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Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Rationale In the light of accelerated changes and situations that impact the young, elementary school learners’ needs, interests, and capabilities are being prioritized in child development programs, while teachers are being prepared to adapt to these changes. Current trends show changes on acquiring new knowledge and information through technology; heightened awareness and active participation in addressing political, economic, social, ecological, and spiritual issues and problems; the need for teachers with strong academic preparation, values formation, and commitment; and the great concern for education to expand the basics to include problem-solving, creativity, and capability of the individual for lifelong learning (Salandanan, 2001). Developing lifelong learners is anchored on the philosophy that education is life and continues with life. Developing an enterprising culture refers to enterprising teachers who are ready to innovate strategies and approaches. An enterprising caring teacher is marked for her attentive concern for others, fair in dealing with others, and committed to others. The educational development of learners today is greatly influenced by the learner and family, teacher, school, community or environment, and school

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factors. Significant among the home factors cited by Barsaga and his coauthors (1996) are learner’s ability and readiness, language used at home and in school, family’s financial status, distance between home and school, and the parents’ attitudes towards education. Unqualified or untrained teachers, low teacher motivation, teacher attitude towards learner and teaching, inability to adapt the curricula to leaner needs, and the lack of understanding of learner needs are the observed teacher-related factors. School variables that have some bearing on learner training include poor or inadequate resources, school location (distance), relevance of curriculum, school schedule, and lack of

learning aids. Community-related factors stem from the community’s attitude toward education, seasonal activities, topography, climatic conditions, socioeconomic level, and migration and mobility. Management-related factors

include poor teacher supervision and examination and evaluation processes. Generally, the learners find themselves sharing the difficulties experienced in the home, in school, and with the teacher. Community influences make the learners busy with television shows, movies, and helping parents in occupational tasks. The Education for All project explained by Barsaga and others (1996) has been optimizing the many channels of learning recommending the use of a variety of learning delivery modes responsive and tailor-fit to the learners’ needs and specific life situations. The challenges for elementary teachers include creating family, school and community partnerships; teaching all

3

students with emphasis on the inclusion; and reasserting the importance of education. Paradigm shifts have emerged to take care of learners’ functional education developing more effective learners along social, cultural, economic, political, technological, and environmental dimensions (Pagalilawan, 1999). In the traditional context, learners exposed to content in isolated cells with skills mastery as outcomes, shifted to learners exposed to integrated content developing higher order competencies. The transformation contributes to the total development of the learners. The consistent low performance of students, the very fast pace and exponential increase in information and knowledge, the need for better information and processing skills, the deterioration in people’s values, and the need to prepare students for global and future competition saw the need for the adoption of a new curriculum, the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum per Republic Act 9155. The curriculum was envisioned to promote the holistic growth of Filipino learners and enable them to acquire core competencies and proper values. It is flexible to meet learning needs of a diverse studentry, which is relevant to their immediate environment and social and cultural

realities. The seemingly unprepared elementary school teachers resulted in poor achievement of elementary students in reading and communication skills, and in understanding basic mathematics and scientific concepts based on the report of the Presidential Commission in Educational Reform (PCER). Ordoñez (2001)

4

initiated to redefine and recreate teacher training institutions for the twenty-first century within the key result areas of critical analysis and creative thinking, the fostering of reading and comprehension, familiarity with instructional

technology, and solid grounding in values education. Lawal (2003) asserts that to enhance instruction, education programs should focus on understanding both teaching and learning student perceptions that are valuable to teaching practices because they are authentic first-hand classroom experiences. Teachers find it difficult to seek students’ voices and listen to them for some clues to learning and teaching (Poetter, 1997). Teachers think of teacher education as requiring them to know the content of what they teach, teaching pedagogy in the context of academic content, and offering prospective teachers many and varied school-based

experiences (Rigden, 1997). Classroom teachers work as full-fledged partners with college or university faculty in training them on instruction and assessment, classroom management, and effective relationship. The laudable, meaningful, and timely objectives of Education for All focused on internal efficiency and effectiveness, expanded the vision of education for teacher retraining on holistic approaches. Paradigm shifts and the PCER findings which led to organizing the 2002 BEC, seriously considered teacher re-education and student achievement. These academic highlights served as challenges which merit a critical analysis of changing educational

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trends. The researcher was motivated to conduct this study to ascertain teachers’ professional preparation in relation to teaching effectiveness, as well as the relationship between their professional practices and teaching effectiveness.

Theoretical Framework This study which focused on relating teachers’ professional preparation and practices with their teaching effectiveness was anchored on Teacher Education as a coursework and fieldwork. Coursework imparts knowledge about teaching although teachers claimed that what they learned during professional preparation, was learned through their field experiences (Lanier, 1986). Teachers require a body of professional knowledge that encompasses both knowledge of general pedagogical principles and skills and knowledge of the subject matter to be taught. General pedagogical knowledge includes knowledge of theories of learning and general principles of instruction, an understanding of the various philosophies of education, general knowledge about learners, and knowledge of the principles and techniques of classroom management. In addition to content knowledge, subject matter knowledge encompasses an understanding of the various ways a discipline can be organized or understood. Elements of pedagogical content knowledge i9nclude conceptualizing the subject matter for teaching, understanding its major

6

concepts, a study of student understanding of the subject matter, and curriculum 2001). Teacher Education is a synergetic self-organizing process. It may shift from the conventional focus on teaching to a new structure of deep learning. If teachers restrain from pretending to know, from excessively planning and controlling, and start respecting the unknown, then a new culture of teacher education will be developed and move on towards a learning-oriented delivery of Teacher Education (Wesseler, 2001). knowledge, its materials and resources (Grossman & Richert,

Effective Teaching Effective Teaching reflects a combination of sound teaching techniques, knowledge of the subject, enthusiasm for teaching, and sensitivity to one’s own personal characteristics. Preparation for teaching. Being prepared to teach involves knowing what to teach and knowing how to teach it. In general, knowing what to teach will come from a combination of one’s expertise in the subject, content outline or syllabus, and careful pre-class preparations. Knowing how to teach will come from a study of effective teaching methods. Dimensions of effective teaching. These include knowledge of the subject to be taught, organization and preparation for teaching, instructional

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delivery skills, evaluation skills, and enthusiasm for teaching. The first four dimensions are learned through formal study. Enthusiasm for teaching is very sensitive as personal attitude. It can be enhanced through the study of teaching theory and methodology. Knowledge of the subject. Three subjects related prerequisites for

effective teaching are breadth of knowledge, being up-to-date in the subject field, and the ability to analyze and present concepts. Organization and preparation. The ability to organize information in a course syllabus considers constraints of time, place, student expectancies, available resources, and/or teacher limitations. To provide for flexibility, class preparation should focus on most important topics, enrich the topic with materials and activities, and allow reasonable time for student questions. Class morale is generally highly sensitive to teacher preparation and punctuality. Instructional delivery skills. Adequate knowledge of the subject and sufficient class preparation are critical factors to effective teaching. The attentiveness of the students, the accessibility of the teacher for giving individual assistance, the physical comfort of the learning environment, the creative classroom participation of the students through questioning skills, and the sophisticated instructional aids increase the effectiveness instruction. (http://www.twice.edu/o-grad/gtamanual/teaching.html#other).

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Parkay (1998) added that some characteristics of effective teaching are that it focuses on outcomes which are the results or consequences of teaching. Outcomes include clear goals, objectives, and performance tasks that students are to master. Teachers modify their instruction based on assessments of students’ understanding. In addition to traditional tests, teachers use authentic, portfolio, and performance assessments.

Teacher Preparation and Development In the 1998 Survey on the Professional Development of Teachers by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the US Education Department, two broad dimensions of teacher effectiveness were categorized first along the level of knowledge and skills that teachers bring to the classroom as measured by teacher preparation and qualifications; and second, along the category of classroom practices. The trend data during the subsequent 2000 survey, covered teacher participation in professional development and collaborative activities, and teachers’ feelings of preparedness. Apparently, teachers underwent formal professional development and collaborative with other teachers. Teacher education and teacher professional development and collaboration were key factors that established teacher effectiveness. Continuity and relevance of professional development as well as school administration support had to be monitored to assure that teachers had learned. If follow-up sessions are needed, then additional training followed by

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school activities in which a teacher helped other teachers put the new ideas to use. Perceived impact of professional development was related to time spent in professional development activities and linkages and follow-up activities to which the teachers had participated. Collaboration with other teachers revolved around joint work, which are team teaching and monitoring. Teacher networks, either school-to-school or school-to university partnerships are powerful learning mechanisms for teachers. Teacher preparedness incorporates what the teacher brings to the classroom from preservice training and on-the-job learning. Teachers unanimously revealed that they were not well-prepared to integrating educational technology in the grade or subject taught.

Teacher Effectiveness Significant findings highlighting teacher effectiveness were gathered by Kemp and Hall (1992) from different research studies. Effective teachers are productive when they • employ systematic teaching, • begin a lesson with a review, • use systematic feedback,

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• adjust the difficulty level of the material, • clearly articulate rules and include the students in the discussion, • provide a variety of opportunities for students to apply and use knowledge and skills in different learning situations, and are able to pace the amount of information presented to the class http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/catereas/reading/1171k15.htm With these teachers, students achieve more and have high levels of cooperation.

Conceptual Framework The input-process-output model was adopted when this study was conceived as shown in Figure 1. The input variables in three clusters. Professional preparation of the first set of input variables is made up of the teachers’ highest educational attainment, their relevant inservice training, and their relevant teaching experiences. These three indices marked the teachers’ input personal qualifications, the tri-factor of school, on-the-job training, and appropriate work background. These factors were correlated with the teachers’ teaching effectiveness in five categories, namely, planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, professional responsibilities, and the use of student assessment. Planning and preparation is designing the lesson based on the objectives and preparing the lesson procedure. Classroom environment is structuring the room for teaching as well as establishing love and harmony among the students and teacher. Instruction covers the teaching process carried out in the classroom.

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Input

Process

Output

< Professional Preparation
Highest Educational Attainment Relevant Inservice Training Relevant Teaching Experience

• Descriptive Research • Gathering of Data Questionnai re Observation s Interviews Statistical Tools
Means Percentages Coefficient of Correlation chi-square’s Graphs

An

RELATIONSHIP

A C T I O N

< Teaching Effectiveness
Planning and Preparation Classroom Environment Instruction Professional Responsibility Use of Student Assessment

• •
• • • • •

P L A N
for Elementary Teachers

RELATIONSHIP < Professional Practices
Instructional Planning Instructional Delivery Classroom Management Teacher-Learner Interaction Subject Content Evaluation Professional Responsibilities Professional Relationship

Figure 1 The Conceptual Framework of the Study

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Professional responsibilities refer to the teachers’ duties which include keeping students’ records, communicating with the parents, and assuming leadership roles in school. The use of student assessment refers to the internal and external assessment data reflecting student achievement which should be fairly handled and managed by the teacher. Students should be aware of the progress of their school performances through assessment. Professional preparation was correlated with teaching effectiveness to specify the relationship between the two sets of variables to determine areas for improvement. The last input group of variables refers to the eight professional practices of teachers which were likewise correlated with teaching effectiveness. The teaching practices encompassed instructional planning which refers to planning the lesson congruent to its specific objectives; instructional delivery which simply referred to implementing the planned lesson in accordance with the students’ needs; and classroom management which refers to the control of student behavior in the classroom and managing learning including discipline. Teacher-learner interaction is the result of engaging students in instruction using communication, motivation, reinforcement, retention, transfer, and questioning skills and principles. Subject content is the lesson proper or subject matter for the day’s lesson. Evaluation is assessment or appraisal. It consists of rating student performance, the result of which could be a basis for further teaching.

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Professional responsibilities refer to the teachers’ duties concerning professional growth, adaptability on assigned tasks, and working cooperatively with school staff, students, parents, and superiors. Professional relationships refer to positive working relations with co-workers, students, personnel, parents, and the community. Using research methods and statistical treatment of data constitute the research process. The research findings, conclusions, and recommendations formed the bases of an Action Plan for Elementary Teachers: An Action Plan is an Action Research. It is a classroom-based study focused on a classroom problem encountered by the teacher.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem The study was designed to determine into the grade school teachers’ professional preparation and practices in relation to their teaching effectiveness as a basis for an Action Plan for Elementary Teachers at the University of Cebu, Cebu City, SY 2007 – 2008. It addressed the following specific questions: 1. What was the professional preparation profile of the grade school teachers with reference to their:

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1.1 1.2 1.3 2.

highest educational attainment, relevant inservice training, and relevant teaching experience?

What was the professional practices profile of grade school teachers in terms of: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 instructional planning, instructional delivery, classroom management, teacher-learner interaction, subject content, evaluation, professional responsibilities, and professional relationships? level of performance on teaching effectiveness was

3.

What

demonstrated in each of the following teaching areas: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4. Planning and Preparation, The Classroom Environment, Instruction, Professional Responsibilities, and Use of Student Assessment?

Were there significant relationships between teachers’ teaching effectiveness and their

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4.1 4.2 5.

professional preparation and professional practices?

Based on the findings, what Action Plan for Elementary Teachers may be proposed?

Null Hypotheses The study was postulated on the following null hypotheses: HO1 : There is no significant relationship between Teaching Effectiveness and Professional Preparation. HO2 : There is no significant relationship between Teaching Effectiveness and Professional Practices Significance of the Study The findings of this study will be valuable insights to the following groups and individuals: Department of Education (DepEd). The findings of this study will be useful inputs to policies and guidelines concerning teacher performance and teacher effectiveness. School Administrators. They will be aware of the current shifts of the curriculum indicating directions towards more flexible applications. Paradigms are shifting from separate subjects to a curriculum in framework, from teaching to learning, from inputs to outcomes, from schooling to lifelong learning, from categorized to integrated learning, and from learning or note learning to applied

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learning. They will be motivated to make some revisions to optimize resources, and streamline teachers’ roles, and teachers’ capabilities. Teachers. To be effective teachers, this study will encourage teachers to undertake professional practices using relevant teaching strategies. To be competent cooperating teachers, this study revealed the professional and personal qualities expected of teachers which will be the bases for a better understanding of the teachers and their students. To be excellent mentors to colleagues or their students, the teachers will be aware of the required teaching expectations on which they will always work on for expertise. Researchers. They will be stimulated to make attempts to expand or replicate this study. Advanced research studies will be pursued on the different dimensions of teaching effectiveness. Parents. parents will This study will strengthen the home-school linkage since aware of DepEd’s strengthening parent-teacher

become

relationship. Since the purpose of this study is to improve teachers’ teaching effectiveness, parents will rally support to help the teachers. Students. Generally students will show greater achievement gains

when exposed to competent teachers particularly those using multiple learning strategies. Reading this research work will inspire them to hope for proficient teachers over time. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Research Method This study utilized qualitative-quantitative descriptive research. This descriptive research sought to find answers to questions through the analysis of variable relationships. It was specifically a correlational research since correlational analyses were used (Best & Kahn, 1998).

Research Environment The Grade School Department of the University of Cebu (UC) is within the university main campus. It is sprawled at the corner of Sanciangko Street and Osmeña Boulevard in Cebu City. It is quite a distance from recreational centers and fairly free from disruptions, thus making the environment conducive to learning. It is at the heart of Cebu City located near some malls, churches, and other schools, colleges, and universities. Commercial and residential homes around the area of the school site are relatively confined at a safer distance minimizing noise, or exhaust detrimental to the health of the students and personnel. There is no industrial establishment operating in the area, thus the site is smoke free and pollutant free. The elementary students are provided with the state-of-the-art multimillion building complete with educational, physical, and recreational facilities. The area is well-fenced and well-guarded to ensure the safety and security of students. It is also equipped with facilities to enhance learning such as

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computers,

imported

reading

materials,

audio-visual

aids,

and

other

instructional resources. Learning is evident with faculty members who are creative, resourceful, and knowledgeable on the use of relevant strategies and techniques to maximize learning. The services of the Medical Clinic, the Principal’s Office, and the Library are commendable. The staff accommodate and caters to students’ needs. The continued success of the school graders enrolled at the University of Cebu has been followed up through guidance, close monitoring and supervision.

Research Respondents This study focused on the 20 grade school teachers handling the elementary level at the University of Cebu as seen in Table 1. A female elementary school principal heads the 20 teacher respondents. The teachers self-rated themselves, while the respondent school principal rated the 20 teachers as she supervised them. She used the teacher checklist questionnaire prepared for this study. Table 1 shows that a typical elementary classroom teacher in UC is a female, single, licensed, tenured, and with a mean age of 28. All of the 21 respondents are licensed having passed the licensure examination for teachers

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(LET) per Republic Act No. 7636 known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994.

