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Its

It may be defined as that branch of engineering science which units are N/m3.

deals with the behavior of fluid under the conditions of rest and Evidently, w = g. For water w = 9810 N/m3.

motion. 12) Define specific volume

2) Define fluid The specific volume is the volume per unit mass. Its units are

A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when m3/kg. It is reciprocal of density.

subjected to external shearing force. 13) Define specific gravity/relative density

3) Define fluid statics Specific gravity or relative density is the ratio of density of a fluid

The study of incompressible fluids under static conditions is to the density of a standard fluid. For liquids, the standard fluid is

called hydrostatics and that dealing with the compressible static water at 4oC. For gases, the standard fluid is hydrogen at 0oC.

gases is termed as aerostatics. 14) Define viscosity

4) Define fluid kinematics The viscosity of a fluid is considered to be a measure of its

It deals with the velocities, accelerations and the patterns of flow resistance to shear or angular deformation. It is primarily due to

only. Forces or energy causing velocity and acceleration are not cohesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid

dealt under this heading. layers, and as flow occurs, these effects appear as shearing

5) Define fluid dynamics stresses between the moving layers of fluid.

It deals with the relations between velocities, accelerations of 15) Write Newtons equation of viscosity

fluid with the forces or energy causing them.

du

where = shear stress, = co-efficient of viscosity of

6) What are the characteristics of a fluid? dy

a) It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the du

shape of the containing vessel. fluid, dy = shear rate / velocity gradient

b) Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a 16) Write the units of dynamic viscosity

liquid/fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation, which Ns/m2 or kg/ms or poise =0.1 Ns/m2

continues as long as the force continues to be applied. 17) Define kinematic viscosity

7) Classify fluid The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is defined as the ratio of

A. (i) Liquid (ii) Gas and (iii) Vapour dynamic viscosity to density.

B. (i) Ideal fluids and (ii) Real fluids 18) Write the units of kinematic viscosity

8) Define an ideal fluid/perfect fluid m2/s, 1 stoke = 1cm2/s

Ideal or perfect fluids are those fluids that do not possess the most 19) It is well known that a person can float more easily in sea

important fluid property called viscosity. water than in fresh water. What is the reason? Is it possible to

9) Define real fluid swim more easily in sea water than in fresh water? Both

Real fluids are viscous and offer resistance to motion which is density and viscosity of sea water are slightly more than those

called fluid friction. of fresh water.

10) Define density Sea water being denser requires less volume of displaced water

The density () of a fluid is defined as its mass per unit volume. (=submerged volume of body) to balance the body weight. Hence,

Its units are kg/m3. The density of water is generally taken as it is easier to float in sea water. In motion, sea water offers a little

1000 kg/m3. more viscous resistance than does the fresh water. Consequently,

11) Define Specific weight swimming in the former is marginally more difficult.

20) State Newtons law of viscosity Adhesion means attraction between the molecules of a liquid and

It states that the shear stress () on a fluid element layer is directly the molecules of a solid boundary surface in contact with the

proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of liquid. This property enables a liquid to stick to another body.

proportionality is called the co-efficient of viscosity. 28) Define surface tension

21) How does viscosity vary with temperature? Give units for Surface tension is caused by the force of cohesion at the free

dynamic viscosity. surface. There is always a surface of contact between a liquid and

The viscosity of liquids decreases with increase in temperature. In a gas or between two immiscible liquids like the water surface

liquids, the viscosity is mainly due to cohesion which decreases exposed to atmospheric air or the interface in a vertical tube

with increase in temperature. On the contrary, the viscosity of between water and kerosene. Such surfaces act like a film capable

gases increases with increase in temperature. This behaviour of of resisting a small tensile force. This phenomenon which is due

gases is because of different intermolecular characteristics of the to the molecular attraction among the liquid molecules at the

gases. contact boundary is called surface tension.

22) Define Newtonian fluids 29) What is the value of surface tension between water and air?

The fluids which follow the Newtons law of viscosity are known 0.073 N/m at 200 C

as Newtonian fluid. Eg. Water, kerosene, air etc 30) What is the value of surface tension between mercury and

23) Define Non-Newtonian fluids air?

Fluids which do not follow the linear relationship between shear 0.5 N/m

stress and rate of deformation are termed as Non-Newtonian 31) Give some important examples of phenomenon of surface

fluids. Eg. Solutions, slurries, mud flows, polymer solutions, tension

blood etc a) Rain drops

24) Why viscosity of liquids decreases while increase in b) Rise of sap in a tree

temperature? c) Capillary rise and capillary siphoning

This is due to the reason that in liquids the shear stress is due to d) Collection of dust particles on water surface

the inter-molecular cohesion which decreases with increase of e) Break up of liquid jets

temperature. 32) What are the factors which affect the surface tension of a

25) Why viscosity of gases increases while increase in liquid?

temperature? a) Nature of the liquid

In gases the inter-molecular cohesion is negligible and the shear b) Nature of the surrounding matter (eg. Solid, liquid, or gas)

stress is due to exchange of momentum of the molecules, normal c) Kinetic energy (and hence the temperature of the liquid

to the direction of motion. The molecular activity increases with molecules)

rise in temperature and so does the viscosity of gas. 33) Why does surface tension of a liquid decrease when the

26) Define cohesion temperature of liquid increases?

Cohesion means intermolecular attraction between molecules of The surface tension decreases as the temperature of the liquid

the same liquid. It enables a liquid to resist small amount of increases because the intermolecular cohesive forces decrease.

tensile stresses. Cohesion is a tendency of the liquid to remain as 34) What is meant by contact angle?

one assemblage of particles. The angle of contact is defined as the angle between the tangent to

27) Define adhesion a drop at the solid boundary with the surface of the solid boundary

on which it is placed.

35) Define capillarity The hydrostatic law states that the pressure at any point in a static

Capillarity is a phenomenon by which a liquid (depending upon mass of liquid is linearly proportional to the vertical depth of the

its specific gravity) rises into a thin glass tube above or below its point below the free surface.

general level. This phenomenon is due to the combined effect of The rate of increase of pressure in a vertically downward direction

cohesion and adhesion of liquid particles. must be equal to the specific weight of the fluid at that point.

36) Explain how some insects which are denser than water are 44) State Pascals law

able to move on the water surface The intensity of pressure at any point in a liquid at rest, is the

Because of the presence of the surface film same in all directions.

37) An oil spill over a small area in sea spreads over a large are 45) Define atmospheric pressure

gradually. A small drop of ink on a chalk piece spreads over a The atmospheric air exerts a normal pressure upon all surfaces

wider area. Is the reason in both cases the same? Explain. with which it is in contact, and it is known as atmospheric

In the first case, it is due to surface tension. In the second case, it pressure. The atmospheric pressure is also known as barometric

is due to the capillary spread through the small pores of the chalk. pressure. The atmospheric pressure at sea level (above absolute

38) What is meant by compressibility? zero) is called standard atmospheric pressure.

The property by virtue of which fluids undergo a change in 46) What is meant by pressure head?

volume under the action of external pressure is known as The ratio of the intensity of pressure and the specific weight of

compressibility. Compressibility is the reciprocal of bulk fluid is called pressure head.

modulus. 47) Define gauge pressure

39) Define bulk modulus of elasticity (K) It is the pressure measured with the help of pressure measuring

Elasticity of fluids is measured in terms of bulk modulus of instrument, in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as datum.

elasticity (K) which is defined as the ratio of compressive stress to The atmospheric pressure on the scale is marked as zero.

volumetric strain. Its units are N/m2. 48) Define vacuum pressure

40) Define vapour pressure Vacuum pressure is defined as the pressure below the atmospheric

The free surface of a liquid usually serves as the boundary pressure.

through which the process of evaporation occurs. Liquid 49) Define absolute pressure

molecules are constantly ejected into the space above the free Any pressure measured above the absolute zero of pressure is

surface and if this space is confined, the projected molecules exert termed as an absolute pressure.

a partial pressure on the liquid which is known as the vapor 50) Write a relation between absolute, atmospheric and gauge

pressure. pressure

41) Define pressure or intensity of pressure Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure

The normal force acting in a fluid per unit area is called the 51) Write a relation between absolute, atmospheric and vacuum

intensity of pressure or pressure pressure

42) Write down the two fundamental characteristics of fluid Vacuum pressure = atmospheric pressure-absolute pressure

pressure 52) What is the value of standard atmospheric pressure?

a) It acts normal to the plane of any area inside the fluid or 101.3 kN/m2 or 101.3 kPa; or 10.3 m of water, 760 mm of

the boundary surface of the vessel containing it, and mercury, 1013 mb

b) The pressure increases linearly with depth of fluid. (1 bar =105 N/m2)

43) State hydrostatic law

53) If the fluid is in motion, the pressure at a point may not be 61) Why the diameter of piezometer is preferred more than

equal in all directions. Comment. 12mm?

