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QUASI TURBINE

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STUDENT NAME : SHIVAM AGARWAL


ROLL NO : 12
BRANCH/SECTION : MECHANICAL/D
REG. NO : 130909058
E-MAIL ID : shivam.agarwal.5667@gmail.com
CONTACT NO. : 7406323466

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(A constituent Institute of MANIPAL UNIVERSITY)
MANIPAL - 576 104, KARNATAKA, INDIA
Quasi Turbine

INDEX

SERIAL NO. CONTENT PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION 3-5
1 1.1 QUASI TURBINE 4

1.2 HISTORY 5

HOW IT WORKS 6-14


2.1 QUASI TURBIBE WITH CARRIAGES 10
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2.2 QUASI TURBINE COMBUSTION CYCLE 13
2.3 WHY DOES IT TURN 14

3 COMPARISON WITH OTHER ENGINES 15-17

4 EXCEPTION FEATURES OF QUASI TURBINE 18

5 APPLICATIONS OF QUASI TURBINE 19

6 REFERENCES 20

Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


Quasi Turbine

1. INTRODUCTION

The basic principle behind any internal combustion engine is simple: a tiny

amount of air and high-energy fuel (like gasoline) in a small, enclosed space and

ignite it, the gas expands rapidly, releasing an incredible amount of energy. The

ultimate goal of an engine is to convert the energy of this expanding gas into a

rotary (spinning) motion. In the case of car engines, the specific goal is to rotate a

driveshaft rapidly. The driveshaft is connected to various components that pass

the rotating motion onto the car's wheels. To harness the energy of expanding

gas in this way, an engine must cycle through a set of events that causes many

tiny gas explosions. In this combustion cycle, the engine must:

Let a mixture of fuel and air into a chamber

Compress the fuel and air

Ignite the fuel to create an explosion

Release the exhaust (think of it as the by-product of the explosion)

Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


Quasi Turbine

1.1 QUASI TURBINE

The Quasi turbine (Qurbine) is a no crankshaft rotary engine having a 4 faces

articulated rotor with a free and accessible center, rotating without vibration nor

dead time, and producing a strong torque at low RPM under a variety of modes

and fuels. The Quasi turbine engine is a proposed piston less rotary engine using

a rhomboidal rotor whose sides are hinged at the vertices. The volume enclosed

between the sides of the rotor and the rotor casing provide compression and

expansion in a fashion similar to the more familiar Wankel engine, but the hinging

at the edges allows the volume ratio to increase . It is a crank less engine and

produces high torque at low RPM.

Simple Quasi turbine design

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1.2 HISTORY

The Saint-Hilaire family first patented the Quasi turbine combustion engine

in 1996. The Quasi turbine concept resulted from research that began with

an intense evaluation of all engine concepts to note advantages,

disadvantages and opportunities for improvement. During this exploratory

process, the Saint-Hilaire team came to realize that a unique engine

solution would be one that made improvements to the standard Wankel, or

rotary, engine.

Like rotary engines, the Quasi turbine engine is based on a rotor-and-

housing design. But instead of three blades, the Quasi turbine rotor has

four elements chained together, with combustion chambers located

between each element and the walls of the housing.

Dr. Dr. Gilles Saint Hillarie

Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


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2. HOW IT WORKS???

In the Quasi turbine engine, the four strokes of a typical cycle de Beau de

Rochas (Otto) cycle are arranged sequentially around a near oval, unlike the

reciprocating motion of a piston engine. In the basic single rotor Quasi turbine

engine, an oval housing surrounds a four-sided articulated rotor which turns and

moves within the housing. The sides of the rotor seal against the sides of the

housing, and the corners of the rotor seal against the inner periphery, dividing it

into four chambers.

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In a piston engine, one complete four-stroke cycle produces two complete

revolutions of the crankshaft. That means the power output of a piston

engine is half a power stroke per one piston revolution.

A Quasi turbine engine, on the other hand, doesn't need pistons. Instead,

the four strokes of a typical piston engine are arranged sequentially

around the oval housing. There's no need for the crankshaft to perform the

rotary conversion.