Table 1 Profile of Respondent Elementary Teachers and School Principal

Category < Gender * Male * Female < Civil Status * Single * Married < Licensure Status * Licensed * Unlicensed < Employment Status * Tenured * Probationary Mean Age in Years

Teacher (20) 2 18 12 8 20 11 9 28

Percentage 10 90 60 40 100 55 45

Principal (1) 1 1 1 1 40

Eighteen or 90 percent are females, 12 or 60 percent are single in status, and 11 or 55 percent are tenured. With ages ranging from 22 to 42, these teachers are comparatively young with a mean age of 28.

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Research Instruments A researcher-made checklist-questionnaire of 60 items is shown in the specification Grid in Table 2. questionnaire. The questionnaire begins with the personal background of the respondent. Part I covered teachers’ professional preparation in terms of highest educational attainment, relevant inservice training, and relevant teaching experience. Part II focused on teachers’ professional practices constituting eight factors. The practices included instructional planning and delivery, classroom management, teacher-learner interaction, subject content, evaluation, and professional responsibilities and relationships. Part II Appendix A shows the checklist-

concentrated on teaching effectiveness which covered. Important teaching dimensions of planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, professional responsibilities, and use of student assessment. All three parts with a total of 60 items are broken down to 5 for professional preparation, 30 for professional practices, and 25 for teaching effectiveness. Part I was more informative on the personal qualification of teachers. Parts II and III were composed of evaluative items using rubrics and descriptors anchored on a rating scale of 1 to 5.

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Table 2 Specification Grid of the Checklist-Questionnaire on Teachers’ Professional Preparation, Practices, and Teaching Effectiveness
Content • Background of the Respondent Item Numbers Total Items (5) (5) 1, 2 3, 4 5 2 2 1 (30) 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6, 7 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 19, 20, 21 22, 23 24, 25, 26, 27 28, 29, 30 3 4 5 6 3 2 4 3 (25) 1–5 6 – 11 12 – 17 18 – 22 23 - 25 5 6 6 5 3 60

Part I. Teachers’ Professional Preparation A. Highest Educational Attainment B. Relevant Inservice Training C. Relevant Teaching Experience Part II. Teachers’ Professional Practices A. Instructional Planning B. Instructional Delivery C. Classroom Management D. Teacher-Learner Interaction E. Subject Content F. Evaluation G. Professional Responsibilities H. Professional Relationships Part III. Teaching Effectiveness A. Planning and Preparation B. Classroom Environment C. Instruction D. Professional Responsibilities E. Use of Student Assessment Overall Total

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Data Gathering Procedure Preliminary preparation. After the problems were identified, a survey of related researches was conducted to identify common teaching practices relevant to the present study in Philippine setting. The checklist items on teaching effectiveness were carefully drawn from the ideas in different researches. Questionnaire validation. There was a need to pretest the professional teaching practices and the teaching effectiveness items to validate the tools. The content specification of the questionnaire supports content validity. Fieldtesting the questionnaire with ten teachers from other schools and districts resulted in removing ambiguous items. Testing the questionnaire registered a reliability index of .67 indicating that the questionnaire was Moderately reliable (computation in Appendix B). The questionnaire was administered twice to the same group in a span of two weeks. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient or Spearman rho was used to correlate the two sets of scores (Calmorin & Calmorin, 1997). Administration of the instrument. After the questionnaires were validated and finalized, they were reproduced for distribution after approval of this study was secured.

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Statistical Analysis In profiling, frequencies, and percentages were used. Weighted means were used to determine the descri0tors which described the professional practices. The descriptive ratings 1 to 5 were used with 1 as the lowest and 5 the highest. Professional practices were described as follows: Rating 5 Description Excellent, superior teaching practices, highly skilled using a variety of teaching strategies, exhibits efficient, facilitative leadership, applies knowledge in real 4 3 2 1 situations. Very Satisfactory, achieves results to a very acceptable level, very capable Satisfactory, manifests good knowledge, efficient, achieves a high level of performance. Fair, slightly capable, works only to comply with objectives, can still be improved. Poor, unsatisfactory performance, relies on others, has gaps in knowledge and skills teacher needs much assistance to maintain an acceptable level of performance. The descriptors and their mean ranges are as follows: Rating 5 Mean Range 4.20 – 5.00 Descriptor Excellent

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4 3 2 1

3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 – 1.79

Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Fair Poor

The same ratings were used for determining the level of performance of teaching effectiveness, the rubrics of which are presented as follows: Rating 5 4 3 2 1 Description Highly Effective, very effective, results-oriented Effective, capable and effective beyond required expectations Moderately Effective, exhibits good knowledge and efficient Slightly Effective, can still improve, works only to comply. Not Effective, lacks professional teaching skills

The descriptors, the mean ranges, and the performance level for teaching effectiveness are categorized as follows: Rating 5 4 3 2 1 Mean Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 – 1.79 Descriptor Highly Effective Performance Level Effective Performance Level Moderately Effective Performance Level Slightly Effective Performance Level Not Effective Performance Level

The significant relationship between the professional preparation and teaching effectiveness, used the chi-square test of significance in contingency tables with the following formula:

λ2 = ∑ (O – E)2
E where: O = observed cell frequency E = expected or theoretical frequency

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λ2 = chi-square
The tabular λ2 value determined the significance of the computed value.

The

relationship

between

professional

practices

and

teaching

effectiveness used Pearson’s product-moment coefficient of correlation or Pearson r. Appendix F shows Pearson’s formula as used.

∑XY - NXY rxy = (∑X2 - NX2) (∑Y2 - NY2)

where: X is the rating of the first group, X is the mean rating of the first group, Y is the rating of the second group, and Y is the mean rating of the second group. To test the significance of the relationship, the t-test was applied using the following formula:

t = r

N–2 1 – r2

where: r is the relationship index and

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N is the number of respondents Graphs were used to illustrate the findings which clarified the competency and effectiveness levels of the teachers.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The terms were operationally defined to place the researcher and the readers in the same frame of reference.

Action Plan The action plan proposed in this study is a class-based plan anchored on a certain aspect of teaching which needs improvement. The teacher and the students identify class problems pertaining to teaching, learning, students’ behavior, and attitudes as well as teachers’ problems. An action plan could be undertaken in one or two months with the leadership of the teacher. It involves planning, doing, and reflecting on class activities that could solve an identified problem. Grade School This refers to an elementary school covering grades one to six. School graders are the elementary school students. Professional Preparation

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This refers to the highest educational attainment of teachers, relevant inservice training or special training, and length of relevant teaching experience adequate enough to enable them to teach elementary school students. These factors will help develop the preparedness of the teacher to teach. Professional Practices These practices cover instructional competencies which include indicators such as instructional planning and delivery, classroom management, teacher-learner interaction, subject content, evaluation, and professional responsibilities and relationships. Instructional planning simply refers to planning the lesson conformably with specific objectives. Instructional delivery refers to methods of teaching. Classroom management refers to organizing the teaching-learning time using relevant teaching equipment and materials, and appropriate teaching processes within the time period Teacher-learner interaction is engaging students in instruction using communication,

motivation, reinforcement, retention, and transfer skills and principles. Subject content refers to the subject matter and effective communication of the major concepts of the lesson. Evaluation is assessing student performance and using the evaluation results in planning the lessons. Professional responsibilities are teachers’ concerns pertaining to professional growth, adaptability with assigned duties, working cooperatively with those involved in the school program. Professional relationship pertains to effective working relationship

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with fellow-teachers and personnel, students, parents, and those linked to school operations. Teaching Effectiveness This refers to the impact of teaching competencies on the students in terms of intellectual, social, physical, emotional, and moral development. Effectiveness is based on the four domains of teaching which are planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, professional responsibilities, and the fifth on the use of student assessment. Planning and preparation deals with skills in designing instruction, that is organizing the content to be learned. Classroom environment deals with skills that relate to the creation of a comfortable and respectful classroom environment that cultivates a culture for learning in which students feel safe taking risks. Instruction contains the skills that are at the heart of teaching, the actual engagement of students with the content. Professional responsibilities encompass the roles teachers assume outside of the classroom. Teachers committed to student learning use assessment strategies extensively which provide evidence of success or lack thereof, for both students and teachers.

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CHAPTER II PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter views the elementary teachers as possessing the knowledge base to guide the art of practice. It covers the teacher’s professional practices involving the different teaching areas from the planning phase to evaluation and to application. It entails the teachers’ repertoire of effective practice teaching. encompassing the interactive and organizational functions of

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This research work looked into the professional preparation of the grade school teachers relative to their acquired personal qualifications concerning education, training, and experience.

TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION

Educational Attainment The educational background of the 20 UC teachers is presented in Table 3. Of the five educational levels, the UC teachers belonged to three areas, one on the master’s level, 11 or 55 percent with Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) and some master’s units, and 8 or 40 percent having completed the BEED course. Table 3 Highest Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment 1. Ed. D. 2. MA or MA with Ed. D. units 3. BEEd with MA units 4. BEEd 5. Other course Total

f 0 1 11 8 0 20 * Percentage

P* 0 5 55 40 1 100

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A closer look at the figures in Table 1 shows that the highest educational levels attained by the UC elementary teachers were MA by one teacher or 5 percent and BEEd with MA units by 11 teachers or 55 percent, giving a total of 60 percent describing their educational attainment as Adequate. Eight teachers or 40 percent just finished BEEd, not having pursued advanced courses in MA. Obtaining Master’s units is an add-on to their attainment and is a plus factor to their educational qualifications. Since the average age of the teachers was 28. (Table 1, page 19), it was expected that there was still time for them to improve their Adequate

institutional training. Furthermore, being single in status and tenured in employment could signify the likelihood for them to devote their time to advance in their educational pursuits. A most important function of professional education for teachers is to provide the necessary experiences and best practices that will enrich their knowledge of content, develop their skill in using them at the same time helping them imbibe a sharing and caring attitude tempered by a futuristic outlook (Salandanan, 2001). Attaining higher educational levels will in effect motivate teachers with a strong self-confidence to update their knowledge and skills to catch up with the demands of changing paradigms. Several research studies had significantly cited the importance of educational qualification as a potential factor in developing work competency. Lumapas (2000) in her study with

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Southern Leyte State College administrations, found out that professional factors such as educational qualification and administration experience were significantly related to their performance competencies. The importance of educational qualification as a performance correlate was confirmed by Chua (1992). Blanchard and his co-authors (1985) define competence as a function of knowledge and skills which can be gained from education, training, and/or experience. It is something that is learned. It could therefore be deduced that with the Adequate educational background of the 20 UC elementary teachers, they were believed to be able and competent to handle their tasks as grade teachers. Teachers’ In–service Training A teacher’s preparation for teaching is never complete as he has to keep abreast with innovations, and changes, and newer developments. Inservice education of teachers has always been planned and disseminated as staff development activities. Teachers reported the in-service trainings they attended within the last three years which were commonly focused on subject area content and its methods of teaching; and the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum; how it should be delivered and graded as integrated with other subject areas. Table 4 shows t he number of in-service training programs participated in by the teachers. All the teacher benefited from training. A further scrutiny of

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their training status indicated that only 2 or 10 percent attended a total training period of 106 hours and above, and about the same number who could be the newly-hired teachers, attended 1 to 35 hours, specifically 24 hours. They claimed that they attended the subject area training schedule sponsored by the book publishes which was usually conducted once or twice a year. These

programs were focused on new books, instructional methods, and some instructional aids that went with the new strategies. About 50 percent were benefited with the total of 36 to 70 hours training period, while 6 teachers or 30 percent obtained insights from trainings covering 71 to 105 hours. The inservice training status of the UC teachers was Very Adequate. Every teacher was given the opportunity to attend a training activity. Table 4 In service Training Profile Number of hours 1. 106 and above 2. 71 to 105 3. 36 to 70 4. 1 to 35 5. No training Total f 2 6 10 2 0 20 * Percentage Scale P* 10 30 50 10 0 100

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Weight Mean Range 5 4 3 2 1 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 – 1.79

Descriptor Very Much Adequate Very Adequate Adequate Less Adequate Not Adequate

A feeling of preparedness was manifested in the teachers capability of handling the new BEC. A feeling of being well prepared had increased their self-esteem when they revealed that they:
had enough background knowledge on what to do in a selfcontained classroom; obtained an in-depth input on the subject area; facilitated student assessment.

The school principal added the information that after some training, the teachers
became more responsible in managing and monitoring student learning, and that they taught and exemplified such traits as openness, curiosity, and the ability to examine their own performance.

Resultant effects were that students were most likely to work on task and became more interested in classroom work. Teachers began to hold higher expectations for all the students. Individualized instruction prevailed. Teachers tried new practices and noticed better student outcomes. Positive attitudes towards the teaching-learning activities were developed.

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Cushman (1992) explains that competencies which include knowledge, attitudes, and skills are reinforced in teacher training and practices. The trend towards greater efforts to develop effective teachers through education and training strengthens the implementation of new frameworks and models covered in current paradigm shifts. Likewise, for school leaders, professional preparation for Bastan school leaders in the elementary schools has been remarkably reinforced by actual informal job training in different school settings (Asaals, 1999). The present trend of professional development is towards school-based management, largely competency-based in terms of parent-principal-parent collaboration. On the perceived impact of professional development or training conducted on a US-NCES survey in 2000, findings confirmed parallelism with Philippine situations that the
• proportion of teachers engaged in professional development in a specific content area improved their teaching with parent involvement from 12 percent to 27 percent; • number of hours teachers engaged in professional involvement was related to the extent to which they believed that participation improved their teaching. For every content area, teachers with more than 1 to 8 hours participation were more likely to improve their teaching. • teachers’ assessment of the impact of teacher training was linked to other program activities in school; and

• teacher development activities improved their teaching

depending on whether various follow-up school based activities may need additional training. (http||nces.ed.gov.)

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It could be deduced that teacher training greatly improved teaching competencies. In-service training of teachers is a great factor that supplements the preservice education obtained in educational institutions.

Teaching Experience Teachers on the job are exposed to formal school training on updates on subject specialization, on classroom skills improvement, and on values enhancement. Experienced peers in the school may conduct lectures and demonstrations. Regular meetings are scheduled which may include planning sessions and holding assemblies with parents who are educators, other authorities and professionals from the community, and individual or group counseling sessions. These are teacher training activities by which teachers in the service learn to grow and empower themselves (Salandanan, 2001). Teachers’ teaching experience provides them with a wealth of actual knowledge, and skills in terms of problem-solving, decision-making, planning, critical thinking, communication, and management; and positive attitudes and values through professional relationship and responsibilities. Table 5 shows the teaching experience matrix of the UC elementary teachers showing that all the teachers has a teaching experience from a low of 1 to 6 years to a high of 15 to 20 years. Table 5 Teaching Experience Profile

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Number of Years 1. 21 and above 2. 15 - 20 3. 7 - 14 4. 1 - 6 5. Less than 1 year Total

f 0 3 6 11 0 20 * Percentage

P* 0 15 30 55 0 100

Eleven or 55 percent of the 20 teachers registered a teaching experience of 1 to 6 years, although two teachers just completed a year of service before entering UC. They were just newly-hired. Six teachers or 30 percent had already taught for a period within the 7 to 14 bracket, while 3 or 15 percent had a longer teaching experience within the 15 to 20 year bracket. Forty-five percent of the teachers described the teachers’ experience as Adequate. All the teachers were experienced but two newly-hired were practically on the probationary stage. They felt that they were prepared to tech with teaching experience. They remarked as follows:
Our school experiences education in college. reinforced our preservice

Our collaboration activities with others teachers filled the knowledge gap we needed most. We learned from our experienced mentors.

38

We became more tactful with our “senior” teachers. The instructional relationship was either formal, informal or nonformal We learned.

It is clear that teachers on the job learned from experience. As earlier stated, Lumapas (2000) mentions that administrative on teaching experience is significantly related to performance competencies. Capapas (1994) likewise concluded in her study that professional preparation which includes educational qualification, experience, and in-service training are significantly correlated with supervisory practices which in this study concerned teaching practices. Length of teaching service has been influential to school administrators in their leadership and management roles as revealed by Fernando (1990) in his dissertation. Experience is a teaching resource material. Through experience, one becomes a teacher and a learner. Resume’ on Teachers’ Professional Preparation On the tri–factor of training, educational attainment, and teaching experience, the preparedness of the 20 teachers was Very Adequate for inservice training, Adequate for highest educational attainment, and Adequate for relevant teaching experience. This is illustrated in Figure 2.