Yes. In a moving fluid, velocity may vary and pressures which are To avoid error due to capillary action, the diameter of the

closely related to velocities may also vary from point to point and piezometer should be 12mm or more.

from time to time. 62) Write the drawbacks of piezometer

54) Apart from the depth of point below the free surface of a a) Large pressures require long tubes which cannot be

liquid, what other parameter influences the magnitude of handled conveniently

pressure intensity at the point? b) If the fluid under pressure in the vessel is a gas, a

Specific weight of liquid piezometer cannot be used. The gas would escape from

55) List out pressure measuring devices the open end.

(A) Manometers c) Rapid changes in pressure cannot be recorded

(i) Simple manometers accurately, because the changes in piezometric levels

(1) Piezometer lag behind the changes in pressure.

(2) U-tube manometer 63) What are the principles used in mechanical pressure gauges?

(3) Single column manometer The pressure is measured by balancing the fluid column by spring

(ii) Differential manometer (elastic element) or dead weight. Generally these gauges are used

(B) Mechanical gauges for measuring high pressure and where high precision is not

(i) Bourdon tube pressure gauge required.

(ii) Diaphragm pressure gauge 64) What is a piezometer?

(iii) Bellow pressure gauge A piezometer is the simplest form of manometer which can be

(iv) Dead-weight pressure gauge used for measuring moderate pressures of liquids. It consists of a

56) Write down the two important characteristic of pressure glass tube inserted in the wall of a vessel or of a pipe, containing

(i) it acts normal to the plane of any area inside the fluid or the liquid whose pressure is to be measured. The tube extends

boundary surface of the vessel containing it. vertically upward to such a height that liquid can freely rise in it

(j) The pressure increases linearly with depth of fluid. without overflowing.

57) What is meant by static pressure and dynamic pressure? 65) What are the advantages of manometers?

Static pressure is defined as the negative of the normal stress a) Easy to fabricate and relatively inexpensive

acting on any surface in a fluid at rest. b) Good accuracy

58) Write the standard value of atmospheric pressure in terms of c) High sensitivity

mercury? d) Require little maintenance

0.76m of mercury e) Not affected by vibration

59) What is the value of std. atmospheric pressure? f) Specially suitable for low pressure and low differential

101325 Pa or 101.325 kN/m2 pressures

60) What is a manometer? g) It is easy to change the sensitivity by affecting a change in the

Manometers are defined as the devices used for measuring the quantity of manometric liquid in the manometer.

pressure at a point in a fluid by balancing the column of fluid by 66) What are the limitations of manometer?

the same or another column of liquid. a) Usually bulky and large in size

b) Being fragile, get broken easily

c) Readings of the manometers are affected by changes in pressure distribution on the plane surface is linear, the pressure

temperature, altitude and gravity prism has its vertex at the free surface. The width of the prism

d) A capillary effect is created due to surface tension of perpendicular to the plane of the paper is equal to the length of the

manometric fluid and plane surface. The volume of the pressure prism is equal to the

e) For better accuracy meniscus has to be measured by total pressure (P). The line of the action of the total pressure

accurate means. passes through the centre of gravity of the pressure prism.

67) Can piezometers be used for measuring negative pressure? 75) What is meant by average pressure intensity?

Negative pressures can also be measured with a piezometer. In

this case, the liquid in the open leg of the piezometer is depressed 76) Bourdon gauge is used for_____________

below the level of pipe. Measuring gauge pressure

68) What happens if a manometer connection to a pipe is not 77) Write an expression for hydrostatic force on a horizontal

made exactly normal to the pipe wall? plane

If the fluid in motion, the velocity of the fluid affects the pressure Hydrostatic force P = pA= wAh

which in turn distorts the true pressure reading. Where w = specific weight of liquid

69) Name some commonly used fluids in manometer A = Submerged area

Water, mercury, oil, salt solutions, carbon disulphide, bromo- h = height of liquid over the plane

form, alcohol and carbon tetrachloride. 78) Write the expression for hydrostatic force and centre of

70) What is the advantage of using micromanometer for pressure for vertical plate submerged in a liquid

measuring pressure? P=wA

Micromanometers are used where high precision is required. A IG

h y

large change in the height of the liquid column takes place even Ay

for a small change in pressure. Where - depth of centre of area

71) What is meant by centre of pressure? A total area of the surface

It is defined as the point of application of the resultant pressure on IG moment of inertia of the figure about horizontal axis through

the surface. its centre of gravity

72) Is the centre of pressure of a plane area always below = centre of pressure

centroid? Under what conditions will it coincide with 79) Write the expression for hydrostatic force and centre of

centroid? pressure for inclined plate submerged in a liquid

Yes, as long as the plane is not horizontal. The two points P=wA

coincide when the plane is horizontal. I G sin 2

73) The total static liquid pressure on a submerged plane h y

Ay

boundary is the same whether the plane is horizontal, vertical

or inclined. Is this true? Where - depth of centre of area

True, provided the depth of the centroid of the area below the free A total area of the surface

surface of liquid is the same in all cases. IG moment of inertia of the figure about horizontal axis through

74) Explain pressure prism concept its centre of gravity

The total pressure and its line of action for a plane surface can = centre of pressure

also be determined using the pressure prism concept. As the 80) What are the types of equilibrium of floating bodies?

Stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium 90) What is the merit and demerit of Lagrangian method for

81) State Archimedes principle description of fluid motion?

It states that if a body if fully or partly submerged in a fluid, it is The merit of Lagrangian method lies in the fact that the history of

subjected to buoyancy equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. all fluid particles can be traced. The demerit is that the resulting

82) What is meant by buoyancy? equations of motion are non-linear in nature and tedious to solve.

Whenever a body is immersed wholly or partially in a fluid it is 91) What is the merit and demerit of Eulerian method for

subjected to an upward force which tends to lift it up. This description of fluid motion?

tendency for an immersed body to be lifted up in the fluid, due to The evident drawback of Eulerian method is that the background

an upward force opposite to action of gravity is known as information of individual fluid particles is known. Its advantage is

buoyancy. The force tending to lift up the body under such that the equations of motion obtained by this method can be easily

conditions is known as buoyant force or force of buoyancy or linearized using acceptable approximations

upthrust. 92) Define stream line

83) What is meant by centre of buoyancy? A stream line is an instantaneous line drawn in a flow field in

The point of application of the force of buoyancy on the body is such a way that all the fluid particles falling on the line will have

known as the centre of buoyancy. It is always the centre of gravity velocity vectors along the tangents drawn to the line at the particle

of the volume of fluid displaced. locations at that instant.

84) Define metacentre 93) Write down the equation of stream line.

If a floating body is given a small angle of tilt and if a vertical line dx dy dz

is drawn through the new centre of buoyancy, it will intersect the u v w

old axis through the old centre of buoyancy at a point M which is Where u, v and z are the components of velocity at point P in x, y

called the metacentre. and z direction respectively.

85) Define metacentric height 94) Define path line

The distance between the centre of gravity of a floating body and Path line is the line drawn through the path traced by a single

the metacentric is called metacentric height. fluid particle over a period of time.

86) If the c.g. of a floating body is above its metacentre, what is 95) Define streak line

the type of equilibrium of the body? The line, which at a given instant connects the temporary location

Unstable equilibrium. of all the fluid particles that have traversed a fixed point in the

87) What are the two methods of analysis of fluid motion? flow field, is called a streak line. The line traced by a dye injected

Lagrangian method in a liquid is an example of a streak line.

Eulerian method 96) Define stream tube

88) Explain Lagrangian method for description of flow. A stream tube is a fluid mass bounded by a group of streamlines.

