trafo

D 50/51 3I>
OC4 PTOC

< Option
Y
Y 59N 3Uo>
ROV2 PTOV

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos 81 f>


<
Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM SA PTOF
Y
51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>
OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV
U 64R Re< 37 P< 59 3U>
G CV GAPC
+ RXTTE4
87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
I
GEN PDIF 40 < 59N 3Uo>
LEX PDIS ROV2 PTOV
Other functions available from the function library
46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.
NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU 25 50 3I>> 51/27 U</I> 32N P0-> 64S RSE<
SES RSYN PH PIOC CV GAPC SDE PSDE STTI PHIZ

52PD PD 51/67 3I> 51V I>/U 87CT I2d/I 64R RRE<


Grounding 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N
CC RPLD OC4 PTOC CV GAPC CCS RDIF ROTI PHIZ
Transformer ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ
REG 670*1.2 C30

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 20
2014
Generator terminal short circuit
Xd Xd Xd
Xd - Subtransient Reactance
E
E Xd - Transient Reactance
Et
Ed
Xd - Synchronous Reactance

The fault current from the


generator change during fault
sequence
Change of generator reactance
Xd -> Xd -> Xd
Dependent of the excitation
system
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 21
2014
Stator short circuit

Consequence of stator short circuit


Insulation, windings and stator core can be damaged
Large forces, caused by large fault currents, can give
damage to other components in the plant
Risk of explosion and fire
Mechanical stress on generator- and turbine shafts

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 22
2014
Detection of stator short circuits

Protection functions
Generator differential protection
Block (unit) differential protection
Directional negative sequence overcurrent protection
Under impedance protection
Phase overcurrent protection (sometimes not effective)
Voltage dependent phase overcurrent protection
Under voltage protection
Phase overcurrent protection of the block transformer

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 23
2014
Generator differential protection

Unstabilized differential protection level


Stabilized differential protection level
Harmonic blocking
Negative sequence unrestrained
Combination: bias differential and negative sequence
internal/external discriminator; increases speed and
security
Negative sequence sensitive differential protection

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 24
2014
Differential protection characteristics
operate current
[gen. rated curr.] Operate
5
unconditionally

UnrestrainedLimit
4
D Ioperate
slope = ---------------- * 100 %
Operate
D Irestrain 3 conditionally

The restrained
2
characteristic
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3
is defined by
the settings: 1 SlopeSection3
****************** IdMin
Restrain
1. IdMin SlopeSection2
0
2. EndSection1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. EndSection2 EndSection1 restrain current
4. SlopeSection2 EndSection2 [gen. rated curr.]
5. SlopeSection3

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 25
2014
Generator unit (overall) differential protection

Identical to transformer differential protection


Zero sequence current elimination

Vector group compensation

Transformer ratio compensation

Unstabilized differential protection

Stabilized differential protection


Harmonic blocking
Waveform blocking
Negative sequence unrestrained
Combination: bias differential and negative sequence
internal/external discriminator
Negative sequence sensitive differential protection

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 26
2014
Phase to phase fault in the stator winding

Endangering condition 87N


REF PDIF
IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF
CC RBRF
50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Overcurrent 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y
Protected object D 50/51 3I>
OC4 PTOC

Stator winding
<
Y
59N 3Uo>

Consequences Y
ROV2 PTOV

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


<
Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM

Heating Y
51/67
OC4 PTOC
3I-> 50AE U/I>
AEG GAPC
21
ZMH PDIS
Z< 24 U/f>
OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<

Forces U
CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV

64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>


G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV

Smelted stator core U


+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 <
LEX PDIS
81 f>
SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 27
2014
Phase to phase fault in the XFMR, and bus work

87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Endangering condition REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Overcurrent 50N/51N

EF4 PTOC
IN> 87O 3Id/I
T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Protected object D 50/51


OC4 PTOC
3I>

XFMR, bus work Y


<

Y
59N 3Uo>
ROV2 PTOV

Consequences
60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos
Y
<

Y
SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM

51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>


OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Heating 50BF 3I> BF


CC RBRF
32
GOP PDOP
P 27 3U<
UV2 PTUV
U 64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>
G
Forces U
ROTI PHIZ
+ REX060, REX061
87G 3Id/I
GEN PDIF
GUP PDUP