90% Very Adequate

39

Professional Preparation Factors

Education

60% Adequate

45% Adequate

0

20

40

60

80

100

PERCENTAGE

Figure 2 The Assessment Graph on Professional Preparation These professional preparation factors for teachers were significantly cited by authors and researchers. The persistent clamor for teachers and administrators for professional advancement was motivated by man’s need for self-fulfillment or self–actualization as brought out in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Cook & Hunsaka, 2001). Lumapas (2000) found out that personal factors were not related to competency levels, while the professional factors of educational qualification and administrative experience were significantly related to performance competencies. Capapas (1994) and Chua (1992) asserted that educational qualification gives useful insights to school leaders and teachers. It is reiterated that the writing groups of Blanchard (1985) pointed to education, training, and

40

experience as having developed work competencies adequate enough for job preparation. Because of the relatively small sample size used in this study, it is difficult to separate the independent effects of these variables

(http://nces.ed,gov.). It is difficult to identify whether college training, practicum, or experience could have helped developed certain aspects of their professional competencies. Generally, the professional preparation of the 20 UC teachers to teach is Adequate in terms of training, education, and experience.

TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES

The urgent adoption of the 2002 BEC in view of the consistent low performance of students, the very fast pace and exponential increase in information and knowledge, the need for better information processing skills, the deterioration in people’s values, and the need to prepare students for global and future competition, resulted in engaged learners and teachers and streamlined learning processes. The teachers assumed as facilitators, guides, and co-learners. Noticeably, students were observed to have become responsible for learning, collaborative, authentic, interactive, and multidisciplinary or integrative.

41

The teachers have to go with changing educational trends by using student–centered strategies anchored in relevant learning outcome and core national value. By aligning teaching strategies and instructional materials, monitoring, and evaluation, teachers best practices of the BEC implementation at the Holy Angel University in Angeles City was focused on structured lesson plans with interdisciplinary linkages, and more interactive activities; integrated values and creative and updated instructional materials; more student-centered strategies used like cooperative learning, mathematical investigation, and problem-solving in real life situations; more practical content; more focused students on fewer subjects; and more topics covered, processed, and studied in-depth. This study on professional practices of teachers covered eight instructional practices designed to strategize, activate, empower, and plan to impact teaching an learning in elementary education. To evaluate the UC teachers’ performance on these teaching variables, the elementary school principal rated all the 20 teachers whom she supervised, and the 20 teachers self-rated themselves, thereby obtaining the overall mean from the 40 rating cards. The principal’s rating and the self-rating of each teacher provided at least the teacher’s external and internal assessment of her performance. Both ratings were separately presented in the matrix to find out if the resultant weighted means did not differ much, thus instituting reliability of the assessment indices.

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Instructional Planning

Planning is a decision- making process when a teachers visualizes what he teaches, inventories the means and ends of the activities, and designs a framework for action. It involves selection of appropriate objectives, activities, and materials. Table 6 covers three aspects on instructional planning: planning using learner objectives, planning with learning materials, and planning showing creativity and thinking. Teachers obtained a combined principal-teacher mean of 3.38 on learner objectives and 3.30 on showing creativity and thought in planning, which described performance on these items as Satisfactory. In the use of learning materials, the combined rating was 3.58 which indicated a Very Satisfactory rating. Table 6 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices on Instructional Planning
Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating M D 5 4 3 0 7 13 3.35 S Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating M D 5 4 3 0 8 12 3.40 VS Combined M 3.38 D S

Teachers’ Planning Practices

1. Planned lessons with learner objectives 2. Planned instructional activities with learning materials

0

12

8

3.60

VS

0

11

9

3.55

VS

3.58

VS

43

3. Showed creativity and thought in planning Total / Mean

0

6

14

3.30

S

0

6

14

3.30

S

3.30

S

0

25

35

3.42

VS

0

25

35

3.40

VS

3.42

VS

Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

The overall means assessment on the three planning items garnered a combine mean of 3.42 which was a Very Satisfactory rating. Both principal and teachers gave the same composite means as shown in Table 6. The school principal when interviewed about the plans the teachers formulated, responded as follows:
Some teachers’ plans promote instruction. A few were so brief which could not give clues whether teaching transpired during the class period. Some teachers who organized and planned their lessons well is used in teachings as objectives matched the subject content.

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On instructional planning, some teachers remarked on the lesson objectives and teaching materials. They opened up as follows.
Sometimes I felt confused whether the teaching materials were appropriate or not for the planned lesson. The objective gave me a mental image of what I taught. I believed that my day with the lesson was successful. I usually anticipated what would have happened if a student would raise a question related to the lesson but was left unexplained.

These critical phases usually occurred while the teachers was in her class. Instructional planning fosters creativity, linkage, and a broad perspective of the lesson Manning (1988) views plans as flexible frameworks for action, a way of starting in the right direction, but also something from which a teacher might depart or elaborate. This could refer to some lesson gaps in class which the teacher may have failed to explain, but could tactfully deviate and come up with the current linkage. However, with the Very Satisfactory rating on instructional planning practices the teachers could be relied on this task.

Instructional Delivery How the lesson should be taught after having planned the lesson is referred to as instructional delivery. During the lesson presentations, teachers are expected to assume leadership roles in all phases of structural planning and delivery.

45

A close scrutiny of the rating figures in Table 7 on instructional delivery practices shows that in all delivery practices assessed by the principal and the teachers, a Satisfactory rating was obtained with an overall principal–teacher mean of 3.29. These practices focused on using teaching methods to fit a class of varying cognitive levels. Handling a multi–level class requires a special scheme to provide multi–level materials with appropriate teaching methods. Learning opportunities should enable students to learn independently through

individualized practice activities. The teachers are also expected to adapt the planned lessons to unexpected situations so that every student would have the chance to participate in the class session. Proper sequencing and pacing of the lessons would clarify the flow of the lesson and instill a better understanding

Table 7 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices on Instructional Delivery
Teachers’ Instructional Delivery Practices 1. Used teaching methods to fit class of varying cognitive levels Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating Combined

5
1

4
4

3
15

M
3.30

D
S

5
1

4
5

3
14

M
3.35

D
S

M 3.32

D S

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2. Provided learning opportunities for independent practice of new concepts/skills 3. Adapted planned lessons to unexpected situations 4. Observed proper sequencing and pacing of lessons Total / Mean

2

2

16

3.30

S

1

4

15

3.30

S

3.30

S

1

2

17

3.20

S

1

4

15

3.30

S

3.25

S

1

3

16

3.25

S

1

4

15

3.30

S

3.28

S

5

11

64

3.26

S

4

17

59

3.31

S

3.29

S

Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

considering individual differences regarding pacing to conform with ability levels. Good active teaching features a presentation of lessons that moves at a brisk pace and provides for high levels of learner success. All these practices would facilitate instructional delivery. Considering that some teachers were practically neophytes in the teaching job, they still needed further exposure and training to be adapt at employing appropriate teaching methods.

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Instructional delivery could use active learning strategies which is learning by doing and which commonly uses a wide range of alternative instructional strategies that engage student in individual work or in collaborative work with peers (Bonwell & Eison, 1991). This explains learning through practicum, readiness for unexpected discussions, and achieving through sequencing and pacing the lesson. The UC elementary teachers need to face these unlikely situations to build their self-confidence in handling classroom work successfully. With Satisfactory performance in instructional delivery,

teachers feel prepared to use the different teaching methods through mentoring, collaboration, or observation.

Classroom Management Classroom management refers to teacher control over the use of classroom time, managing student behavior or discipline, the maximum use of a learning area, the use of engagement and empowerment in handling students, and the setting of rules and routines to systematize classroom work. It covers a range of responsibilities at the discretion of the teacher and the cooperative attitude of the learners. Practices on classroom management touch on class schedules, adherence to rules and routines, and communicating, monitoring, and maintaining behavioral expectations (Manning, 1988).

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As regards the 20 UC elementary teachers, Table 8 registers a composite principal–teacher mean of 3.68, describing their classroom management performance as Very Satisfactory. Both external and internal ratings from principal and teacher raters assessed teacher performance on their classroom control with the Very Satisfactory level. On the combined student engagement and empowerment in handling a class or students, the principal with a mean of 3.25 and the teachers with a mean of 3.30, garnered a combined mean of 3.38, which described such practice as Satisfactory. This was more understood when some teachers were asked about it and they answered readily that
some students felt that they were an authority to decide for the class which created commotion; when some students who were seriously engaged in their sectional, suddenly stopped working before a noisy confusion would result.

Table 8 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices on Classroom Management
Teachers’ Classroom Management Practices Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating M 5 4 3 Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating M D 5 4 3 Combined M D

D

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1. Combined student engagement and empowerment in handling class/ students 2. Confined to allocate time period 3. Arranged materials in learning area 4. Established classroom rules and routines 5. Managed and monitored learner behavior effectively Total / Mean

0

5

15

3.25

S

1

4

15

3.30

S

3.28

S

3

10

7

3.80

VS

4

12

4

4.00 VS 3.90

VS

4

8

8

3.80

VS

4

8

8

3.80 VS 3.80

VS

2

10

8

3.70

VS

3

10

7

3.80 VS 3.75

VS

2

8

10

3.60

VS

2

10

8

3.70 VS 3.65

VS

11

41

48

3.63

VS

14

44

42

3.72 VS 3.68

VS

Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

These behavioral situations arose from simple engagement and empowerment which could incite disruption in school activities. These are sample situations why teachers gave themselves Satisfactory ratings since they felt they had lost control over their students.

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Other class situations were well handled like observing classroom time schedules, arranging the learning area for the classroom materials to be used, the establishment of facilitative rules and routines, which at times where transgressed by naughty students, and monitoring learner behavior effectively. Good and Brophy (1994) relate that learners in classes in which teachers maximize the amount of class time used for instruction perform better than those in classes where less time is spent on instruction. Classroom should be productively allocated for engaged time or instructional time; allocated time or subject time schedule; and academic learning time which is part of the engaged time where the learner is experiencing a high degree of academic success. Arranging the materials during the structuring of the classroom had been remarkably observed when teachers and students worked together. It was found out that student leaders gathered their peers and planned for the homeroom arrangement. This was a case of student empowerment which the teachers tapped to advantage. They worked on a non-school day. The school principal related that everyone was happy bringing their wares for classroom exhibit. The teachers disclosed that all plans were done by the children. It was really a Family Day preparation. It is therefore perceived that a successful classroom management prevents problems from occurring. It refers to how teachers structure their

51

learning environment to prevent or minimize behavior problems. Its is prevention-oriented. management Good and Brophy that (1994) elicit recognized that good and

involves

techniques

student

cooperation

participation in activities that prevent problems from emerging. Monitoring learner behavior is one such technique. Among the best practices on classroom management was the research finding of Blancafler (2000) which came up with peer mediation as an approach to managing behavior problems in the classroom. She concluded that a successful implementation of peer mediation depends on teacher leadership, student capability in mediation roles, and parent concern. Peer mediation is relationship–oriented: building respectable, credible, and helpful associations with classmates demonstrating inappropriate behavior; building supportive associations with parents, teachers, and others aimed at student development and welfare; and building learning connections with class lesson and activities. The Very Satisfactory assessment of the teachers on classroom

management apparently made them sensitive and aware that more appropriate class activities and assignments should be developed for the classroom, that students need assistance, and that teaching methods should suitably fit their ability levels. These were the common responses of the teachers when asked why they rated high on classroom control.

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Teacher–Learner Interaction Interactive teaching involves communicating high expectations for learning, engaging learners in instruction, demonstrating exemplary

communication skills, and using principles of motivation, reinforcement, and retention and transfer ( Manning, 1988). It is encouraging to note in Table 9, that all the assessment descriptions for teacher-learner interactions from both principal and teachers were Very Satisfactory with an overall mean of 3.67. The teachers supported their ratings with the following remarks:
We created authentic interactions through a variety of meaningful and challenging questions based on the lessons. Some students related real life situations which they compared to other experiences brought out in TV shows. As a result, ideas flowed and those who seldom recited actively joined the discussion speaking in both English and Filipino.

These sample situations were common and the students capably connected the ideas. The school principal had this to say:
The students spoke as if they were the government officials concerned. I enjoyed the discussion. This is indeed practical learning, specifically a communication practicum.

Table 9 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices Focused on Teacher–Learner Interaction
Teachers’ Practices Focused on Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating Combined

53

Teacher–Learner Interaction 1. Provided learners with opportunity to learn 2. Provided activities to promote interaction 3. Varied activities which matched learners’ interests 4. Gave clear, concise directions and explanations 5. Used positive reinforcement 6. Related meaning to students’ lives and experiences Total / Mean Scale:

5 1

4 9

3 10

M 3.55

D VS

5 2

4 8

3 10

M 3.60

D VS

M 3.58

D VS

3

8

9

3.70

VS

3

9

8

3.75 VS 3.73

VS

3

10

7

3.80

VS

4

8

8

3.80 VS 3.80

VS

2

8

10

3.60

VS

4

6

10

3.70 VS 3.65

VS

2 2

7 7

11 11

3.55 3.55

VS VS

3
2

8 10

9 8

3.70 VS 3.63 3.70 VS 3.63

VS VS

13

49

58

3.62

VS

18

49

53

3.71 VS 3.67

VS

Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179

Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

These teacher-learner interactions were very enlightening. Teachers’ expectations are usually based on their attitudes about learners’ potentials for academic success. Good and Brophy (1994) state that teachers who are conscious of the impact of their expectations can monitor and adjust them in ways that can result in enhanced learner performance.

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Teacher-learner interact when they are expected to succeed and when they are given the opportunity to learn. Feedback from teacher interview disclosed that teachers interacted with the students when
questions and activities were challenging, various activities were within their interests, explanations were clear, rewards or additional points were given as positive reinforces, and when meaning was linked to their experiences.

The teachers were aware of these critical situations which made them of pursuing the interactive strategy. Angelo (1993) supports the fort that interaction between teachers and learners is one of the most powerful factors in promoting learning. Interaction among learners is another. Teachers are used to interactive teaching which is characterized by face-to-face interactions between teachers and students in contrast to proactive teaching. This explains the principal’s Very Satisfactory ratings teachers obtained on intensifying interactions between teachers and students. Subject Content Subject content is curriculum content. It is what should be taught. It is covered in an academic discipline. It is learned based on specific instructional

55

goals. Teachers are expected to show command of the subject content as well as communicate major concepts and principles of the subject matter. Table 10 shows teachers’ practices related to subject content as assessed by the principal and the teachers themselves. External ratings by the principal and self-ratings by the teachers assessed teachers’ performance focused on subject content using subject knowledge in practical or real-life situations. Assessment was Very Satisfactory. They also performed well in providing learning opportunities for multiple intelligences. On the three subject content indicators manifested in their teaching practices, the overall mean of 3.78 got a very encouraging assessment of Very Satisfactory. The teachers shared the following information when they were interviewed about the subject matter they organized:
As regards the subject matter, we used up-to-date information gathered from varied resources (Teacher A). When students could follow up the lesson discussion, they could relate the lesson to major topics which they took up in another subject area (Teacher B). We had an activity on making a circle graph or pie chart using a paper plate. The students made the graph or chart showing the degree of aptitude they had for every intelligence based on the Multiple Theory of Gardner. The students were excited looking into themselves and made a graph as realistically as possible. They posted their plate charts on one wall of the classroom (Teacher C).

Table 10 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices Relating to Subject Content

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Teachers’ Practices Focused on Subject Content 1. Related subject knowledge and skills to practical applications 2. Organized subject matter into meaningful lessons 3. Provided learning opportunities for multiple intelligence’s Total / Mean

Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating M 5 4 3 9 2 9 4.00

D VS

Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating M D 5 4 3 8 4 8 4.00 VS

Combined M 4.00 D VS

7

4

9

3.90

VS

8

2

10

3.90 VS 3.90

VS

2

3

15

3.35

S

1

9

10

3.55 VS 3.45

VS

18

9

33

3.75

VS

17

15

28

3.80 VS 3.78

VS

Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

The principal confirmed the comments of the teachers as she observed them. Teacher A emphasized the interdisciplinary approach. Teacher B

showed an elaboration of a concept into a major topic or simply stated, reorganized the lesson into a broader scope. Teacher C focused on an activity

57

involving theory and hands-on which made the lesson more interesting and the MI project became a memory aide which facilitated students recall of the eight multiple intelligences. Lessons on subject content could be great motivators in associating a lesson with prior learning or experiences. Other researches highlighted teachers, teaching practices pertaining to subject content not only with an actively, but also with a pictorial on the word wall approach involving vocabulary development by Arcipe (September,2001), and the use of games and varied activities in math based on the SpenceHelmreich Model ( Pogoy,2000). It could be deduced in this study that organizing subject content for student learning involved planning and decision making skills. It further involved action system knowledge concerning teaching activities such as diagnosing, grouping, managing, and evaluating students and supplementing instructional activities and learning experiences (Solas, 1992). Evaluation Evaluation simply denotes assessing learner performance and using evaluation results. It involves assessing prior learning, monitoring ongoing performance of learners, and encouraging learners to evaluate their own performance, and evaluating learner achievement of stated objective. It uses evaluation results to diagnose learning difficulties and to plan and adopt instruction.

