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1R-07

for Thermal Effects on

Nuclear Power Plant Structures

First printing

June 2007

American Concrete Institute

Advancing concrete knowledge

on Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Copyright by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. All rights reserved. This material

may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other

distribution and storage media, without the written consent of ACI.

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requested to contact ACI. Proper use of this document includes periodically checking for errata at

www.concrete.org/committees/errata.asp for the most up-to-date revisions.

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accept total responsibility for the application and use of this information.

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subscription, or reprint and may be obtained by contacting ACI.

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Concrete Practice (MCP).

38800 Country Club Drive

Farmington Hills, MI 48331

U.S.A.

Phone: 248-848-3700

Fax: 248-848-3701

www.concrete.org

ISBN 978-0-87031-246-05

ACI 349.1R-07

on Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Reported by ACI Committee 349

Ronald J. Janowiak*

Chair

Adeola K. Adediran Partha S. Ghosal* Scott A. Jensen* Bozidar Stojadinovic

Hansraj G. Ashar Herman L. Graves, III Jagadish R. Joshi Barendra K. Talukdar

Ranjit L. Bandyopadhyay Orhan Gurbuz* Richard E. Klingner Donald T. Ward

Peter J. Carrato James A. Hammell Nam-Ho Lee Andrew S. Whittaker

Ronald A. Cook Gunnar A. Harstead* Dan J. Naus* Albert Y. C. Wong

Rolf Eligenhausen Christopher Heinz Dragos A. Nuta Charles A. Zalesiak*

Werner A. F. Fuchs

*

Committee 349 members who were major contributors to the development of this report.

This report presents a design-oriented approach for considering thermal Keywords: cracking (fracturing); frames; nuclear power plants; shells;

effect on reinforced concrete structures. Although the approach is intended to structural analysis; structural design; temperature; thermal effect; thermal

conform to the general provisions of Appendix E of ACI 349, it is not gradient; thermal properties.

restricted to nuclear power plant structures. The general behavior of structures

under thermal effects is discussed together with the significant issues to CONTENTS

consider in reinforcement design. Two types of structuresframes and Chapter 1Introduction, p. 349.1R-2

axisymmetric shellsare addressed. For frame structures, a rationale is 1.1General

described for determining the extent of component cracking that can be

assumed for purposes of obtaining the cracked structure thermal forces and

1.2Thermal effects and structural responses

moments. Stiffness coefficients and carryover factors are presented in graph- 1.3General guidelines

ical form as a function of the extent of component cracking along its length 1.4Analysis techniques

and the reinforcement ratio. Fixed-end thermal moments for cracked compo- 1.5Consideration of thermal effects in analysis

nents are expressed in terms of these factors for: 1) a temperature gradient 1.6Stiffness and deformation effects

across the depth of the component; and 2) end displacements due to a

uniform temperature change along the axes of adjacent components. For the

1.7Summary

axisymmetric shells, normalized cracked section thermal moments are

presented in graphical form. These moments are normalized with respect to Chapter 2Notation and definitions, p. 349.1R-5

the cross-sectional dimensions and the temperature gradient across the 2.1Notation

section. The normalized moments are presented as a function of the internal 2.2Definitions

axial forces and moments acting on the section and the reinforcement ratio.

Use of the graphical information is illustrated by examples.

Chapter 3Frame structures, p. 349.1R-7

3.1Scope

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and 3.2Section cracking

Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, 3.3Component cracking

designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This

document is intended for the use of individuals who are 3.4Cracked component fixed-end moments, stiffness

competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its coefficients, and carryover factors

content and recommendations and who will accept 3.5Frame design example

responsibility for the application of the material it contains.

The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all

responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not

be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.

Reference to this document shall not be made in contract ACI 349.1R-07 supersedes ACI 349.1R-91 and was adopted and published May 2007.

documents. If items found in this document are desired by the Copyright 2007, American Concrete Institute.

All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any

Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or

shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction

the Architect/Engineer. or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing

is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

349.1R-1

349.1R-2 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Chapter 4Axisymmetric structures, p. 349.1R-21 result from cracking of the concrete structure. Thermal

4.1Scope effects should be considered in design for serviceability. The

4.2 |e/d| 0.7 for compressive N and tensile N report discusses conditions under which it can be shown that

4.3General e/d the thermal effects do not adversely affect the safe shutdown

4.4Design examples capacity of the plant. Behavior and general guidance is

addressed in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 addresses notation and

Chapter 5References, p. 349.1R-32 definitions. Chapter 3 addresses frame structures, and

5.1Referenced standards and reports Chapter 4 deals with axisymmetric structures. For frame

5.2Cited references structures, general criteria are given in Sections 3.2 (Section

cracking) and 3.3 (Component cracking). The criteria are

Appendix AExamples in metric, p. 349.1R-33 then formulated for the moment distribution method of

A.1Frame design example from 3.5

structural analysis in Section 3.4. Cracked component fixed-

A.2Design examples from 4.4

end moments, stiffness coefficients, and carryover factors

are derived and presented in graphical form. For axisymmetric

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION

1.1General structures, an approach is described for regions away from

ACI 349, Appendix E, provides general considerations in discontinuities, and graphs of cracked section thermal

designing reinforced concrete structures for nuclear power moments are presented.

plants subject to thermal effects. Thermal effects are defined This report is intended to propose simplifications that may

to be the exposure of a structure or component thereof to be used for structural assessments. It will permit exclusion of

varying temperature at its surface or temperature gradient thermal cases with small effect and a reduction of thermal

through its cross section; the resulting response of the effects for a large class of thermal cases without resorting to

exposed structure is a function of its age and moisture sophisticated and complex solutions (Appendix E, 349-06).

content, temperature extreme(s), duration of exposure, and Also, as a result of the report discussion, the design examples,

degree of restraint. The terms force, moment, and and graphical presentation of cracked section thermal moments,

stress apply and are used in this report where a structure is it is hoped that a designer will better understand how thermal

restrained against thermally induced movements. Further effects are influenced by the presence of other loads and the

treatment of these forces, moments, and stresses are resulting concrete response, primarily in the form of

contained in this report as a function of type of structure. cracking, although reinforcement yielding, concrete creep,

The Commentary to Appendix E, Section RE.1.2, of ACI nonlinear concrete stress-strain, and shrinkage are also very

349-06 (ACI Committee 349 2006) instructs the designer to significant in mitigating thermal effects in concrete structures.

consider the following:

1. Linear thermal strain causes stress only under conditions 1.2Thermal effects and structural responses

of restraint, and a portion of such stress may be self-relieving. Thermal effects cause expansion or contraction of the

Mechanisms for relief are: cracking, yielding, relaxation, components in a structural system. If the components are

creep, and other time-dependent deformations; and restrained, which is usually the case, stresses are induced. It is

2. Accident temperature transients may be of such short sufficient to note that there are three types of thermal effects:

duration that the resulting temperature distributions and 1. Bulk temperature change. In this case, the entire structural

corresponding stress changes are not significant. Therefore, component (or segments of the component) is subject to a

these temperature transients may not adversely affect the uniform temperature change;

safe shutdown capacity of the plant. 2. Thermal gradient. A temperature crossfall or thermal

The Commentary to Appendix E, Section RE.3.3, of gradient is caused by different thermal conditions on two

ACI 349-06 addresses three approaches that consider faces of a structure, such as two sides of a wall or the top and

thermal effects in conjunction with all mechanical loads bottom of a beam; and

acting on the structure. One approach is to consider the structure 3. Local thermal exposure. Elevated temperature at a local

uncracked under the mechanical loads and cracked under the surface caused by an external source such as operating

thermal effects. The results of two such analyses are then equipment or piping or an abnormal event such as a fire.

combined. Thermal effects will result in different states of stress and

The Commentary to Appendix E also contains a method of strain in structural components as a function of restraints.

treating temperature distributions across a cracked section. The analysis for thermal effects must distinguish between

In this method, an equivalent linear temperature distribution different types of thermal effects and properly characterize

is obtained from the temperature distribution, which can the structural response accordingly (for example, the degree of

generally be nonlinear. The linear temperature distribution is fixity of end and boundary restraints, component stiffness,

then separated into a pure gradient T and into the difference influence of cracking, and concrete and reinforcing steel strain).

between the mean and base (stress-free) temperatures Tm Tb . Thermal effects can arise from many sources including,

This report discusses approaches for making an assessment but not limited to, process fluid transport; proximity to hot

of thermal effects that are consistent with the aforementioned gasses, steam, or water passage (for example, reactor vessel

provisions. The goal is to present a designer-oriented or steam piping from reactor building to turbine); fire; or

approach for determining the reduced thermal moments that gradients formed when opposing faces of a structure are

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-3

exposed to differing temperatures (for example, spent fuel load is such that the negative moment reinforcement is near

pool) or cyclic gradients from plant startup and shutdown. yield (for example, at 99% of yield). If the temperature is

Temperature change is manifested under one or more of the increased at the bottom of the beam, introducing a thermal

following transfer mechanisms: gradient over its entire length, this gradient would cause

1. Radiation. The electromagnetic transfer of heat from a additional negative moment. When the negative moments

higher temperature source to a lower temperature surface of increase by 1%, the reinforcement would start yielding. The

the concrete structure, such as from a radiator heating a room negative moments at the ends, however, cannot increase

and the surrounding wall and floor structures; beyond 100% because the reinforcement is already yielded.

2. Convection. The transfer of heat usually by the movement Thus, it can be said that the thermal moments at the ends are

of a liquid or gas across a surface, such as from environmental relieved as soon as the reinforcement yields. Yet, the structure

temperature changes in the air next to a concrete structure; and remains stable because the lateral load does not change.

