HANDOVER PROCESS

BSSPAR

HANDOVER PROCESS Causes
Uplink Quality Downlink Quality Uplink Level Downlink Level MS Speed Timing Advance AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO AV_RXLEV_UL_HO AV_RXLEV_DL_HO AV_MS_SPEED AV_RANGE_HO DISTANCE DISTANCE RAPID FIELD DROP RAPID FIELD DROP Adjacent Cells AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION DIRECTED RETRY DIRECTED RETRY IMPERATIVE HO QUALITY QUALITY & & INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE LEVEL LEVEL MS SPEED MS SPEED THRESHOLD COMPARISON

Others: Intelligent Underlay Overlay Traffic Reason ……….
POWER BUDGET POWER BUDGET UMBRELLA UMBRELLA PERIODIC CHECKS

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover Decision

Handover process may be triggered by • Quality, field strength or distance values fall below/exceed their threshold • Periodic checks • • Power budget HO Umbrella HO

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover Priority
• Handover

priority

1. Uplink and downlink Interference 2. Uplink quality 3. Downlink quality 4. Uplink level 5. Downlink level 6. Distance 7. Rapid Field Drop 8. Slow moving MS 9. Better cell i.e. Periodic check (Power Budget HO or Umbrella HO) 10. PC: Lower quality/level thresholds (UL/DL) 11. PC: Upper quality/level thresholds (UL/DL)

HANDOVER PROCESS Target Cell Selection (1)
Only for Adjacent Cell of the same BSC

Best candidates : intra BSC HO max 16 cells under the same BSC as the source cell inter BSC HO numberOfPreferredCells
Load check of Candidates by btsLoadThreshold (0..100%)

1.

If overloaded priority decreased by hoLoadFactor (0...7)

2.

Comparison of priorities of Candidates (hoLevelPriority (0..7))

If two or more Adjacent cells with equal priorities 3. -> Ranking based on radio properties

HANDOVER PROCESS Target Cell Selection (2)
All cells have equal priority
cell Rx_Level 1. Load hoLoadFactor 2. Priority New Priority 3. Rx_Level => cell list a -75 overl. 1 3 2 -75 c , a ,b b -80 overl. 1 3 2 -80 c One cell has higher priority because of some reaso cell a -75 n./overl. 2 4 4/2 -75 b -80 n.overl. 1 3 3 -80 c -83 n.overl. 1 3 3 -83

-83 Rx_Level n.overl. 1. Load 1 hoLoadFactor 3 2. Priority 3 New Priority 3. Rx_Level => cell list => cell list

a,b,c (if cell a is not overload) b,c,a

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover Algorithms
In all Handover cases (in imperative HO only requirement) 1.
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, A) A = msTxPwrMax(n) - P

P = MS Classmark

Except for Umbrella Handover 1’. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > hoLevelUmbrella(n)

The additional condition 2. PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n) PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - AV_RXLEV_DL - (btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR)) - (msTxPwrMax(n) - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AV_RXLEV_DL + (btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR) + hoMarginLev/Qual(n)
If enableHoMarginLevQual = Y

2’.

HANDOVER PROCESS Power Budget Handover (1)
Equations 1 and 2 are used Serving Cell: AV_RXLEV_DL = -90 dBm msTxPwrMax = 33 dBm (= 2W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W) BTS_TX_PWR = 42 dBm = (16 W) hoMarginPBGT(n) = 6 dB 1. Best Adjacent Cell: AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) = -80 dBm rxLevMinCell(n) = -99 dBm msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm (= 2W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W)

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, msTxPwrMax(n) - msTxPwrMax) -80 dBm > -99 dBm + (33 dBm - 33 dBm) = -99 dBm

2.

PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - AV_RXLEV_DL - (btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR)) - (msTxPwrMax(n) - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) PBGT = (33 dBm - -90 dBm - (42 dBm - 42 dBm)) - (33 dBm - -80 dBm) = 10 dB 10 dB > 6 dB OK !!!!

