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# QUASI TURBINE

Submitted by

## STUDENT NAME : SHIVAM AGARWAL

ROLL NO : 12
BRANCH/SECTION : MECHANICAL/D
REG. NO : 130909058
E-MAIL ID : shivam.agarwal.5667@gmail.com
CONTACT NO. : 7406323466

## MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(A constituent Institute of MANIPAL UNIVERSITY)
MANIPAL - 576 104, KARNATAKA, INDIA
Quasi Turbine

INDEX

## SERIAL NO. CONTENT PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION 3-5
1 1.1 QUASI TURBINE 4

1.2 HISTORY 5

## HOW IT WORKS 6-14

2.1 QUASI TURBIBE WITH CARRIAGES 10
2
2.2 QUASI TURBINE COMBUSTION CYCLE 13
2.3 WHY DOES IT TURN 14

6 REFERENCES 20

## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

1. INTRODUCTION

The basic principle behind any internal combustion engine is simple: a tiny

amount of air and high-energy fuel (like gasoline) in a small, enclosed space and

ignite it, the gas expands rapidly, releasing an incredible amount of energy. The

ultimate goal of an engine is to convert the energy of this expanding gas into a

rotary (spinning) motion. In the case of car engines, the specific goal is to rotate a

## driveshaft rapidly. The driveshaft is connected to various components that pass

the rotating motion onto the car's wheels. To harness the energy of expanding

gas in this way, an engine must cycle through a set of events that causes many

Quasi Turbine

## The Quasi turbine (Qurbine) is a no crankshaft rotary engine having a 4 faces

articulated rotor with a free and accessible center, rotating without vibration nor

dead time, and producing a strong torque at low RPM under a variety of modes

and fuels. The Quasi turbine engine is a proposed piston less rotary engine using

a rhomboidal rotor whose sides are hinged at the vertices. The volume enclosed

between the sides of the rotor and the rotor casing provide compression and

expansion in a fashion similar to the more familiar Wankel engine, but the hinging

at the edges allows the volume ratio to increase . It is a crank less engine and

## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

1.2 HISTORY

The Saint-Hilaire family first patented the Quasi turbine combustion engine

in 1996. The Quasi turbine concept resulted from research that began with

rotary, engine.

## Like rotary engines, the Quasi turbine engine is based on a rotor-and-

housing design. But instead of three blades, the Quasi turbine rotor has

## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

2. HOW IT WORKS???

In the Quasi turbine engine, the four strokes of a typical cycle de Beau de

Rochas (Otto) cycle are arranged sequentially around a near oval, unlike the

reciprocating motion of a piston engine. In the basic single rotor Quasi turbine

engine, an oval housing surrounds a four-sided articulated rotor which turns and

moves within the housing. The sides of the rotor seal against the sides of the

housing, and the corners of the rotor seal against the inner periphery, dividing it

Quasi Turbine

## engine is half a power stroke per one piston revolution.

A Quasi turbine engine, on the other hand, doesn't need pistons. Instead,

## the four strokes of a typical piston engine are arranged sequentially

around the oval housing. There's no need for the crankshaft to perform the

rotary conversion.

## Compression-which squeezes the fuel-air mixture into a smaller volume

Combustion- which uses a spark from a spark plug to ignite the fuel.

Quasi Turbine

## the engine compartment

Quasi turbine engines with carriages work on the same basic idea as this simple

design, with added design modifications that allow for photo-detonation. Photo-

## detonation is a superior combustion mode that requires more compression and

greater sturdiness than piston or rotary engines can provide. Internal combustion

engines fall into four categories based on how well air and fuel are mixed

## together in the combustion chamber and how the fuel is ignited.

Type I includes engines in which the air and fuel mix thoroughly to form

## what is called a homogenous mixture. When a spark ignites the fuel, a

hot flame sweeps through the mixture, burning the fuel as it goes. This, of

## Type II -- a gasoline-direct injection engine -- uses partially mixed fuel and

air (i.e., a heterogeneous mixture) that is injected directly into the cylinder

rather than into an intake port. A spark plug then ignites the mixture,

## burning more of the fuel and creating less waste.

Type III, air and fuel are only partially mixed in the combustion chamber.

## engine operates in this fashion.

Type IV, the best attributes of gasoline and diesel engines are combined.