3. Conduction. The transfer of heat through a solid, such Therefore, simplifying assumptions and approximations in

as from a steam pipeline into the surrounding concrete at a analyses are acceptable. Although it is not feasible to set

penetration. definitive rules regarding these assumptions and approxi-

There are many instances where all three mechanisms are mations, some general guidelines are presented. These

present, such as in the case of a fire acting on a structure. guidelines are based on experience with thermal analyses and

Radiation and convection from the flame itself transfers heat engineering judgment.

to the impinged structure. The surface of the flame radiates Design for thermal effects is primarily for serviceability

heat, which is absorbed by the concrete and reinforcing steel; and should address control of cracking;

finally, heat is transferred away from the flame-impinged area Extreme environmental events (that is, Ess and Wt ) are

by means of conduction through the structure. The structure rare occurrences. Serviceability of the structure may

will also lose heat by means of convection and radiation. not be required after such events. If they occur, high

Response of a structure to thermal effects depends on the stresses are induced in local areas. Under these stresses,

nature of the temperature distribution, end constraints, material concrete cracks and reinforcement may yield, relieving

properties, and mechanical loads. A proper thermal stress thermally induced stresses. Thus, it may be too conserva-

analysis must take these parameters into account. tive to add the thermal stresses based on elastic analysis

Stresses in the concrete and reinforcement occur due to to the stresses due to extreme environmental loads.

restraint of thermal movement and these stresses are generally Consequently, the elastically calculated thermal stresses

self-relieving. These thermal stresses are generally small, as should be reduced considering concrete cracking and

most thermal exposures are within prescribed ACI 349 reinforcement yield before combining them with the

temperature limits. Furthermore, internally generated stresses from extreme environmental loads;

stresses are complex to analyze given the size and geometry In nuclear power structures, the controlling load combi-

of safety-related concrete structures. As such, structural nations are generally those that include Eo or Ess . These

analyses using manual calculations with simplifying, load cases provide sufficient reinforcement to control

conservative assumptions (for example, concrete is cracked) cracking. It would be counterproductive to add reinforce-

are typically considered to be appropriate. Computer-based ment to mitigate thermal effects because the additional

analysis tools may also be used to determine the effects of reinforcement would stiffen the structure, thus

thermal exposure and structure response as illustrated in the increasing the stresses due to thermal effects. This is

following paragraphs. It should be noted that a thorough and unnecessary because thermal effects typically self-

complete computer-based thermal analysis is much more relieve without the need for additional reinforcement. If

complicated than a structural analysis of mechanical loads. additional thermal reinforcement is indicated by the

The difficulty of defining important parameters would also design and analysis, the appropriateness of methods

make such computer thermal analyses controversial because and means should be re-evaluated;

differences in parameter ranges may produce significant Thermal gradients should be considered in the design of

differences in analytical results. Finally, it is known that reinforcement for normal conditions to control cracking.

ambient thermal effects, in all but very unusual situations Thermal gradients less than approximately 100 F (56 C)

(for example major fire events), will have little effect on the need not be analyzed because such gradients will not cause

ultimate strength of a concrete structure. significant stress in the reinforcement or strength deteriora-

tion. It may cause a small incursion into the nonlinear

1.3General guidelines range for extreme events, but such incursions are not likely

Stresses resulting from thermal effects are generally self- to adversely affect the overall behavior of the structure.

relieving, that is thermal forces and moments are greatly Because thermal gradient results in flexural stress, the

reduced or completely relieved once concrete cracks or minimum reinforcement on the tension face should be

reinforcement yields; as a result, thermal effects do not established assuming this face is in flexural tension.

reduce the strength of a section for mechanical loads. For The change in curvature due to thermal gradient is

example, assuming a fixed-end beam under transverse loads approximated by A = T/t. The maximum additional

would produce negative moments at the ends and a positive strain in reinforcement due to the change in curvature can

moment at the center. It is also assumed that the transverse be approximated by c = At = T. This approximation is

349.1R-4 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

for a beam element; for a plate element, the change of conditions related to plant operations and the natural environ-

curvature will be somewhat higher due to Poissons ment (for example, temperature source and exposure time data).

ratio, that is, A = T/[t(1 )]. This approximation 1.4.1 Hand calculationsMany thermal exposure conditions

conservatively assumes rotation of the section about the can be solved by hand calculations, especially where the

outside compression face. With 6 106 in./in./F initial conditions are relatively uncomplicated or the structure

(1.1 105 mm/mm/C) and T = 100 F (56 C), the considered is simple in configuration and behavior. It is

additional reinforcement strain will be about 600 in./in. possible to look at both steady-state and time-dependent

(600 mm/mm), or 0.0006 in./in. (0.0006 mm/mm), solutions in this manner. Simplified hand-calculation

which corresponds to about 0.3y for 60 ksi (420 MPa) approaches are still valuable today (the examples presented

steel (because y = y/Es = (60 ksi)/(29,000 ksi) = in Chapters 3 and 4 are based on such calculations), particu-

0.002. Therefore, the thermal strain, relative to yield larly in the confirmation of computer-based analysis results.

strain, due to a thermal gradient of T = 100 F (56 C), is 1.4.2 Computer-based analysisUse and capability of

[(0.0006)/(0.002)] = 0.3 or 0.3y). If the reinforcement computers and software in structural design has expanded

strain is equal to 0.9y without the thermal effect, the greatly since the time when the early nuclear power plants

total strain with the thermal gradient will be approxi- were designed. Computer analysis methods can be broadly

mately 1.2y, or about 20% beyond yield. Such an classified by the modeling and algorithm used, with the two

exceedance is inconsequential (Gurfinkel 1972), and most prevalent systems involving: 1) stiffness matrix or

will not reduce the capacity of the concrete section for finite element method consisting of linear elements (for

mechanical loads. example, linear beam elements); and 2) finite element

Similarly, the maximum additional concrete strain can method consisting of two- (for example, plate elements) or

be estimated for a fully constrained component to be three-dimensional elements (for example, brick elements).

also approximately 0.0006 in./in. (0.0006 mm/mm), Both linear elements and finite elements can be used to

which is only about 20% of the maximum design accurately model a concrete structure and its components, to

concrete strain of 0.003. Again, such a small exceed- input applied mechanical loads and effects such as thermal

ance in the extreme fiber of the cross section will not be gradients, and to produce an output of resultant forces,

detrimental to the overall strength of the structure; and moments, stresses, and deformations representative of the

A uniform temperature change (Tm Tb) of 50 F (28 C) modeled structure based on mechanics and code requirements.

or less need not be analyzed. Such a temperature change Programs written around linear elements are particularly

may cause up to about 0.0003 in./in. (0.0003 mm/mm) useful for frame-type structures to determine the transfer of

strain, which is only 10% of the maximum design loads to connected components. Many existing computer

concrete strain of 0.003. (Note: The referenced text is programs contain embedded design code (for example, ACI

intended for concrete in compression. The 10% strain 318) requirements to support proportioning and reinforcement

refers to the concrete ultimate strain, which is generally definition. Such programs allow the introduction of thermal

accepted as 0.003. In real structures, the maximum gradients, with resulting forces and moment computation due

concrete strain will be significantly less than 0.002, which to restraints, and certain programs have the ability to examine

is the strain at the peak concrete stress in the Hognestad nonlinear response. Analyzing the impacts of cracking on

stress-strain curve [Kohli and Gurbuz 1976]. Thus, a prac- structural capacity and stiffness, however, is generally beyond

tical strain limit in the example problem will increase from the capabilities of this software program type.

0.002 to 0.0023, which is still less than the ultimate Finite element analysis (FEA) involves a more detailed

concrete strain.) Minimum reinforcement should be simulation of a structure, which is geometrically divided into

established using the requirements for flexural tension. a mesh of two- or three-dimensional elements for a greater

In the determination of forces and moments resulting from precision in assessment of force and displacement distribu-

thermal effects, it would be theoretically possible to perform tion within the structure. The input model also includes

analyses with precise stiffness and stress-strain information boundary conditions and mechanical loading data. Finite

on all structural materials. Fortunately, however, such a element models can be used for structural analysis and

burdensome effort is not necessary. The aforementioned design, as well as for assessing steady-state and transient

guidelines are general; there may be cases where the effect temperature effects and heat transfer. FEA methods can be

of the thermal effects may be more significant on a critical used for both static and dynamic analysis and refined

part of the structure due to layout of the structure. The engineer assessment of nonlinear response. FEA methods are capable

should review the temperature distribution in the structure of analyzing both steady-state and transient thermal effects

and address the potential effects on a case-by-case basis. in reinforced concrete.

Elastic FEAs can be used with a reduced elastic modulus

1.4Analysis techniques for concrete to account in a very simple manner for the

There are several well-recognized techniques for the analysis various effects of cracking, creep, and yield. Values of

of thermal effects in structures, from both steady-state and tran- 0.50Ec have been used in past practice.

sient (time-dependent) temperature profiles. Determination of a Nonlinear thermal analysis is useful where the material

steady-state or transient design-and-analysis approach is based properties in a structure change with exposure to elevated

on the initial condition of the structure in question and process temperatures, such as those listed in Appendix E.4.2 and

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-5

E.4.3 of ACI 349-06. For instance, the specific heat capacity effects, strain-softening effects (treatment of negative strain),

of steel rises with elevated temperature exposure, whereas and out-of-plane shear. Selection of software for use in

mechanical properties decrease. Concrete compressive thermal analysis should consider compatibility with modeling

strength typically decreases, particularly where the exposure concrete (certain programs are suited for homogeneous

is either long-term or locally severe. Other nonlinear materials only), ability to handle strain-softening, user

schemes will involve the change in radiative and convective capability and software experience base, and status of

properties as temperatures vary. verification with respect to 10CFR50 Appendix B requirements

(Office of the Federal Register 2002).

1.5Consideration of thermal effects in analysis

Structural analysis for most nuclear plant concrete structures 1.7Summary

involves the determination of whether or not thermally Thermal effects can cause forces and moments in a

induced forces or moments may occur as a result of restraint. reinforced concrete structure due to restraint of thermal

A typical prerequisite step in completing the structural expansion and contraction. Because concrete resistance to

analysis and design of a structure is the determination of tension is low, the concrete cracks under the thermally

temperature boundary conditions, temperature ranges (bulk induced tensile stresses. As concrete cracks, these tensile

temperature change), and gradients. Considerations include: stresses are relieved. Although rarely a design concern from

Thermal conduction. The assessment of temperatures at a strength perspective, the serviceability of a structure

given locations in concrete structures. The temperature exposed to thermal effects may ultimately be of concern, and

distribution could be calculated either as a steady state such cases should be correctly identified in the assessment

or a transient, depending on the exposure; and considered in the design.