In this method the observer concentrates on the movement of a The contents of a stream tube are known as current filament. Eg.

single particle. The path taken by the particle and the changes in Pipes and nozzles.

its velocity and acceleration are studied. 97) A velocity vector is resolved into two components, one

89) Explain Eulerian method of description of flow. tangential to the stream line and another normal to it. What

In this method the observer concentrates on a point in the fluid are the names of the two components?

system. Velocity, acceleration and other characteristics of the fluid There is no normal component. The resultant velocity vector itself

at that particular point are studied. is tangential to the stream line.

98) Can path line and a stream line cross each other at right Eg. The flow in a pipe whose valve being opened or closed

angles? gradually

Yes; if the flow is unsteady. 105) Define uniform and non-uniform flow

99) The end point of all path lines is the streak line. Is this true? In uniform flow, the velocity at any given time does not change

Yes; if all the path lines have the same starting point. with respect to time.

100) What are the characteristics of stream tube? Eg. Flow through a straight pipe of constant diameter.

Flow can enter or leave a stream tube only through its end cross- In non-uniform flow, the velocity at any given time changes w.r.t.

sections and not its side surfaces. The stream tube can have a space.

regular or irregular shape. It is generally assumed to have a small Eg. Flow around pipe bend.

cross-sectional area so that the velocity across the section could 106) Define compressible and non-compressible

be considered uniform. flow

101) Define convective and local acceleration A fluid flow may be considered to be compressible if normal

Convective acceleration is the result of change of velocity from pressure variations produce significant changes in density. In a

point to point. It is acceleration due to translation of fluid majority of flow problems, such density variations occur in gas

particles. If at a given location, the fluid velocity changes with flow systems, and are of negligible magnitude in liquid flow

time, the resulting acceleration is called local acceleration. systems.

102) Define tangential acceleration and normal Incompressible flow, the density is constant for the fluid flow.

acceleration 107) Define one dimensional flow

Acceleration due to changes in the tangential component of One-dimensional flow is one in which each of the flow

velocity is called as tangential acceleration. Normal acceleration parameters is a function of one space coordinate and time.

may be defined as the acceleration due to changes in the normal Mathematically, u =f1(x,t), v=0, w=0

component of velocity. It is unidirectional flow, generally pipe flow treated as one

103) How are fluid flows classified? dimensional flow.

a) laminar and turbulent flow 108) Define two dimensional flow

b) steady and unsteady flow In a two-dimensional flow, each of the flow parameters is a

c) uniform and non uniform flow function of two space coordinates and time.

d) compressible and incompressible flow Mathematically, u = f1(x,y,t), v = f2(x,y,t), w=0

e) one, two, and three dimensional flow Eg. Flow between parallel plates of infinite extent

f) rotational and irrotational flow 109) Define three dimensional flow

104) Define steady and unsteady flow Flow characteristics like velocity, pressure and density in general

The type of flow in which the fluid characteristics like velocity, vary in all the three coordinate directions in any fluid system. The

pressure, density, etc at a point do not change with time is called velocity vector V for instance, may possess all the three

steady flow. components u,v and w along X,Y and Z directions respectively.

Eg. Flow through a prismatic or non-prismatic conduit at a Each of these components is a function of each of the space

constant flow rate coordinates as well as time.

Unsteady flow in which the velocity, pressure or density at a point u =f1(x,y,z,t), v = f2(x,y,z,t), w = f3(x,y,z,t)

change with respect to time Eg. Flow approaching a circular orifice located in one of the side

walls of a tank.

110) Define laminar and turbulent flow 115) Translation of a fluid element occurs in all types of fluid

If in a flow, the particles of fluid move in regular and well defined motion. Is this true?

paths, the flow is said to be laminar. The flow appears as if layers True.

glide smoothly one over the other. Disturbed irregular and 116) What types of movement of a fluid element reveal the

disorderly motion of fluid particles is the characteristic of presence of shear stresses?

turbulent flow. Non-uniform rotation and angular deformation

Laminar flow - Eg. Seepage and ground water flows through 117) What are the four possible types of movement of a fluid

soils, sheet flow over spillways and flow of crude oil and similar element?

highly viscous fluids through narrow passages. (i) translation, (ii) linear deformation (iii) rotation and (iv)

Turbulent flow - Eg. Flow of air and water angular deformation.

111) Define rotational and irrotational flow 118) Does non-uniform velocity distribution indicate the presence

A flow is said to be rotational if the fluid particles while moving of vorticity?

in the direction of flow rotate about their mass centres. Yes.

Eg. Flow near the solid boundary 119) State continuity equation of flow

A flow is said to be irrotational if the fluid particles while moving If no fluid is added or removed from the pipe in any length then

in the direction of flow do not rotate about their mass centres. the mass passing across different sections shall be same.

Eg. Flow outside the boundary layer is generally considered 120) Write down the three dimensional form of continuity

irrotational. equation for compressible unsteady flow

112) Why is turbulent type of flow more frequently ( u ) ( v) ( w)

0

encountered in practice than laminar flow? t x y z

Air and water are the most common fluids that are encountered in Where = density of a fluid,

many fluid flow problems. The viscosity of these two fluids is u,v, and w are the velocities in x,y and z direction

relatively low. The type of flow that is generally possible with low respectively.

viscosity fluids is turbulent flow. 121) Write down the three dimensional form of continuity

113) All gas flows are compressible and all liquid flows are equation for

incompressible. Is this statement correct? incompressible steady flow

No. In low speed gas flows, density variations are not u v w

0

significant and compressibility need not be considered. x y z

Similarly, although liquids are generally incompressible, there Where u, v, and w are the velocities in x,y and z direction

are instances of generation of excessive pressures that respectively.

necessitate the consideration of liquids compressibility. 122) u = f1(x,y), v = f2(x,y) and w = 0, what type of flow the above

114) Irrotational motion occurs if the fluid is ideal. The theory of equation represents?

irrotational motion is therefore irrelevant to real fluid flows. Steady, two dimensional flow

Is this correct? 123) Mention two practical applications of the equation of

No. The principle of irrotational motion have a great relevance continuity.

even to real fluid flow problems because the fluid behaves (i) in one dimensional flow analysis, if the mean velocity at one

almost as an ideal fluid except in a region very close to the solid section is known, the mean velocity at any other section can

boundary where the influence of viscous shear is considerable. be determined.

(j) In two dimensional analysis, if any one velocity component differentiated wrt distance in any direction, it gives velocity

is known, its perpendicular component at that point can be component in that direction.

computed.

u ,v ,w

124) Is it possible to infer of from the equation of continuity that x y z

the average velocity is inversely proportional to the area of 128) Write down the properties of velocity potential function

cross-section? Under what conditions is it valid? (i) Velocity potential function exists only in irrotational flow

Yes; if the flow is one dimensional, steady and incompressible. (ii) Lines of constant velocity potential function (called

125) Define stream function equipotential lines) and lines of constant stream function

A two dimensional stream function for steady flow may be (called stream lines) are mutually orthogonal.

defined as continuous function of x and y such that its numerical 129) The stream function is a mathematical concept. It has no

value at any point is equal to the discharge per unit thickness physical meaning. Comment.

perpendicular to the X-Y plane across any line joining that point The stream function has profound significance both

to the origin. mathematically and physically. It not only presents a complete

Or picture of flow pattern but gives the discharge directly. In a two-

The stream function is defined as a scalar function of space and dimensional flow, it is the volumetric rate of flow per unit

time, such that its partial derivative wrt any direction gives the thickness.

velocity component at right angles to this direction. It is denoted 130) The stream function is known, is it possible to calculate the

by (psi) rate of flow between any two stream lines?

Stream function exists in all fluid flows, irrespective of the

u ,v

y x absence, presence or magnitude of rotation.