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Table 11 presents two teachers’ practices on evaluation. Item 1 on the practice of using a variety of evaluation techniques registered Very Satisfactory ratings (3.40) from both principal and teacher evaluators. Evaluation techniques included tests, projects, and performance. Structured performance referred to responses to assignments. Spontaneous student performance is independent of structured assignments. Chief tools used by the teachers are tests and quizzes. Useful objective questions like the true or false statements, matching questions, short answer questions, and the multiple choice questions were used depending on the subject matter. These objective questions preclude biases. Essay questions allow assessment of higher level thinking skills. They focus on bigger issues, and enable the students to comment and give positive feedback. Some genuine concerns however are difficulty in asking the right questions and the length of time it takes to grade the tests (Thompson, 2002). Some teachers revealed that they used alternative assessments like
Open-ended questions, Open book /open notebooks tests,

Table 11 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices Relating to Evaluation Teachers’ Evaluation Principal (N = 20) Frequency Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Combined

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Practices 5 1. Used a variety of evaluation techniques 2. Used evaluation to give learners timely feedback on performance Total / Mean Scale: 3

Rating 4 3 2 15

M

D

5 3

Rating 4 3 2 15

M

D

M 3.40

D VS

3.40 VS

3.40 VS

3

2

15

3.40 VS

3

2

15

3.40 VS

3.40

VS

6

4

30

3.40 VS

6

4

30

3.40 VS

3.40

VS

Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179

Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

Grays tests, Take-home test and performance test like Science experiments, oral reports, Skits, demonstrations, and projects.

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Item 2 in Table 11 referred to using evaluation to give learners timely feedback on performance which likewise obtained a Very Satisfactory rating from both principal and teacher raters. The overall assessment on evaluation practices was a mean of 3.40 which was indeed Very Satisfactory. Teachers clarified that they better use performance assessment since the learners would immediately know how they performed. Some performance assessment is authentic and is also identified as non-traditional assessment. It engages students to apply knowledge and skills learned in the same way they are used in the real world. Presently authentic assessment practices are rubrics and portfolios. Traditional assessment practices involve a specific time period, lower level skills, drill and practice, narrow perspective and facts, group standards, memorization one correct solution, skills, and teach to test (Frazee & Rudnitski, 1995). Authentic assessment training handouts were included in the research work of Galide (May, 2004) which dwelt on organizing, instructing, and assessing skills of grade six teachers in the Division of Davao del Norte. Such handouts were graphic organizers, performance assessment, rubrics, portfolios and work samples checklists, and observation records. Ubod (1999) focused on portfolio assessment in her master’s thesis. She conducted the study with her grade 2 students in mathematics as an alternative assessment strategy. The use of portfolios improved students attitudes and

61

feelings towards mathematics. The ways in which learners are assessed and evaluated, powerfully affect the ways they study and learn (Angelo,1993). With these evaluation strategies the 20 UC teachers were exposed to seminar workshops on subject area and teaching methods. This could have helped them perform Very Satisfactorily on evaluation practices.

Professional Responsibilities Responsible teachers are professionally concerned with their teaching duties, flexible, prompt, cooperative, resource-oriented, and open to the community about the school’s objectives. They are expected to participate in professional development activities in school management and share responsibility for the total school program, complete reports accurately and submit them on time, show interest in improving skills, observe school policies and procedures, and seek information to become better informed about educational changes ( Manning, 1988). To evaluate the teachers’ professional practices anchored on

professional responsibilities, Table 12, categorizes four practices depicting professional responsibilities. In the combined principal-teacher ratings, Table 12 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices Focused on Professional Responsibilities

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Teachers’ Practices on Professional Responsibilities

Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating M 5 4 3 3 3 14 3.45

D VS

5 4

Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating M 4 3 3 13 3.55

Combined D VS M 3.50 D VS

1. Engaged in professional growth activities 2. Felt dependable on assigned tasks/duties 3. Worked cooperatively for a successful school program 4. Encouraged students to be responsible for their own learning. Total / Mean Scale:

4

2

14

3.50

VS

4

2

14

3.50

VS

3.50

VS

4

3

13

3.55

VS

4

3

13

3.55

VS

3.55

VS

2

3

15

3.35

S

2

6

12

3.50

VS

3.42

VS

13

11

56

3.46

VS

14

14

52

3.52

VS

3.49

VS

Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179

Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

engaging in professional growth activities was rated a mean of 3.50, Very Satisfactory. Young as most of the teachers are with an average age of 28 and single in status, they are capable of advancing their educational status and

63

attending seminars, workshops, and training programs as attested in their having prepared themselves adequately for the teaching job. They felt dependable to handle assigned tasks when they assumed as leaders, chairpersons, advisers, and coordinators. On this aspect, a Very Satisfactory performance rating was earned. Working cooperatively for a successful school program described the teachers to be valuable team players when they were rated again as Very Satisfactory. On encouraging students to be responsible for their own learning, the principal rated the teachers with a Satisfactory mean of 3.35, while self-ratings reached a mean of 3.50, Very Satisfactory. The combined mean however, was 3.42 still Very Satisfactory for informing the student to be accountable for their own learning. The grand mean on the teachers’ Professional Responsibilities was a resounding 3.49, Very Satisfactory. A science teacher cum administrator who was much concerned with the low literacy in Elementary Science and Mathematics conducted a study to explore the status of science and math education especially in the rural areas. She discovered some gaps in teaching and advised and led the teachers to use constructionist strategies on reconceptualization, reconstruction, and

construction of science concepts. Manugas (2002) noted a high achievement

64

level attained by the students. She deemed it her professional responsibility to help the students and the teachers in the highlands improve their school achievement in science. The great concern demonstrated by Manugas to help not just her cluster of schools but also extended to as many schools in the district. The professional responsibilities complied by the 20 UC elementary teachers gave an outstanding identity to the UC laboratory school in terms of good behavior and discipline. It reflected an efficient classroom management. No single instructional strategy or teaching behavior can ensure success in implementing the written curriculum. The nature of the material to be taught, the nature of the learners themselves, and the teachers’ own desired and professional characteristics while engaging in teaching the elementary classroom have to be considered. The teachers can make the difference (Reinhartz & Bench, 1997).

Professional Relationship Professional relationship with the school staff, students, parents, and the community should be kept positive, supportive, and effectively open. Professional practices believed to be critical for excellent teaching are combined to demonstrate certain competencies and work for the desired teaching practices.

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A careful analysis of Table 13 shows the Very Satisfactory

mean

assessments from principal and teacher evaluators of the teachers’ teaching practices concerning professional relationships in three categories. An effective working relationship with colleagues was drawn from the following sample situations.
Teacher A come late. Teacher B was free and took oVER after she informed the principal. Lesson plans were to be checked. It was Monday. Teacher C and D forgot their plans at home. Teacher B advised Teacher C to call her mother and send for the plan. Teacher D requested Teacher C to let her mother pass by her house to get her plan. The plans came on time. Teacher E did not finish her report as she did not know what next. She has been sick. She sought the help of Teacher M. Teacher A and M guided Teacher E.

These sample cases depicted a working teamwork among the teachers showing how professional relationship bonded them. They also maintained supportive and positive relationship with students. A research conducted by Table 13 Principal–Teacher Assessment on Teachers’ Practices Focused on Professional Relationship

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Teachers’ Practices Showing Professional Relationship 1. Maintained an effective working relationship with colleagues 2. Maintained a supportive and positive relationship with students 3. Maintained rapport and a helping relationship with parents Total/Mean Scale:

Principal (N = 20) Frequency Rating M 5 4 3 2 8 10 3.60

D VS

Teacher (N = 20) Frequency Rating M 5 4 3 5 2 13 3.60

Combined D VS M 3.60 D VS

4

2

14

3.50

VS

2

8

10

3.60

VS

3.55

VS

4

2

14

3.50

VS

3

4

13

3.50

VS

3.50

VS

10

12

38

3.53

VS

10

14

36

3.57

VS

3.55

VS

Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179

Descriptor (D) Excellent (E) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Poor (P)

Perez (2002) on disciplinary problems show how teachers and students worked cooperatively together and developed self-discipline among the students through intervention techniques by the teachers, parents, students, and

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significant others. Students involved in disciplinary problems showed personal reforms which built self-confidence, positive self-feelings, and optimistic outlook on their self-regulatory practices and established their psychological well-being. This took time but the relationship among the students and others resulted in an organized classroom management and the mixed feeling of satisfaction that education must transcend academics and comply with personal challenges encompassed in the development of attitudes and dispositions worth nurturing. Maintaining rapport and a helping relationship with parents got a Very Satisfactory rating from the principal-teacher evaluations. A strong

professional relationship between the teachers and the parents could be illustrated using the targeted homework approach which Areopagita (2000), a school principal disseminated to her teachers. Homework stressed

differentiates activities, allocated adequate time, and used different task assessment strategies. Homework was targeted for practice, preparation, extension, and creative activities which eventually improved student

achievement. The closer ties between the teacher and the parents as well as the students become much stronger. This professional relationship with the parents could be observed during university affairs, department programs, and PTA conferences. Overall however, teachers professional relationship with colleagues, students, and parents and others was Very Satisfactory.

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Resume’ or Teachers Professional Practices Reviewing the assessments of teachers’ performance on the eight professional practices came up with Instructional Delivery as Satisfactorily Performed with a mean of 3.29 as presented in Figure 3. The best practices were actualized in Subject Content with a mean of 3.78 described as Very Satisfactory. Other professional practices with Very Satisfactory performance were on Classroom Management and TeacherLearner Interaction. The teachers needed much improvement in delivery strategies or teaching methods, evaluation, and instructional planning.

TEACHERS’ TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

Teachers greatly influence students’ education. The major research finding according to Kemp and Hall (1992) is that student achievement is related to teacher competence in teaching. Teacher-effectiveness studies indicate that student engagement in learning is to be valued above curriculum plans and materials. They yield a wealth of understanding about the impact that
3.78 3.80 3.55 3.70 3.49 3.67 3.68

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M
3.60 3.40

3.42

E

3.50

3.29

3.40

A
3.30

N
3.20 3.10 0 ID E IP PRp PRe TL CM SC

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES Figure 3 Teachers’ Performance on Professional Practices
Legend: ID – Instructional Delivery IP – Instructional Planning E – Evaluation PRs – Professional Responsibilities Mean 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 – 1.79 Pre TL CM SC – Professional Relationship – Teacher – Learner Interaction – Classroom Management – Subject Matter

Descriptor Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Fair Poor

teacher ability has on student growth (http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ content/intareas/readings/li71k.htm).

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There is no “best” or “most effective” teaching style which works well for all teachers. Most successful teaching styles develop as naturally as possible from a teacher’s own personal characteristics. The most effective teaching style is one that reflects a combination of sound teaching techniques, knowledge of the subject, enthusiasm for teaching, and sensitivity to one’s own personal characteristics (http://www.twu.edu/0-grad/gtamanual/teaching.html#other)

students appreciate caring teachers. A teacher performs best in a more relaxed manner if his/her best personality traits are maximized. The effectiveness level of one’s teaching indicates the teacher’s performance level in a certain dimension of teaching. An evaluation mean obtained in a performance appraisal worksheet indicates a teacher’s effectiveness or performance level.

Planning and Preparation Teaching is a highly individualized activity, and the student-teacher interaction involves an intense human relationship that encompasses a broad range of personalities and behaviors. An important dimension of effective teaching is preparation for teaching. Table 14 presents the teachers’ Effectiveness Levels on planning and preparation tasks. It was obvious that Table 14 Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Level on Planning and

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Preparation as Assessed by Principal and Teachers Effectiveness Indicators of Planning and Preparation 1. Mastery of lesson clarified in formative and summative evaluation 2. Interconnectedness of goalsresources-materials-lesson design facilitated teachinglearning activities 3. Teaching strategies adapted to students’ needs instilled student understanding through interactions 4. Coherent instruction on difficult lessons 5. Alternative strategies organized with scarce references improved student achievement Total / Mean Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) High Effective (H) Effective (E) Moderately Effective (M) Slightly Effective (S) Not Effective (N) Frequency Rating 5 4 3 5 20 15 Mean 3.75 Effectiveness Level E

6

17

17

3.73

E

5

20

15

3.75

E

4 4

7 7

29 29

3.38 3.38

M M

24

71

105

3.60

E

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teachers recorded a 3.75 mean described to have reached the Effective competency level arising from the principal-teacher appraisal pertaining to students’ mastery of the lesson as evidenced by the students’ formative and summative evaluation results. The 3.73 mean was obtained on teaching strategies aligned with the Effective performance level. The goals-resourcesmaterials lesson design was interconnected enabling the students to understand the lesson as revealed in their active learning participation in class. The school principal was amazed at the students’ interactions on issues taken up for discussion. She asked the teachers who were observed if the students were that proficient. One teacher countered that it was that way in other classes too. The principal confirmed that the teachers had planned and prepared for their lessons which apparently resulted in better student understanding of the lesson having been exposed to interactive activities that inculcated high cognitive levels. However, in other aspects on coherent instruction and alternative teaching strategies, the teachers were rated as Moderately Effective with a mean of 3.38 Restraints were encountered with these strategies such as the difficulty of the subject matter for coherence, and the scarce references for the alternate teaching strategies. These difficulties were problems encountered by teachers in planning and preparation. Overall however, the teachers’ performance level on planning and preparation was marked Effective with a performance mean of 3.60. Some

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studies revealed that effectiveness in planning and preparation is directly related to knowledge of the subject to be taught, competency in organization and preparation for teaching, instructional delivery skills, evaluation skills, and enthusiasm for teaching (Dimensions, http://www.twu.edu/0). When UC teachers were interviewed how they perceived a teacher prepared to teach, they casually replied as follows:
Knows what to teach Knows how to teach it

It is clear that teachers could answer the “what” aspect if they are equipped with the content outline, and the ”how” by careful planning and selection of the appropriate teaching methods. The teachers further explained.
We could be more effective if we could activate student energy for learning.

Arends (1994) identified effective teachers as having the following facilitation skills:
knowledge bases on teaching and learning, and use them as guide in the act of their teaching process; command of the best teaching processes and use them in the classroom with students, and work with adults in a school setting; dispositions and skills to approach all aspects of their work in reflective, collegial, and problem-solving manner; and the concern in viewing learning to teach as a lifelong process, and the dispositions to improve teaching and the school.

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It is therefore deduced that with the many expectations of teachers for the great job of planning and preparation, they should be well-equipped with the important personal and professional requirements and competencies. Their effective performance levels in teaching could provide insights that they could ably handle the planning job which integrates the many teaching factors. The interwoven teaching variables are carefully embedded to strengthen teaching effectiveness.

The Classroom Environment The classroom environment refers to a learning venue conducive to learning considering student behaviors and motivations, respectful interactions, student’s high expectations of learning, and use of organized physical space. The classroom is a social context in which everyone benefits if each member feels responsible for accomplishing shared goals. A positive learning environment is associated with student motivation, behavior, and achievements. A close look at Table 15 shows the teachers’ Effectiveness Levels related to the classroom environment being created and used by the teachers. The interactive exchanges in the classes were appropriately and respectfully conducted garnering a principal-teacher or Effective mean of 4.15. Teachers commented that

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Table 15 Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Level on Classroom Environment as Assessed by Principal and Teachers Frequency Rating 5 4 3 14 4 11 18 7 24 8 29 5

Effectiveness Indicators of Classroom Environment 1. Appropriate and respectful class interactions 2. High expectations of student learning 3. Classroom procedures challenge dynamic class environment 4. Physical space organized, safe, and supportive to student learning 5. Motivated students participate in smooth school operation 6. Student behaviors wellmanaged and controlled Total/Mean Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179

Mean 4.15 3.38 4.15

Effectiveness Level E M E

11

24

5

4.15

E

14 14 68

19 18 110

7 8 62

4.18 4.15 4.03

E E E

Descriptor (D) High Effective (H) Effective (E) Moderately Effective (M) Slightly Effective (S) Not Effective (N)

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students were happy discussing, not quarreling. They touched a mix of issues in science, politics, leadership, and peace and order; and that students related in Filipino the themes of the different telenovelas they see on TV screens. What was interesting to note was how they described each character in the show.

Classroom strategies challenged the class environment especially those conducted off-campus. They had activity cards to work out during the class session in an out-of-class setting. Teacher Effectiveness reached the Effective Level of 4.15. Other items in Table 15 referred to the orderliness of the classroom featuring seating arrangements, bulletin board displays, and placements of the instructional aids which likewise registered a principal-teacher combined mean of 4.15, an Effective Level index. The students themselves manifested great interest and motivation as they participated in the school operations. Teacher leadership on this aspect obtained an Effective performance level of 4.18. Controlled student behaviors was an encouraging sign of a positive learning environment. Competent classroom management ascertained student learningwhich again marked a mean of 4.15, an Effective Performance Level. The item on high expectations of student learning in a pleasant learning environment obtained a Moderately Effective Level with a mean of 3.38. It appeared that the classroom environment did not actually challenge some students to perform their best. It could be possible that some students believed

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that the classroom be further restructured to challenge them enough to aspire for higher achievement. Achievement is a confluence of the student, teacher, peer, classroom, home, resources, and strategies. Motivated students (4.18) and controlled student behaviors (4.15) contributed much to a successful school operation. The overall Performance Level pertaining to classroom environment covering the six rubrics in Table 15 recorded a mean of 4.03, an Effective Level of performance. In a conversation with teachers, they asserted that they had to improve the classroom atmosphere to intensify student interaction with the teacher or with their classmates. They used such strategies as the following:
promoting warm relationships, among the students and teacher, respect for each other, good behavior, more focused on tasks, and more opportunities to listen to students.