Temperature-induced stress. The temperature distribution Accurate analysis of thermal effects, mechanical loads,

can be used to determine the elastic thermal stresses restraint, concrete cracking, and other stress-relieving effects

throughout the structure; and are difficult at best. The use of a simplified procedure should

Fire protection. Thermal analysis can be used to establish be adequate to calculate the thermal effects. If further

the temperature/time relationship influencing a structure examination is warranted, computer programs are available

subjected to fire. The analysis can take account of fire to deal with the issue more effectively. Specific design

barriers and protective materials such as intumescent methods associated with frame and axisymmetric structures

coatings and fireboards. are contained in this report.

Thermal effects in combination with mechanical loads often

lead to structural cracking of concrete that could adversely CHAPTER 2NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS

affect corrosion protection of the reinforcement. The thermal 2.1Notation

As = area of tension reinforcement within width b, in.2

assessment should consider the possibility that, under certain

(mm2)

extreme conditions, thermal movements could significantly

affect the behavior of the structure. In components or systems As = area of compression reinforcement within width

that include variable temperature exposure, mechanical loads, b, in.2 (mm2)

and restraint against displacement, the support requirements a = length of cracked end of component at which

for each of the loading schemes may be mutually exclusive. A stiffness coefficient and carryover factor are

structure designed to restrict displacement-induced stresses determined, for example, in a end-cracked beam

due to vibration or bracing may provide greater end fixity than (Fig. 3.3 through 3.6) or interior-cracked beam

desired, resulting in elevated thermally induced stresses. A (Fig. 3.7 through 3.10), a is length of uncracked

combined thermal and structural analysis using FEA end of component at which stiffness coefficient

programs is typically needed to balance the requirements. and carryover factor are determined, in. (mm)

b = width of rectangular cross section, in. (mm)

1.6Stiffness and deformation effects CO = cracked component carryover factor from end of

As structural components such as concrete slabs and walls the component to opposite end

are exposed to significant levels of stressing and cracking as COAB = cracked component carryover factor from End A

a result of restrained thermal deformations, reductions in to End B

stiffness due to said cracking and thermal creep can cause COBA = cracked component carryover factor from End B

rapid decay in the restraint forces developed, and deformation to End A

can increase. Simplified approaches, such as use of cracked DF = distribution factor

section properties and moment of inertia, can be used to d = distance from extreme fiber of compression face

calculate the resultant deflections using empirical formulas to centroid of tension reinforcement, in. (mm)

per ACI 207.2R, 209R, and 435.7R, and Fu and Daye (1991). d = distance from extreme fiber of compression face

Nonlinear finite element analysis procedures may also be to centroid of compression reinforcement, in. (mm)

employed to investigate the theoretical response and Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi (MPa)

deformations in such components. Simulations of the Eo = load effects of operating basis earthquake (OBE)

component response can be obtained. Important to achieving or related internal moments and forces, including

accurate results are the consideration of tension-stiffening OBE-induced piping and equipment reactions

349.1R-6 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

(MPa) (mmN)

Ess = load effects of safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) or N = internal axial force at section centerline due to

related internal moments and forces, including factored mechanical loads, including factored

SSE-induced piping and equipment reactions axial force due to Tm Tb, kips (N)

e = eccentricity of internal force N on the rectangular n = modular ratio = Es /Ec

section, measured from section centerline, in. Tb = base (stress-free) temperature, F (C)

(mm) Tm = mean temperature, F (C)

F = flexural coefficient, in.-lb: bd2/12,000 (SI: bd2/ t = thickness of rectangular section, in. (mm)

1000) (ACI Committee 340 1997) Wt = loads generated by design basis tornado (DBT), or

fc = final cracked section extreme fiber compressive related internal moments and forces

stress resulting from internal section forces M, N, = concrete coefficient of thermal expansion, in./in./F

and T, psi (MPa) (mm/mm/C)

fc = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi = transverse displacement difference between ends

(MPa) of cracked component due to Tm Tb acting on

fcL = cracked section extreme fiber compressive stress adjoining components, in. (mm)

resulting from internal forces M and N, psi (MPa) T = linear temperature gradient, F (C)

fr = modulus of rupture of concrete, psi (MPa) c = final cracked section strain at extreme fiber of

fy = specified yield strength of reinforcing steel, psi compression face = cL + cT

(MPa) cL = cracked section strain at extreme fiber of

Icr = cracked section moment of inertia about centroid compression face resulting from M, N, and T

of cracked rectangular section, in.4 (mm4) cT = concrete strain in compression face due to T

Ig = uncracked section moment of inertia (excluding (Fig. 4.1)

reinforcement) about centerline of rectangular = final cracked section curvature change = L + T

section, in.4 (mm4) A = curvature due to thermal gradient

j = ratio of distance between centroid of compression L = cracked section curvature change resulting from

and centroid of tension reinforcement to depth d internal forces M and N

K = cracked component stiffness at End a (pinned), T = cracked section curvature change required to

with opposite end fixed return free thermal curvature T/t to 0

KA = cracked component stiffness at End A (pinned), = Poissons ratio of concrete

with opposite end fixed = ratio of tension reinforcement = As /bd

KB = cracked component stiffness at End B (pinned), = ratio of compression reinforcement = As /bd

with opposite end fixed

Ku = strength coefficient for resistance = fc (1 0.59), 2.2Definitions

where = fy/fc , psi (MPa) (ACI Committee 340 base temperaturethe temperature at which a concrete

1997) member is cured. This is the temperature at which it is

k = ratio of depth of triangular compressive stress assumed the material is free of thermal stresses.

block to depth d, resulting from internal section mechanical loadloads that cause stresses in elements to

forces M, N, and T maintain equilibrium, such as gravity, earthquake and wind

kd = neutral axis location on section due to N, M, and loads, and pressures. Loads due to geometric constraints

T (Fig. 4.1), in. (mm) (including thermal, settlement, creep, and shrinkage effects)

kL = ratio of depth of triangular compressive stress are not considered mechanical loads as the resulting stresses

block to depth d, resulting from internal section are relieved when the constraint is removed. For example, an

forces M and N axial load applied to a column will cause stresses. On the

kLd = neutral axis location on section due to N and M other hand, uniform temperature increase will not cause

(Fig. 4.1), in. (mm) stresses unless the column is restrained from axial deformation.

ks = dimensionless stiffness coefficient = KL/EcIg Another example: internal pressure in a cylinder will cause

L = total length of component, in. (mm) stresses in the walls and ends. If the cylinder is subjected to

LT = cracked length of component, in. (mm) uniform temperature increase, no stresses will be induced

M = internal moment at section centerline due to unless the expansion is restrained.

factored mechanical loads, including factored safety-related concrete structuressafety-related concrete

moment due to Tm Tb, in.-lb (mmN) structures are structures that are designed to remain functional

M = final internal moment at section centerline under the design loads. These structures support, house, or

resulting from M and T, in.-lb (mmN) protect nuclear safety class systems or components.

Mcr = cracking moment = bt2fr /6, in.-lb (mmN) secondary stressa self-limiting normal or shear stress

MFE = cracked component fixed-end moment due to T that is caused by the constraint of a structure and that is

or Tm Tb , at end a, in.-lb (mmN) expected to cause minor distortions that would not result in

Mu = moment capacity of section, ft-kips (mmN) a failure of the structure.

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-7

self-relievingthe process by which excessive internal 1. Concrete compression stress is taken to be linearly

pressure (stress) is automatically relieved. proportional to strain over the component cross section;

temperature distributionthe variation of the total 2. For an uncracked section, the moment of inertia is Ig,

temperature across a section at a point in time. The temperature where Ig is based on the gross concrete dimensions and the

distribution across a section can vary with time as well as reinforcement is excluded. For a cracked section, the

varying along the length of the member. For such variations, moment of inertia is Icr , where Icr is referenced to the centroidal

the engineer should evaluate the effects of temperature distribu- axis of the cracked section. In the formulation of Icr , the

tion at a number of sections and for a number of time durations. compression reinforcement is excluded and the tension

reinforcement is taken to be located at the tension face; that

CHAPTER 3FRAME STRUCTURES is d = t is used; and

3.1Scope 3. The axial force on the section due to mechanical loads

The thermal effect on the frame is assumed to be represented and thermal effects is assumed to be small relative to the

by temperatures that vary linearly through the thicknesses of moment (e/d 0.5). Consequently, the extent of section

the components. The linear temperature distribution for a cracking is taken as that which occurs for a pure moment

specific component must be constant along its length. Each acting on the section.

such distribution can be separated into a gradient T and into

The first assumption is strictly valid only if the extreme

a temperature change with respect to a base (stress-free)

fiber concrete compressive stress due to combined mechanical

temperature Tm Tb .

loads and thermal effects does not exceed 0.5fc . At this

Frame structures are characterized by their ability to

stress, the corresponding concrete strain is around 0.0005 in./in.

undergo significant flexural deformation under these thermal

(0.0005 mm/mm). For extreme fiber concrete compressive

effects. They are distinguished from the axisymmetric

strains greater than 0.0005 in./in. (0.0005 mm/mm) but less

structures discussed in Chapter 4 by the ability of their

than 0.001 in./in. (0.001 mm/mm), the differences are

structural components to undergo rotation, such that the free

insignificant between a cracked section thermal moment

thermal curvature change of T/t is not completely

based on the linear assumption adopted herein versus a

restrained. The thermal moments in the components are

nonlinear concrete stress-strain relationship such as that

proportional to the degree of restraint. In addition to frames,

described in Fu and Daye (1991), Gurfinkel (1972), and

slabs and walls may fall into this category.