Quasi Turbine

## Four Types of Internal Combustion Engines

Homogenous Fuel-air Heterogeneous Fuel-air
Mixture Mixture

Type I Type II
Spark-ignition Gasoline Direct-injection (GDI)
Gasoline Engine
Engine
Pressure-heated Self- Type IV Type III
ignition Photo-detonation Engine Diesel Engine

## The high pressure required for photo-detonation puts a significant amount of

stress on the engine itself. Piston engines can't withstand the violent force of the

detonation. And traditional rotary engines such as the Wankel, which have longer

combustion chambers that limit the amount of compression they can achieve, are

## incapable of producing the high-pressure environment necessary for photo-

detonation to occur. The Quasi turbine with carriages is strong enough and

compact enough to withstand the force of photo-detonation and allow for the

Quasi Turbine

## 2.1 QUASI TURBINE WITH CARRIAGES

The housing (stator), which is a near oval known as the "Saint-Hilaire skating

rink," forms the cavity in which the rotor rotates. The housing contains four ports:

## An exhaust port used to release the waste gases of combustion.

The housing is enclosed on each side by two covers. The covers have three

ports of their own, allowing for maximum flexibility in how the engine is

## conventional carburetor or be fitted with a gas or diesel injector, while another

can serve as an alternate location for a spark plug. One of the three ports is a

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## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

How the various ports are used depends on whether the automotive engineer

wants a traditional internal combustion engine or one that delivers the super-high

## compression required of photo-detonation. The rotor, made of four blades,

replaces the pistons of a typical internal combustion engine. Each blade has a

filler tip and traction slots to receive the coupling arms. A pivot forms the end of

each blade. The job of the pivot is to join one blade to the next and to form a

connection between the blade and the rocking carriages. There are four rocking

carriages total, one for each blade. Each carriage is free to rotate around the

same pivot so that it remains in contact with the inner wall of the housing at all

times.

Each carriage works closely with two wheels, which means there are eight

wheels altogether. The wheels enable the rotor to roll smoothly on the contoured

surface of the housing wall and are made wide to reduce pressure at the point of

contact. The Quasi turbine engine doesn't need a central shaft to operate; but of

course, a car requires an output shaft to transfer power from the engine to the

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## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

wheels. The output shaft is connected to the rotor by two coupling arms, which fit

## into traction slots, and four arm braces.

The Quasi turbine engine has none of the intricate parts of a typical piston

engine. It has no crankshaft, valves, pistons, push rods, rockers or cams. And

because the rotor blades "ride" on the carriages and wheels, there is little friction,

## Quasi turbine with carriages

Rotor blades, as they turn, change the volume of the chambers. First the volume

increases, which allows the fuel-air mixture to expand. Then the volume

decreases, which compresses the mixture into a smaller space. One combustion

stroke is ending right when the next combustion stroke is ready to fire. By making

a small channel along the internal housing wall next to the spark plug, a small

amount of hot gas is allowed to flow back to the next ready-to-fire combustion

chamber when each of the carriage seals passes over the channel. The result is

## continuous combustion, just like in the airplane gas turbine.

All these factors result in the increased efficiency and performance. The four

chambers produce two consecutive circuits. The first circuit is used to compress

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## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

and expand during combustion. The second is used to expel exhaust and intake

air. In one revolution of the rotor, four power strokes are created. That's eight

## 2.2 QUASI TURBINE COMBUSTION CYCLE

As the rotor turns, its motion and the shape of the housing cause each side of the

housing to get closer and farther from the rotor, compressing and expanding the

## chambers similarly to the "strokes" in a reciprocating engine. However, whereas a

four stroke piston engine produces one combustion stroke per cylinder for every

two revolutions, the chambers of the Quasi turbine rotor generate height

combustion "strokes" per two rotor revolutions; this is eight times more than a

## four-strokes piston engine.

Because the Quasi turbine has no crankshaft, the internal volume variations do

not follow the usual sinusoidal engine movements, which provide very different

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## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

characteristics from the piston or the Wankel engine. Contrary to the Wankel

engine where the crankshaft moves the rotary piston face inward and outward,

each Quasi turbine rotor face rocks back and forth in reference to the engine

radius, but stays at a constant distance from the engine center at all time,

## producing only pure tangential rotational forces.

The four strokes piston has such a long dead time, its average torque is about

1/8 of the peak torque, which dictate the robustness of the piston construction.

Since the Quasi turbine has not dead time, average torque is only 30% lower

than the peak torque, and for this reason, the relative robustness of the Quasi

turbine need be only 1/5 of that of the piston, allowing for an additional engine

weight saving...

## 2.3 WHY DOES IT TURN?

The diagram shows the force vector in a Quasi turbine when one or two opposed

## chambers are pressurized either by fuel combustion, or by external pressure

fluids. Because the pressure vectors are off center, the Quasi turbine rotor

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Quasi Turbine

## 3. COMPARISON WITH OTHER ENGINES

The Quasi turbine offers many major improvements over the Wankel, including

the following:

The Wankel engine uses a rigid three-face rotor with a crankshaft. The

## quasi turbine uses a deformable four faces rotor without a crankshaft.

The Wankel engine shaft turns at three times the rotor RPM. The quasi

## Turbine rotor and main shaft turns at same RPM Speed.

The Wankel engine fires only once per revolution. The quasi turbine fires

continuity.