Kemp and Hall (1992) add that effective teachers clearly articulate rules and include students in discussions about rules and procedures. They further stress a more orderly classroom. Classroom is a factor in teachereffectiveness. (http://www.ncrel.org.sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/et7lk/5.htm).

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Instruction The instruction domain includes instructional delivery, teacher-learner interaction, and subject content. Research findings highlighted simple and easy to undertake instructional strategies which resulted in students’ better achievement. These strategies pertained to systematic teaching procedures, pacing the information shared to the class, checking student progress through continuous questioning, and relating new learning to prior learning. Identifying the Effectiveness Level on instruction of the UC elementary teachers used six indicators to assess their performance level. Table 16 showed that with the students highly engaged in learning, teachers’ teaching effectiveness obtained an Effectiveness Level of 4.18. Apparently the

students were task-oriented. With the same mean rating of 4.18, the teachers attained the Effective performance Level, when students were asking

questions and more involved in class activities. Students’ engagement with content was actualized or demonstrated and clarified, and rated with a principalteacher average of 4.18. It shows that teachers catered to students’ questions and clarified the responses through demonstration. The classroom environment was linked to student success within the instruction variable. A positive learning venue is a high level environment. It is conducive to student success. Level of performance. A mean of 4.15 shows a teacher Effective

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Table 16 Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Level on Instruction as Assessed by Principal and Teachers (N = 4) Effectiveness Indicators on Instruction 1. Students highly engaged in learning 2. Students asking questions and involved in class activities 3. High level environment contributed to student success 4. Students aware of their performance 5. Appropriate approaches used to meet student needs 6. Student engagement with content actualized and clarified Total / Mean Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) High Effective (H) Effective (E) Moderately Effective (M) Slightly Effective (S) Not Effective (N) Frequency Rating 5 4 3 14 17 11 4 12 14 72 19 13 24 7 24 19 106 7 10 5 29 4 7 62 Mean 4.18 4.18 4.15 3.38 4.20 4.18 4.05 Effectiveness Level E E E M H E E

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Student awareness of their performance got a mean of 3.38 pointing to the teachers as Moderately Effective. Providing feedback performance as a result of instruction should be undertaken. However, teacher effectiveness was assessed as Highly Effective teachers used appropriate approaches to fit students’ needs. On this aspect teachers registered a rating of 4.20, describing them as Highly Effective performers. The overall mean performance indicated that teachers were adjudged as Effective with a mean of 4.05. With the present study, the teachers were satisfied with their performance effectiveness on instructional activities as they believed that it was the main task of teaching. The teachers divulged that for improved student achievement, they had to
work in small groups, being the class with a review, communicate with parents for follow-up monitoring, adjust the difficulty level of the learning material to student ability engage their students on learning tasks, and provide them with a variety of opportunities to apply and use knowledge and skills in different learning situations.

As a result of the research findings and teachers’ disclosures, the teacher’s work is one of an executive assuming leadership roles of motivating, planning, and allocating scarce resources. The interactive role is instruction which involves methods and processes. The organizational role is the teacher’s

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work in the school community, including work with colleagues, parents, and school leadership personnel. Teaching practices indulged in by teachers include abilities to approach the classroom situation in reflective and problem-solving ways. The instructional tasks of teachers encompass a wide scope of teaching variables which teachers have to comply for the higher achievement of students.

Teachers’ Professional Responsibilities The teachers’ concerns and duties in school work, their participation in all school activities, their interests and motivations to help bring about school success, and their desire to be informed as part of the education staff are the important responsibilities they assume. Their effectiveness status in these jobs will help them in their persistent desire to improve as professionals. Table 17 tabulates the important responsibilities assumed by the teachers. A flash at the tabulated figures clearly shows that the teachers reached their Effective Level as assessed by the principal and teachers

within the mean ranges 3.50 to 3.80. In record keeping, they demonstrated orderliness and accuracy. Teachers expressed that they completed and submitted reports on time, especially those urgently requested. They

connected with the students’ families tactfully so that the cooperation of the parents was never a problem. Parents assumed as helpful partners to the

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Table 17 Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Level of Teachers Professional Responsibilities as Assessed by Principal and Teachers (N = 40) Effectiveness Indicators of Teachers Professional Responsibilities 1. Accurate record keeping 2. Tactful communication with students’ families 3. Transformational leadership demonstrated 4. Participation in professional development activities 5. Professional development and continuos growth Total/Mean Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179 Descriptor (D) High Effective (H) Effective (E) Moderately Effective (M) Slightly Effective (S) Not Effective (N) Frequency Rating 5 4 3 5 4 8 7 7 31 20 18 6 18 6 68 15 18 26 15 27 101 Mean Effectiveness Level E E E E E E

3.75 3.65 3.55 3.80 3.50 3.65

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teachers

and

principal.

There

were

no

conflicts with parents.

Communication gaps were minimized or resolved. Teachers contributed to help map out supportive strategies which helped attain planned school projects and programs. They helped in sustaining collaborative and caring relationships. These transformational manifestations served as the bases of their active participation in professional development activities, thereby assuring

development and continuous growth as teachers.
Teachers affirmed that they kept students on-task, identified discipline problems and recorded and reported classroom attendance; identified implementation aspects where plans could be changed; and reviewed the work of individual students which determined remediation or enrichment schedules for each student.

The teachers were faced with problems regarding their responsibilities, but as caring on transformational teachers they were able to cope. Cespon (2002) recommended coping measures she proposed in her study such as providing extensive in–service training focused on the four management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling; providing logistical support for training on added responsibility; helping teachers identify students’ needs; tapping parents to help coach their children; motivating students as a result of assessment; and requesting the support of the school administrator.

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The grand mean of 3.65 on professional responsibilities was transparent as all the responsibility indicators obtained high assessment indices maintaining the Effectiveness Level of performance.

Use of Student Assessment Assessment should be educative, that is to teach students and teachers what kinds of performance tasks and standards are most valued. It should reflect real life situations is focused on problems. It should provide timely, ongoing, user-friendly feedback to make possible slow but steady mastery of such tasks (Wiggins, 1990). Student assessment as used by the teachers is presented in Table 18. In item one on using the assessment data for self-improvement of the students with the guidance of the teachers, marked a mean of 3.70 reaching the

Effective Level of performance of using student achievement. The teachers confirmed that they conducted reteaching activities based on the assessment figures. Progress on subject content was carefully monitored encouraging both teacher and students to pursue the remedial strategy of reteaching and giving more assignments and practice activities on content monitoring, teacher effectiveness copped the Effectiveness mean of 3.73. Nevertheless, the teacher-student tandem working together with the purpose of clarifying lesson

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Table 18 Teaching Effectiveness Level of Teachers on the Use of Student Assessment as Assessed by Principal and Teachers Frequency Rating 5 4 3 6 16 18

Effectiveness Indicators on Use of Student Assessment 1. Based on assessment data, students reflected improvement activities. 2. With assessment results, progress on content was monitored. 3. Teacher-student tandem worked together and clarified lesson expectations to prepare for subsequent assessments Total / Mean Scale: Mean (M) Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 1.00 - 179

Mean 3.70

Effectiveness Level E

6

7

17

3.73

E

4

7

29

3.38

M

16

40

64

3.60

E

Descriptor (D) High Effective (H) Effective (E) Moderately Effective (M) Slightly Effective (S) Not Effective (N)

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expectations to prepare for subsequent assessment activities, obtained a mean of 3.38 attributing performance to the Moderately Effective Level. The main problem faced by the teacher and students on preparing for succeeding assessments concerned the lack of time which could not be scheduled during the simultaneous free time of the teacher and students unless done on a weekend. Week-end breaks for students meant work at home or help in the

occupational tasks of parents. However, compromises were agreed to possibly undertake reteaching, review or coaching activities. The overall assessment on the three indicators using student assessment data was computed at 3.60 the Effective Level of performance. The study of Galido (May, 2004) stressed that the purpose of assessment was to improve teaching practices. To achieve this purpose was to introduce relevant intervention activities. She concluded that effective teaching results when the essential skills of organizing, instructing, and assessing are efficiently well-crafted in an instructional activity. To improve teaching, the focus should be on the methods and skills that teachers use in the classroom. Enabling teachers to gather more skills as embedded in teaching practices, and reflecting on the implementation of these practices, yield greater returns in terms of quality instruction.

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Resume’ on Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness

It can be gleaned from the Effectiveness Performance Levels of the teachers in Figure 4, the highest effectiveness level went to Instruction, which also covered such variables as instructional planning and delivery evaluation or assessment, and classroom management. Subject matter and Instruction are directly associated with instructional strategies. Classroom Environment covered Classroom Management and Professional Responsibilities and Relationship. Many important teaching variables were clustered in Instruction and Classroom Environment. Professional Relationship and Planning and

Preparation obtained means 3.65 and 3.60, almost on the same mean levels under the Effective Performance Level. The use of student assessment, although the lowest in mean level, still reached with the Effective Level of performance. Assessment could be perceived as types of assessment which could be traditional or authentic, although the assessment basis in this study focused on the use of student assessment with the collective objective of improving instructional practice.

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P E R F O R M A N C E L E V E L

4.10 4.00 3.90 3.80 3.70
3.60 3.60 3.65

4.03

4.05

3.60 3.50 3.40 0
USA PP PR CE I

EFFECTIVENESS AREAS

Figure 4 Performance Level of Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness
Legend I – Instruction CE – Classroom Enrichment PR – Professional Responsibilities Scale: Mean Range 4.20 – 5.00 3.40 – 4.19 2.60 – 3.39 1.80 – 2.59 Effectiveness Level Highly Effective Effective Moderately Effective Slightly Effective PP – Planning and Preparation USA – Use of Student Assessment

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1.00 – 1.79

Not Effective

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS Professional Preparation Preparation covers highest educational attainment, in-service training, and teaching experience which were individually correlated with teachers’ teaching effectiveness. Relationship was determined using the chi-square test of independence in contingency tables. This test is appropriate with variables such as level of education or level of effectiveness (Downie & Heath, 1983). Educational Attainment. There are three categories for educational

attainment as shown in Appendix C, the MA the BEED with MA units, and BEED.
The two criterion variables of Effective and Moderately Effective were used for teacher effectiveness. The other attainment and effectiveness categories had zero entries which were discarded in the contingency table. Table 19 shows the 2.39 computed chi-square value on the relationship between educational attainment and teaching effectiveness. As shown in the

computation for chi-square in Appendix C, 2.38 is Not Significant. The tabular value of 5.39 at 2 degrees of freedom and 5 percent significance level is greater than the computed chi-square of 2.39. The null hypothesis is accepted. There is no significant difference between teachers’ educational attainment and their teaching effectiveness. Whatever was finished or achieved in teacher training

institutions does not affect teaching effectiveness. Multiple factors contribute to

90

teachers’ teaching effectiveness. Teaching effectiveness is not influenced by their educational attainment. This is expected since the teachers’ educational backyard
Table 19 Relationship between Teachers’ Professional Preparation and Teaching Effectiveness Professional Preparation • A. Educational Attainment • • • Effectiveness Variables Planning and Preparation Classroom Environment Instruction Professional Responsibilities • Use of Student Assessment • B. In-service Training • • • Planning and Preparation Classroom Environment Instruction Professional Responsibilities • Use of Student Assessment 29.43 11.40 18.33 18.12 12.47 Significant Significant Significant Significant Significant λ2 1.37 4.37 3.32 4.37 3.49 Significance Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant

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• C. Teaching Experience • • •

Planning and Preparation Classroom Environment Instruction Professional Responsibilities

10.47 15.12 13.20 20,35 9.21

Significant Significant Significant Significant Significant

Use of Student Assessment

A. Tabular λ2(2df, .05) = 5.99 Education (Appendix C) B. Tabular λ2(3df, .01) = 11.34 Training (Appendix D) C. Tabular λ2(2df, .01) = 9.21 Experience (Appendix E) provide them with formal training in teacher education, making them capable of

using educational concepts, knowledge, skills, and strategies in actual teaching.

Valdez (December, 2000) arrived at the same finding of no relationship between educational qualification of college deans and their problem-solving skills. In–service training. In Table 19, are the four categories on the number of hours spent for in–service training of teachers and the two categories on effectiveness (Appendix D). It obtained a relationship chi–square value of 12.00 which is greater than the tabular value of 11.34 at 3 degrees of freedom and a significance level of one percent. The Significant relationship rejects the null hypothesis which means that teacher training greatly influenced teacher effectiveness. Training provides useful insights to improve teachers teaching

92

effectiveness likewise discovered by Lumapas (2000) in her research work involving state college administrators. Appendix D shows the computation on in-service training correlated with teaching effectiveness. Teaching experience. The experience background of the teachers has three categories specifically on length of teaching experience, and two on effectiveness as clearly tabulated in the computation matrix in Appendix E. As shown in Table 19, a chi–square value of 14.66 shows the relationship between teaching experience and teaching effectiveness. With a tabular value of 9.21 at 2 degrees of freedom and .01 level of significance, the Significant relationship rejects the null hypothesis of no relation between teachers’ experience and their effectiveness. Learning on the job is definitely learning through experience. It is learning by doing, the commonly known hands-on experience. Learning opportunities are immersed in work relations occurring in various situations Working with others strengthens work effectiveness, managerial, and organizational concerns.

Professional Preparation

λ2

Teaching Effectiveness
PP

93

1.37

Highest Educationa l Attainment

4.37 3.32 4.37 3.49

CE I P.Re sp USA PP

29.43

Relevant In-service Training

11.40 18.33 18.12 12.47

CE I P.Re sp USA PP

10.47 15.12 13.20

CE I P.Re sp USA

Relevant Teaching Experience

20.35 9.21

Figure 5 Relationship Between Professional Preparation and Teaching Effectiveness
Legend: PP = Planning and Preparation CE = Classroom Environment I = Instruction

PResp = Professional Responsibilities USA = Use of Student AssessmentI

The variables on teaching effectiveness correlated with education, training, and experience. It could be noted that the relationship between

94

educational attainment and the five variables on planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, professional responsibilities, and the use of student assessment indices obtained relationship indices less than the tabular value of 5.99 at 2 degrees of freedom within the 5 percent significant level. The null hypothesis of no significant relationship between educational attainment and teaching effectiveness is accepted. Teachers were able to do their

expected tasks because of their preservice education. They manifested the required teaching skills irrespective of their educational background. In-service training helped to a great extent their teaching skills. With chisquare indices higher than the critical value of 12 at 3df and one percent significant level, the null hypothesis was rejected. Teaching experience is on the job training. The hands-on experience of teachers influenced substantially their teaching effectiveness. Kemp and Hall (1992) emphasize the many learning opportunities wherein teachers achieve more. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS Professional Practices Pearson r Teaching Effectiveness

PP
.78 .72 .86

CE I

Instructional Planning

95

.81 .59

P.Re sp USA

PP
.64 .64 .71

CE I P.Re sp PP USA

Instructional Delivery

.75 .62

.66 .82

CE I P.Re sp USA

Classroom Manageme nt

.74 .88 .63

.65 .64

CE PP
.62

TeacherLearner Interaction
.66 .62

I P.Re sp USA

PP
.84

96

.82 .89

CE I P.Re sp USA

Subject Content

.89 .68

PP
.60 .60 .61

CE I P.Re sp USA

Evaluation

.75 .89

PP
.65

Professional Responsibilitie s

.71 .76 .89 .86

CE I P.Re sp USA

PP

97

.78

Professiona l Relationshi p

.69 .81 .88 .69

CE I P.Re sp USA

Figure 6 Correlation Indices between Professional Practices and Teaching Effectiveness Variables Interpretation of Pearson r (Calmorin & Calmorin, 1997). .41 to .70 Marked or Moderate Correlation .71 to .90 High Relationship
Legend: PP = Planning and Preparation CE = Classroom Environment I = Instruction PResp = Professional Responsibilities USA = Use of Student Assessment

Instructional planning. Professional practices pertaining to planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, and professional

responsibilities were highly correlated with the instructional planning having garnered relationship indices between .72 to .86. The use of student

assessment recorded a .59 index equivalent to moderate correlation. Planning instruction matched instructional process and subject content in identified objectives. It reinforced efficient organization of ideas in systematic procedures. It gave allowance in the choice of space, equipment, and materials to support

98

instruction. These were obvious connections which teachers believed should be the effect of instructional planning. Instructional delivery. With the r value at .64, planning and preparation and classroom environment are moderately correlated with instructional delivery. Instruction, professional responsibilities, and use of student

assessment are highly correlated with instruction. Instructional delivery registered a mean performance of Satisfactory with 3.29 but still Effective with 4.05 in Instruction. This was explained by some teachers who said that they could have used a better method other than direct methods or hands-on strategies instead of theoretical discussions. However, they believed they still delivered the lesson despite of choosing another teaching technique. With the delivery strategies, the teachers were open that Student Assessment was most important especially when they

would want to find out of students’ learned after a lesson. This got an Effective mean of 3.60. Classroom management. Planning and preparation with an index of . 66 and use of student assessment with an index of .63 are moderately correlated with classroom management. Structuring the classroom

environment, with r at .82 instruction with .74, and assuming professional responsibilities with .88 are highly related to classroom management.