Kohli and Gurbuz (1976). Consequently, cracked component

The aforementioned rotational feature is automatically

thermal moments given by Eq. (3-3) and (3-4) are sufficiently

considered in a structural analysis using uncracked component

accurate for concrete strains not exceeding 0.001 in./in.

properties. An additional reduction of the component thermal

(0.001 mm/mm).

moments, however, can occur if component cracking is taken

into account. Sections 3.2 and 3.3 of this chapter describe For concrete strains greater than 0.001 in./in. (0.001 mm/mm),

criteria for the cracking reduction of component thermal the equations previously identified will result in cracked

moments. These criteria can be used as the basis for an analysis component thermal moments that are greater than those

of the structure under thermal effects, regardless of the method based on the nonlinear theory. In this regard, the thermal

of analysis selected. In Section 3.4, these criteria are applied to moments are conservative. They are, however, still reduced

the moment distribution analysis method. from their uncracked values. This cracking reduction of

thermal moments can be substantial, as discussed in Section 4.1,

There are frame and slab structures that can be adequately

idealized as frames of sufficient geometric simplicity to lend which also incorporates Assumption 1.

themselves to moment distribution. Even if an entire frame Formulation of the thermal moments based on a linear

or slab structure does not permit a simple idealization, concrete stress-strain relationship allows the thermal

substructures can be isolated to study thermal effects. Often, moments to be expressed simply by the equations in Chapter 3,

with the use of computer programs for the analysis of or by the normalized thermal moment graphs of Chapter 4.

complex structures, a feel for the reasonableness of the Such simplicity is desirable in a designer-oriented approach.

results is attainable only through less complex analyses Regarding Icr in Assumption 2, the assumptions for the

applied to substructures. The moment distribution method compression and tension reinforcement result in the simple

for thermal effects is applicable for this work. This design expression of (6jk2)Ig for Icr if the axial load is small, as specified

approach uses cracked component stiffness coefficients and in Assumption 3. The use of (6jk2)Ig will overestimate the

carryover factors. These depend on the extent of component cracked section moment of inertia of sections, for which e/d

cracking along its length due to mechanical loads, as 0.5, either with or without compression reinforcement. For

discussed in Section 3.3. a component with only tension reinforcement typically located

at d = 0.9t, the actual cracked section moment of inertia is

3.2Section cracking overestimated by 35% (Ig = (1/12)bt3; Ig1 = (1/12)b(0.9t)3;

Simplifying assumptions are made as follows for the Ig/Ig1 1.35), regardless of the amount of reinforcement. For

purpose of obtaining the cracked section thermal moments a component with equal amounts of compression and tension

and the section (cracked and uncracked) stiffnesses. The reinforcement, located at d = 0.1d and d = 0.9t, its actual

fixed-end moments, stiffness coefficients, and carryover cracked section moment of inertia is also overestimated. The

factors of Section 3.4 are based on these assumptions: overestimation will vary from 35% at the lower reinforce-

349.1R-8 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

ment ratio (n = n = 0.02) down to 15% at the higher to be cracked wherever tensile stresses are produced by the

values (n = n = 0.12). mechanical loads if these stresses would be increased by the

The use of (6jk2)Ig for cracked sections and the use of Ig thermal effects. The addition of thermal moments that are of

for uncracked sections are further discussed relative to opposite sign to the mechanical moments that exceed Mcr ,

component cracking in Section 3.3. however, may result in a final section that is uncracked.

Regarding Assumption 3, the magnitude of the thermal Therefore, for simplicity, the component is considered to be

moment depends on the extent of section cracking as uncracked for the thermal effect analysis wherever along its

reflected by Icr. Icr depends on the axial force N and moment length the mechanical moments and thermal moments are of

M. The relationship of Icr/Ig versus e/d, where e = M/N, is opposite sign.

shown in Fig. 3.1. The eccentricity e is referred to the section Two types of cracked components will result: 1) end-

centerline. In Fig. 3.1, it is seen that for e/d 1, Icr is practically cracked; and 2) interior-cracked. The first type occurs for

the same as that corresponding to pure bending. For e/d cases where mechanical and thermal moments are of like

0.5, the associated Icr is within 10% of its pure bending sign at the component ends. The second type occurs where

value. Most nonprestressed frame problems are in the e/d these moments are of like sign at the interior of the component.

0.5 category. Consequently, for these problems, it is accurate Stiffness coefficients, carryover factors, and fixed-end

within 10% to use the pure bending value of (6jk2)Ig for Icr. thermal moments are developed for these two types of

This is the basis of Assumption 3. components in Section 3.4. A comprehensive design

example is presented in Section 3.5.

3.3Component cracking The aforementioned simplification of considering the

Ideally, a sophisticated analysis of a frame or slab structure component to be uncracked wherever the mechanical and

subjected to both mechanical and thermal effects might thermal moments are of opposite sign is conservative due to the

consider concrete cracking and the resulting changes in fact that the initial portion of a thermal effect, such as T, will

component properties at many stages of the load application. actually act on a section that may be cracked under the mechan-

Such an analysis would consider the sequential application ical loads. Consequently, the fixed-end moment due to this part

of the loads and effects, and cracking would be based on the of T will be that due to a component completely cracked

modulus of rupture of the concrete fr. The loads would be along its length. Once the cracks close, the balance of T will

applied incrementally to the structure. After each load act on an uncracked section. Consideration of this two-phase

increment, the section properties would be revised for those aspect makes the problem more complex. The conservative

portions of the components that exhibit extreme fiber tensile approach adopted herein removes this complexity. Some of the

stresses in excess of fr. The properties of the components for conservatism, however, is reduced by the use of Ig for the

a given load increment would reflect the component uncracked section (Assumption 2) rather than its actual

cracking that had occurred under the sum of all preceding uncracked section stiffness, which would include reinforcement,

load increments and effects. In such an analysis, the internal and is substantially greater than Ig for n 0.06.

forces and moments would result in component cracking, The fixed-end moments depend not only on the cracked

with only the results from thermal effects considered relieved. length LT , but also on the location of the cracked length a

The type of analysis summarized previously is consistent along the component. This can be seen from a comparison of

with the approach in Item 2 of Section RE.3.3 of the the results for an end-cracked component and an interior-

Commentary to Appendix E of ACI 349-06. An approximate cracked component for the same value of LT . The method

analysis, but one that is generally conservative for the discussed in Section 3.4 accounts for this. This approach is

thermal effects, is also suggested in the Commentary to more applicable for the determination of the thermal

Appendix E of ACI 349 (Item 3 of Section RE.3.3) as an moments than the use of an effective moment of inertia for

alternative. This alternate analysis considers the structure to the entire component length. The concept of a single effective

be uncracked under the mechanical loads and to be cracked moment of inertia for purposes of component deflection

under the thermal effects. The results of an analysis of the calculation has resulted in Eq. (9-10) of ACI 349-06. This

uncracked structure under mechanical loads are combined equation is empirically based and, as such, accounts for:

with the results of an analysis of the cracked structure under 1) partially cracked sections along the component; and 2) the

the thermal effects. A simplified method of analysis is existence of uncracked sections occurring between flexural

discussed that will yield cracked component thermal cracks. These two characteristics are indirectly provided for

moments that are conservative for most practical problems. (to an unknown extent) by the use of (6jk2)Ig, which over-

The extent of cracking that the components experience estimates the cracked section moment of inertia by the

under the total mechanical load (including the specified load amount described previously.

factors) forms the basis for the cracked structure used for the

thermal effects analysis. Cracking will occur wherever the 3.4Cracked component fixed-end moments,

mechanical load moments exceed the cracking moment Mcr . stiffness coefficients, and carryover factors

The addition of thermal moments that are the same sign as The thermal moments due to the linear temperature

mechanical moments will increase the extent of cracking gradient T and those resulting from the expansion or

along the component length. Recognizing this, in many contraction of the axis of the component Tm Tb are considered

cases, it is conservative for design to consider the component separately. For each type of thermal effect, fixed-end

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-9

Fig. 3.1Effect of axial force on cracked section moment of inertia (no compression reinforcement).

349.1R-10 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

function of LT /L and a/LT . Likewise, CO can be expressed

as a function of LT /L and a/LT .

Figures 3.3 through 3.6 show k and CO for selected values

of LT /L and a/LT that should cover most practical problems.

In these figures, ks is given at the end, which is cracked a

distance a, and CO is the carryover factor from this end to the

opposite end. Intermediate values of ks and CO can be deter-

mined by linear interpolation of these curves.

Fig. 3.2(a)T fixed-end moments: member cracked at

ends by mechanical loads. For a component cracked a distance LT in its interior, ks

and CO are determined from Fig. 3.7 through 3.10. ks is the

stiffness coefficient at the end that is uncracked a distance a.

CO is the carryover factor from this end to the opposite end.

Based on the previous discussion, the T fixed-end

moment at the a end of the component can be expressed as

2

E c Tbt k s ( 1 CO )

M FE = ------------------------

- --------------------------- (3-3)

12 2

effects, it is necessary to develop the Tm Tb fixed-end

Fig. 3.2(b)Tm Tb fixed-end moment: member cracked at moment, which is shown in Fig. 3.2(b) for a component

ends by mechanical loads. cracked at its ends.

The Tm Tb fixed-end moment at the end cracked a

moments, stiffness coefficients, and carryover factors were distance a is

obtained for two types of cracked components: 1) end-

cracked; and 2) interior-cracked. The first type applies to Ec Ig

cases where mechanical and thermal effects produce moments - k s ( 1 + CO )

M FE = ------------- (3-4)

2

L

of like sign at component ends. The second type applies to cases

where mechanical and thermal effects produce moments of like

sign in the interior of the component. where ks and CO are same as that defined previously. The

These factors are presented for the case of an end-cracked displacement is produced by Tm Tb acting on an adjacent

component in Fig. 3.2(a) component. The comprehensive design example of Section 3.5

illustrates this.

M A = TL

--------------- K ( 1 CO AB ) 3.5Frame design example

2t A

(3-1) The continuous frame shown in Fig. 3.11 is given with all

TL components 1 ft wide x 2 ft thick and 3 in. cover on the

M B = --------------- K B ( 1 CO BA )

2t reinforcement. The load combination to be considered is U

= D + L +To +Ess.