40 <
OV2 PTOV

81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

Smelted trafo core 46


NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N


ROV2 PTOV
UN> 59THD U3d/N
STEF PHIZ

Reserve Protection Function 64S RSE<


STTI PHIZ
+ REX060
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 28
2014
Under-impedance protection
X
Backup protection for
internal short circuits in the

} P
ZP
generator or the unit
transformer

P
ZAngPP

P
}
ev
ZR
R
Backup or main protection
for fault at the busbar
where the plant is
connected to the power
system
Backup protection for line-
faults at lines out from the
power plant
Up to 3-zones with offset Z<< ANSI 21
mho characteristic Z<
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 29
2014
Phase overcurrent protection

Backup protection for internal short circuits in the generator


or the unit transformer
Backup or main protection for fault at the busbar where the
plant is connected to the power system
Backup protection for line-faults at lines out from the power
plant

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 30
2014
External short circuit

First period of Fault

After 0.4 s

Before Fault

I>

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 31
2014
Voltage controlled phase overcurrent protection

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 32
2014
External faults
Endangering condition 87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.
REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Overcurrent
50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I
EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Protected object

Unit Trafo
Y

D 50/51 3I>

External power system OC4 PTOC

parts. Y
<

Y
59N 3Uo>
ROV2 PTOV

Consequences Y
<

Y
60FL
SDD RFUF
81
SA PTUF
f< 78 Ucos
PSP PPAM

51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>


OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Heating 50BF 3I> BF


CC RBRF
32
GOP PDOP
P 27 3U<
UV2 PTUV
U 64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>
G
Forces U
ROTI PHIZ
+ REX060, REX061
87G 3Id/I
GEN PDIF
GUP PDUP

40 <
OV2 PTOV

81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

Mechanical damages
46
NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N


ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

Reserve Protection Function 64S RSE<


STTI PHIZ
+ REX060
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 33
2014
Stator earth fault

Damages on the stator iron


Increased voltage on healthy phases
Small fault currents
Sensitivity requirements on fault clearance
The fault resistance is normally low at stator earth fault
The residual voltage and earth fault current is highly
dependent on fault location in the generator

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 34
2014
Voltage based 95 % stator earth fault protection
Neutral point voltage transformer used
to measure Uo voltage
Generator Step-up transformer

Voltage Uo has the following primary value for


Uo
the solid Ph-Gnd fault at generator HV terminals
U Gen _ PhPh
Uo
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 35
3
2014
Current based 95 % stator earth fault protection
Generator Step-up transformer
Neutral point current measurement

10/1A I>

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 36
2014
Why 95 % and 100% stator ground fault protection?

0%

Protectedzone
is approximately
95%
100%

Last 5% is
NOT
protected
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 37
2014
Possible 100 % stator earth fault protection solutions

Measurement of the natural third harmonic voltage


induced in the generator can be used to protect against EF
close to the generator neutral point
(i.e. 3rd harmonic based principle; 59THD)

Neutral point voltage injection where the injected voltage


has non-harmonic frequency
(i.e. injection principle; 64S)

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 38
2014
3rd harmonic 100% stator ground fault

Simplest approach :
3rd harmonic under-voltage in the neutral (i.e. U3N<)
3rd harmonic over-voltage at generator terminals (i.e. U3T>)
Possible problems:
Generator start-up
Generator shut-down
Different generator loading
3rd harmonic differential principle
U N 3 UT 3 Beta U N 3

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 39
2014
3rd harmonic based 100% stator earth-fault
stator winding CB 1 may not exist
x E3 (1-x) E3 CB 1 CB 2
N T

RN Rf step-up
unit
transformer
UN3 UT3
x 1-x
Samples of the Samples of the
neutral voltage 100 % terminal voltage
from which the from which the
fundamental- 3rd harmonic
and 3rd harmonic Neutral point fundamental frequency voltage is
voltages are over- voltage protection 10 100 % filtered out
filtered out
3rd Diff.
Differential
0 30 %

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 40
2014
Stator injection
PCM600 2.3