126) Write down the properties of stream function 131) If the stream function is known, is it possible to calculate the

i) On any streamline, is constant everywhere [ is rate of flow between any two stream lines?

constant, represents the family of streamlines, and it is Yes. From , the values of 1 and 2 which are the SF values of

a streamline equation] any two stream lines can be found. The rate of flow between the

ii) The discharge per unit thickness between any two stream lines is 1- 2 per unit thickness.

streamlines is equal to the difference between their 132) What are the units in which a stream function is expressed?

stream function values. m3/s per metre thickness or m2/s

iii) The partial derivative of stream function wrt distance 133) If is given, how do you test whether the flow it represents

in any direction gives the velocity component 90o is irrotational or not?

clockwise to that direction. 2 2

iv) Existence of stream function is a confirmation of If satisfies Laplaces equation: 2 2 0 , then the flow

x y

possible fluid flow. is irrotational.

v) If the flow is irrotational, the stream function satisfies 134) The stream function at point (1) is 1 and stream function at

Laplaces equation. point (2) is 2. What is the discharge passing between points

127) Define velocity potential (1) and (2) if the two points are on (i) the same stream line

The velocity potential function is a continuous function of x, y, and (ii) different stream lines?

z and t. It is denoted by the Greek symbol (phi). In steady (i) If the points are on the same stream line, 1= 2

flow VPF is defined as such a function of x, y, z that when

(ii) If the points are on different stream lines, discharge per unit the flow is unsteady, the tangential acceleration is of the local

thickness between them = 1- 2 type. It may also have a convective component depending on

135) Why is irrotational flow called potential flow? whether or not velocity is the same in magnitude at successive

Velocity potential exists only in irrotational flow. Hence, points along the straight line.

irrotational flow is given the alternate name: potential flow. 141) The cross sectional area of a pipe-bend is progressively

136) In what respects does the velocity potential function differ reducing. If the discharge of water flowing through it is

from the stream function? constant, describe the type of acceleration to which the flow

(i) is present in both rotational and irrotational flows. exists is subjected.

only in irrotational flows. As the velocity is changing both in magnitude and direction

(ii) gives stream lines which indicate the direction of flow. from point to point, tangential as well as normal components of

gives equipotential lines which indicate the direction normal to acceleration are present. Since the discharge is constant, there is

the flow. no velocity change wrt time so that there is no local

(iii) is a measurable quantity. It is the rate of flow per unit acceleration. Therefore, the tangential and normal acceleration

thickness. is conceptual. components each contain the respective convective type of

(iv) when differentiated with respect to distance in any accelerations.

direction gives the component of velocity in a direction 142) What is meant by flownet?

turned 90o clockwise to the given direction. when A grid obtained by drawing a series of streamlines and

differentiated wrt distance in any direction, gives the equipotential lines is known as a flownet. The flownet provides

velocity component in the same direction. a simple graphical technique for studying two-dimensional

137) What happens when the stream function or velocity irrotational flows especially in the cases where mathematical

potential function in unsteady flow is equated to a sequence relations for stream function and velocity function are either not

of constants? available or are rather difficult and cumbersome to solve.

A set of stream lines or equipotential lines are obtained whose 143) Write down the methods available for drawing flownet

pattern is a function of time. Their orientation may change from a) analytical method

one instant of time to the next. b) graphical method

138) The local acceleration at all points in a steady fluid flow is c) electrical analogy method

zero. Is this true? d) hydraulic models

True. 144) What are the uses of flownet?

139) Even though the velocity at a point in a flow is invariant a) to determine the streamlines and equipotential lines

with time, there may be acceleration at the point. How can b) to determine quantity of seepage and upward lift pressure

this be explained? below hydraulic structure.

If the velocity does not change wit time, there is no local c) to determine the velocity and pressure distribution, for

acceleration. But there may be convective acceleration which is given boundaries of flow (provided the velocity

the result of velocity differences at neighbouring points. distribution and pressure at any reference section are

140) What type of acceleration can exist in a straight, unsteady, known)

one dimensional flow? d) to determine the design of the outlets for their

The flow is in straight-line. Hence, only the tangential streamlining.

acceleration is present. There is no normal acceleration. Since 145) What are the limitations of flownets?

a) The flow net analysis cannot be applied in the region close provided the fluid is ideal and incompressible is:

to the boundary where the effects of viscosity are v z d V d

2

V g 0 or ( gz ) 0 which on integration

predominant. s s ds 2 ds

b) Flownets are not as reliable in diverging flows as in

V2

converging flows. In diverging flows, the boundary layer gives: ( gz ) cons tan t or V 2 2 gz cons tan t . Hence

2

invariably separates from the boundary causing eddies and

disturbed flow conditions. The flownet is of little value in 2 2 V22 V12

V1 2 gz1 V2 2 gz2 or z1 z2 .

such cases. 2g 2g

146) Explain the composition of one dimensional equation of This indicates as the level falls i.e., as the P/E decreases, KE

motion for an inviscid, incompressible fluid flow. increases. Steady flow through an open channel which slopes

v v 1 p downward in the direction of flow is an example for the

V S

t s s equation obtained. In a real fluid flow, frictional effects come

v v into operation and continuous loss of potential energy due to

Where = local acceleration, V = convective

t s downward slope of the channel is balanced by the frictional loss

acceleration, S = body force per unit mass in s-direction and of energy generated at whatever velocity the flow stabilizes

p corresponding to the channel slope.

= pressure gradient in s-direction. 150) Water flows through a horizontal pipe whose section

s

147) Write down Eulers equation for steady, incompressible, gradually increases in the direction of flow. Does the

irrotational flow along a horizontal streamline. pressure or decrease in the direction of flow?

v If the cross-section is enlarging, velocity at successive points

Since the flow is steady, 0 and there is no elevation must be decreasing because V1A1=V2A2= V3A3=,

t

z Since the pipe is horizontal, there is no change in potential

difference; hence g 0. Eulers equation reduces to: energy. So whatever KE is lost must appear as gain in pressure.

s

v 1 p Therefore pressure increases in the direction of flow.

V 0 151) Mention the assumptions involved in Eulers equation of

s s

148) What is the equation of motion for a steady, uniform, one- motion

dimensional, incompressible irrotational flow? 1. Fluid is assumed as ideal and incompressible fluid

v v 2. Only pressure and gravity forces are considered.

Since the flow is steady and uniform, both and V 0.

t s

z 1 p 152) Steady flow of fluid occurs through a vertical pipe of

Eulers equation reduces to: g s s 0 constant diameter in a downward direction. Does the

velocity increase in the direction of flow? What happens to

the pressure?

149) In a fluid flow problem, steady flow takes place under the

Velocity remains unchanged because V=Q/A and Q and A are

action of body forces. There are no other forces. Describe

constants. The loss of elevation increases the pressure in the

the flow.

direction of flow.

Since the flow is steady and there are no forces except the body

v 1 p

force, both and 0 . The equation of motion

t s

153) Is it possible to have a uniform pressure in a flow along an 160) Write the equation for measuring of velocity through a pitot

inclined pipe whose cross-section reduces in the downward tube

direction? What is the effect of direction of flow? v C 2 gh

Yes. It is possible to have uniform pressure because the loss of Where v = velocity of flow

elevation if the flow is downward and the gain in KE due to area C pitot tube co-efficient (0.98-0.995)

reduction may cancel each other. Direction of flow has role only 161) What is the use of pitot tube?

when the friction head loss is significantly large. If it is small, Pitot tube is used to measure the velocity of flow in a pipe and a

the flow direction has no influence on the parameters. channel

154) What is meant by Reynolds stress? 162) On what principle venturimeter works?

In the turbulent flow the fluid particles move from one layer to Energy principle

other and therefore, there is a continuous momentum transfer 163) How does venturimeter differ from orificemeter and when

between adjacent layers which results in developing additional orificemeter is preferred?

stresses for the flowing fluid. This additional stress is called as Venturimeter

Reynolds stress. Merits

155) State Bernoullis theorem a) head loss is small, Cd is high

In an ideal, incompressible fluid when the flow is steady and b) it can be used for large size pipes and for large

continuous, the sum of pressure energy, kinetic energy and discharges

potential energy is constant along a streamline. Demerits

p v2 a) it is very long and inconvenient to use

z cons tan t

g 2 g b) it is costly

156) List the assumptions which are made while deriving Orificemeter

Bernoullis equation Merits

a) the liquid is ideal and incompressible 1) it requires less space

b) the flow is steady and continuous 2) it is cheap

c) the flow is along the streamline Demerits

d) the velocity is uniform over the section and is equal to 1) head loss is large; cd is low

the mean velocity 2) not suitable for large discharges

e) the only forces acting on the fluid are the gravity

forces and the pressure forces. Orifice meter is preferred if space available in the pipe is less

157) What are the limitations of Bernoullis energy equation? and also for low discharge

It is applicable to ideal, incompressible, steady flow and

continuous flow 164) Why is divergence more than convergence in a

158) What is meant by flow work? venturimeter?