Although shown only for a component cracked at the ends, The mechanical loading consists of

the aforementioned expressions for MA and MB also apply to

a component cracked in its interior. WD = 406 lb/ft

In Eq. (3-1), TL/2t = the angle change of the component

ends with the rotational restraints removed; KA = the stiffness WL = 680 lb/ft

of the component at A with B fixed (4EcIg /L for uncracked

component); KB = the stiffness of the component at B with A on component BC, and a lateral load of 3750 lb at joint C due

fixed (4EcIg /L for the uncracked component); COAB = the to Ess.

carryover factor from A to B (1/2 for uncracked component); The thermal gradient To results from 130 F interior and

and COBA = the carryover factor from B to A (1/2 for 50 F exterior temperature. Thus, Tm = (130 + 50)/2 = 90 F.

uncracked component). The base temperature Tb is taken as 70 F. For this condition,

The expressions for K and CO can be derived from Tm Tb = 90 F 70 F = +20 F and T = 80 F (hot interior,

moment-area principles. Also, K can be expressed as cold exterior).

The material properties are fc = 3000 psi and Ec = 3.12

Ec Ig 106 psi, fy = 60,000 psi and Es = 29 106 psi; and = 5

K = ---------

-k (3-2)

L s 106 in./in./F. Also, n =Es /Ec = 9.3.

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-11

349.1R-12 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-13

349.1R-14 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-15

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DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-17

349.1R-18 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-19

at each face in all components. This results in = As /bd = (2

Component End LT /L, ft/ft a/LT , ft/ft

0.79)/12(24 3) = 1.58/(12 21) = 0.0063 and n =

AB A 11.8/20 = 0.59 0

9.3(0.0063) = 0.059. = fy/ fc = 0.0063(60/3) = 0.126; and

AB B 0.59 1

Ku = fc (1 0.59) = 3000 0.126(1 0.59 0.126) = 378

BC B (5.3 + 3.4)/30 = 0.29 5.3/8.7 = 0.61

0.92566 = 349.8. The section capacity is Mu = KuF =

BC C 0.29 3.4/8.7 = 0.39

(0.9)(349.8) (12)(21)2/12,000 = 138.8 ft-kips.

CD C 17.2/20 = 0.86 1

Mechanical loadsAn analysis of the uncracked frame

CD D 0.86 0

results in the component moments (ft-kips) as follows.

Moments acting counterclockwise on a component are

denoted as positive. These values were obtained by moment All components are the end-cracked type. Figures 3.4

distribution, and moments due to Ess include the effect of through 3.6 are used to obtain the coefficients ks and CO,

frame sidesway. which are shown in Table 3.1.

The expressions from Section 3.4 for fixed-end moment

Moment (ft-kips) (FEM) are evaluated as

AB: 52.3 2

BA: 76.0 E c Tbt k s

1. T FEM = ------------------------

- ---- ( 1 CO )

BC: +76.0 12 2

CB: 46.0

6 6 2

CD: +46.0 ( 3.12 10 ) ( 5 10 ) ( 80 ) ( 12 ) ( 24 ) k

= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----s ( 1 CO )

DC: +7.5 12 2

These are shown in Fig. 3.11.

The maximum mechanical load moment of 76 ft-kips is T FEM = 59.9ks(1 CO)/2 ft-kips

less than the section capacity of 138.8 ft-kips. Therefore, the

frame is adequate for mechanical loads. Ec Ig

- ( ) ( k s ) ( 1 + CO )

2. Tm Tb FEM = ---------

2

Thermal effects (T = 80 F and Tm Tb = 20 F) L

6 3

The T = 80 F having hot interior and cold exterior is = 3.12 10 ( 24 ) - ( ) ( k ) ( 1 + CO )

------------------------------------- s

expected to produce thermal stresses that are tensile on the 2

( 20 12 )

exterior faces of all components. These stresses will add to

the existing exterior face tensile stresses due to the mechanical Tm Tb FEM = 62.4()(ks)(1 CO) ft-kips

loads. Hence, the LT and a values are arrived at from the

mechanical load moment diagram in Fig. 3.11. 3. = total unrestrained change of length of component BC

349.1R-20 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Thermal FEMs, ft-kips

Distributed thermal

T-80 Tm Tb = 20 Distributed thermal moments and mechanical

L T /L a/L T ks Ky /L *

Component End CO DF FEM FEM Total FEM moments, ft-kips moments, ft-kips

AB A 0.59 0 3.40 0.41 0.17 1.0 +60.1 4.79 +55.31 +36.0 16.3

AB B 0.59 1 2.00 0.70 0.10 0.56 17.97 3.39 21.36 39.9 115.9

BC B 0.29 0.61 2.40 0.43 0.08 0.44 +41.7 0 +41.7 +39.9 +115.9

BC C 0.29 0.39 2.65 0.38 0.088 0.48 49.2 0 49.2 37.0 83.0

CD C 0.86 1 1.90 0.57 0.095 0.52 +24.5 +3.72 +28.2 +37.0 +83.0

CD D 0.86 0 2.39 0.47 0.120 1.0 37.9 +4.38 33.5 33.2 25.7

*Corrected for sidesway.

Notes: DFi = (ksiEiIgi/Li)/(ksiEiIgi/Li); symbols with component i are indicated with subscript i.

= (Tm Tb)L Ec Ig

- ( 8.19 )

= ---------

3

L

= (5 106)(20)(30 12)

Shear stiffness at C

= 0.036 in.

Ec Ig

Distribute 0.036 in. to Ends B and C of Components AB - [ k sC ( 1 + CO C ) + k sD ( 1 + CO D ) ]

= ---------

3

and CD, respectively, in inverse proportion to the shear L

stiffness at these ends.

Ec Ig

Shear stiffness at B - [ 1.90 ( 1.57 ) + 2.38 ( 1.47 ) ]

= ---------

3

L

Ec Ig

- [ k sA ( 1 + CO A ) + k sB ( 1 + CO B ) ]

= --------- Ec Ig

- ( 6.48 )

= ---------

3

L L

3

Ec Ig Ec Ig

- [ 3.4 ( 1.41 ) + 2.00 ( 1.70 ) ]

= --------- Sum of shear stiffness at B and C = ---------

- (14.67)

3 3

L L

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-21

B = 0.036 in. (6.48/14.67) = 0.036 0.44 = 0.016 in. temperature distribution is separated into a gradient T and

C = 0.036 in. (8.19/14.67) = 0.036 0.56 = 0.020 in. into a uniform temperature change Tm Tb.

To demonstrate the effect of cracking on the thermal Generally, for most axisymmetric structures, a uniform

moments, the fixed-end thermal moments for the uncracked temperature change (Tm Tb) produces significant internal

frame are obtained from the final expressions in 1 and 2 section forces (moment included) only at the externally

using ks = 4, CO = 1/2, and = (1/2)(Tm Tb)L , with L restrained boundaries of the structure where movement due

being the length of Component BC. A moment distribution to thermal change is prevented, or in regions where Tm Tb

is performed, and the resulting distributed moments are varies fairly rapidly along the structure. The magnitude and

added to the mechanical moments. The combined moments extent of these discontinuity forces depend on the specific

are shown in Fig. 3.11 for comparison with the cracked geometry of the structure and on the external restraint

frame moments. provided. If cracking occurs in this region, a prediction of the

cracking reduction of the discontinuity forces is attainable

The fixed-end thermal moments for the cracked frame are

through a re-analysis using cracked section structural

obtained using the aforementioned values for B and C and

properties. A discussion of such an analysis is not within the

by referring to Table 3.1 for ks and CO. These fixed-end

scope of this report. Therefore, forces resulting from an

moments and the resulting distributed thermal moments are

analysis for the Tm Tb part of the thermal effect are considered

given in Table 3.1. The distributed thermal moments include

to be included with corresponding factored mechanical

the effect of sidesway, which occurs because the frame is

forces. These combined axial forces and moments are

unsymmetrically cracked.

denoted as N and M.

Combined loadsThe final frame moments are shown The gradient T produces internal section forces (moment

in Table 3.1 and Fig. 3.12. These can be compared with included) at externally restrained boundaries, and also away

Fig. 3.11 to see the effect of the cracking reduction of from these discontinuities. At discontinuities, the most

thermal moments. significant internal force is usually the moment, primarily

Although not shown, the component axial forces were resulting from the internal restraint rather than the external

evaluated to confirm that section cracking still corresponds boundary restraint. Away from discontinuities, the only

to the pure bending condition of Assumption 3. Recall that e/d significant forces due to T are thermal moments caused by

should be at least 0.5 for this condition. For Components AB the internal restraint provided by the axisymmetric geometry

and CD, the axial forces result primarily from the mechanical of the structure. The cracking reduction of thermal moments

loads and are compressive. For Component BC, the axial that result from internal restraint is the subject of this chapter.

force is compressive and includes the compression due to the Due to the axisymmetric geometry of the subject structures,

20 F increase on the component. the free thermal curvature change T/t is fully restrained.

This restraint produces a corresponding thermal moment

CHAPTER 4AXISYMMETRIC STRUCTURES whose magnitude depends on the extent of cracking the

4.1Scope section experiences. This in turn depends on T, the other

Axisymmetric structures include shells of revolution such section forces N and M, and the section properties (Fig. 4.1).

as shield buildings or, depending on the particular geometry, With the ratio M/N denoted as e, referenced to the section

primary and secondary shield walls. In the structural analysis, centerline, and the distance from the concrete compression

the structure is considered to be uncracked for all mechanical face to the tension reinforcement denoted as d, two cases of

loads and for part of the thermal effects. The thermal effect e/d are identified in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

is assumed to be represented by a temperature that is distributed The results in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 include the effect of

linearly through the wall of the structure. The linear compression reinforcement. For this reinforcement, a modular

349.1R-22 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

ratio of 2n (Ferguson 1965) is used for purposes of simplifying and the corresponding thermal moment is

the determination of the cracked section thermal moment.