ICT

PC ICT

REX060
(Injection Unit)
REG670 ALWAYS required

PSM
RIM
SIM STATOR
REX062
(Shunt Resistor Unit)
SOMETIMES required

ROTOR

VT or GT Generator
Generator Protection Cubicle

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 41
2014
Earth fault in the stator winding
Endangering condition
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.
Overvoltage in two healthy REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

phases
50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I
EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF
Voltage in the star point

Unit Trafo
Y

D
Relatively small earth fault 50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I>

current <
Y
59N 3Uo>
Y

Protected object <


ROV2 PTOV

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM

Stator winding Y
51/67
OC4 PTOC
3I-> 50AE U/I>
AEG GAPC
21
ZMH PDIS
Z< 24 U/f>
OEX PVPH

Consequences
50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<
CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV
U 64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>
G
Damage to the stator core U
ROTI PHIZ
+ REX060, REX061
87G 3Id/I
GEN PDIF
GUP PDUP

40 <
OV2 PTOV

81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

Risk of second earth fault 46


NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N


ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

Reserve Protection Function 64S RSE<


STTI PHIZ
+ REX060
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 42
2014
Earth fault in transformer HV winding

Endangering condition 87N


REF PDIF
IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF
CC RBRF
50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Overcurrent 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y
Protected object D 50/51 3I>
OC4 PTOC

Transformer windings
<
Y
59N 3Uo>
Y

Consequences <
ROV2 PTOV

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM
Y
51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>
Heating OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV

Forces G
U 64R
ROTI PHIZ
RRE< 37
GUP PDUP
P< 59 3U>
OV2 PTOV
87G 3Id/I
U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>

Smelted trafo core 46 I2> 49 Ith


LEX PDIS

Meter.
SA PTOF

NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N


ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ
Reserve Protection Function 64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 43
2014
Earth fault in transformer LV winding
Endangering condition
Overvoltage in two healthy 87N
REF PDIF
IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF
CC RBRF
50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

phases
50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I

Voltage in the star point EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Relatively small earth fault D 50/51 3I>


OC4 PTOC

current
<
Y

Protected object Y
59N
ROV2 PTOV
3Uo>

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


<

Transformer winding Y
Y
SDD RFUF

51/67 3I->
SA PTUF

50AE U/I>
PSP PPAM

21 Z< 24 U/f>
OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Consequences 50BF 3I> BF


CC RBRF
32
GOP PDOP
P 27 3U<
UV2 PTUV
U 64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>

Small possibility to damage G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>

trafo core 46 I2> 49 Ith


LEX PDIS

Meter.
SA PTOF

NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Risk of second earth fault



VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N
Main Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060

Reserve Protection Function STTI PHIZ


REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 44
2014
Turn to turn fault in the stator winding
Endangering condition
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Circulating currents REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Asymmetrical phase currents 50N/51N

EF4 PTOC
IN> 87O 3Id/I
T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Protected object D 50/51 3I>


OC4 PTOC

Stator winding <


Y

*
59N 3Uo>
Y
ROV2 PTOV

Consequences <
60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos
Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM
Y
51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>

Damage to the stator core OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV

Risk of evolving into earth fault


G
U 64R
ROTI PHIZ
RRE<

87G 3Id/I
37
GUP PDUP
P< 59 3U>
OV2 PTOV
U
* 59N will detect this fault when + REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 <
LEX PDIS
81 f>
SA PTOF

develops into an earth fault 46


NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

VT
Main Protection Function 59N
ROV2 PTOV
UN>
* 59THD U3d/N
STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<

Reserve Protection Function STTI PHIZ


+ REX060
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 45
2014
Rotor earth fault

The field circuit of the generator is normally isolated from


earth
With a single earth fault in the rotor circuit it is possible to
have continuous operation without generator damages
There however creates an increased risk of a second rotor
earth fault. In such a case there will be large current and
risk of severe damages.
Major damages ensue following a second ground fault
The requirement of fast fault clearance is moderate

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 46
2014
Rotor injection

PCM600 2.3

ICT

PC ICT

REX061
REX060 (Coupling Capacitor Unit)
REG670 (Injection Unit) ALWAYS required
ALWAYS required

PSM
SIM
RIM

STATOR

ROTOR

Generator Protection Cubicle Generator

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 47
2014
Earth fault in the rotor winding
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Endangering condition REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

None 50N/51N

EF4 PTOC
IN> 87O 3Id/I
T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Protected object D 50/51