Flow work is net work done by the fluid element on its The energy loss in a diverging passage which is many times

surroundings while it is flowing. The term p/, is the flow work more than that in a converging passage is due to separation of

or flow energy per unit mass. boundary layer and formation of vortices or eddies which

159) What are different forms of energy in a fluid? absorb the kinetic energy of the fluid. The consequences of

Datum (potential), kinetic and pressure energy

separation are minimized by adopting gradually diverging flow 172) What are the uses of the principle of homogeneity?

sections. (i) to check whether an equation is dimensionally homogeneous

165) Why is the Cd of an orifice meter considerably less than that or not,

of a venturimeter? (ii) to find the dimensions of a physical quantity

Cd is a function of the loss of head that occurs between the (iii) to change a dimensional coefficient from one system of

pressure tappings used for evaluating the differential head. The units to another and

loss of head that occurs in the abrupt contraction that takes place (iv) to carry out dimensional analysis of a phenomenon.

in an orificemeter is more than that in a venture contraction. 173) What are the various methods of dimensional analysis to

Hence the Cd of the orificemeter is less than that of the obtain a functional relationship between various parameters

venturimeter. influencing a physical phenomenon?

166) Does the orificemeter give less discharge than a a) Rayleighs method

venturimeter because of a lower Cd? b) Buckinghams theorem

No. if the same quantity flows through the two meters, their c) Bridgmens method

discharge formulae must ultimately yield the same result. The d) Matrix tensor method

differential head for a given Q is more in an orifice meter on 174) What do you mean by fundamental units and derived units?

account of smaller Cd. Give examples.

167) Is there a risk of cavitation in an orificemeter flow as in the The fundamental quantities are mass, length, time and

case of venturimeter? temperature. The quantities which are expressed in terms of the

Yes. Low pressure generally occurs a little downstream of the fundamental or primary quantities are called derived or

orifice plate, like the throat section of a venturimeter is a secondary quantities (eg. Units for velocity, area, acceleration

location of the low pressure. If this pressure is low enough to be etc).

equal to or less than the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, 175) What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?

cavitation sets in. a) It expresses the functional relationship between the

168) The coefficient of a pitot tube is usually slightly less than 1.0. variables in dimensionless terms.

Is it due to friction loss? If not what is the reason? b) In hydraulic model studies it reduces the number of

When there is no flow anywhere inside a pitot tube, friction variables involved in a physical phenomenon,

losses do not occur. The reason is the velocity vectors of generally three.

varying inclinations strike the stagnation hole of the pitot tube. c) By proper selection of variables, the dimensionless

If the flow were exactly parallel to the leg of the tube facing the parameters can be used to make certain logical

fluid flow, the coefficient would be unity. deductions about the problem.

169) Name any four flow measuring devices d) Design curves, by the use of dimensional analysis, can

Venturimeter, orificemeter, flow nozzle meter and bend meter. be developed from experimental data or direct solution

170) What is meant by stagnation point? of the problem.

The point at which velocity of flow is zero. e) It enables getting up a theoretical equation in a

171) What is meant by dimensional homogeneity? simplified dimensional form.

An equation is considered to be dimensionally homogeneous if f) Dimensional analysis provides partial solutions to the

the fundamental dimensions L,M and T (length, mass and time) problems that are too complex to be dealt with

have identical power on both sides of the equation. mathematically.

g) The conversion of units of quantities from one system i) Analytical or theoretical treatment of the problem is

to another is facilitated. almost impossible, eg., river training works, harbour

176) State Buckinghams theorem design, three-dimensional boundary layers

If there are n variables (dependent and independent variables) in ii) Mathematical analysis is possible but tedious and model

a dimensionally homogeneous equation and if these variables observations offer swift and economic solutions, eg.,

contain m fundamental dimensions (such as M, L, T, etc), then seepage flow phenomenon, ship design, energy

the variables are arranged into (n-m) dimensionless terms. dissipaters

These dimensionless terms are called terms. iii) From the viewpoints of either safety or cost, the

177) What do you mean by dependable and independent structure is so important that is desirable to physically

variables? verify even well-established theoretical solutions, eg

A dependable variable is the one about which information is spillway gates, aircraft design, turbo-machines.

required while independent variables are those which govern the 180) List out the objectives of model studies

variation of dependable variable. i) to provide visual demonstration of the flow

178) What are repeating variables? How are these selected by pattern

dimensional analysis? ii) to verify the accuracy of theoretical designs

Each dimensionless -term is formed by combining m variables and concepts

out of the total n variables with one of the remaining (n-m) iii) to serve as the principal design tool in cases

variables i.e. each -terms contains (m+1) variables. These m where established procedures are not

variables which appear repeatedly in each of -terms are called available.

repeating variables 181) The pattern of stream lines in two flow systems are similar.

Selection of repeating variables What is the nature of similarity between the two systems?

a) m repeating variables must contain jointly all the Kinematic similarity

fundamental dimensions involved in the phenomenon. 182) Define geometric similarity

b) The repeating variables must not form the non- Geometric similarity is the similarity of form or shape. Two

dimensional parameters among themselves systems the model and prototype-are said to be geometrically

c) As far as possible, the dependent variable should not similar if the ratios of all corresponding linear dimensions of the

be selected as repeating variable systems are equal.

d) No two repeating variables should have the same 183) Define kinematic similarity

dimensions Kinematic similarity is the similarity of motion. Geometric

e) The repeating variables should be chosen in such a similarity is the pre-condition of kinematic similarity. Two

way that one variable contains geometric property(e.g. systems are considered to be kinematically similar if they are

length, l; diameter, d; height, H etc.), other variable geometrically similar and the ratios of components of velocity at

contains flow property (e.g.velocity, V; acceleration, a all homologous (corresponding) points are equal.

etc) and third variable contains fluid property (e.g. 184) Define dynamic similarity

mass density, ; weight density, w, dynamic viscosity, Dynamic similarity is the similarity of forces. Two systems are

etc). said to be dynamically similar when they are geometrically and

179) Explain the conditions that warrant model investigations kinematically similar and the ratios of all homologous forces in

the two systems are the same.

185) Define prototype Where l refers to a characteristic length, say diameter of a pipe,

Actual structure is called as prototype or chord of an aerofoil. Reynolds number will be considered the

186) What is the nature of similarity that has to be obtained in only for dynamic similarity if the viscous forces predominate

dynamic similarity between two systems? over others such as gravity and elastic; for example in the

Similarity between forces at homologous points following situations:

187) It is virtually impossible to achieve true dynamic similarity (a) incompressible flow through pipes and

in the designs of models. Comment venturimeters

Yes. Dynamic similarity requires that the ratio of reactive forces (b) low velocity flow around aeroplanes

or inertia forces to the sum of all active forces, viz., gravity, and submarines

viscous, elastic, surface tension and pressure forces in one (c) flow around structures and bodies and

system be equal at homologous points of the second system. It (d) flow through low speed rotodynamic

is found that it is impossible to achieve this condition in machines

practice. An accepted compromise is to identify the most 189) Define and derive expression for Froude number. Mention a

important type of active force present in the two systems and to few examples of flow models in which it is used.

treat it as the representative of all active forces. For example, inertia force 2

1

gravity force is the dominant active force in all free surface flow Fe

gravity force

problems. If a model is assumed as system (1) and the prototype Gravity force = mass x acceleration due to gravity = l 3 g

as system (2), dynamic similarity for all practical purposes is

And inertia force = l 2U 2

( Fi ) m ( Fi ) p

considered to have been achieved if . When l 2U 2 U

( Fg ) m ( Fg ) p Fr

l 3 g lg

appropriate variables are substituted for inertial and gravity

forces of the above equation, the ultimate result is the condition Froude number alone dictates the dynamic similarity of flow in

of equality of Froude numbers of model and proto-type. Besides case the forces other than gravitational are negligible such as in

the dominant force, other types of forces too exercise their (a) flow in open channels

varying degrees of influence in all problems. In hydraulic (b) flow of liquid jets from orifices

models, dynamic similarity may therefore be considered to have (c) surface wave motion created by ships

been achieved only partially. 190) Define and derive expression for Euler number. Mention a

188) Define and derive expression for Reynolds number. few examples of flow models in which it is used.

pressure force

Mention a few examples of flow models in which it is used. E

inertia force

inertia force

Re Pressure force = pressure x area = pl 2

viscous force

U l 2Ul And inertia force = l 2U 2

Inertia force = mass x acceleration = l 3 l 2U 2 pl 2 p

t t E

l 2 U l U

2 2

U 2

And viscous force = area x shear stress = lU p

l This is also expressed alternatively as E U 2

l 2U 2 Ul

Hence, Re

Where p = pressure variation in the flow

lU

E.g. (a) flow through pipes 194) What are the advantages of distorted model?

