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Martha Roger's Science of Unitary • Nursing is both a science and • Rogers model provides the • The human field

the • The human field and the

Human Beings art. the uniqueness of way of viewing the unitary environmental field are
This page was last updated on 27-06- nursing, like that of any other human being constantly exchanging their
2010 science, lies in the energy
• Humans are viewed as
phenomenon central to its integral with the universe • There are no boundaries or
focus. barrier that inhibit energy
• The unitary human being and
• Nurses long established
the environment are one ,not flow between fields
Introduction concern with the people and dichotomous
the world they live is in a
natural forerunner of an • Nursing focus on people and Pattern
organized abstract system the manifestations that
• Born :May 12, 1914, Dallas,
emerge from the mutual
encompassing people and
the environments. human /environmental field • Pattern is defined as the
• Diploma :Knoxville General process distinguishing characteristic
Hospital School of • The irreducible nature of of an energy field perceived
individuals is different from • Change of pattern and as a single waves
Nursing(1936) organization of the human
the sum of the parts.
• Graduation in Public Health field and the environmental • "pattern is an abstraction
Nursing, George Peabody • The integral ness of people
field is propagated by waves and it gives identity to the
College, TN, 1937 and the environment that field"
coordinate with a • The manifestations of the
• MA :Teachers college, multidimensional universe of field patterning that emerge
Columbia university, New open systems points to a are observable events Pan dimensionality
York, 1945 new paradigm :the identity of • The identification of the
• MPH :Johns Hopkins nursing as a science. pattern provide knowledge
• Pan dimensionality is defined
University, Baltimore, MD, • The purpose of nurses is to and understanding of human
as "non linear domain
1952 promote health and well- experience
without spatial or temporal
• Doctorate in nursing :Johns being for all persons • Basic characteristics which attributes"
Hopkins University, wherever they are. describes the life process of
Baltimore, 1954 human: energy field,
• The parameters that human
openness, pattern, and pan use in language to describe
• Fellowship: American Evolution of abstract system events are arbitrary.
academy of nursing dimensionality
• Basic concepts include • The present is relative ;there
• Position: Professor Emerita, is no temporal ordering of
Division of Nursing, New York
• The development of the unitary human being,
abstract system was strongly environment, and lives.
University, Consultant,
Speaker influenced by an early homeodynamic principles
grounding in arts and Unitary Human Being (person)
• Died : March 13 , 1994 background of science and
her keen interest in space Concepts of Rogers model

Publications of Martha Rogers • The science of unitary human • A unitary human being is an
beings originated as a Energy field "irreducible, indivisible, pan
synthesis of facts and ideas dimensional (four-
• Theoretical basis of nursing from multiple sources of dimensional) energy field
(Rogers 1970) knowledge • The energy field is the identified by pattern and
fundamental unit of both the manifesting characteristics
• Nursing science and art :a • The uniqueness is in the
living and nonliving that are specific to the whole
prospective (Rogers 1988) central phenomena : people and which cannot be
and environment • This energy field "provide a
• Nursing :science of unitary, way to perceive people and predicted from knowledge of
irreducible, human beings • The Rogerian view of a
environment as irreducible the parts" and "a unified
update (Rogers 1990) causality emerges from an wholes" whole having its own
• Vision of space based nursing infinite universe of open distinctive characteristics
system. • The energy fields which cannot be perceived
(Rogers 1990) continuously varies in by looking at, describing, or
intensity, density, and extent summarizing the parts"
Overview of Rogerian model
Rogers nursing theory • The people has the capacity
Openness to participate knowingly and
probabilistically in the
process of change
Environment • The creative use of science Helicy there is no linear time nor
for the betterment of the any separation of human and
human the environmental fields
• The environment is an The creative use of its • Helicy describes the
"irreducible ,pan dimensional knowledge is the art of its unpredictable, but
energy field identified by continuous, nonlinear The theory of accelerating
practice evolution
pattern and integral with the evolution of energy fields as
human field" evidenced by non repeating
• Assumptions about people and rhythmicties
The field coexist and are
nursing • Theory postulates that
integral. Manifestation • The principle of Helicy evolutionary change is
emerge from this field and postulates an ordering of the speeding up and that the
are perceived. humans evolutionary range of diversity of life
• Nursing exists to serve emergence
people……… is the direct process is widening. Rogers
Health and overriding responsibility explained that higher wave
to the society Integrality frequencies are associated
with accelerating human
• The safe practice of nursing development
• Rogers defined health as an depends on the nature and
expression of the life amount of scientific nursing • Integrality cover the mutual,
process; they are the knowledge the individual continuous relationship of the Theory of Rhythmicity
"characteristics and behavior brings to practice…….the human energy field and the
emerging out of the mutual, imaginative, intellectual environmental field .