OC4 PTOC
3I>

Rotor winding Y
<
59N 3Uo>
Y
ROV2 PTOV

Consequences Y
<

Y
60FL
SDD RFUF
81
SA PTUF
f< 78 Ucos
PSP PPAM

51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>


OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Risk of evolving into double 50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV

earth fault G
U 64R
ROTI PHIZ
RRE< 37
GUP PDUP
P< 59 3U>
OV2 PTOV
87G 3Id/I
U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function


VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 48
2014
Performance of synchronous machine
Voltage Regulator (U & Q) jXd I jXs

If P
Q
E U Us
R
X

B
G
Turbine Regulator (P & f)

Synchronous machine operating in a parallel with a large power system can:


supply active power to the system (operates as generator)
receive active power from the system (operates as motor)
supply reactive power to the system
(overexcited machine; operates as shunt capacitor)
receive reactive power from the system
(underexcited machine; operates as shunt reactor)
Note: machine shall have fixed rotating speed at all times
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 49
2014
Different protection operating planes
Q [pu]
Motor Generator AB: Field current limit
Motor Generator
BC: Stator current limit
A CD: End region heating limit
0.8
of stator, due to leakage flux
BH: Possible active power limit due
0.6 B
to turbine output power limitation
Underexcited Underexcited ing S EF: Steady-state limit without AVR
lagg
Xs: Source impedance of
.8
f. 0
Overexcited
U0o
Overexcited V A
p.
connected power system

te dM
I Overexcited
Ra
37o

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 P [pu]


Rate
Motor Generator
Underexcited dM 18o
VA p F
.f. 0
.95
lead Xe=0.2
-0.3 ing
C
H
-0.5 E F
X Xs=0
Motor Generator D

Overexcited Overexcited

R
Underexcited Underexcited

Motor Generator

Fault Overload
Area Area

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 50
2014
Loss of/under excitation 40 MW
G normal
Causes MVARS

open field circuit MW


G abnormal
field short circuit
MVARS
accidental tripping of the field breaker
AVR failure Q [pu]
AB: Field current limit
Motor Generator
loss of field at the main exciter 0.8
A
BC: Stator current limit
CD: End region heating limit
of stator, due to leakage flux
Consequence 0.6 B BH: Possible active power limit due
to turbine output power limitation
g
gin S EF: Steady-state limit without AVR
Asynchronous running of a synchronous machine .8
lag Xs: Source impedance of
f. 0
without excitation induction generator
connected power system
p.
V A
te dM
Overexcited
Ra
Start drawing reactive power - voltage collapse 37o

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 P [pu]


Rate
Stator end-core heating Underexcited dM
VA p
.f. 0
18o
F
.95
lead Xe=0.2
-0.3 ing
Induced rotor currents H
C

-0.5 E F
Xs=0
D

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 51
2014
Loss of/under excitation 40
Generator apparent power S during loss of excitation
Q
0.4 sec.
0.3
(p.u.)
1.2 sec.

- 0.3 0.3 0.6 2.


P (p.u.)
4
0.3 3.2

4.41
4.18 4.28

4.15
1.0
4.35
4.0

4.07
4.5
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 52
4.32
2014
Loss of/under excitation 40
Loss of/under excitation is based on under-impedance
measurement (offset Mho)
Main features:
Two zones Z1 and Z2, with independent block and trip
Directional element for additional zone restriction (eg.
under-exiting operation)
X

Underexcitation Protection
Restrain area

Z1, Fast zone


Z2, Slow zone

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 53
2014
Loss of Excitation Protection

Xd/ 2

1.1 Xd
Loss of/Under excitation 40
Endangering condition
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Stator reactive current REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

component 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Protected object

Unit Trafo
Y

D
Rotor and stator winding 50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I>

Consequences Y
<

Y
59N 3Uo>
ROV2 PTOV

Thermal damage of rotor and Y


<
60FL
SDD RFUF
81
SA PTUF
f< 78 Ucos
PSP PPAM
Y

stator end regions 51/67


OC4 PTOC
3I-> 50AE U/I>
AEG GAPC
21
ZMH PDIS
Z< 24 U/f>
OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<

Asynchronous machine U 64R RRE<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP

37 P<
UV2 PTUV

59 3U>
G
operation U
ROTI PHIZ
+ REX060, REX061
87G 3Id/I
GEN PDIF
GUP PDUP

40 <
OV2 PTOV

81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

Voltage and current variations 46


NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N


ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

Reserve Protection Function 64S RSE<


STTI PHIZ
+ REX060
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 55
2014
Generator motoring protection 32/37

Generator shall produce active power


(i.e. P>0)
When it starts to receive the active
power it acts as a motor (i.e. P<0)
Not dangerous operating condition for
machine but it may be dangerous for the
turbine

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 56
2014
Generator motoring protection 32/37

Causes
loss of prime-mover
low water flow (hydro)
load variations / problems
Effects
steam units overheating of turbine and turbine blades
hydro units cavitation of the blades
Demands
accurate active power measurement (i.e. P~0 & Q=30-60%)

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 57
2014
Reverse power protection
Set desired pickup (0,5 to 3%)
Q
Operate
Line
Set time delay 5-30 s
Sequential tripping logic
Margin
P

Operating point
without turbine torque

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 58
2014
Low forward power protection
Q
Operate
Line
Set desired pickup (1 to 10%)
Set time delay 5-30 s
Margin Sequential tripping logic
P
Blocked by external signal
when generator is not
loaded
Operating point
without turbine torque

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 59
2014
Reverse Power Protection (32R)
Endangering condition
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Motor operation REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Protected object 50N/51N

EF4 PTOC
IN> 87O 3Id/I
T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y
Turbine
D 50/51 3I>

Consequences OC4 PTOC

<

Excessive heating of turbine Y


Y
59N
ROV2 PTOV
3Uo>

blades (steam units) Y


<
60FL
SDD RFUF
81
SA PTUF
f< 78 Ucos
PSP PPAM
Y
51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>

Mechanical damages to thrust OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC

50BF 3I> BF
ZMH PDIS

32 P
OEX PVPH

27 3U<

bearing (Francis turbines) U 64R RRE<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP

37 P<
UV2 PTUV

59 3U>
G ROTI PHIZ GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV

Explosion risk for diesel units


87G 3Id/I
U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 60
2014
Negative sequence overcurrent (46)

IR+
IR-
IS-
IT-
IT+ IS+
From asymmetric currents, a negative sequence current
component I2, is filtered out.
Negative sequence stator currents rotate in a opposite
direction from the rotor and consequently induce a
120Hz current component into the rotor. As a
consequence rotor ends can over-heat.
I- , I nsc
46
I22 x t = k
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 61
2014
Negative phase sequence (46)

Causes
unbalanced loads
untransposed transmission circuits
unbalanced system faults
series faults
CB pole discrepancy
open circuits

Features
Characteristic adjustable to I22 t=k

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 62
2014
Broken stator winding
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.
REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Endangering condition
50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I

Unsymmetrical currents EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Protected object D 50/51


OC4 PTOC
3I>

Stator windings Y
<
59N 3Uo>
Y
ROV2 PTOV
Rotor <
60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos
Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM
Y

Consequences 51/67
OC4 PTOC
3I-> 50AE U/I>
AEG GAPC
21
ZMH PDIS
Z< 24 U/f>
OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<

Rotor overheating U 64R RRE<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP

37 P<
UV2 PTUV

59 3U>
G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV

Vibrations U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 <
LEX PDIS
81 f>
SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function


VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 63
2014
Pole slip / out of step protection (78)
Asynchronous running of a synchronous
machine with the rest of the system but with
excitation intact (opposed to loss of Field)
Characterized by power
(P & Q) oscillation
Manifests as impedance movement in R & X
plane
Big mechanical impact on turbine and shaft
Pole Slip typically caused by:
Long fault clearance time (especially close
by 3Ph faults are critical)
Inadvertent tripping of a transmission line
(increase of transmission impedance
between generator and load)
Loss of large generator unit

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 64
2014
Pole slip / out of step protection (78)

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 65
2014
Pole slip / out of step protection (78)
Endangering condition
High stator current 87N
REF PDIF
IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF
CC RBRF
50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Possible system blackout 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Protected object