(b) flow through penstocks leading water to hydraulic turbines (i) Water depths and wave heights can be measured

and conveniently

(c) flow over submerged bodies (ii) Bed slope is steeper than the prototype slope. This ensures

191) Define and derive expression for Mach number. Mention a higher velocities even in smaller models which is a desirable

few examples of flow models in which it is used. consequence.

1

inertia force 2 (iii) Adequate shear stress is generated to produce the required

E

elastic force

sediment transport in small models.

Elastic force = El 2 c 2l 2 195) What are the disadvantages of distorted model?

(i) Pressure and velocity distributions in the model and

Where c = speed of sound in the fluid

prototype are no longer similar.

l 2U 2 U speed of fluid

M

2 2

(ii) Larger than true water depths distort the wave shape from

c l c speed of sound what it should be.

Mach number effects are considered only when M exceeds 0.4 (iii) Side slopes of canals become too steep and cannot be made

and when it is only factors affecting the motion in with erodible materials if required.

a) transonic flow when M ranges between 0.9 to 1.1 196) What is scale effect in hydraulic model analysis?

b) supersonic flow when 1 < M < 7 Scale effect is the discrepancy caused by unaccounted

c) hypersonic flow when M >7 influences in extrapolating model results to interpret prototype

192) Define and derive expression for Weber number. Mention a performance. It is mainly due to the inability to achieve perfect

few examples of flow models in which it is used. dynamic similarity between the model and its prototype. In all

W

inertia force hydraulic model analyses, any one most dominant active force

surface tension force such as the force of elastic compression for example, is

The surface tension force is expressible as l considered while all other forces like gravity, viscous, surface

l 2U 2 lU 2 tension and pressure forces are ignored. This is done to get a

M

reasonably good solution which otherwise is intractable.

l

197) In laminar flow between parallel plates, why is the velocity

Some cases where the Weber number assumes importance are:

maximum at the point of zero shear stress?

a) capillary tube flows

du

b) human blood flow studies and u is maximum where du/dy is zero. In laminar flow, dy .

c) thin sheet flows

193) What is meant by distorted model? When du/dy is zero, shear stress is zero. Therefore, the point of

A model with different scale used for vertical and horizontal maximum velocity corresponds to the location of zero shear

measurement is called as distorted model. Harbours and rivers stress.

normally have larger horizontal and vertical scale. If 198) What is meant by couette flow?

geometrically similar models of river and harbour structures Laminar flow between parallel plates when one plate is

have to be accommodated in a reasonable space available in stationary and another plate is moving with a uniform velocity

laboratories, the water depth in such models becomes too small always keeping their separation distance constant, is known as

for precise measurement besides unduly blowing up the surface coutte flow.

tension effects which do not exist in the prototype. 199) What is meant by Poiseulle flow?

Laminar flow between two stationary parallel boundaries under compared to the friction loss which is justifiably treated as the

a constant pressure gradient major loss. If the pipe is short, minor losses may become the

200) What is meant by Hagen-Poiseulle flow? major component of the head loss.

Laminar flow through a straight tube of uniform circular section 206) What precisely is the advantage gained by making

under a constant pressure gradient. enlargements and contractions in pipes gradual instead of

201) What is the essential condition for flow being laminar? their being abrupt?

The flow is laminar when one or more of the following By using gradual enlargements and contractions in pipe lines,

conditions occur: the loss of head can be reduced considerably compared to pipes

a) viscosity is very high with abrupt changes of section. For instance, a gradual

b) velocity is very low enlargement with a cone angle of 60o gives 0.14 times the head

c) The passage is very narrow loss of sudden enlargement. This is an important advantage in

202) Even if the boundary conditions in a pipe are very rough, it short pipes where minor losses play a significant role.

is impossible to have turbulent flow if the Reynolds number 207) By having rounded pipe entrance and exit instead of sharp-

is less than 2000. Is this true? edged entrance and exit, is it possible to reduce the

True. If Re is below 2000, the viscous effects are strong enough respective losses of head?

to dampen any turbulent eddies that the boundary roughness is Considerable advantage is gained by rounding the entrance

likely to generate. Consequently, the flow remains laminar in because the formation of vena-contracta can be avoided

character. altogether. Consequently, the head loss is reduced. No similar

203) What is meant by the terms: piezometric head and gain is obtained by rounding pipe exist. The entire velocity head

friction slope? in the pipe is lost whether its exit section is sharp or rounded.

Piezometric head at any point of a flow system is the sum of (i) 208) What conclusion can be drawn from the curves in Moodys

the elevation head of the point above the given datum and (ii) chart with regard to the friction factor of rough pipes at

the pressure head of fluid at that point. high Reynolds numbers?

Friction slope between any two sections of a pipe is the ratio of The curves are found to be horizontal at high values of Re. Thus,

loss of head due to friction to the length of pipe between the two friction factor becomes independent of Re at high values of Re. It

sections. depends only on the relative roughness k/D.

204) Is it always necessary that H.G.L. be above the pipe axis? 209) Two reservoirs are connected by a siphon. Vaporization of

Can it not intersect the pipe axis or lie below the pipe axis? water is found to take place at the summit of the siphon.

HGL need not always be above the pipe axis. If the pressure at What measures have to be taken to remedy this undesirable

the point is equal to atmospheric pressure, the HGL at that point situation?

lies on the pipe axis. If the pressure is below atmospheric (i) Lowering the level of the summit

pressure, HGL goes below the pipe axis. (ii) using a pipe of larger diameter to minimize hf

205) What is minor loss in pipe flows? Under what conditions (iii) using a smoother pipe to reduce hf and

does a minor loss become a major loss? (v) installing a pump between the inlet and summit of the

Minor loss is the loss of head due to a local disturbance in pipe siphon to boost the pressure at summit

flow. It is the result of eddy currents created in the flow 210) In a system of parallel pipes, the same hydraulic gradient is

whenever the velocity changes in magnitude or direction. In valid for all the pipes. Is this true?

long pipes, minor losses are insignificant in magnitude True.

211) When minor losses in a pipeline can be neglected? 217) A pipe line is said to be equivalent to another if, in

If L/D 1000, minor losses may be neglected as they are both,________________

relatively small in magnitude. Discharge and frictional head loss are the same

212) List out some usual minor losses encountered in the pipeline 218) Write down the Darcy-Weisbach formula for determination

problems? of friction loss in pipeline

a) loss due to expansion (sudden and gradual) fl v 2

hf .

b) loss due to contraction (sudden and gradual) d 2g

c) loss at pipe entrance hf = head loss due to friction

d) loss at pipe exit f = friction factor

e) loss due to pipe fittings such as bends, elbows, tees d = diameter of the pipe

and valves v = velocity of flow

213) What is meant by equivalent pipe of compound pipe g = acceleration due to friction

system? 219) Write the equation for loss of head through a circular pipe

The equivalent pipe of a compound pipe system may be defined for laminar flow

as a pipe of certain uniform diameter and of such length that it 32 VL

hl

gives the same total loss of head as the compound pipe system gD 2

while discharging the same rate of flow of fluid. Where dynamic viscosity

214) What is meant by fully developed flow? V velocity of flow

Flow through a confined passage is said to be fully developed if L length of the pipe

the velocity profile does not alter along the flow. Fully D diameter of the pipe

developed flows can occur only in constant area symmetrical mass density of a fluid

passages such as pipes, annuli and between parallel plates. It 220) Give the two equations to be solved when pipes are

may also be understood that a fully developed flow can be connected in series

laminar or turbulent depending upon the nature of the velocity H = hL1+hL2+..+hLn+vn2/2g

profile in accordance with Reynolds number of operation. Q1 = Q2=Q3=.Qn

215) What is meant by energy line diagram? 221) What is meant by entrance length?