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A well-managed classroom with a mean of 3.68 Very Satisfactorily resulted in creating a class environment of respect and rapport, with cooperative and nondisruptive students and a supportive physical environment, garnering the Effective level of 4.03. Classroom management demonstrated the teachers concerns of their professional responsibilities capturing an Effective mean of 3.65. It shows the teachers fulfilling their assigned tasks and their professional responsibility of the physical and material resources they had to use in teaching. The positive linkage between performance in classroom management and classroom environment as well as professional responsibilities increased the teachers’ awareness of their expected instructional duties. Teacher-learner interaction. Teacher-learner interaction are moderately correlated with all the five effectiveness variables of planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, planning responsibilities with indices with . 62 to .66. It appears that teachers have still to use interaction strategies to achieve higher achievement among the students. On teacher-learner interaction practices, the resultant appraisal was a Very Satisfactory mean of 3.67. This interaction procedures in class was Effective in Instruction specifying a mean of 4.05. Interaction exchanges in classroom discussion uncovered prior learnings of the students which were unfolded in the exchange of ideas.

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Subject content with a Very Satisfactory mean of 3.78 gives the input to Instruction at an effectiveness level at 4.05. It serves as the entry for

instruction and most importantly is essential in the use of student assessment with 3.60 as it determines the formative or summative performance status of the students. Correlation is apparently manifested. The correlation values pegged at the high relationship levels are clearly manifested in the correlation between subject content with planning and preparation (.64), classroom environment (.82), instruction (.89), and

professional responsibilities (.89). Subject content is moderately correlated with use of student assessment with a mean of .68. Assessment goes with teaching especially handling the lessons in the different subject areas. Evaluation. Evaluation (3.40) likewise was performed Very

Satisfactorily in Instruction which recorded an Effective mean of 4.05, more so with Student Assessment with a mean of 3.60. Evaluating learner performance and using the results provide useful feedback to both teachers and students. Highly related to professional responsibilities with a mean of .75 and use of student assessment with a mean of .89 is the evaluation. Evaluation is the main function of assessment which explains the effectiveness of evaluation.

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Professional

responsibilities.

Teachers’

professional

responsibilities with a Very Satisfactory mean of 3.49 was Effectively performed with a mean of 3.65. The teachers remarked that they became
flexible in their approach to teaching, prompt, and helpful and friendly

It is deduced that teachers increasingly conscious of their professional responsibilities. With professional responsibilities moderately related to

planning and preparation (.65), it is highly linked to classroom environment (.71), instruction (.76), professional responsibilities (.89), and use of student assessment (.86). Teachers are observed to be aware of their school work having observed them to do the tasks of lesson planning, checking student attendance, and preparing grades among others. Other extra assignments are accomplished as soon as they find time to do it. Professional relationships are highly related to planning and preparation (.78), instruction (.81), and professional responsibilities (.88). Teachers deal with co-workers, students, and parents with whom they have developed rapport and could seek cooperation and collaboration. With

classroom environment and use of student assessment, the r value at .69 shows that they are moderately related to professional relationship. This research work brought out important positive relationships between teaching performance and teaching effectiveness in terms of the domains of

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teaching and their teaching practices. Teachers would be guided on their more important tasks which would result in a highly effective and progressive teaching situation.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation (r) was used to correlate teachers’ professional practices and their teaching effectiveness Weighted means on practices and teaching effectiveness for each variable were chosen to match the correlated teaching areas shown in Figure 5. The weighted means of the component variables on practices were averaged to relate to each teaching effectiveness variable. Table 20 shows Pearson r to be .89 which meant high correlation or marked relationship. Using the t-test, the computed t of 4.78 is greater than the tabular t of 3.71 indicating a Significant relationship. The teachers’ effectiveness levels pointed to in a positive relationship index which indicated that the more satisfactory teachers’ practices are undertaken, the higher is the effectiveness level of the teacher.

Table 20 Relationship between Teachers’ Performance on Professional Practices and Teaching Effectiveness

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Pearson r = .89 Significant: High correlation, marked relationship Significant relationship tcomp = 4.78

T(6df, .01) = 3.707 or 3.71 (Computation in Appendix F)

Teaching effectiveness is directly related to competency in each of the five areas. Teaching effectiveness is greatly improved by learning so much about each area of teaching expertise (http://www,twu.edu-o). The high relationship between teachers’ professional practices and teaching

effectiveness revealed in this study parallels the conclusion of Ravelo (March, 2004) in her research work that teachers’ professional preparation was significantly related to their performance.

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CHAPTER III SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUMMARY This study aimed to explore into the grade school teachers’ professional preparation and practices in relation to their teaching effectiveness to be able to formulate an Action Plan for Elementary Teachers at the University of Cebu in Cebu City. It focused on the professional preparation profile of the teachers in terms of highest educational attainment, relevant in-service training, and

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relevant teaching experience. The professional practices profile touched on eight variables, namely: instructional planning, instructional delivery, classroom management, teacher-learner interaction, subject content, evaluation, professsional responsibilities, and professional relationships. The level of performance on teaching effectiveness was based on planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, professional responsibilities, and use of student assessment. With the findings on these variables, significant relationships were determined between teachers’ teaching effectiveness and their professional preparation and professional practices. An Action Plan for Elementary Teachers was formulated based on the findings.
The null hypotheses postulated in the study were on the no significant relationships between teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness and their Professional Preparation; and between Teaching Effectiveness and their Professional Practices.

This study utilized the qualitative-quantitative descriptive research to seek answers to questions through the analysis of variable relationships. Selfratings of the 20 grade school teacher respondents and 20 principal’s ratings of the same group of teachers, provided the data using a 60 item researchermade checklist-questionnaire. The research tool was validated using

Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Data analysis used frequencies, means, and percentages were used in profiling. Weighted means used descriptors on a 5-point scale. Chi-square determined the relationship between professional preparation and teaching

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effectiveness; while Pearson r determined the correlation between teachers’ professional practices and their teaching effectiveness. FINDINGS Teachers’ Professional Preparation * Educational attainment was Adequate with 60 percent having completed BEEd with MA units and 40 percent finished BEEd. * In-service training was Very Adequate with 50 percent having completed a total of 36 to 70 training hours, 30 percent with 71 to 105 training hours and 10 percent with 106 and higher training hours, and 10 percent with 106 and higher training hours, a total of 90 percent. * Teaching experience was Adequate with 55 percent having taught for 1 to 6 years, and 30 percent having an experience of 7 and 14 years, and 15 percent for 15 to 20 years, a total of 45 percent. Teachers’ Professional Practices Performance rating on a 5-point continuum using 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest was used to assess teachers’ professional practices focused on the following areas and equivalent weighted means: Subject Content Classroom Management Teacher-Learner Interaction Professional Relationship Professional Responsibilities - 3.78, - 3.68, - 3.67, - 3.55, - 3.49, Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory

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Instructional Planning Evaluation Instructional Delivery

- 3.42, - 3.40, - 3.29,

Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Satisfactory

Teachers’ Performance Level on Teaching Effectiveness Performance level on teaching effectiveness based on five teaching variables. Instruction Classroom Environment Professional Responsibilities Planning and Preparation Use of Student Assessment - 4.05 - 4.03 - 3.65 - 3.60 - 3.60 Effective Performance Level Effective Performance Level Effective Performance Level Effective Performance Level Effective Performance Level

Relationship between Teaching Effectiveness and Professional Preparation * Highest Educational Attainment X2 = 2.39 Accept null hypothesis

No relation between teaching effectiveness and educational attainment. * In-service Training X2 = 12.00 Reject null hypothesis.

In-service training strengthens teaching effectiveness. * Teaching Experience

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X2 = 14.66 Reject null hypothesis Teaching experience provides useful insights and reinforces teaching effectiveness. Relationship between Professional Preparation and Teaching Effectiveness Pearson r = .89 Significant High Correlation/ Marked Relationship at .01 Significance Level CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings, the following conclusions are deemed warranted: 1. The teachers are professionally prepared to perform their work as elementary grades teachers. 2. The teachers are very competent to handle the different teaching areas as evidenced by their very satisfactory performance. 3. The teachers have a high performance level as they have attained the Effective Level of performance. 4. No significant relationship exists between educational attainment and teaching effectiveness. Formal preservice education equipped the teachers with their professional training. 5. In-service training provides teachers more insights on new strategies and skills. 6. Teaching experience is on-the-job training for teachers which improves instructional practices.

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7. Teachers’ professional preparation substantially helps improve teaching practices.

RECOMMENDATIONS As a result of the study, the following recommendations are suggested: 1. With internal and external incentives, teachers may be stimulated to pursue further studies. 2. Qualified teachers may help mentor new teachers considering school-based management strategies. 3. Effective teachers may be trained to conduct in-service training seminars and workshops with service credit as motivator. 4. All teachers regardless of educational attainment should be given the opportunity to participate in any professional development plan for teachers. 5. In-service training programs should focus on 5.1 teaching strategies, 5.2 student behavior management, and 5.3 new procedures and types of assessment, and how they are used. 6. Teaching experience for new teachers should begin with a relevant induction strategy.

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7.

Administrators and teachers are enjoined to adopt the Action Plan for Elementary Teachers recommended as an output of the study.

8.

Avenues for Future Researchers as an Expansion or Replication of the present study. 8.1 Conferencing Skills with Performance Evaluators: A Training Program 8.2 Administrator-Teacher Proposals for Empowerment. 8.3 Walking-around-Supervision: Impact on Administrators and Teachers 8.4 Student Evaluation of Teaching: Review for Reliability 8.5 Education, Collaboration, and Feelings of Preparedness of Teachers: Proposals for Teacher Training

Title: Theme:

THE PDR ACTION PLAN (Planning – Doing – Reflecting) Each student engaged in self-initiated learning experiences should be successful

RATIONALE

The Plan-Do-Review (PDR) model has been modified to accommodate the diverse needs and interests of the students. To keep the similar basic philosophy while students’ needs change as they progress through the grades, the Planning-Doing-Reflecting (PDR) describes the PDR process.

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As students develop skills and interests, Planning-Doing-Reflecting in many classrooms will differ from the primary Plan-Do-Review. Although the need for exploration, discovery, and creativity are paramount to the developmental process, grades 5 and 6 teachers provide student choices in a variety of ways including individual and group projects and hands-on activities. The model promotes progress while establishing responsibility for the transitional years ahead (Rief & Heimburge, 1996). The PDR Action Plan will empower the students to make their own plans with the materials and classrom racilities that would challenge them to learn or produce something through doing or hands-on and reflecting on what they have accomplished.

THE APPROACH MAP * Planning Planning provides students time to select their own learning experiences in the classroom. Teacher and students discuss what they plan to accomplish during the work period. The students may also describe materials they will be using, who they plan to work with and their initial feelings thinking of what they will learn. Planning may take from five to ten minutes. Teachers choose an approach to planning that is efficient and practical for their particular classroom. The teacher should be available to review the plans to assure that they are realistic and practical. If during the “doing” period, a student is not

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participating fully in the activity, the teacher may ask the student to review his/her plan. Redirection, motivation, or resetting of the personal plan may need to be done at this point. Teachers may demonstrate the desired behaviors in presenting the desired plan such as using the overhead projector to show a model plan, role playing, or using a cooperative group or students to discuss orally the plans with the class. * Doing Students begin to implement plans. Teacher’s goal is actively involve the students. PDR enables students to make individual and responsible

choices. Activities should be enjoyable and rich in opportunities to explore, investigate, enrich, and enlighten students. Materials are returned and students keep their completed work in a folder or in a spot or section in the classroom. Teacher is an active participant during the “doing” time. He/She

becomes an observer, enabler, and facilitator. Teacher may assist students in problem-solving techniques, answer questions, find materials, and clarify confusing questions. It is important for the teacher to observe ad note about a students’ needs, behaviors, learning styles, cooperative interaction, and ability to use higher level thinking skills. These moments become the foundation for understanding students and how they function in a less-structured environment with minimal teacher direction. Teacher observational notes facilitate

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communication during parent conferences and an individual interactions with students. A period of 30 to 40 minutes is appropriate during the “doing” period depending on the individual teacher and the students. Students involved in the activity gain a sense of completion. PDR will look different in every classroom. If teachers are incorporating all the elements of developmental learning in the classrooms, PDR may ot need to be done on a daily basis. There are other strategies to meet the individual needs and interests of the students which include projects, hands-on activities throughout the curriculum, cooperative learning, opportunities for “choosing” on daily assignments, and other studentinitiated enrichment activities. A workable PDR program may be scheduled from one to five days a week based on the teacher’s discretion and teaching style. One day a week is most comfortable. In team-teaching situations,

scheduling problems may arise that infringe on PDR. The teacher has opportunities to observe social interaction, peer cooperation, how students approach learning tasks, students’ abilities to take risks, students hesitant to participate, and leadership qualities. The clean-up part of the period teaches students how to be problemsolvers, how to sort and put order to things, and how to classify items. This gives students a sense of ownership in their classroom. Noise level is tolerable. Constructive noise is productive. Music played in the background during the “doing” time of the day can have a calming effect.

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Discipline problems are minimal because student self-control is built into the program. When students are actively participating and enjoying what they are doing, they tend to behave better. Students who lack self-discipline should be given more individual assistance for a better direction and clarification of expectations.

* Reflecting After students have explained their “doing’ role, they “reflect” what they learned from each other, their motivations, their learning, and their enthusiasm. If PDR is done once a week, 20 minutes is appropriate, but with five days a week, 5 or 10 minutes will be enough. During the “reflecting” period, the teacher needs to provide a supportive attitude that makes students feel worthwhile and feel that their projects and activities are valued. Self-evaluation develops in each student a skill to review his/her learning and see how he/she can improve his/her learning.

COMPETENCY STATUS

The findings of the study show that the teachers are qualified, competent, and effective performers.

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THE FOCUSED NEEDS Needs assessment shows that teachers should improve in: * Instructional Delivery * Evaluation * Instructional Planning

OBJECTIVES * To plan efficiently * To do or deliver effectively * To review, replan, reflect, and redo proficiently THE ACTION PLAN

This Action Plan for Elementary Teachers will help to a great extent instructional planning to PLAN, instructional delivery to DO or implement, and evaluation to REFLECT or assess. This is the very reason why the PDR

strategy is chosen to be the most appropriate and encompassing to cover the focused needs revealed in this study.

IMPLEMENTATION MECHANICS

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A teacher may adopt the PDR on days and time he/she can allocate in the class schedule. This Action Plan may be conducted on an identified

problem encountered in the classroom during the teaching-learning process. There can be as many action plans in one school year depending on the academic or non-academic problems that may be identified. A sample

prototype Action Plan provides only the strategies and the expected output as this is a built-in remediation or enrichment design. An action plan may take one month or two. It is a short-term learning package which earmarks school or classroom practices which could improve educational strategies and

accomplishments.

EXPECTATIONS OF AN ACTION PLAN

• Students feel EMPOWERED as responsibility for their own learning.

they

take

• Students develop a sense of ownership and pride for the classroom and materials, and build independence as they structure their environment to accomplish their chosen activity. • Students are confident of their choices.

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• Students are more apt to be willing to share activities and ideas with peers and other adults. They know they are accepted and valued. • In programs that include PDR, students are eager to come to school and know there will be success built into each day. • Teachers must provide a variety of methods and instructional strategies that engage students’ interests. • Teachers who use the PDR will capture and hold the attention of students as they forge ahead in their developmental growth.

ACTION PLAN GUIDE

To Teachers:

1. Prepare the PDR Guide for an Action Plan 2. Set possible time schedules at your choice 3. Prepare PDR Activity Card for each Action Plan

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4. Each PDR reflects a classroom problem about the students and other academic problems.