simultaneous interaction of judgment with which such • Changes occur by by the • Focus on the human field
the human and knowledge is made in service continuous repatterning of rhythms (these rhythms are
environmental fields" to the man kind the human and different from the biological,
• Health and illness are the • People needs knowledgeable environmental fields by psychological rhythm)
part of the sane continuum. nursing resonance waves • Theory deals with the
• The multiple events taking • The fields are one and manifestations of the whole
place along life's axis denote integrated but unique to unitary man as changes in
the extent to which man is Homeodynamic principles each other human sleep wake patterns,
achieving his maximum indices of human field
health potential and very in motion, perception of time
their expressions from • The principles of Rogerian theories passing, and other rhythmic
greatest health to those homeodynamic postulates development
conditions which are the way of perceiving unitary
human beings Rogerian theories-Grand theories
incompatible with the Theories derived from the science
maintaining life process • The fundamental unit of the of unitary human beings
living system is an energy • The theory of accelerating
field evolution
• Three principle of • The theory of paranormal • The perspective rhythm
homeodynamics phenomena model (Patrick 1983)
• The concept Nursing o Resonancy • The theory of rhythmicities • Theory of health as
encompasses two dimensions o Helicy expanding consciousness
• Independent science of o integrality (Neuman, 1986)
Theory of paranormal phenomena
nursing • Theory of creativity,
actualization and empathy
Resonance (Alligood 1991)
• An organized body of • This theory focus on the
knowledge which is specific explanations for • Theory of self transcendence
to nursing is arrived at by • Resonance is an ordered precognition, déjàvu, (Reed1997)
scientific research and logical arrangement of rhythm clairvoyance, telepathy, and • Power as knowing
analysis characterizing both human therapeutic touch participation in change
field and environmental field • Clairvoyance is rational in a (Barrett 1998)
that undergoes continuous four dimensional human field
• Art of nursing practice dynamic metamorphosis in in continuous mutual,
the human environmental simultaneous interaction with Rogers concepts of nursing
process a four dimensional world;
• Nursing is a learned help people move toward Rules for nursing research guided • Mutual exploration of the
profession-it is a science and better health by the Rogerian theory healing human-environment
art • Nursing aims to assist people field scale
• Nursing is the study of in achieving their maximum Rules for research • Garon assessment of pain
unitary. Irreducible, potential. scale
indivisible human and • Nursing practice should be • Family assessment tool
environmental energy fields emphasized on pain • The Rogerian research
management, supportive require both basic and • Community health
• The art of nursing involves applied research assessment tool
the imaginative and creative psychotherapy motivation for
use of nursing knowledge rehabilitation. • The phenomena to be
• The purpose of nurses is to • Maintenance and promotion studied are unitary human Rules for nursing education
of health, prevention of beings and their guided by Rogerian theory
promote health and well- environmental interaction
being for all person and disease, nursing diagnosis,
groups wherever they are intervention, and • Study participants may be Focus of the curriculum
using the art and science of rehabilitation encompasses any person or group, with the
nursing the scope of nursing provision that both person
and environment are taken •
• The health services should be into account
Nursing education can be for
community based Roger’s contribution to nursing professional nursing ,
knowledge technical nursing
• Rogers challenges nurses to
consider nursing needs of all Research methodology • The focus is the transmission
people, including future of the body of knowledge
• Rogers was one of the first
generation of space kind ;as nurse scholars to explicitly • Qualitative and quantitative • Teaching and practicing
life continuous to evolve from identify the person (unitary therapeutic touch
earth to space and beyond. methods can be applied
man) as the central
• Experimental researches are • Conducting regular in-service
• Her view provides a different phenomena of nursing education
world view that encompasses concern questionable because she
a practice of nursing for the rejects the notion of causality
• Nursing abstract system is a
present time and for the matrix of concepts relevant • Case study and longitudinal Nursing programs
imagined and for the yet to to the life process in man research are better than
be imagined future cross sectional study
• Rogers conceptual system • Baccalaureate degree
• Rogers envisions a nursing provides a body of • Research instruments that