Simple engine cycle for Quasi turbine

In this basic model, the four cycles of internal combustion are:-

Intake- which draws in a mixture of fuel and air

Compression-which squeezes the fuel-air mixture into a smaller volume

Combustion- which uses a spark from a spark plug to ignite the fuel.

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Exhaust-which expels waste gases (the byproducts of combustion) from

the engine compartment

Quasi turbine engines with carriages work on the same basic idea as this simple

design, with added design modifications that allow for photo-detonation. Photo-

detonation is a superior combustion mode that requires more compression and

greater sturdiness than piston or rotary engines can provide. Internal combustion

engines fall into four categories based on how well air and fuel are mixed

together in the combustion chamber and how the fuel is ignited.

Type I includes engines in which the air and fuel mix thoroughly to form

what is called a homogenous mixture. When a spark ignites the fuel, a

hot flame sweeps through the mixture, burning the fuel as it goes. This, of

course, is the gasoline engine.

Type II -- a gasoline-direct injection engine -- uses partially mixed fuel and

air (i.e., a heterogeneous mixture) that is injected directly into the cylinder

rather than into an intake port. A spark plug then ignites the mixture,

burning more of the fuel and creating less waste.

Type III, air and fuel are only partially mixed in the combustion chamber.

This heterogeneous mixture is then compressed, which causes the

temperature to rise until self-ignition takes place. A diesel

engine operates in this fashion.

Type IV, the best attributes of gasoline and diesel engines are combined.

A premixed fuel-air charge undergoes tremendous compression until the

fuel self-ignites. This is what happens in a photo-detonation engine, and

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because it employs a homogenous charge and compression ignition, it is

often described as an HCCI engine. HCCI (Homogeneous Charge

Compression Ignition) combustion results in virtually no emissions and

superior fuel efficiency. This is because photo-detonation engines

completely combust the fuel, leaving behind no hydrocarbons to be treated

by a catalytic converter or simply expelled into the air.

Four Types of Internal Combustion Engines


Homogenous Fuel-air Heterogeneous Fuel-air
Mixture Mixture

Type I Type II
Spark-ignition Gasoline Direct-injection (GDI)
Gasoline Engine
Engine
Pressure-heated Self- Type IV Type III
ignition Photo-detonation Engine Diesel Engine

The high pressure required for photo-detonation puts a significant amount of

stress on the engine itself. Piston engines can't withstand the violent force of the

detonation. And traditional rotary engines such as the Wankel, which have longer

combustion chambers that limit the amount of compression they can achieve, are

incapable of producing the high-pressure environment necessary for photo-

detonation to occur. The Quasi turbine with carriages is strong enough and

compact enough to withstand the force of photo-detonation and allow for the

higher compression ratio necessary for pressure-heated self-ignition.

Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


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2.1 QUASI TURBINE WITH CARRIAGES

The housing (stator), which is a near oval known as the "Saint-Hilaire skating

rink," forms the cavity in which the rotor rotates. The housing contains four ports:

A port where the spark plug normally sits

A port that is closed with a removable plug.

A port for the intake of air.

An exhaust port used to release the waste gases of combustion.

The housing is enclosed on each side by two covers. The covers have three

ports of their own, allowing for maximum flexibility in how the engine is

configured. For example, one port can serve as an intake from a

conventional carburetor or be fitted with a gas or diesel injector, while another

can serve as an alternate location for a spark plug. One of the three ports is a

large outlet for exhaust gases.

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How the various ports are used depends on whether the automotive engineer

wants a traditional internal combustion engine or one that delivers the super-high

compression required of photo-detonation. The rotor, made of four blades,

replaces the pistons of a typical internal combustion engine. Each blade has a

filler tip and traction slots to receive the coupling arms. A pivot forms the end of

each blade. The job of the pivot is to join one blade to the next and to form a

connection between the blade and the rocking carriages. There are four rocking

carriages total, one for each blade. Each carriage is free to rotate around the

same pivot so that it remains in contact with the inner wall of the housing at all

times.