THE PDR ACTION PLANS Sample PDR Action Plan 1. Developing Social Skills Action Plan 2. Targeted Homework Approach Action Plan 3. Developing Communication Skills

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Action Plan 4. Peer Medication Action Plan 5. The Reading Strategy Action Plan 6. Math in the Market Action Plan 7. Home Reading Activities Action Plan 8. I Will Go to School

Sample PDR Activity Card
Time: Theme: 30 minutes Socialization and Participation Skills

Planning 1. Join a program. 2. Present a dance 3. Invite Linda and Rose, good dancers in the class as dance mini-teachers.

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Doing • Luisa and Rose to teach a dance to a group who seldom participate in a program. Reflecting 1. Tell something about the following: • the group leader • the dancers • the dance mini-teachers • the dance participation 2. Were socialization skills developed? 3. Did other members of the group want also to learn?

MAIN STRATEGIES OF THE PDR ACTION PLAN
PDR Strategy A. Planning Characteristics / Skills * develop goals/objectives for a well-prepared plans * develop an action plan with practical decisions * identify community resources to achieve increased responsibility * select/organize learning experience for independent tasks * prepare/conduct/interpret surveys to leadership skills manifested * conceptualizing skills and ability to undertake

B. Doing * Direct Instruction * Guided Discussion/ Academically focused, teacher-directed, sequenced and structured Discussion and higher-level thinking about concept/topic

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Reciprocal Questioning * Cooperative Learning 1. Students in groups or teams that respond to a question, resolve a dilemma situation, on conduct an experiment 2. Applying real-life situations 3. Sharing experiences 4. Monitoring 5. Evaluating student performance Students work independently at own rate and level; delivery of information provided in a variety of formations like tutoring/mentoring * Conceptualizing * Involves cooperative activities using pairs and small groups * Problem-solving * Making provision for discovery * Research * Grouping practices/teamwork * Brainstorming * Consensus building * Role-playing * Directing/Socratic Seminar/Reciprocal Teaching/Guided Reading Increased response opportunities

* Independent Study

* Collaborative Learning

C. Reflecting

EVALUATION OF ACTION PLAN ACTIVITIES

Evaluation of the action skills covered in the PDR Action Plan acquired by students with the effective collaboration of the teacher, is undertaken during actual teaching. Through observations, demonstrations of interaction activities, hands-on lessons, and feedback from peers and students provide evaluative data on the plan endeavor. Successful and happy students are clues to a successful PDR implementation.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books Arends, Richard I. (1994). Learning to Teach (3rd ed.). New York: McGrawHill. Best, John W. & Kahn, James V. (1998). Research in Education (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Blanchard, Kenneth et al. (1985). Leadership and the One-Minute Manager. New York: William Morrow. Bonwell, C. & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. Washington D.C.: George Washington University.

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Parkay, F.W. and Stanford, B.H. (1998). Becoming a Teacher (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pelletier, Carol Maira. (2000). A Handbook of Techniques and Strategies for Coaching Student Teachers (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Poetter, T.S. (1997). Voices of Inquiry in Teacher Education. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reinhartz, J. and Beach, D.M. (1997). Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School, Focus on Curriculum. New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Rief, S.F. and Heimburge, J.A. (1996). How to Reach and Teach All Students in the Inclusive Classroom. New York: The Center for Applied Research in Education. Sadker, M.P. & Sadker, D.M. (1997). Teachers, Schools, and Society (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Salandanan, Gloria B. (2001). Teacher Education Journal. Quezon City: KATHA. Sergiovanni, T.J. and Starratt, R.J. (1998). Supervision, A Redefinition (6th ed.). Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill. Starratt, Robert J. (1996). Transforming Educational Administration: Meaning, Community, and Excellence. New York: McGraw-Hill. Thompson, Julia G. (2002). First-Year Teacher’s Survival Kit. Paramus, New Jersey: The Center for Applied Research in Education. B. Periodicals Angelo, T.A. (April, 1993). A Teacher’s Dozen: Fourteen General, ResearchBased Principles for Improving Higher Learner in Our Classrooms. AAHE Bulletin, 3 – 7, 13. Apostol, Agnes S. (Summer, 2001). Helping Teachers Empower Themselves. Educator’s Journal, 20. (11). 2, 11.

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Barsaga, E. B, et al. (January – June, 1996). A No Dropout-Learning System for Education for All. INNOTECH Journal, XX (1). 1 – 15. Cushman, Kathleen. (September, 1992). The Essential School Principal: A Changing Role in a Changing School. Horace, 9 (1). 5 – 17. Dorado, Salve L. (March, 2001). Strategic Teaching – The Key to Autonomous Learning and Thinking. Educator’s Journal, 20. (10). 6, 8, 10. Goldring, Ellen. (February, 1997). Empower Parents for Productive Partnerships. The Education Digest, 62, (6). 25 – 29. Grossman, P.L. and Richert, A.E. (November, 2001). Re-Examining the Effects of Teacher Education. Educator’s Journal, 21 (6). 3, 8. Hudgins, Judith M. (February, 1991). Principals Actively Support Selected Elements of Effective Teaching. Wingspan, 6 (2). 4- 9. Kennedy, May M. (June, 2001). How Teachers Learn to Teach. Educator’s Journal, 21 (11). 3, 5. Lawal, H.S. (July, 2003). Teacher Education and the Professional Growth of the 21st Century. The African Symposium, 3 (2). Ordoñez, Victor. (February, 2001). Redefining Teachers Training for the 21st Century. Educator’s Journal, 20 (9), 10. Rigden, Diana Wyllie. (September, 1997). What Teachers Think of Teacher Education. The Education Digest, 63 (1). 51 – 53. Salandanan, Gloria G. (1998). Models and Strategies for Effective Teaching and Learning. The Educator’s Diary. Quezon City: Phoenix-SIBS. Solas, John. (Summer, 1992). Investing Teacher and Student Thinking about the Process of Teaching and Learning. Review of Educational Research. 205 – 225. Tamir, Pirchas. (July, 2001). Subject Matter and Related Pedagogical Knowledge in Teacher Education. Educator’s Journal, 21 (2). 6, 11. Taylor, Barbara and Levine, Daniel. (January, 1991). Effective Schools, Projects, and School-Based Management. Phi Delta Kappan, 72 (5). 394 – 397.

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Wesseler, Matthias. (Summer, 2001). Towards a Learning-Oriented Delivery of Teacher Education. Educator’s Journal, 20 (11). 3, 5. C. Unpublished Materials Arcipe, Veronica Nilda L. (September, 2001). Vocabulary Development Using the Word Wall Approach in Teaching College Literature. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Southwestern University. Areopagita, Gladys V. (November, 2000). Targeted Homework Approach in a Grade School. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Blancaflor, Marybeth C. (November, 2000). Peer Medication as an Approach to Managing Behavior Problems in the Classroom. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Capapas, Clotilde M. (1994). Supervisory Functions of the School Administrators in the Division of Southern Leyte. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: Cebu State College. Cespon, Laura V. (2002). The Multigrade and Combination Classes of the Division of Davao City as Viewed by their Implementors: Implications to Program Planning. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: University of Cebu. Chua, Winefreda D. (1992). The Management Grid Styles, Among the Public and Private School Administrators in the Elementary, Secondary, College Level in Cebu City. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: Cebu State College. Fernando, Erdulfo A. (1990). Leadership Styles and management Functions of Private and Public School Administrators in Zamboanga City. Doctoral Dissertation.. Zamboanga City: Western Mindanao State University. Galido, Joyce A. (May, 2004). Fourth Grade Teachers’ Organizing, Instructing, and Assessing Skills: Bases for Intervention Activities. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Cebu Normal University. Ganutan, Susan P. (December, 2000). Managing Teaching Errors: An Experiential Learning Technique. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City

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Lumapas, Lolita L. (2000). Performance Management of State College Administrators in the Province of Southern Leyte. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Mahilum, Lorna C. (June, 2001). Heuser’s Science Workshop Instructional Models. Master’s Thesis, Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Manugas, Josefina M. (January, 2002). Redefined Literacy in Elementary Science and Mathematics: An Exploratory Study. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City, Cebu Normal University. Pagalilawan, Efren P. (December, 1999). Paradigm Shift in Curricular Resources, Roles, and Teaching Strategies. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Pepito, Marilou C. (October, 1999). Time Strategies of Elementary Teachers. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Perez, Ruby A. (April, 2002). Discipline as an Instructional Strategy. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Pogoy. Angeline M. (May, 2000). Motivations in Learning Elementary MathematicsL Spence Helnreich Model. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Ravelo, Pablita C. (March, 2004). Relationship between Professional Preparation and Performance of Pre-School Teachers in the Private and Public Schools of Cebu City: Basis for Teachers’ Training Program. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: University of Southern Philippines. Tejano, Jocelyn B. (May, 2000). Organizational Leadership in Urban and Rural Elementary Schools. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Tio, Maria Theresa F. (September, 2003). Childlink Learning Center: An Academic Reengineering, Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Ubod, Zosima C. (February, 1999). Portfolio Assessment in Primary Mathematics. Master’s Thesis. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. Valdez, Elena M. (December, 2000). The Problem-Solving Skills and Practices of Deans of Higher Education Institutions in Cebu City. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University.

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Velayo, Emelita C. (October, 2004). Core Competency Level of Grade School Administrators of Augustinian Schools in the Philippines: A Development Plan. Doctoral Dissertation. Cebu City: Cebu Normal University. D. Documents Catanyag, David V. Provoding Visionary and Result-Driven Leadership: The Principal as Strategic Planner and Change Manager (Handout). Project TAO LEADS II (Leadership in the Effective Administration of Schools). SEAMEO, INNOTECH, Dilliman, Quezon City. “Survey on Professional Development and Training in U.S. Public Schools, 1999 – 2000.” US Department of Education, National Center for Education statistics (NCES), Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) (http://nces.ed.gov) R. A. 9155. Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. Vision-Mission of the Elementary School. University of Cebu. Cebu City.

E. Internet Sources/Websites Dimensions of Effective Teaching. http://www.tww.edu./o_grad./gtmanual/teaching.html#other Teacher Effectiveness
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Wiggins, Grant. (1990). The Case of Authentic Assessment. ERIC. ED 328611.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A

CHECKLIST-QUESTIONNAIRE ON TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION, PRACTICES, AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

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Appendix A
CHECKLIST-QUESTIONNAIRE ON TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION, PRACTICES, AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

June 22, 2007

Dear Fellow Teacher, I am pursuing a research study on “THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND PRACTICES OF THE GRADE SCHOOL TEACHERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CEBU, CEBU CITY, IN RELATION TO THEIR TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS: AN ACTION PLAN” with the objective of formulating and organizing an Action Plan for Elementary School Teachers.

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The researcher went over education materials to be able to get a good grasp of your performance status, your values, and working attitudes as educators. With this questionnaire, your honest appraisal of yourself as a teacher will come up with proactive actions for personal and institutional improvement. In many ways, this study will reveal useful insights that will strengthen Teacher Education for potential teachers. In anticipation of your cooperation in this research work, I convey my profound appreciation and gratitude

Very truly yours,

GLENN R. ANDRIN The Researcher

Background of the Respondent Personal Information 1. Name: __________________________________________ 2. Designation/Position: 3. Gender: Male Teacher Female Principal

4. Age: _____ 5. Civil Status: 6. Licensure Status: Single Licensed Married Unlicensed

7. Employment Status: Probationary Tenured _______________________________________________________________

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Part 1. TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION

1.

What is your highest educational attainment? Doctoral Education Graduate (Ed.D., Ph.D.) Number of Doctoral Units Earned Masters of Arts (MA) Graduate Number of MA Units Earned Four Year Education Graduate (BEEd, BSEd), BSIE, BS AgEd, BSHE) Others: ____________________________

2. What is your field of specialization? Doctoral Level: Master’s Level: __________________ __________________

Undergraduate Level: __________________ 3. Have you undergone some training as a teacher in the field of Education after you finished your Education course? Yes 4. No

If your answer is Yes, please list the training programs you have participated in five years ago up to the present (2002 to 2007). Please use the following format:
Inclusive Dates Title of Training Number of Hours Venue

5.

How many years have you been teaching in the
Preschool Level: _____________, ___________ , _____________________ (inclusive period) (when) (where) Elementary Level: _____________, ___________ , _____________________ (inclusive period) (when) (where)

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High School Level: _____________, ___________ , _____________________ (inclusive period) (when) (where)

Part II. TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES

Direction: As a teacher please assess your teaching practices. Circle only one rating in each item which you deem fits you. The five ratings are described as follows: Rating
5

Description
Excellent, superior teaching practices highly skilled using a variety of teaching strategies, exhibits efficient, facilitative leadership, applies knowledge in real situations. Very Satisfactory, achieves results to a very acceptable level, very capable. Satisfactory, manifests good knowledge, efficient, achieves a high level of performance. Fair, slightly capable, works only to comply with objectives, can still be improved. Poor, unsatisfactory performance, relies on others, has gaps in knowledge and skills, teacher needs much assistance to maintain an acceptable level of performance.

4 3 2 1

As a teacher, I
1. plan a lesson with objectives intended for the learner. 2. plan instructional activities with learning materials to carry out stated objectives. 3. demonstrate creativity and thought in planning. 4. use teaching methods to fit a class of varying cognitive levels. 5. provide learners an opportunity for independent practice of new concepts or skills. 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

136

6. adapt planned lessons if an unexpected situation occurs. 7. observe proper sequencing and pacing of lessons. 8. combine student engagement and empowerment as I handle the class/students. 9. teach a scheduled class for the allocated time period. 10. arrange the learning area and make materials readily accessible to achieve planned objectives. 11. establish classroom rules and routines that promote instruction and applies them consistently. 12. manage and monitor learner behavior effectively 13. provide all learners with an opportunity to learn. 14. provide activities that promote interaction among learners. 15. vary instructional activities to match learners’ interests. 16. give clear concise directions and explanations. 17. use positive reinforcement to inculcate the desired behavior. 18. promote meaning to relating instruction to students’ lives and experiences. 19. relate subject knowledge and skills to practical applications. 20. organize subject matter into meaningful lessons. 21. provide opportunities for learning through multiple intelligences. 22. use a variety of evaluation techniques. 23. use evaluation to give learners timely feedback on performance.

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

137

24. engage in professional growth activities that relate to classroom performance. 25. feel that I am dependable in professional duties that relate to assigned tasks. 26. work cooperatively in bringing about the success of the school program. 27. encourage students to be responsible for their own learning. 28. maintain an effective working relationship with colleagues. 29. maintain a supportive and positive relationship with students. 30. maintain rapport and a helping relationship with parents.

5 5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

PART III. TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

Direction: As a teacher, please assess your level of performance as an effective teacher. Circle only one rating in each item which you believe should be your performance rating. The five ratings are described as follows: Rating 5 4 3 2 1 Description Highly Effective, very effective, results-oriented. Effective, capable and effective beyond required expectations. Moderately Effective, exhibits good knowledge and efficient Slightly Effective, can still improve, works only to comply Not Effective, lacks, professional teaching skills.

As a teacher, I was able to

138

1. make my students master the lessons as shown in their formative and summative evaluation results. 2. show the interconnectedness of instructional goals, resources, materials, and instructional design through facilitative leadership which enabled the class to complete the expected scope for the grading period. 3. use classroom teaching strategies adapted to the students’ needs which eventually inculcated understanding as revealed by parents who followed up their children’s assignments. 4. design coherent instruction for a difficult lesson and a project. 5. write well-planned lessons and organize teaching activities using alternative strategies with-scarce references. 6. hold teacher-student and student-student interactions in my class which were observed to be appropriate and respectful. 7. set high expectations of student learning which were evidently manifested and the lesson objectives attained. 8. use classroom procedures which set a challenging and dynamic environment for learning. 9. organize the physical space skillfully and safely to support learning. 10. motivate students to contribute to smooth school operation. 11. manage responsibly student behaviors. 12. make students highly engaged in learning. 13. stimulate students to make material contribution to successful class discussion by asking questions and getting involved in class activities.

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

5

4

3

2

1

5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1

139

14. create a high level environment to ensure student success. 15. make students aware of the extent of their performance. 16. continuously search for approaches to meet student needs. 17. actualize actual engagement of students with content. 18. reflect professional responsibilities on accurate record keeping. 19. effect tactful communications with families of students. 20. assume as a transformational leader in school. 21. participate in professional development activities. 22. grow and develop professionally. 23. use assessment data with students for them to reflect on their own practice for improvement. 24. monitor progress on content with assessment results. 25. clarify expectations with teachers and students by working together to prepare for assessments.

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

140

Appendix B
VALIDATING THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE THROUGH TESTING THE RELIABILITY USING THE SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT WITH THE TEST-RETEST METHOD

rs = 1 -

6∑D2 N3 - N

rs N

= Spearman rho = total number of respondents in the pilot sample

S1 & S2 = scores of first and second administration of the questionnaire R1 & R2 = ranks of S1 and S2 ∑D2 = sum of the squared differences between ranks of the first and second administration # of the questionnaire. Scores Respondents Ranks Differences

141

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rs = = = =.