practice of noninvasive knowledge in nursing that are directly derived from
modalities, such as science of unitary human • Masters program
will have relevance for all
therapeutic touch, humor, workers concerned with beings should be used • Doctoral program
guided imagery, use of color, •
light, music, meditation
people, but with special Data analysis – multivariate • The major concepts are –
relevance for nurses; analysis (canonical principal of Resonancy,
focusing on health potential because it matters to human correlation studies)
of the person. Helicy, Integrality
beings; consequently to
• Professional practice in nurses • The faculty in the nursing
nursing seeks to promote Research tools derived from education must be prepared
• In the evolution it is properly science of unitary human beings at doctoral level
symphonic interaction subjected to reformulation
between man and and change as the
environment, to strengthen
the coherence and integrity
knowledge grows, the the • Perceived field motion scale Teaching- learning strategies
conceptual data will be more
of the human field, and to clearer and it will take new • Human field rhythm scale
direct and redirect patterning dimensions • Temporal experience scale • Emphasis should be on
of the human and developing self awareness as
environmental fields for • The utilization of Rogerian • Assessment of dream
an aspect of the clients
realization of maximum model is used as a guide for experience scale environmental energy field
health potential theory development, • Person environment and the dynamic role of
research, nursing education,
• Nursing intervention seeks to and in the direct patient care
participation scale nurse pattern manifestation
coordinate environmental • Leddy healthiness scale on the client
field and human field • Emphasis on laboratory
rhythmicities, participates in study- the lab setting include
the process of change , to homes, schools, industry,
clinics, hospitals, other • Nursing is an independent • Neonatal ICU • Pattern appraisal
places where people lives science • Pediatric ICU • Mutual patterning of human
• Importance of use of media • Nurse assumes the role of and environmental fields
in education • Post operative unit
potentiater of care • Evaluation
• Pre operative unit
• She proposes the
Rules for nursing administration independent role in various • Palliative care unit
guided by Rogerian theory For the patient
setting like school, industry, • Rehabilitation center
community, space (by
2050AD) • Burns unit
Purpose of nursing services
• Adult ICU’s • Self reflection
• Independent practitioner is
an advanced practice • Old age homes • Patterning activities
• Nursing services is the center registered registered nurse • Neuropsychiatric units • Personal appraisal
of any health care system who focus on well-being or
• The purpose of nursing mutual patterning of
individual, family, community AREA WHERE ROGERIAN MODEL IS Nursing process
services is health promotion Assessment
across the life span ,at risk NOT APPLICABLE
for developing
Characteristics of nursing dissonance/illness
personnel o Operation theaters • Areas of assessment
• Simultaneous states of the
Rules for nursing practice guided individual and the
by Rogerian theory Purpose of nursing practice
• The administrators should environment
hold higher degrees in • Total pattern of events at any
nursing and licensed Areas of Rogerian model • To promote well-being for all given point in space –time
• Leaders must be visionary application persons, wherever they are • Rhythms of life process
and willing to embrace
innovative and creative
• To assist both the client and • Supplementary data
SETTINGS nurse to increase their
awareness of their own • Categorical disease entities
• Leaders should be able to rhythm • Subsystem pathology
identify the patterning to • All spheres of life
ensure the integrated • Pattern appraisal
• School Setting for practice
behaviors for client and
employees • Industry
It is a comprehensive assessment of:
• Family
• From community to hospital
Management strategies and • Community to outer space
administrative policies • Human field patterns of
• Space communication, exchange,
Legitimate participants rhythms, dissonance
• Administrative policies foster SPECIALITIES • Environmental fields pattern
an open and supportive of communication, rhythms,
administrative climate that • People of all ages both as dissonance, harmony
enhances staff members self • Pediatrics individual human energy
esteem , actualization, and fields and group energy fields
• Psychiatry Intuitive reflection of self
freedom of choice and
provide opportunity for staff • Oncology
Nursing process- Health
development and continuing • Burns patterning practice method • Validation of the appraisal
• Geriatrics
• The ultimate goal is the
• Neurology •
clients well-being Assessment • Validate with self
• Cardiology • Voluntary mutual patterning • Validate with the client