Although not all the loads that comprise the section forces N 3 2

E c Tbd ( jk )

and M will necessarily be long-term, the selection of 2n for M T = -------------------------------------- (4-4)

compression reinforcement is consistent with design practice. 2t ( 1 )

The results in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 are based on a linear

stress-strain relationship for the compressive concrete. The where j = 1 k/3.

basis of this assumption was discussed in Section 3.2. From Equation (4-2) for MT for a doubly reinforced section

this discussion, the cracked section thermal moments can be reduces to MT for a singly reinforced section (Eq. (4-4)),

considered to represent upper-bound values when compared with the substitution of (1.1)d for t in Eq. (4-4), and 0 for n

with those that would result from a nonlinear stress-strain in Eq. (4-2). In addition, the substitution of k2/2 for n(1 k) in

concrete relationship. Nevertheless, the thermal moments Eq. (4-2) must be made.

herein do offer a reduction from their uncracked values. The The thermal moments given by Eq. (4-2) and (4-4) are

extent of this reduction is shown in Fig. 4.2 through 4.8. presented in Fig. 4.2 for the special case: t = (1.1)d for both

sections, and n = n and d/d = 0.10 for the doubly reinforced

4.2|e/d| 0.7 for compressive N and tensile N section. For values of less than , linear interpolation

For this range of e/d, a parametric study based on the between the two curves should yield sufficiently accurate

results of Section 4.3 indicates that the cracked thermal results. From Fig. 4.2, it is seen that the cracked section thermal

moment MT is not strongly influenced by the axial force as moment is substantially reduced from its uncracked value.

expressed by the ratio N/(bdEcT). A practical range of The thermal moment MT occurs at the centerline of the

N/(bdEcT) from 0 to 300 was used in this study. There- section. MT should be multiplied by its code-specified load

fore, for ranges of e/d and N/(bdEcT) specified herein, factor before it is added to the moment M.

MT can be calculated from the neutral axis location

corresponding to N = 0. 4.3General e/d

The |e/d| lower limit of 0.70 is conservative for tensile N Depending on e/d, the extent of section cracking and the

and higher n values. Actual |e/d| lower limits for tensile N thermal moment may be significantly affected by the actual

are given in Fig. 4.9. As long as the actual |e/d| value for values of N and M. A theory for the investigation of a doubly

tensile N exceeds this lower-limit curve, the thermal reinforced rectangular section is presented. The Poissons

moments given in this section are applicable. effect increases the section thermal moment due to T by an

For doubly reinforced rectangular sections, the cracked amount 1/(1 ). Although this effect is not shown in the

section neutral axis is kd. For N = 0 following derivations, it is included in the final results (Fig. 4.2

through 4.8).

k =

2

( 2n + n ) + 2 [ 2n ( d d ) + n ] ( 2n + n ) (4-1) It is assumed for the section that the final curvature change

is equal to L , the curvature change due to N and M plus

in which = As /bd, = As /bd, and n = Es /Ec . Also, d is T , the curvature change due to T. L and T are additive

the distance from the concrete compression face to the when the cold face of the section corresponds to the tension

compression reinforcement As . A modular ratio of 2n is used face under M. Therefore

for the compression reinforcement.

The corresponding thermal moment for a section in which = L + T (4-5)

t = (1.1)d is

The curvatures before and after the application of T are

Tbd

2

3 shown in Fig. 4.1.

M T = E c -------------------- { 0.152k + 1.818n [ ( d d ) k ] ( d d ) (4-2)

1 The thermal curvature change T is

+ 0.909n ( 1 k ) } T = T/t

The expression for MT given by Eq. (4-2) is obtained where T is always taken as positive.

from the results of Section 4.3 in the following manner. For Using this and c = kd and cL = L kL d in Eq. (4-5) gives

sections in which |e/d| 0.7, the location of the neutral axis

does not change under the application of T, and this results c /kd = cL /kL d + T/t (4-6)

in kL = k. This substitution for kL is made in Eq. (4-7) and (4-9).

The resulting expression for fc given by Eq. (4-7) is used in

For the case where the concrete stress is a linear function

Eq. (4-11). MT is then obtained by subtraction of Eq. (4-9)

of strain, Eq. (4-6) becomes

from Eq. (4-11).

For singly reinforced rectangular sections and N = 0

fc /(Eckd) = fcL /(EckLD) + T/t

2

k = ( n ) + 2n n (4-3) or

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-23

1. The internal axial force N is equal to the resultant of the

stresses produced by N and M

To maintain equilibrium of the section both before and after

the application of T, the following conditions occur: N = 1/2fcLbkLd + 2nbdfcL[(kL d/d)/kL ] + nbdfcL[(kL 1)/kL] (4-8)

349.1R-24 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-25

349.1R-26 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-27

349.1R-28 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-29

349.1R-30 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

the stresses (about the section centerline) produced by N and M. 1. The internal axial force N is equal to the resultant of the

stresses produced by N, M, and T

M = 1/2fcLbkLd(t/2 kLd/3) + 2nbdfcL [(kL d/d)/kL] (4-9)

[(t/2) d] + nbdfcL [(1 kL)/kL][d (t/2)] N = 1/2fcbkd + 2[(k d/d)/k] + nbdfc[(k 1)/k] (4-10)

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-31

2. There exists an internal centerline moment (moment fact that the increase in section flexural stiffness (EI) due to

about centerline for internal forces) M of the stresses inclusion of the reinforcement is greater than the loss of

produced by N, M, and T. section flexural stiffness that results from the relatively minor

cracking associated with the low e/d value. The net effect is

M = 1/2fcbkd[(t/2) (kd/3)] + 2nbdfc[(k d/d)/k] (4-11) to give a larger actual cracked section stiffness than that

obtained for the gross uncracked concrete section alone.

[(t/2) d] + qnbdfc[(k 1)/k][d (t/2)] If the designer finds these cracked section thermal

moments to be unacceptably high, a potential reduction may

be available through the use of an approach incorporating a

3. The internal thermal moment MT at the section center-

nonlinear representation of the concrete stress-strain

line is equal to M M.

behavior. Such an approach is described in Fu and Daye

In Eq. (4-8) through (4-11), the tension and compression (1991), Gurfinkel (1972), and Kohli and Gurbuz (1976).

reinforcement have been expressed as = As/bd and =

As /bd, respectively. A modular ratio of 2n has been used for 4.4Design examples

the compression reinforcement. Also, the reinforcement 4.4.1 Example 1: Compressive N and |e/d| > 0.70, =

stresses have been expressed in terms of the concrete stress. b = 12 in., t = 36 in., d = 32.7 in., d = 3.3 in., As = 2 in.2, As

From Eq. (4-8), fcL can be expressed in terms of N, kL , and = 3 in.2, Es = 29 106 psi, Ec = 4 106 psi, = 0.2, N =

the section properties. The use of this in Eq. (4-7) allows fc 50 kips compression, M = 100 ft-kips, T = 80 F

to be written in terms of N, kL , k, EcT, and the section prop-

erties. Substitution of this expression for fc into Eq. (4-10) n = Es /Ec = 29/4 = 7.25, e = M/N = 100/50 = 2 ft = 24 in.,

results in a quadratic equation in k that is solved in terms of = 2/12 36 = 0.0046, n = 0.0046 7.25 = 0.033, =

the section properties, kL , and the quantity N/bdEcT. 3/12 36 = 0.0069, n = 0.0069 7.25 = 0.050

By dividing Eq. (4-9) by Eq. (4-8), however, kL can be

written in terms of the section properties and e, where e = M/ Cracked thermal moment MT

N. Thus, k is determined for a specified section e and N/ e/d ratio: e/d = 24/32.7 = 0.733 > 0.70; therefore, Section 4.2

bdEcT. The aforementioned results also allow MT to be results should be used.

determined from these specified quantities. Because t/d = 1.1 and d/d = 0.10, Fig. 4.2 should be used.

The equilibrium equations, appearing as Eq. (4-8) through Because , however, interpolate between the two curves.

(4-11), are based on a triangular concrete stress distribution. From Fig. 4.2 for n = 0.050, (1 )MT /(bd2EcT)

The two extremes of the stress distribution are at kL = 0.10 should be read as

and kL = 1.0. The range 1.0 kL 0.10 should cover many

practical situations not involving prestressed sections. For kL 0.0303 for = 0

outside this range, that is, the entire section being under

tension (kL 0.10) or compression (kL 1.0), a similar set of 0.0320 for =

equilibrium equations based on a rectangular stress distribution

would be required. Interpolate for = 0.0046

Special case

(1 )MT /(bd2EcT) = 0.0303 + (0.0320

= , t/d = 1.1, and d/d = 0.10 0.0303)(0.0045/0.0069) = 0.0314

(1 )MT = 0.0314(12)(32.7)2(4 106) (5.5 106)(80)

calculated for a n range of 0.02 to 0.12 and N/bdEcT

ranging within 300. For the case of compressive N, Fig. 4.3 = 709,000 in.-lb

through 4.8 apply. Alternatively, for compressive N and e/d

0.7, Fig. 4.2 may be used with reasonable accuracy. For the MT = 886,000 in.-lb or 73.9 ft-kips

case of tensile N, only Fig. 4.2 applies.

As previously discussed, the thermal moments are valid Check using equations

only for 1.0 kL 0.10. Associated with these limits are e/d

values that are indicated in Fig. 4.9. 2

kN=0 = ( 2n + n ) + 2 [ 2n ( d d ) + n ]

Also presented in Fig. 4.3 through 4.8 are the uncracked

thermal moments based on both gross section (neglecting (2n + n) = [(2 0.033 + 0.050)2 + 2(2 0.033 0.10

reinforcement) and actual section (including concrete and + 0.050)]1/2 (2 0.033 + 0.050) = 0.239

reinforcement). It is seen that the cracked section thermal

moments are always less than the uncracked thermal (1 )MT /(bd2EcT) = 0.152k3 + 1.818n(d/d k)

moments obtained for the actual section. For the combination of (d/d) + 0.909n(l k) = 0.152(0.239)3 + 1.818(0.034)

higher n values and lower e/d values, however, the cracked (0.1 0.239)(0.10) + 0.909(0.050) (1 0.239) = 0.0317

section thermal moments exceed the uncracked thermal

moments based on a gross concrete section. This is due to the MT = 73.9(0.0317/0.0314) = 74.6 ft-kips 73.9 ft-kips, OK

349.1R-32 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Temperature Compression Tension Cracked thermal Total moment

Axial force Moment M, differential reinforcement2

reinforcement moment M ,

2 T (M + MT),

Example N, kips Type ft-kips T, F As , in. As , in. ft-kips ft-kips e/d Use figure

1 50 Compression 100 80 2 3 73.9 173.9 0.733 > 0.70 Use Fig. 4.2

2 50 Tension 100 80 3 3 75.3 175.3 0.733 > 0.70 Use Fig. 4.2

3 100 Compression 100 80 3 3 95.3 195.3 0.367 < 0.70 Use Fig. 4.4,

0.367 > 0.25 4.5, and 4.9

4 60 Tension 100 80 3 3 75.3 175.3 0.612 < 0.70 Use Fig. 4.2

0.612 > 0.575 and 4.9

Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a

cracked section investigation with N = 50 kips compression cracked section investigation with N = 100 kips compression

and M = 173.9 ft-kips at section centerline. and M = 195.3 ft-kips at section centerline.