Each carriage works closely with two wheels, which means there are eight

wheels altogether. The wheels enable the rotor to roll smoothly on the contoured

surface of the housing wall and are made wide to reduce pressure at the point of

contact. The Quasi turbine engine doesn't need a central shaft to operate; but of

course, a car requires an output shaft to transfer power from the engine to the

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wheels. The output shaft is connected to the rotor by two coupling arms, which fit

into traction slots, and four arm braces.

The Quasi turbine engine has none of the intricate parts of a typical piston

engine. It has no crankshaft, valves, pistons, push rods, rockers or cams. And

because the rotor blades "ride" on the carriages and wheels, there is little friction,

which means oil and an oil pan are unnecessary.

Quasi turbine with carriages

Rotor blades, as they turn, change the volume of the chambers. First the volume

increases, which allows the fuel-air mixture to expand. Then the volume

decreases, which compresses the mixture into a smaller space. One combustion

stroke is ending right when the next combustion stroke is ready to fire. By making

a small channel along the internal housing wall next to the spark plug, a small

amount of hot gas is allowed to flow back to the next ready-to-fire combustion

chamber when each of the carriage seals passes over the channel. The result is

continuous combustion, just like in the airplane gas turbine.

All these factors result in the increased efficiency and performance. The four

chambers produce two consecutive circuits. The first circuit is used to compress

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and expand during combustion. The second is used to expel exhaust and intake

air. In one revolution of the rotor, four power strokes are created. That's eight

times more than a typical piston engine!

2.2 QUASI TURBINE COMBUSTION CYCLE

As the rotor turns, its motion and the shape of the housing cause each side of the

housing to get closer and farther from the rotor, compressing and expanding the

chambers similarly to the "strokes" in a reciprocating engine. However, whereas a

four stroke piston engine produces one combustion stroke per cylinder for every

two revolutions, the chambers of the Quasi turbine rotor generate height

combustion "strokes" per two rotor revolutions; this is eight times more than a

four-strokes piston engine.

Because the Quasi turbine has no crankshaft, the internal volume variations do

not follow the usual sinusoidal engine movements, which provide very different

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characteristics from the piston or the Wankel engine. Contrary to the Wankel

engine where the crankshaft moves the rotary piston face inward and outward,

each Quasi turbine rotor face rocks back and forth in reference to the engine

radius, but stays at a constant distance from the engine center at all time,

producing only pure tangential rotational forces.

The four strokes piston has such a long dead time, its average torque is about

1/8 of the peak torque, which dictate the robustness of the piston construction.

Since the Quasi turbine has not dead time, average torque is only 30% lower

than the peak torque, and for this reason, the relative robustness of the Quasi

turbine need be only 1/5 of that of the piston, allowing for an additional engine

weight saving...

2.3 WHY DOES IT TURN?

The diagram shows the force vector in a Quasi turbine when one or two opposed

chambers are pressurized either by fuel combustion, or by external pressure

fluids. Because the pressure vectors are off center, the Quasi turbine rotor

experiences a net rotational force.

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3. COMPARISON WITH OTHER ENGINES

The Quasi turbine offers many major improvements over the Wankel, including

the following:

The Wankel engine uses a rigid three-face rotor with a crankshaft. The

quasi turbine uses a deformable four faces rotor without a crankshaft.

The Wankel engine shaft turns at three times the rotor RPM. The quasi

Turbine rotor and main shaft turns at same RPM Speed.

The Wankel engine fires only once per revolution. The quasi turbine fires

4 times per main shaft revolution, producing Exceptional torque

continuity.

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When the Wankel engine rotor goes from one T.D.C to next, the

Torque increases to a maximum value and starts decreasing right Away

(progressive).

The torque generated by the quasi turbine gets rapidly to a plateau,

and hold this maximum for a long arc before decreasing, giving a better

overall mechanical energy conversion rate.

The Wankel engine has a dead time. The quasi turbine strokes are

consecutive with no dead time.

The Wankel engine cannot be operated in diesel mode due to the

excess expansion volume which adiabatically cools down the

combustion. Quasi turbine has no excessive volume and can run in

diesel Mode.

Due to its one single fire per shaft revolution and the dead time, the

Wankel engine needs a flywheel. Quasi turbine does not need a

flywheel, and consequently has faster acceleration.