Unit Trafo
Y

D 50/51 3I>

Rotor shaft and stator winding OC4 PTOC

<

Consequences Y
Y
59N
ROV2 PTOV
3Uo>

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


<
Mechanical damages to shaft Y
Y
SDD RFUF

51/67 3I->
SA PTUF

50AE U/I>
PSP PPAM

21 Z< 24 U/f>
OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Asynchronous machine 50BF 3I> BF


CC RBRF
32
GOP PDOP
P 27 3U<
UV2 PTUV

operation (with field intact) G


U

U
64R
ROTI PHIZ
RRE<

87G 3Id/I
37
GUP PDUP
P< 59 3U>
OV2 PTOV
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>

Voltage and current variations 46 I2> 49 Ith


LEX PDIS

Meter.
SA PTOF

NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N


ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

Reserve Protection Function 64S RSE<


STTI PHIZ
+ REX060
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 66
2014
Frequency protection (81U/O)

Over-frequency 81O: protects in


case of turbine over-speed

Under-frequency 81U:
protection of the steam turbine at the
"critical speed"

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 67
2014
Low network frequency (81U)

87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.


REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Endangering condition
50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I

Under-frequency EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Protected object D 50/51


OC4 PTOC
3I>

Transformer Y
<
59N 3Uo>
Y
ROV2 PTOV
Steam turbine <
60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos
Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM
Y

Consequences 51/67
OC4 PTOC
3I-> 50AE U/I>
AEG GAPC
21
ZMH PDIS
Z< 24 U/f>
OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<

Over-excitation U 64R RRE<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP

37 P<
UV2 PTUV

59 3U>
G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
U
Steam turbine vibrations + REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 <
LEX PDIS
81 f>
SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 68
2014
High Network Frequency (81O)

Endangering condition 87N


REF PDIF
IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF
CC RBRF
50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

Over-frequency 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Protected object Y

D 50/51 3I>

Turbine OC4 PTOC

<
Rotor Y
Y
59N
ROV2 PTOV
3Uo>

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos

Consequences Y
<

Y
SDD RFUF

51/67 3I->
SA PTUF

50AE U/I>
PSP PPAM

21 Z< 24 U/f>
OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Mechanical stresses 50BF 3I> BF


CC RBRF
32
GOP PDOP
P 27 3U<
UV2 PTUV
U
Turbine vibrations G
U
64R
ROTI PHIZ
RRE<

87G 3Id/I
37
GUP PDUP
P< 59 3U>
OV2 PTOV
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.

Main Protection Function NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Reserve Protection Function VT 59N


ROV2 PTOV
UN> 59THD U3d/N
STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 69
2014
Over-voltage protection, 59

With faulty AVR overvoltage can


cause over excitation of the
generator-transformer block
V can sharply increase after load
rejection followed by machine 3U>
runaway
AVR

Uinj

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 70
2014
Over-voltage protection (59)

87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.


REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Endangering condition
50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I

Over-voltage EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y

Improper voltage regulation D 50/51


OC4 PTOC
3I>

Protected object Y
<
59N 3Uo>
Y

Electrical circuits <


ROV2 PTOV

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


Y SDD RFUF SA PTUF PSP PPAM
Y

Consequences 51/67
OC4 PTOC
3I-> 50AE U/I>
AEG GAPC
21
ZMH PDIS
Z< 24 U/f>
OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<

Increased risk for earth-faults U 64R RRE<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP

37 P<
UV2 PTUV

59 3U>
G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV

Over-excitation U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 <
LEX PDIS
81 f>
SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function


VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 71
2014
Over-fluxing (excessive V/Hz), 24
Overfluxing protects generator and
transformer magnetic core against
overheating
Specially critical during start-up and
shut-down
Wide frequency operation of the
relay important for generator
protection

E U
orB const const
f f

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 72
2014
Incorrect turbine control (24, 81O/U)

87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.


REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Endangering condition 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y
Under-frequency
D 50/51 3I>

Protected object OC4 PTOC

<

Transformer Y
Y
59N
ROV2 PTOV
3Uo>

60FL 81 f< 78 Ucos


<

Consequences Y
Y
SDD RFUF

51/67 3I->
SA PTUF

50AE U/I>
PSP PPAM

21 Z< 24 U/f>
OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

Over-excitation 50BF 3I> BF


CC RBRF
32
GOP PDOP
P 27 3U<
UV2 PTUV
U 64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>
G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

46 I2> 49 Ith Meter.


NS2 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

Main Protection Function VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Reserve Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 73
2014
Accidental energizing, 50AE

Operates when generator is


energized while offline
Behaved a induction motor
Significant damages to rotor
Operating errors, CB flash-over
voltage controlled OC most
commonly used

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 74
2014
Accidental energizing (50AE)
Endangering condition
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Stator overcurrent or REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

unsymmetrical currents 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Unit Trafo
Y
Protected object
D 50/51 3I>

Bearings OC4 PTOC

Rotor Y
<

Y
59N 3Uo>
ROV2 PTOV

Consequences Y
<
60FL
SDD RFUF
81
SA PTUF
f< 78 Ucos
PSP PPAM
Y
51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>

Bearing damages due to low OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC * ZMH PDIS OEX PVPH

50BF 3I> BF 32 P 27 3U<

oil pressure U 64R RRE<


CC RBRF GOP PDOP

37 P<
UV2 PTUV

59 3U>
G ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV

Rotor overheating U
+ REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 < 81 f>
LEX PDIS SA PTOF

Stator overheating 46
NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

VT
Main Protection Function 59N
ROV2 PTOV
UN> 59THD U3d/N
STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<

Reserve Protection Function


+ REX060
STTI PHIZ
REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18,
2014
* 3Z< is a delayed reserve protection
| Slide 75
Breaker-failure protection (50BF)

Issues a back-up trip of adjacent breaker in case of failure of the circuit


breaker of the protected object to open (i.e. to interrupt the primary
circuit)
Its operation in most cases trips only local breakers
Commonly uses the bus bar protection disconnector replica logic to
route its tripping command to adjacent breakers
Re-trip (t1), Backup trip / bus-strip (t2), Second back-up trip timer
(t3)
Short reset time (15ms)
Known CB faulty (bypass t2)
Operating mode
Current / Contact / Current & Contact
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 76
2014
Breaker fails to open the circuit (50BF)
Endangering condition
87N IdN/I 50BF 3I> BF 50/51 3I> 49 Ith Meter.

Stator overcurrent or REF PDIF CC RBRF OC4 PTOC TR PTTR CV MMXU

unsymmetrical currents 50N/51N IN> 87O 3Id/I


EF4 PTOC T3W PDIF

Protected object

Unit Trafo
Y

D
Electrical circuits 50/51
OC4 PTOC
3I>

Rotor Y
<

Y
59N 3Uo>
ROV2 PTOV

Consequences Y
<
60FL
SDD RFUF
81
SA PTUF
f< 78 Ucos
PSP PPAM
Y
51/67 3I-> 50AE U/I> 21 Z< 24 U/f>

Rotor overheating OC4 PTOC AEG GAPC

50BF 3I> BF
ZMH PDIS

32 P
OEX PVPH

27 3U<
CC RBRF GOP PDOP UV2 PTUV

Stator overheating G
U 64R RRE< 37 P< 59 3U>
ROTI PHIZ 87G 3Id/I GUP PDUP OV2 PTOV
U

Prolonged damages caused by + REX060, REX061 GEN PDIF 40 <


LEX PDIS
81 f>
SA PTOF

the fault current 46


NS2 PTOC
I2> 49 Ith
TR PTTR
Meter.
CV MMXU

VT 59N UN> 59THD U3d/N

Main Protection Function ROV2 PTOV STEF PHIZ

64S RSE<
+ REX060

Reserve Protection Function STTI PHIZ


REG 670*1.2

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 77
2014
Conclusion

Stator earth faults


Rotor earth faults
Stator short circuits
Stator/rotor interturn faults
External faults
Abnormal operation

ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 78
2014
Thank you for your participation
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ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 79
2014
This webinar brought to you by:
ABB Power Systems Automation and Communication

Relion Series Relays Advanced flexible platform for protection and control
RTU 500 Series Proven, powerful and open architecture
MicroSCADA - Advanced control and applications
Tropos Secure, robust, high speed wireless solutions

We combine innovative, flexible and open products with


engineering and project services to help our
customers address their challenges.
ABB Group
August 18, | Slide 81
2014