4.4.2 Example 2: Tensile N and |e/d| > 0.70, = 4.4.4 Example 4: Tensile N and |e/d| < 0.70

b = 12 in., t = 36 in., d = 32.7 in., d = 3.3 in., As = As = 3.0 in.2, Same as Example 3, except N = 60 kips tension.

Es = 29 106 psi, Ec = 4 106 psi, = 0.2, N = 50 kips e = 100 ft-kips/(60 kips) = 1.67 ft = 20 in., e/d = 20/32.7

tension, M = 100 ft-kips, and T = 80 F = 0.612 or |e/d| = 0.612

From Fig. 4.9 for n = 0.05, the lower limit on |e/d| is

n = 7.25, e = 100/50 = 2 ft = 24 in., = = 0.0069, n 0.575 for the tensile N case. Because 0.612 > 0.575, Fig. 4.2

= n = 0.050 should be used.

Cracked thermal moment MT From Fig. 4.2, with n = 0.05, read (1 )MT /(bd2EcT)

e/d = 24/32.7 = 0.733, |e/d| = 0.733 > 0.7; therefore, = 0.032

Fig. 4.2 should be used. MT = 0.032(1.25)(12)(32.7)2(4)(5.5)(80) = 75.3 ft-kips

From Fig. 4.2 with n = 0.050 and = curve, MT = 75.3 ft-kips

Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a

cracked section investigation with N = 60 kips tension and M

(1 )MT /(bd2EcT) = 0.032 = 175.3 ft-kips at section centerline.

4.4.5 Summary of results for Examples 1, 2, 3, and 4

MT = (1.25)(12)(32.7)2(4)(5.5)(80)(0.032) = 903,000 in.-lb A summary of results for Examples 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be

MT = 75.3 ft-kips found in Table 4.1.

Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a

cracked section investigation with N = 50 kips tension and M CHAPTER 5REFERENCES

= 175.3 ft-kips at section centerline. 5.1Referenced standards and reports

The standards and reports listed below were the latest

4.4.3 Example 3: Compressive N and |e/d| < 0.70

editions at the time this document was prepared. Because

Same section as Example 2.

these documents are revised frequently, the reader is advised

N =100 kips compression, M = 100 ft-kips, T = 80 F to contact the proper sponsoring group if it is desired to refer

e = 100 ft-kips- = 1 ft = 12 in.

------------------------- to the latest version.

100 kips

e/d = 12/32.7 = 0.367 < 0.70; therefore, Fig. 4.2 should not American Concrete Institute

be used. 207.2R Effect of Restraint, Volume Change, and Reinforce-

From Fig. 4.9 for n = 0.05, lower limit on |e/d| should be ment on Cracking of Mass Concrete

read as 0.25. Because 0.367 > 0.25, Fig. 4.4 and 4.5 should 209R Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature

be used. Effects in Concrete Structures

318 Building Code Requirements for Structural

Concrete

N/(bdEcT) = 100,000/(12 32.7 4 106 5.5 106

349 Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety-Related

80) = 0.145

Concrete Structures

435.7R Report on Temperature-Induced Deflections of

For N/(bdEcT) = 0.145 and e/d = 0.367, find MT. By Reinforced Concrete Members

interpolation between e/ds: The above publications may be obtained from the

n = 0.04 (Fig. 4.4) at e/d = 0.367; 0.035 by interpolation following organization:

n = 0.06 (Fig. 4.5) at e/d = 0.367; 0.046 by interpolation

For n = 0.05, (1 )MT /bd2EcT =1/2(0.035 + 0.046) American Concrete Institute

= 0.0405 PO Box 9094

MT = 0.0405(1.25)(12)(32.7)2(4)(5.5)(80) = 1,143,000 in.-lb Farmington Hills, MI 48333-9094

MT = 95.3 ft-kips www.concrete.org

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-33

ACI Committee 340, 1997, ACI Design Handbook, SP- results in the component moments (m-N) as follows.

17(97), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Moments acting counterclockwise on a component are

Mich., 482 pp. denoted as positive. These values were obtained by moment

ACI Committee 349, 2006, Code Requirements for Nuclear distribution, and moments due to Ess include the effect of

Safety-Related Concrete Structures (ACI 349-06) and frame sidesway.

Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills,

Mich., 149 pp. Moment (m-N)

Ferguson, P. M., 1965, Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals, AB: 70,900

2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. BA: 103,000

Fu, C. C., and Daye, M. D., eds., 1991, Computer Analysis

BC: +103,000

of Effects of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Changes on

CB: 62,400

Concrete Structures, SP-129, American Concrete Institute,

Farmington Hills, Mich., 191 pp. CD: +62,400

Gurfinkel, G., 1972, Thermal Effects in Walls of Nuclear DC: +10,200

Containment-Elastic and Inelastic Behavior, Proceedings, These are shown in Fig. A.1.

First International Conference on Structural Mechanics in The maximum mechanical load moment of 103,000 m-N

Reactor Technology (Berlin, 1971), V. 5-J, Commission of is less than the section capacity of 189,000 m-N. Therefore,

the European Communities, Brussels, pp. 277-297. the frame is adequate for mechanical loads

Kohli, T., and Gurbuz, O., 1976, Optimum Design of

Reinforced Concrete for Nuclear Containments, Including Thermal effects (T = 44 C and Tm Tb = 11 C)

Thermal Effects, Proceedings, Second ASCE Specialty

The T = 44 C having hot interior and cold exterior is

Conference on Structural Design of Nuclear Plant Facilities

expected to produce thermal stresses that are tensile on the

(New Orleans, 1975), V. 1-B, American Society of Civil

exterior faces of all components. These stresses will add to

Engineers, New York, 1976, pp. 1292-1319.

the existing exterior face tensile stresses due to the mechanical

Office of the Federal Register, 2002, Quality Assurance

loads. Hence, the LT and a values are arrived at from the

Program Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants, Title 10

mechanical load moment diagram in Fig. A.1.

of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix B.

A.1Frame design example from 3.5 AB A 3.6/6.1 = 0.59 0

The continuous frame shown in Fig. A.1 is given with all

AB B 0.59 1

components 305 mm wide x 610 mm thick and 75 mm cover

BC B (1.6 + 1.0)/9.1 = 0.29 1.6/2.6 = 0.61

on the reinforcement. The load combination to be considered

BC C 0.29 1.0/2.6 = 0.39

is U = D + L +To +Ess .

CD C 5.2/6.1 = 0.86 1

The mechanical loading consists of

CD D 0.86 0

WD = 5.9 kN/m

All components are the end-cracked type. Figures 3.4

through 3.6 are used to obtain the coefficients ks and CO,

WL = 9.9 kN/m which are shown in Table A.1.

The expressions from Section 3.4 for fixed-end moment

on component BC, and a lateral load of 17 kN at joint C due (FEM) are evaluated as

to Ess.

The thermal gradient To results from 54 C interior and 2

E c Tbt k s

10 C exterior temperature. Thus, Tm = (54 + 10)/2 = 32 C. 1. T FEM = ------------------------

- ---- ( 1 CO )

The base temperature Tb is taken as 21 C. For this condition, 12 2

Tm Tb = 32 C 21 C = +11 C and T = 44 C (hot interior,

4 6 2

cold exterior). ( 2.15 10 ) ( 9 10 ) ( 44 ) ( 305 ) ( 610 ) k

= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----s ( 1 CO )

The material properties are fc = 21 MPa and Ec = 2.15 12 2

104 MPa, fy = 420 MPa and Es = 2 105 MPa; and = 9

106 mm/mm/C. Also, n =Es /Ec = 9.3. T FEM = 81ks(1 CO)/2 m-kN

The reinforcement in the frame consists of two No. 25 bars

at each face in all components. This results in = As /bd = (2 Ec Ig

- ( ) ( k s ) ( 1 + CO )

2. Tm Tb FEM = ---------

510)/(305[610 75]) = 0.0063 and n = 9.3(0.0063) = L

2

0.059. = fy / fc = 0.0063(420/21) = 0.126; and Ku = fc (1

0.59) = 21 0.126(1 0.59 0.126) = 2.4. The section 4 3

( 2.15 10 ) ( 305 ) ( 610 )

capacity is Mu = KuF = (0.9)(2.4) (305)(535)2/1000 = = ------------------------------------------------------------ ( ) ( k s ) ( 1 + CO )

2

189,000 m-N. ( 6100 )

349.1R-34 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Thermal FEMs, m-kN

Distributed thermal

T-44 Tm Tb = 11 Distributed thermal moments and mechanical

L T /L a/L T ks Ky /L *

Component End CO DF FEM FEM Total FEM moments, m-kN moments, m-kN

AB A 0.59 0 3.40 0.41 0.17 1.0 +81.5 6.5 +75.0 +48.8 22.1

AB B 0.59 1 2.00 0.70 0.10 0.56 24.4 4.6 29.0 54.1 157

BC B 0.29 0.61 2.40 0.43 0.08 0.44 +56.5 0 +56.5 +54.1 +157

BC C 0.29 0.39 2.65 0.38 0.088 0.48 66.7 0 66.7 50.2 113

CD C 0.86 1 1.90 0.57 0.095 0.52 +33.2 +5.0 +38.2 +50.2 +113

CD D 0.86 0 2.39 0.47 0.120 1.0 51.4 +5.9 45.5 45.0 34.8

*Corrected for sidesway.

Notes: DFi = (ksiEiIgi/Li)/(ksiEiIgi/Li); symbols with component i are indicated with subscript i.