Since the Wankel engines shaft rotates at three times its rotor speed, it

is not suitable for low rpm compressor or pumps. But quasi turbine is

suitable for this.

The Quasi turbine offers many major improvements over the IC engines also:-

In I.C engine piston makes positive torque only 17% of the time and drag

83% of the time. This is not the case in Quasi turbine.

In I.C engine gas flow is not unidirectional, but changes directions with

the piston direction. But in Quasi turbine it is unidirectional.

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In I.C engine valve inertia being a serious limitation to the engine

revolution. In Quasi turbine there are no valves.

The duration of the piston rest time at top and bottom are without

necessarily too long in I.C engines. But it is not the case for Quasi

turbine.

In I.C engine there is quite important noise level and vibration. But it is

not the case for Quasi turbine.

In I.C engines accessories like cam shaft uses a substantial power , but

in Quasi turbine there is no need of cams

In I.C engine lubricant is to be used as heat coolant, which require a

Cumbersome oil pan. But Quasi turbine requires no lubrication.

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4. EXCEPTIONAL FEATURES OF QUASI TURBINE

Zero vibration-In Quasi turbine, rotor rotates with a fixed centre of gravity and

the engine is perfectly balanced so there is no chance of vibration.

Less noisy-For comparable power, the quasi turbine is much quieter than the

piston engines, since it splits each expansion into four per turn and evacuates

the gases more gradually and on a greater angular displacement

Less pollution-As the quasi turbine expansion starts quicker than in the other

engines, there will be less time for the NOx formation, and less transfer of heat

to the engine block.

Continuous Combustion with lower temperature- Due to an earlier

expansion than in he piston engines, initial energy is immediately transferred in

to mechanical energy without awaiting the middle of the stroke as in the piston

engines. This initial expansion cools immediately the combustion gases, which

have less time to transfer their heat to the engine block. So continuous

combustion is possible with lower temperature.

Better torque continuity and Acceleration- The Quasi turbine has jointed

torque impulses without the assistance of a flywheel. This gives a better torque

continuity for quasi turbine. Flywheel is the main obstacle to engine

acceleration. Since Quasi turbine has no fly wheel it gives fast acceleration.

Compatible with Hydrogen- The Quasi turbine meets the fundamental criteria

imposed by the Hydrogen engine of the future (that is cold intake area, low

sensibility to detonation, less pollutant, robust and energy efficiency).

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5. APPLICATIONS OF QUASI TURBINE

Quasi turbine aviation- In a propeller airplane, weight reduction allows a

larger payload, space saving allows to reduce the aerodynamic drag, absence

of vibration increases instruments reliability and flight comfort, the noise

reduction increases the discretion level, the high torque allows the use of multi-

blades propeller and the better intake characteristic of the Quasi turbine allows

higher flight altitude.

Quasi turbine racing car- Formula Quasi turbine is a proposal to develop and

built of a racing car using the new Quasi turbine rotary engine. Because the

Quasi turbine has a much higher specific power density than the piston engine.

A single Quasi turbine rotor of about 50cm in diameter and 20cm thickness

could develop 1000 H.P. at only 3000 rpm.

Quasi turbine pumps- Quasi turbine is a very compact and light device

without power shaft, which allows to pump large volume. In the pump mode the

Quasi turbine has two intakes and two exits.

Quasi turbine hydrogen engine model- A good way to store Hydrogen is to

link it with carbon atom. Quasi turbine prefers Hydrogen storage in Carbon

molecules. This Hydrogen Carbon molecule storage technique is safe and

simple and has been appreciated by humans for centuries under the name of

Hydrocarbon fuels.

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6. REFERENCES

WWW.QUASITURBINE.COM
DIESEL PROGRESS USA MAGAZINE, APRIL 2000
EUREKA INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING MAGAZINE,
OCTOBER 1999. (Page no:29-30)
EUROPEAN AUTOMATIVE DESIGN,
SEPTEMBER 1999. (Page no: 72-73)
WWW.VISIONENGINEER.COM
WWW.FUTUREENERGIES.COM
www.invention-europe.com/topx.htm
www.gizmag.com/go/3501
www.visionengineer.com/mech/quasiturbine.php

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