S1 56 58 49 53 48 53 59 54 60 55

R1 4 3 9 7.5 10 7.5 2 6 1 5

S2 59 66 52 64 53 54 64 70 72 78

R2 7 4 10 5.5 9 8 5.5 3 2 1

D D2 3 9 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 .5 .25 3.5 12.25 3 9 1 1 4 16 ∑D2 = 54.5

1 – 6(54.5) 103 – 10 1 - 327 990 1 - .33 67 Moderately reliable

Appendix C
CHI-SQUARE MATRICES SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND VARIABLES ON TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS
Highest Educational Attainment and Planning and Preparation

λ2 = Σ(0 - E)2 E

λ2 = Chi-square O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency

Planning and Preparation Effective Moderately Effective

Highest Educational Attainment MA/MA with BEEd with MA Ed. D. units (1) units (11) BEEd (8) 14 39 17 36 78 145 73 150 59 125 60 124

Total (20) 151 309

142

Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

53 = 1.37 = 5.99

223 Significant

184

460

Reject null hypothesis
2 ( .05, 2df )

B. Highest Educational Attainment and Classroom Environment Classroom Environment Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ
2 2

Highest Educational Attainment MA/MA with BEEd with MA Ed. D. units (1) units (11) 15 38 53 = 4.37 17 36 84 139 223 Significant 73 150 52 132

BEEd (8) 60 124 184

Total (20) 151 309 460

Reject null hypothesis

= 5.99 C. Highest Educational Attainment and Instruction Instruction Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

Tabular λ ( .05, 2df)

Highest Educational Attainment MA/MA with BEEd with MA Ed. D. units (1) units (11) BEEd (8) 13 40 53 = 3.32 = 5.99 17 36 82 141 223 Significant
Reject null hypothesis
2 ( .05, 2df)

Total (20) 60 151 309 460

73 150

56 128 184

124

143

D. Highest Educational Attainment and Professional Responsibilities Professional Responsibilities Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

Highest Educational Attainment MA/MA with BEEd with MA Ed D units (1) units (11) BEEd (8) 15 38 53 = 4.37 = 5.99 17 36 84 139 223 Significant
Reject null hypothesis

Total (20) 60 151 309 460

73 150

52 132 184

124

2 ( .05, 2df)

E. Highest Educational Attainment and Use of Student Assessment Use of Student Assessment Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

Highest Educational Attainment MA/MA with BEEd with MA Ed D units (1) units (11) 14 39 53 = 4.37 = 5.99 17 36 83 140 223 Significant 73 150 55

Total (20) BEEd (8) 60 124 184 151 309 460

129

Reject null hypothesis
2 ( .05, 2df)

144

Appendix D
CHI-SQUARE MATRICES SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IN-SERVICE TRAINING AND VARIABLES ON TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

In-service Training and Planning and Preparation Planning and Preparation Effective Moderately Effective Total Hours of In-Service Training 106 and 71 – 105 36 – 70 above (2) (6) (10) 1 – 35 (2) 12 15 34 31 81 95 61 47 101 108 60 53 93 75 18 36 309 Total (20) 151

145

Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

46 = 29.43

142

161 Significant

111

460

Reject null hypothesis
2 (3df, .01)

= 11.34

In-service Training and Classroom Environment Classroom Environment Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

Total Hours of In-Service Training 106 and 71 – 105 36 – 70 above (2) (6) (10) 1 – 35 (2) 10 15 36 31 46 = 11.40 = 11.34 142 87 95 161 Significant
Reject null hypothesis
2 (3df, .01)

Total (20) 151

55 47

42 53 119 108

44 36 67 75 111

309 460

In-service Training and Instruction Total Hours of In-Service Training 106 and 71 – 105 36 – 70 above (2) (6) (10) 8 15 Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

Instruction Effective

Total (20) 1 – 35 (2) 48 151 36 63 309 75 111 460

54 47 88 31 46 = 18.33 = 11.34 142 95

41 53 120 108 161 Significant

38

Reject null hypothesis
2 (3df, .01)

146

In-service Training and Planning and Professional Responsibilities
Professional Responsibilities

Total Hours of In-Service Training 106 and 71 – 105 above (2) (6) 36 – 70 (10) 15 15 31 31 46
2

1 – 35 (2) 22 36 89

Total (20) 151 309

Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ

60 47 82 95 142

62 53 99 108 161 Significant

75 111 460

= 18.12 = 11.34

Reject null hypothesis
2 (3df, .01)

In-service Training and Planning and Use of Student Assessment
Use of Student Assessment

Total Hours of In-Service Training 106 and 71 – 105 36 – 70 above (2) (6) (10) 1 – 35 (2) 10 15 36 31 46
2

Total (20) 151

Effective Moderately Effective Total

56 47 86 95 142

43 53 118 108 161 Significant

46 36 65 75 111

309 460

Computed λ Tabular λ

= 12.47 = 11.34

Reject null hypothesis
2 (3df, .01)

147

Appendix E
CHI-SQUARE MATRICES SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RELEVANT TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND VARIABLES ON TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS A. Teaching Experience and Planning and Preparation Planning and Preparation Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ
2

15 – 20 40

Teaching Experience 7 – 14 1–6 (3) (3) 43 31 37 70 63 76 113 253 85 68

(14) 83 170

Total (20) 151 309 460

54 94

= 10.47

Significant
Reject null hypothesis

148

Tabular λ (2df, .01)

2

= 9.21

B. Teaching Experience and Classroom Environment
Classroom Environment Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

15 – 20 42

Teaching Experience 7 – 14 1–6 (3) (3) 45 31 37 68 63 76 113 253 189 64

(14) 83 170

Total (20) 151 309 460

52 94

= 15.12 = 9.21

Significant
Reject null hypothesis

2 (2df, .01)

C. Teaching Experience and Instruction
Instruction Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ
2 2

15 – 20 40

Teaching Experience 7 – 14 1–6 (3) (3) 46 31 37 67 63 76 113 253 188 65

(14) 83 170

Total (20) 151 309 460

54 94

= 13.20 = 9.21

Significant
Reject null hypothesis

Tabular λ (2df, .01)

149

D. Teaching Experience and Professional Responsibilities
Professional Responsibilities Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

15 – 20 46

Teaching Experience 7 – 14 1–6 (3) (3) 43 31 37 70 63 76 113 253 191 62

(14) 83 170

Total (20) 151 309 460

48 94

= 20.35 = 9.21

Significant
Reject null hypothesis

2 (2df, .01)

E. Teaching Experience and Use of Student Assessment
Use of Student Assessment Effective Moderately Effective Total
Computed λ Tabular λ
2

15 – 20 40

Teaching Experience 7 – 14 1–6 (3) (3) 42 31 37 71 63 76 113 253 184 69

(14) 83 170

Total (20) 151 309 460

54 94

= 9.39 = 9.21

Significant
Reject null hypothesis

2 (.02df, .01)

150

Appendix F
COMPUTATION OF CHI-SQUARE IN A 2 x 3 TABLE BETWEEN TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND TEACHERS’ TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

λ2 = λ2 = chi-square
O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency Teaching Effectiveness Effective Moderately Effective Total 38 31 56 63 94 O 38E = 151 x 94 = 30.8565 460 460 64 15 - 20 (3) 49

Σ (O - E)2 E

Teaching Experience 7 – 14 1–6 (3) (14) 64 37 189 76 113 E 253 O-E (O - E)2 170 83

Total (20) 151 309 460 (O - E)2

Expected Frequency Computation

151

38 49E = 151 x 113 = 37.0934 64E = 151 x 253 = 83.0500 460 56E = 309 x 94 = 63.1435 460 64E = 309 x 113 = 75.9065 460 189E = 309 x .253 = 169.9500 460 Total Computed 49 64 56 64 189 460

30.8565 37.0935 83.0500 63.1435 75.9065 169.9500 460

7.1435 11.9065 19.0500 7.1435 11.9065 19.0500 .0000

51.0296 141.7671 362.9025 51.0296 141.7647
]

E 1.6538 3.8219 4.3697 .8082 1.8676 2.1353 14.6565

362.9025

λ2 =

14.6565 or 14.66 Significant Reject null hypothesis

Tabular λ2 (2df, .01) = 9.21

Appendix G
COMPUTATION OF PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT BETWEEN TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES AND THEIR TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

rxy =

NΣ XY – (Σ X) (Σ Y) [NΣ X2 – (Σ X)2] [NΣ Y2 – (Σ Y)2]

where Σ X Σ Y N Σ XY Σ X2 Σ Y2 rxy = sum of Professional Practices’ mean ratings = sum of Teaching Effectiveness mean ratings = Number of Cases = sum of the products of X and Y = sum of squared X means = sum of squared Y means = Correlation between X and Y

152

X 3.42 3.42 3.42 3.68 3.68 3.29 3.29 3.67 3.78 3.78 3.40 3.40 3.49 3.55 Σ X 49.27

Y 3.60 4.03 4.05 4.03 3.65 4.05 3.60 4.05 4.05 3.60 4.05 3.60 3.65 3.65 Σ Y 53.66

X2 11.6964 11.6964 11.6964 13.5424 13.5424 10.8241 10.8241 13.4689 14.2884 14.2884 11.5600 11.5600 12.1801 12.6025 Σ X2 = 138.0788

Y2 12.9600 16.2409 16.4025 16.2409 13.3225 16.4025 12.9600 12.4025 12.4025 12.9600 12.4025 12.9600 13.3225 13.3225 Σ Y2 = 155.0568

XY 12.3895 12.3120 13.7826 13.8510 14.8304 13.4320 13.3245 11.8440 14.8635 15.3090 13.6080 13.7700 12.2400 12.7575 Σ XY = 151.1045

Appendix G (continued) rxy = 14(151.1065) – (49.27) (53.66) [14 (138.0788) - (49.27)2] [14 (155.0568) - (53.66)2 ]

=

528.3652 592.1569 Significant at .01 High Correlation, Marked Relationship

Computed rxy = .89

Tabular r(7df, .01) = .7977

153

Significance of the Coefficient of Correlation t=r N-2 1 – r2 = .89 8 -2 1 - .892 Significant at .01 Reject null hypothesis
.01)

tc = 4.78 Tabular t(6df,

= 3.707

CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DATA Name Address Tel. # Cell # Status Religion Age : : : : : : : GLENN R. ANDRIN 47 P. Del Rosario Ext. Cebu City (032) 259-6474 09276855270 Single Roman Catholic 26 years old

154

Height Weight Birthplace

: : :

5’6” 150 lbs. Cebu City

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Post Graduate Doctor of Education Major in Administration (Ed.D.) University of Southern Philippines Cebu City Master of Science in Elementary School Management (MSESM) Major in Classroom Management University of Cebu Cebu City Master in Science Teaching Major in English (MS English) Cebu City 2005 Diploma in Professional Education Ateneo de Manila University Quezon City 2004 Distance Learning Program Civil Service Commission Cebu City 2004 Tertiary Bachelor of Arts in Literature College of Arts University of Cebu Cebu City 2001 University of Cebu Cebu City 1996

Graduate Studies

Secondary

155

Elementary

City Central School Cebu City 1992

WORK EXPERIENCES Faculty Faculty University of Cebu – Banilad Campus 2004-present ABE - International College Lahug, Cebu City 2003

EDUCATIONAL AWARDS Tertiary Literary Arts Awardee (2001-2002) Service Awardee (2000-2001) Loyalty Awardee (2000-2001) Outstanding A.B. Student (2000-2001) Dean’s Lister (1st semester,2000) Outstanding University Student (1999-2000) Leadership Awardee (1999-2000) Writer of the Year (1999-2000) Secondary Elementary Top Ten Finalist Best Debater (1995-1996) Best in Social Studies Grade Six Level 1999 North America Poetry Writing Contest New York, United States Of America

SEMINAR-WORKSHOPS ATTENDED January 29, 2005 “LOVE IN THE CLASSROOM”

156

USP Lahug,Cebu City January 5,2005 Engaging and Transformative Teaching Strategies for Student Empowerment St. Scholastica’s Academy LaSalle Avenue, Bacolod City November 20, 2004 “The Teacher: Spearheading the Making an Excellent School” Marcelo B. Fernan, Cebu Press Club Cebu City November 27,2004 “DYSLEXIA: Discerning and Managing the Disability” UP Conference Hall, Lahug, Cebu City October 16,2004 Reading Problems in the Early Grades: Detection and Intervention SM City, Cebu City “Clinical Teaching for Professional” Garwood Hotel, Cebu City

March 5,2005 February 28,2004

“Experiencing English” Ateneo de Manila University Press Sacred Heart (Boys), Cebu City February 7-8,2004 “Creative Writing Seminar Workshop” Graduate School, UNIVERSITY OF CEBU February 7,2004 “Research Agenda Formulation Workshop” Southwestern University Cebu City “The effects of Media o the Values Of Students” San Carlos Girls High School Cebu City “Dynamic Teaching” (Best Approach in Teaching Language) Sacred Heart School-Jesuits Cebu City

January 31, 2004

January 24,2004

December 13,2003 “The Teaching of Writing and Composition: An Update” University of the Philippines- H.S. Dept.

157

Lahug, Cebu City November 25,2003 “Curriculum Development For Basic Education” Holiday Inn Galleria Manila November 22,2003 “Teaching for Relevance” Colegio del Sto. Nino, Cebu City August 30, 2003 “Educating the Filipino Child in Today’s Changing Times” Cebu City “Seven Habits for Highly Effective Teachers” Cebu City “Strengthening Graduate Education: Research Priorities and Best Practices” Cebu City

June 9,2003 May 17,2003

March 19-21, 2003 “Teacher as Self-Giver” College of Education University of Cebu December 7,2002 “Values Across the Five Learning Areas of the Restructured Basic Education Curriculum” University of Cebu “Basic Education for the Philippine Educational System Today” Graduate School San Jose Recolletos

May 11,2002

September 22,2001 “Teaching Styles” College of Education University of Cebu September 15,2001 “Cooperative Learning” College of Education University of Cebu August 17,2001 “The Art of Questioning” College of Education University of Cebu

158

August 10,2001

“Innovate Teaching Strategies” College of Education University of Cebu “Seminar in Leadership and Management Skills Training For School Administrator” Graduate School University of San Carlos (Main), Cebu City “School of Future” College of Education University of Cebu “Professionalism and Work Ethics” College of Education University of Cebu “The Teacher as Quality Manager” College of Education University of Cebu

July 27-28, 2001

January 29,2000

March 24,2000

March 27,2000

July 29-30, 2000

“1st AB Creative Writing Seminar-Workshop” College of Arts Carmen, Cebu “Methodologies in the Teaching Literature” College of Arts University of Cebu “Likhang Diwa Workshop” Lakandiwa Publication Dalaguete Agricultural Center Dalaguete, Cebu

July 11,2000

April 23-25, 1999

WRITING PUBLICATION ASSIGNMENTS Editor in Chief A.B. Batch Yearbook College of Arts University of Cebu 2000-2001

159

Editor in Chief

English Journal Languages Department University of Cebu 2000-2001 Kahayag Publication College of Arts University of Cebu 1999-2000

Editor in Chief

PUBLISHED WORKS (INTERNATIONAL) Poems The Consuming Flame UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ISBN 1-58235-137-6 The International Library Of Poetry www.poetry.com http://www.poetry.com> 1 Poetry Plaza, Owing Mills, MD 21117, USA

Sighing(poem)

PUBLISHED WORKS (LOCAL) Poems, Essays And Critical Analysis Essay PARNASSIAN JOURNAL Official Publication of the College of Arts University of Cebu 2000-2002 Cebu Daily News Cebu City

RESOURCE SPEAKER IN SEMINAR-WORKSHOPS AND OTHER SERVICES High School Guidance Program Consolatrix College Toledo City March 20,2003 “Creative Writing” LJB Foundation School

160

Carcar, Cebu March 17,2003 “Career Days” Santo Tomas School Danao City March 7,2003 “A Lecture-Forum in Literature” Jollibee Mango Avenue Cebu City February , 1999 Judge Judge Coach Poetry Writing Contest Banilad Campus Essay Writing Contest Banilad Campus Oratorical Contest (2nd winner) Communication Festival 2004 Main Campus The Interlink Banilad Campus Publication

Adviser

MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION Graduate National Organization of Professional Teachers, Inc. (NOPT) Manila Philippines Association Of Graduate Education (PAGE) Manila Tertiary ERATO CIRCLE (College of Arts and Education) President (1999-2001) PARNASSIAN SOCIETY (College of Arts) President (1998-1999) University Days 2000 Chairman, Contest Committee

161

AB-Student Body Organization Chairman, Academic and Research Committee 2000-2001

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