- ( 8.19 )

= ---------

3

3. = total unrestrained change of length of Component BC L

= (Tm Tb)L Shear stiffness at C

= (9 106)(11)(9100) Ec Ig

- [ k sC ( 1 + CO C ) + k sD ( 1 + CO D ) ]

= ---------

3

= 0.90 mm L

and CD, respectively, in inverse proportion to the shear - [ 1.90 ( 1.57 ) + 2.38 ( 1.47 ) ]

= ---------

3

L

stiffness at these ends.

Shear stiffness at B Ec Ig

- ( 6.48 )

= ---------

3

L

Ec Ig

- [ k sA ( 1 + CO A ) + k sB ( 1 + CO B ) ]

= ---------

3

L Ec Ig

Sum of shear stiffness at B and C = ---------

3

- (14.67)

L

Ec Ig

- [ 3.4 ( 1.41 ) + 2.00 ( 1.70 ) ]

= --------- B = 0.90 mm (6.48/14.67) = 0.90 0.44 = 0.40 mm

3

L C = 0.90 mm (8.19/14.67) = 0.90 0.56 = 0.50 mm

DESIGN FOR THERMAL EFFECTS ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES 349.1R-35

To demonstrate the effect of cracking on the thermal b = 305 mm, t = 914 mm, d = 831 mm, d = 84 mm, As =

moments, the fixed-end thermal moments for the uncracked 1290 mm2, As = 1935 mm2, Es = 200,000 MPa, Ec =

frame are obtained from the final expressions in 1 and 2 27,600 MPa, = 0.2, N = 222,000 N compression, M =

using ks = 4, CO = 1/2, and = (1/2)(Tm Tb)L , with L 136 106 mm-N, T = 44 C

being the length of Component BC. A moment distribution is

performed, and the resulting distributed moments are added to n = Es/Ec = 200/27.6 = 7.25, e = M/N = 1.36 108/2.22

the mechanical moments. The combined moments are shown 105 = 610 mm, = 1290/(305 914) = 0.0046, n = 0.0046

in Fig. A.1 for comparison with the cracked frame moments. 7.25 = 0.033, = 1935/(305 914) = 0.0069, n = 0.0069

The fixed-end thermal moments for the cracked frame are 7.25 = 0.050

obtained using the aforementioned values for B and C and

by referring to Table A.1 for ks and CO. These fixed-end Cracked thermal moment MT

moments and the resulting distributed thermal moments are e/d ratio: e/d = 610/831 = 0.73 > 0.70; therefore, Section 4.2

given in Table. A.1. The distributed thermal moments results should be used.

include the effect of sidesway, which occurs because the Because t/d = 1.1 and d/d = 0.10, Fig. 4.2 should be used.

frame in unsymmetrically cracked. Because , however, interpolate between the two curves.

Combined loadsThe final frame moments are shown From Fig. 4.2 for n = 0.050, (1 )MT /(bd2EcT)

in Table A.1 and Fig. A.2. These can be compared with Fig. A.1 should be read as

to see the effect of the cracking reduction of thermal

moments. 0.0303 for = 0

Although not shown, the component axial forces were

evaluated to confirm that section cracking still corresponds 0.0320 for =

to the pure bending condition of Assumption 3. Recall that e/d

should be at least 0.5 for this condition. For Components AB Interpolate for = 0.0046

and CD, the axial forces result primarily from the mechanical

loads and are compressive. For Component BC, the axial (1 )MT /(bd2EcT) = 0.0303 + (0.0320

force is compressive and includes the compression due to the 0.0303)(0.0045/0.0069) = 0.0314

11 C increase on the component.

(1 )MT = [0.0314(305)(831)2(27,600) (9.9 106)(44)]/

A.2Design examples from 4.4

A.2.1 Example 1: Compressive N and |e/d| > 0.70, = 1000 = 79.5 106 mm-N

349.1R-36 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Temperature Compression Tension Cracked thermal Total moment

Axial force Moment M, differential reinforcement

2

reinforcement moment M ,

2 T (M + MT),

Example N, kN Type m-kN T, C As , mm As , mm m-kN m-kN e/d Use figure

1 222 Compression 136 44 1290 1935 99.4 236 0.733 > 0.70 Use Fig. 4.2

2 222 Tension 136 44 1935 1935 101 238 0.733 > 0.70 Use Fig. 4.2

3 445 Compression 136 44 1935 1935 128 265 0.37 < 0.70 Use Fig. 4.4,

0.37 > 0.25 4.5, and 4.9

4 267 Tension 136 44 1935 1935 101 238 0.612 < 0.70 Use Fig. 4.2

0.612 > 0.575 and 4.9

MT = 99.4 106 mm-N or 99.4 m-kN N = 445,000 N compression, M = 136 106 mm-N, T =

44 C,

Check using equations

e = 136,000,000 mm-N

----------------------------------------------- = 305 mm

445,000 N

2 e/d = 305/831 = 0.37 < 0.70; therefore, Fig. 4.2 should not

kN=0 = ( 2n + n ) + 2 [ 2n ( d d ) + n ]

be used.

(2n + n) = [(2 0.033 + 0.050)2 + 2(2 0.033 0.10 From Fig. 4.9 for n = 0.05, lower limit on |e/d| should be

+ 0.050)]1/2 (2 0.033 + 0.050) = 0.239 read as 0.25. Because 0.37 > 0.25, Fig. 4.4 and 4.5 should be

used.

(1 )MT /(bd2EcT) = 0.152k3 + 1.818n(d/d k)

(d/d) + 0.909n(l k) = 0.152(0.239)3 + 1.818(0.034) N/(bdEcT) = 445,000/(305 831 27,600 9.9 106

(0.1 0.239)(0.10) + 0.909(0.050) (1 0.239) = 0.0317 44) = 0.145

MT = 99.4 m-kN(0.0317/0.0314) = 100 m-kN 99.4 m-kN, For N/(bdEcT) = 0.145 and e/d = 0.37, find MT. By

OK interpolation between e/ds:

n = 0.04 (Fig. 4.4) at e/d = 0.37; 0.035 by interpolation

Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a n = 0.06 (Fig. 4.5) at e/d = 0.37; 0.046 by interpolation

cracked section investigation with N = 222 kN compression For n = 0.05, (1 )MT /bd2EcT =1/2(0.035 + 0.046)

and M = 236 m-kN at section centerline. = 0.0405

A.2.2 Example 2: Tensile N and |e/d| > 0.70, = MT = 0.0405(1.25)(305)(831)2(27,600)(9.9 106)(44) = 128

b = 305 mm, t = 914 mm, d = 831 mm, d = 84 mm, As = As = 106 mm-N or 128 m-kN

1935 mm2, Es = 200,000 MPa, Ec = 27,600 MPa, = 0.2, N Concrete and reinforcement stress are calculated from a

= 222,000 N tension, M = 136 106 mm-N, and T = 44 C cracked section investigation with N = 445 kN compression

and M = 265 m-kN at section centerline.

n = 7.25, e = 1.36 108/2.22 105 = 610 mm, = = A.2.4 Example 4: Tensile N and |e/d| < 0.70

0.0069, n = n = 0.050 Same as Example 3, except N = 267,000 N tension.

Cracked thermal moment MT e = 136 106 mm-N/(267,000 N) = 509 mm, e/d = 509/

e/d = 610/831 = 0.73, |e/d| = 0.73 > 0.7; therefore, 831 = 0.612 or |e/d|= 0.612

Fig. 4.2 should be used. From Fig. 4.9 for n = 0.05, the lower limit on |e/d| is

From Fig. 4.2 with n = 0.050 and = curve, 0.575 for the tensile N case. Because 0.612 > 0.575, Fig. 4.2

should be used.

From Fig. 4.2, with n = 0.05, read (1 )MT /(bd2EcT)

(1 )MT /(bd2EcT) = 0.032 = 0.032

MT = 0.032(1.25)(305)(831)2(27,600)(9.9 106)(44) =

MT = (1.25)(305)(831)2(27,600)(9.9 106)(44)(0.032) = 101 106 mm-N or 101 m-kN

101 106 mm-N or 101 m-kN. Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a

Concrete and reinforcement stresses are calculated from a cracked section investigation with N = 276 kN tension and M

cracked section investigation with N = 222 kN tension and M = 238 m-kN at section centerline.

= 238 m-kN at section centerline. A.2.5 Summary of results for Examples 1,2, 3, and 4

A.2.3 Example 3: Compressive N and |e/d| < 0.70 Table A.2 shows the summary of results for Examples 1,

Same section as Example 2. 2, 3, and 4.

American Concrete Institute

Advancing concrete knowledge

As ACI begins its second century of advancing concrete knowledge, its original chartered purpose

remains to provide a comradeship in finding the best ways to do concrete work of all kinds and in

spreading knowledge. In keeping with this purpose, ACI supports the following activities:

Technical committees that produce consensus reports, guides, specifications, and codes.

Periodicals: the ACI Structural Journal and the ACI Materials Journal, and Concrete International.

Benefits of membership include a subscription to Concrete International and to an ACI Journal. ACI

members receive discounts of up to 40% on all ACI products and services, including documents, seminars

and convention registration fees.

As a member of ACI, you join thousands of practitioners and professionals worldwide who share a

commitment to maintain the highest industry standards for concrete technology, construction, and

practices. In addition, ACI chapters provide opportunities for interaction of professionals and practitioners

at a local level.

38800 Country Club Drive

Farmington Hills, MI 48331

U.S.A.

Phone: 248-848-3700

Fax: 248-848-3701

www.concrete.org

Reinforced Concrete Design for Thermal Effects

on Nuclear Power Plant Structures

was founded in 1904 as a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to public

service and representing the user interest in the field of concrete. ACI gathers and

distributes information on the improvement of design, construction and

maintenance of concrete products and structures. The work of ACI is conducted by

individual ACI members and through volunteer committees composed of both

members and non-members.

which assures all participants the right to have their views considered. Committee

activities include the development of building codes and specifications; analysis of

research and development results; presentation of construction and repair

techniques; and education.

There are no educational or employment requirements. ACIs membership is

composed of engineers, architects, scientists, contractors, educators, and

representatives from a variety of companies and organizations.

specific areas of interest. For more information, contact ACI.

www.concrete.org

American Concrete Institute

Advancing concrete knowledge

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