HANDOVER PROCESS Power Budget Handover (2)
• Trigger – Periodic Check ( hoPeriodPBGT ) • Candidate Selection – Equation 1 & 2 used – Priority and Load Considered • Typically used between cells of the same "Layer"
Parameter
hoPeriodPBGT enablePwrBudgetHandover rxLevMinCell(n) msTxPwrMax(n) hoMarginPBGT(n)

Value
1 ... 63 (SACCH Period) Y/N -110 … -47 dBm 5 … 43 dBm -24 … 24 dB

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover due to Level
• • Trigger – Threshold Comparison ( hoThresholdsLevUL/DL (px - nx) ) Candidate Selection – Equation 1 used – Equation 2 used if enableHoMarginLevQual = N – Equation 2' with hoMarginLev used if enableHoMarginLevQual = Y – Priority and Load Considered

Parameter
hoThresholdLevUL/DL px nx rxLevMinCell(n) msTxPwrMax(n) hoMarginLev(n)

Value
-110 … -47 1 … 32 1 … 32 -110 … -47 dBm 5 … 43 dBm -24 … 24 dB

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover due to Quality
• Trigger – Threshold Comparison ( hoThresholdsQualUL/DL (px - nx) ) • Candidate Selection – Equation 1 used – Equation 2 used if enableHoMarginLevQual = N – Equation 2' with hoMarginQual used if enableHoMarginLevQual = Y – Priority and Load Considered Parameter Value
hoThresholdQualUL/DL px nx rxLevMinCell(n) msTxPwrMax(n) hoMarginQual(n) 0…7 1 … 32 1 … 32 -110 … -47 dBm 5 … 43 dBm -24 … 24 dB

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover due to Level or Quality

Equations 1 and 2’ are used if parameter enableHoMarginLevQual is set “Yes”

hoMarginLev = 4 dB hoMarginQual = 0 dB A Threshold (Lev) B

Handover Attempt

2 dB

=> Handover (Level) is unsuccesfull, 2 dB < 4 dB => Handover (Qual) is successfull, 2 dB > 0 dB

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover due to Interference (1)
• Trigger : Threshold Comparison – Threshold Comparison for Quality ( hoThresholdsQualUL/DL (px - nx) ) – Threshold Comparison for Level ( hoThresholdsInterferenceUL/DL (px - nx) ) Candidate Selection – Priority InterCell / Intracell selected at BSC independently UL / DL – Priority Inter • Priority Intra • Quality HO if Any Target Intra Cell HO • Otherwise Intra Cell HO

Parameter
hoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL px nx enableIntraHoInterfUL/DL hoPreferenceOrderInterfUL/DL

Value
-110 … -47 1 … 32 1 … 32 Y/N INTER / INTRA BSC

HANDOVER PROCESS Handover due to Interference (2)

Equations 1 and 2’ are used if parameter enableHandoverMarginQual is set “Yes”

hoThresholdQual =4 hoThresholdInterferenceDL = -90 dBm hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL = intra Handover Attempt

Threshold (Lev) A -90 dBm B - Field strength higher than threshold - Bad quality => interference => intra cell handover !!

0

5

HANDOVER PROCESS Imperative Handover (Distance)
• The Handover is considered to be imperative: – Handover due to Distance – Order to empty a cell ( from O&M ) – Directed Retry and IDR
Distance Process ---> msDistanceBehaviour (0,1..60,255) in BSC • 0 : Release immediately • 1 - 60 : Release after certain time 1 - 60 s, try handover during that time • 255 : No release

Distance Process

Parameter
enableMsDistanceProcess msDistanceHoThresholdParam px nx msDistanceBehaviour

Value
Y/N 0 … 63 1 … 32 1 … 32 0, 1 … 60, 255 BSC

Intra-Segment HO

HANDOVER PROCESS Practical Examples
a

1. Adjacent Channel in Adjacent Cell
- 9dB

• C Ia = - 9 dB

b

• In practice after -6 dB -> interferencies + quality goes down to 4-5 • hoMarginLev > -6 dB -> Ping-Pong !! X
x x

2. Cell with Very Large Coverage Area • MS switched off in cell A and transferred to area of cell X

A •

20 km • MS switched on in new place -> MS tries first old channel + neighbours • MS camped on cell A which is not in neighbour list of cell X -> do not listen BCCH of cell X -> no HOs to cell X !!!

HANDOVER PROCESS Timers
• Minimum time between consecutive handovers related to the same connections – MinIntBetweenHoReq • Minimum time between handover attempts after a failure – MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt – Applied differently in Intercell / Intracell handovers • Additional Guard Periods are used for Back-handovers – Quality – Distance – Traffic reason – Interference Parameter
minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt minIntBetweenHoReq

Value
0 ... 30 (seconds) 0 ... 30 (seconds)

Handover Diagram

HO due to Qual/Lev

HO due to Qual