The energy-line diagram for a pipe system is a longitudinal The length of the pipe required to achieve fully developed flow

display of the total head at all salient sections of the pipe. The is called entrance length.

energy line, therefore, represents the degradation of the energy 222) What is meant by viscous flow?

along the flow due to friction, minor losses, etc. as well as any 223) What is compound pipe?

additional input or output by means of pumps or turbines. The A series pipe connection or a compound pipe is one in which a

total head at a cross section consists of the pressure head p/g, number of pipes of different diameters, different lengths and

the velocity head u2/2g and the datum head z. different friction factors are connected in series with gradual or

216) What is meant by hydraulic gradient line? sudden changes of section.

Hydraulic gradient line is a display of the pressure and datum 224) Give the Reynolds number for laminar and turbulent flow

heads, piezometric head at all salient sections of a pipe line. The Re< 2000 Laminar flow

hydraulic gradient line, therefore, lies below the energy line by Re > 4000 Turbulent flow

a magnitude equal to the local velocity head v2/2g.

225) How the given flow is identified whether laminar or 233) When water flows over a series of curved vanes, the energy

turbulent? transferred by the water to the vanes is maximum when the

Re< 2000 Laminar flow velocity of whirl at exit of vanes is zero or negative. Is this

Re > 4000 Turbulent flow true?

226) What is meant by commercial pipes? True, because power developed P =Q(Vwu-Kw1u1). If Kw1 = 0 or

The pipes actually used in practice is called commercial pipes negative, P is maximum.

227) Define pipe flow 234) Give the name of one radial outward flow type reaction

The flow in a pipe is termed pipe flow only when the fluid turbine

completely fills the cross section and there is no free surface of Fournyron

fluid. 235) What is the principal drawback of a hydraulic turbine?

228) How to find out the slope of energy gradient line? It requires an assured water supply. It has to be shut down if the

The slope of energy gradient line (S) is given by S = hf/L head or discharge fall below the respective ranges.

Where hf is the loss of head due to friction in metres of the fluid 236) Why cannot reaction turbines be operated by impact of jet

and L is the length of pipe in metres. on vanes like impulse turbines?

229) What is meant by flow through a by-pass? Reaction turbines are medium and low head turbines. These

A by-pass is a small diameter pipe connected in parallel to the heads are not adequate to generate a reasonable jet velocity. It is

main pipe. The ratio of the discharge in by-pass to the total therefore more feasible to extract energy from whatever

discharge is known as the by-pass co-efficient. The by-pass may pressure that is available in water.

be used to determine the total discharge in the main pipe if the 237) What is the difference between the pressures of water at

by-pass co-efficient is known. Since the discharge in a by-pass inlet and outlet of a reaction turbine wheel called?

is small, it may be easily determined by means of a venturimeter Reaction turbine

or any other meter. 238) What is the primary objective of using more than one jet in

230) What is meant by syphons? a Pelton wheel installation?

When a pipe is laid in such a manner that a part of it is above To develop greater power with the same wheel and under the

the hydraulic gradient line, it is called a siphon pipe, or simply a same head.

syphon 239) What component part of a Pelton wheel installation brings

231) What is meant by equivalent pipe length? the wheel quickly to rest when it is not required to work?

Equivalent pipe length is defined as the length of a straight pipe Brake nozzle

which gives the frictional loss equal to that due to any other 240) What is the chief function of a deflector in a Pelton wheel

cause. It is common practice to express the minor losses in installation?

terms of the length of pipe which would cause the loss of head To deflect a major part of the jet away from the wheel, the

due to friction equal to the minor losses. moment the load on the wheel, i.e., power required to be

232) Write Dupuits equation for equivalent length of pipe generated falls. The same purpose is also served by reducing the

diameter De. nozzle flow striking the buckets of the wheel but this would

l l l result in harmful water hammer pressures in the penstock or the

Le De2 15 25 .... n5 supply pipe.

d1 d 2 dn

241) Why do Pelton wheel buckets have a notch at the centre of

their outer periphery?

To enable the bucket face attains as nearly a normal position as 246) In all modern reaction turbines, the velocity of whirl at exit

possible wrt the jet when it receives the full impact of the jet. is zero so that the velocity of flow is equal to the actual

242) The cross sectional area of a spiral casing of a reaction velocity vector at turbine exit. Why is this so? Under what

turbine reduces in the direction of flow. What is the reason? conditions will the exit velocity have a whirl component?

From the entry section to the end section of a spiral casing all All Francis turbines are invariably of the mixed flow type with

along its inner boundary, it continuously supplies water to the purely axial flow to exit. The same is the case with Kaplan

turbine wheel. Hence, in the direction of flow through the turbines which are essentially axial flow turbines. Hence, there

casing, the discharge progressively reduces. Consequently, its is no scope of whirl or radial (normal to axis of shaft)

cross-sectional area in that direction must decrease in order to components of velocity to be present at exit. The exceptions are

maintain uniform velocity around the wheel circumference. very low specific speed Francis turbine in which a small radial

243) Why is draft tube not used in impulse wheel installations? or whirl component of velocity is likely to be present at the

(i) No advantage of installation in impulse turbine since the turbine exit.

impulse turbine jet and buckets operate under atmospheric 247) What is the purpose of constructing the main characteristic

pressure curves of hydraulic turbine against variable speed?

(ii) The impulse turbines generally operate under high heads (H) Primarily for estimating the appropriate speed of the machine

and the level difference between the turbine and tailrace (hs) for an optimum condition such as maximum efficiency is not

need not be received using a draft tube. In case of reaction the same as the speed that gives maximum power.

turbines, the value of H is small and hs in comparison with 248) Whatever be the discharge supplied to hydraulic turbine,

H cannot be ignored. Its recovery serves to augment the will it develop maximum power (corresponding to that

effective head on the turbine. discharge) when is its operated to yield maximum

244) Why do draft tubes have enlarging passage area in the efficiency?

direction of flow? Only, in the case of a Pelton wheel. In the case of reaction

In order to convert whatever kinetic energy that is available at turbines, the speed that gives maximum efficiency is not the

turbine exit into useful pressure. This can be readily tested by same as the speed that gives maximum power.

installation suction pressure gauges at the turbine outlets: one 249) For preparing the operating characteristic curves of

with a draft tube of uniform diameter and another with an hydraulic turbines, the speed and head are maintained

enlarging diameter. The negative pressure be indicated by the constant. Why cannot the discharge also be kept constant?

gauge in the second case will be more than the reading in the The operating characteristic curves are curves of efficiency

first case. The conclusion is that the effective head on the against load or output power. The constituents of power are Q

second turbine is more than that on the first turbine. and H. Because H has to be kept constant, Q must be varied in

245) The B/D ratio (inlet width to diameter ratio) of a Francis order to obtain different powers.

turbine increases with Ns. Substantiate the reason. 250) Mention three to four most striking characteristics of Pelton

N P wheel

As Ns increases, H decreases because N s 5 . In order to (a) High heads (100 to 2000 m) and low

H4 discharge (0.1 to 2 m3/s)

develop a reasonable amount of power, the discharge must (b) Small runner (D=0.5 to 2m) and high

therefore increase. The inlet width should be relatively large to speeds (N=200 to 800 rpm)

accommodate the larger discharge.