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## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

When the Wankel engine rotor goes from one T.D.C to next, the

(progressive).

## The torque generated by the quasi turbine gets rapidly to a plateau,

and hold this maximum for a long arc before decreasing, giving a better

## overall mechanical energy conversion rate.

The Wankel engine has a dead time. The quasi turbine strokes are

## combustion. Quasi turbine has no excessive volume and can run in

diesel Mode.

Due to its one single fire per shaft revolution and the dead time, the

## flywheel, and consequently has faster acceleration.

Since the Wankel engines shaft rotates at three times its rotor speed, it

is not suitable for low rpm compressor or pumps. But quasi turbine is

## suitable for this.

The Quasi turbine offers many major improvements over the IC engines also:-

In I.C engine piston makes positive torque only 17% of the time and drag

## 83% of the time. This is not the case in Quasi turbine.

In I.C engine gas flow is not unidirectional, but changes directions with

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Quasi Turbine

## revolution. In Quasi turbine there are no valves.

The duration of the piston rest time at top and bottom are without

necessarily too long in I.C engines. But it is not the case for Quasi

turbine.

In I.C engine there is quite important noise level and vibration. But it is

## not the case for Quasi turbine.

In I.C engines accessories like cam shaft uses a substantial power , but

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Quasi Turbine

## 4. EXCEPTIONAL FEATURES OF QUASI TURBINE

Zero vibration-In Quasi turbine, rotor rotates with a fixed centre of gravity and

## the engine is perfectly balanced so there is no chance of vibration.

Less noisy-For comparable power, the quasi turbine is much quieter than the

piston engines, since it splits each expansion into four per turn and evacuates

## the gases more gradually and on a greater angular displacement

Less pollution-As the quasi turbine expansion starts quicker than in the other

engines, there will be less time for the NOx formation, and less transfer of heat

## expansion than in he piston engines, initial energy is immediately transferred in

to mechanical energy without awaiting the middle of the stroke as in the piston

engines. This initial expansion cools immediately the combustion gases, which

have less time to transfer their heat to the engine block. So continuous

## combustion is possible with lower temperature.

Better torque continuity and Acceleration- The Quasi turbine has jointed

torque impulses without the assistance of a flywheel. This gives a better torque

## continuity for quasi turbine. Flywheel is the main obstacle to engine

acceleration. Since Quasi turbine has no fly wheel it gives fast acceleration.

Compatible with Hydrogen- The Quasi turbine meets the fundamental criteria

imposed by the Hydrogen engine of the future (that is cold intake area, low

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Quasi Turbine

## Quasi turbine aviation- In a propeller airplane, weight reduction allows a

larger payload, space saving allows to reduce the aerodynamic drag, absence

## of vibration increases instruments reliability and flight comfort, the noise

reduction increases the discretion level, the high torque allows the use of multi-

blades propeller and the better intake characteristic of the Quasi turbine allows

## higher flight altitude.

Quasi turbine racing car- Formula Quasi turbine is a proposal to develop and

built of a racing car using the new Quasi turbine rotary engine. Because the

Quasi turbine has a much higher specific power density than the piston engine.

A single Quasi turbine rotor of about 50cm in diameter and 20cm thickness

## could develop 1000 H.P. at only 3000 rpm.

Quasi turbine pumps- Quasi turbine is a very compact and light device

without power shaft, which allows to pump large volume. In the pump mode the

## Quasi turbine hydrogen engine model- A good way to store Hydrogen is to

link it with carbon atom. Quasi turbine prefers Hydrogen storage in Carbon

## molecules. This Hydrogen Carbon molecule storage technique is safe and

simple and has been appreciated by humans for centuries under the name of

Hydrocarbon fuels.

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## Dept. Of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Quasi Turbine

6. REFERENCES

WWW.QUASITURBINE.COM
DIESEL PROGRESS USA MAGAZINE, APRIL 2000
EUREKA INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING MAGAZINE,
OCTOBER 1999. (Page no:29-30)
EUROPEAN AUTOMATIVE DESIGN,
SEPTEMBER 1999. (Page no: 72-73)
WWW.VISIONENGINEER.COM
WWW.FUTUREENERGIES.COM
www.invention-europe.com/topx.htm
www.gizmag.com/go/3501
www.visionengineer.com/mech/quasiturbine.php

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