Rules for independent practitioner • Rehabilitative medicine • Evaluation
guided by Rogerian model
Mutual patterning of human and
SPECIALIZED AREAS OF PRACTICE For the nurse environmental field
• Sharing knowledge started sitting lonely, decreased ADL, • Decreased environmental • Teach her how to center the
repeated crying spells, decreased energy transfer is visible by energy and channel her
• Offering choices talks, neglects hygiene, muttering to decreased talking and crying energy to the area of pain
• Empowering the client self, decreased sleep , appetite,
neglecting her child care, complaints • Radha has manifestation of • Use humor for increasing
• Fostering patterning of severe pain in the body,………….3 fear…….her self knowledge socialization and developing
• Evaluation days back attempted suicide by links her illness to her self confidence and
consuming rat poison. personal belief of being developing worthiness
• Repeat pattern appraisal punished for her past sins • Human environmental
• Identify dissonance and • Appraisal is needed in her patterning needs to involve
harmony Current assessment findings …….her
general appearance is a teary eyed sleep patterns, nutrition and the other individual who
• Validate appraisal with the young woman ,ill-kempt, clinging to her perception of self share her environment
client her husband ,looking perplexed, not • Appraisal can be grouped including husband and son
• Self reflection for the client talking…..poor nutritional intake, when into exchanging patterns, • Options are introduced
asked about her illness….cries communication patterns, and relating to increase
• Pattern appraisal include
inconsolably …on repeated asking relating patterns communication and hygiene
appraisal of multiple lifestyle
expressed sadness of mood. • Time between nurse and patterns
rhythms such as:
• Nutrition Radha is needed to foster her • The entire family is involved
Nursing care of Radha with Rogers healing in power as knowing
• Work/leisure activities model • During the process nurse participation in change
• Exercise must rely on personal
• Sleep / wake cycles
• With rogerian model, the
intuition and insight Evaluation
regarding the emerging
• Relationships process of caring Radha pattern
• Discomfort or pain begins with pattern appraisal
• All this pattern forms the • The evaluation process
• Fear /hopes • Nursing care involve pattern unitary pattern of Radha centers on the perceptions of
appraisal, mutual patterning, dissonance that exist after
and evaluation the mutual pattern activities
Patterning activities for the client Mutual patterning
• The appraisal process is
Pattern appraisal repeated
Meditation• • The process is mutual • Manifestation of worry, pain,
Imagery• between the nurse and fear, sadness of moos has to
Journaling• • This visible rhythmical Radha be appraised with family
Modifying• the surroundings pattern is a manifestation of members
evolution towards dissonance • The surgery performed,
medication she is receiving • A summary of the dissonance
Clinical case study of Radha using
• Radha has pattern are patterning modalities and/or harmony that is
manifestation of perceived is then shared with
Rogerian conceptual Model
dissonance……..depression • Patterning activities planned
by the nurse for Radha Radha, and mutual
with suicidal ideation, patterning is modified or
Radha is a 22years old female ovarian malignancy, pain ……..therapeutic touch,
humor , meditation, imagery instituted ad indicated based
admitted in a psychiatry unit with • Radha has a low educational on the evaluation
severe depression secondary to background • Radha needs to be assessed
diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. She fully regarding her ability to
becomes tearful during history taking. • A pattern activity of healing understand and agree with Summary
Radha is accompanied with her is noted through reports of a different patterning
husband and 1year old child. Her positive operative course modalities
husband appeared anxious but • • Biographical sketch of Martha
Patterning has to be directed • Therapeutic touch can be Rogers
supportive and attentive …………he is towards reduction in introduced to Radha
working as an accountant in their perceived dissonance with • Overview of Rogerian
native place. Radha was diagnosed her personal and • Touch is introduced and concepts
with ovarian cancer 2 months back environmental field incorporated into the
and underwent bilateral salphingio management of pain, helps • Rogerian terminologies
oopherectomy and hysterectomy………
• Pain is a manifestation of in energy transmission for • Rogerian theories
30days ago. She is undergoing perceived dissonance healing and …….helps in
developing trust in the nurse • Nursing concepts, nursing
chemotherapy due to its Metastatic process
pattern…….. From past 3 weeks Radha
• Perspectives of nursing
education, administration,
nursing practice
• Contribution to nursing
• Clinical example