(c) Requires a nozzle to convert available 255) With reference to hydraulic turbines, define overall

hydraulic energy into kinetic energy efficiency

(d) Only two or three buckets of runner overall

net shaft power output

mech x hyd x vol

receive the jet impact at any instant net available power

251) Mention three to four most striking characteristics of 256) With reference to hydraulic turbines, define hydraulic

Francis turbine efficiency

(a) Medium head (50 m to 350 m) and medium flows (0.5 to 5 hyd

water power developed by runner

m3/s) Net available power for turbine

(b) Medium sized runner (D = 1 to 5m) and medium speeds 257) With reference to hydraulic turbines, define mechanical

(N=100 to 400 rpm) efficiency

(c) Requires a spiral casing and guide vanes to supply water Net shaft power output

mech

to the runner and a draft tube to recover the energy at Water power development by runner

turbine exit 258) With reference to hydraulic turbines, define volumetric

(d) Entire runner wheel receives water simultaneously efficiency

252) Mention three to four most striking characteristics of Useful runner disch arg e

vol

Kaplan turbine Supply disch arg e

(a) low heads (5 to 50 m) and large flows (5 to 200 m3/s) 259) List out losses that take place in the penstock of hydraulic

(b) large runner diameters (D=5 to 50 m) and low speeds turbine

(N=20 to 200 rpm) Inlet loss, friction loss through penstock

(c) requires a spiral casing and guide vanes to supply water to 260) List out the hydraulic losses that take place in the hydraulic

the runner and a draft tube to recover the energy at turbine turbine

exit. Fluid friction, turbulence, shock-in-vanes, draft tube and

(d) entire runner wheel receives water simultaneously leakage

253) List out the advantages of a hydraulic turbine compared to 261) List out the mechanical losses that take place in the

other prime movers used in large scale development of hydraulic turbine

power Disk friction, bearing, Glands and Windage

a) it is simpler in design and fabrication 262) What is a draft tube? What hydraulic actions are performed

b) it is the most efficient in performance by it in a reaction turbine?

c) it is easily amenable for automation The draft tube is a closed conduit which takes the water coming

d) it is an ideal standby unit because it can develop full out from the runner exit and discharges it to the tail race. Its

load almost instantaneously cross-section increases in the direction of flow in order to

e) it has longer life span reduce the velocity at the exit of the tube. The draft tube is

f) it can be easily integrated with thermal and nuclear submerged below the lowest tail race level at its exit.

power generation units 263) Define the term gross head

254) What is a tailrace? The gross head of an impulse turbine is the elevation difference

It disposes all the water discharged from the turbines into the between head water level (reservoir water level or head race

parent river or into another canal or fore bay in case further water level) and the jet or nozzle centre.in case of a reaction

power development is possible.

turbine, gross head is the difference between head race and P

Pu

tailrace water levels. 3

The net or effective head is the head of water available at the 270) Define unit discharge of a turbine

point of entry to the turbine. The difference between the gross Unit discharge of turbine is the rate of flow that a turbine would

head and net head is evidently equal to the loss of head due to consume under a head of 1 m.

friction and other causes in the conveyance system. Q

Qu

265) What are the functions of draft tube? H

(i) it permits the turbine to be set at a convenient height above 271) Define speed ratio

the tail water level on the turbine. This is because a partial The speed ratio is the ratio of the velocity (u) of the wheel at

vacuum is created at the top of the draft tube to compensate for pitch circle to the theoretical velocity of the jet. Thus

the height of turbine setting Hs. u

(ii) its progressively diverging passage reconverts a large part of in practice, the value of the speed ratio varies from

2 gH

the kinetic energy of water that leaves the runner exit into useful

pressure energy which can be clearly witnessed by a higher 0.43 to 0.47. Its average value is 0.45.

negative pressure at the turbine exit that would otherwise have 272) Define flow ratio

not been possible. This increases the effective head on the Flow ratio is the ratio of the velocity of flow at the inlet to the

turbine. theoretical jet velocity. Thus

266) How the flow is controlled in Pelton wheel, Francis and Vf

.

Kaplan turbines? 2 gH

Pelton wheel spear valve The value of ranges from 0.15 to 0.30

Francis turbine wicket valve 273) Classify the hydraulic turbine according to the name of

Kaplan turbine wicket gates and runner blades originator

267) How the pressure is controlled in Pelton wheel, Francis and Pelton, Francis, Kaplan, Fourneyron and Poncelot

Kaplan turbines? 274) Classify the hydraulic turbine according to the hydraulic

Pelton wheel deflector principle adopted in the energy conversion

Francis turbine relief valve Impulse turbines: ex. Pelton, Turgo, Girand and Banki turbines

Kaplan turbine relief valve Reaction turbines: ex.Francis, Fourneyron, Kaplan and propeller

268) Define unit speed of a turbine 275) Classify the hydraulic turbine according to the direction of

The unit speed of a turbine is defined as the speed that it would flow in runner

attain under a head of one metre. Tangential flow turbines: ex: Pelton

N Radial flow turbines: ex:

Nu

H Outward Fourneyron

269) Define unit power of a turbine Inward Francis turbines of older design

Unit power is the power developed by a turbine when the head Axial flow turbines: ex: Kaplan, propeller

is 1 m Mixed flow turbines: Ex: Modern Francis turbine

276) Classify the hydraulic turbine according to the disposition of

turbine shaft

Horizontal shaft turbines: ex: light weight turbines like Pelton (c) collapse of the vapour/gas cavities when subjected to high

wheel and Turgo pressure and

Vertical shaft turbines: ex: Heavy turbines like Kaplan and (d) release of energy and pressure wave of high intensity

Francis resulting in

277) Classify the hydraulic turbine according to the specific (i) pitting and erosion of metal surfaces

speed (ii) noise and vibration of the machine

Low specific speed turbines: Ex: Single-jet Pelton wheel (Ns = (iii) energy loss and drop in efficiency

10 to 35), 283) List out the different measures that are usually adopted to

Multi-jet Pelton turbine (Ns = 35-60) combat the effects of cavitation

Medium specific speed turbines: Ex: Slow Francis (Ns =60 to (i) The height of location of turbines above the tail water level

120), Medium Francis (Ns=120 to 180) and Fast Francis should be low enough to ensure that the Thoma cavitation

(Ns=180 to 200) number of the installation is well above the critical number

High specific speed turbines: Ex: Kaplan and propeller (N s = cr.

200 to 1000) (ii) the runner vanes of the turbo-machine should be carefully

278) What are the purposes of unit quantities of hydraulic streamlined so that the pressure at all points, especially at the

turbine? locations of high velocity is more than the vapour pressure.

(i) comparative evaluation of the operational characteristics of (iii) the vane surfaces should be given a high degree of polish. It

different machines working under different conditions of speed, is advisable to use materials like stainless steel which retain the

head, power and discharge polish well.

(ii) prediction of performance of given machine under any head (iv) Wherever possible, ductile materials should be used as they

from a knowledge of its action under on head. are more fatigue-resistant than brittle materials. Use of special

279) Write down the factors governing in the selection of a cavitation resistant coatings in areas prone to cavitation also

hydraulic turbines yield good results.

Specific speed, head, rotational speed, operational requirements (v) Injection of high pressure air into the flowing liquid at low

and efficiency, cavitation, disposition of turbine shaft, overall pressure zones using miniature nozzles can prevent the onset of

economy and number of units cavitation.

280) What are the different shapes of draft tube? 284) Define Thomas cavitation index

a) straight conical tube H atm H vap H s

b) Moodys hydracone , where Hatm = local atmospheric pressure

H

c) elbow type head; Hvap= absolute pressure head at which the liquid begins to

281) What is meant by cavitation? vaporize; Hs= height of turbine above the lower liquid surface

Cavitation is defined as the formulation of bubbles and vapour (tail water level), H=effective head on the turbine

filled cavities in a flowing fluid as a result of reduction in fluid

pressure. 285) Define specific speed

282) Explain the phenomenon of cavitation in hydraulic turbine The specific speed of turbine may be defined as the speed in

(a) vaporization of the liquid and/or release of dissolved air at revolutions per minute of a turbine geometrically similar to the

low pressure actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding

(b) movement of the vapour/gas into a high pressure region conditions it will develop 1kW under a unit head

- Reciprocating pump

N P *Piston pump

Ns 5 where N speed in rpm; P power in kW and H *Plunger pump

H4 Single acting pump: single, Double, Triple

head over the turbine cylinder pump

286) What are the uses of unit quantities in assessing the Double acting pump: Signle, double, triple

performance of the turbine? cylinder pump

(i) comparative evaluation of the operational characteristics of *Bucket pump

different machines working under different conditions of speed, - Rotary pump

head, power and discharge and * Gear pump

(ii) prediction of performance of given machine under any head * Vane pump

from a knowledge of its action under one head. * Screw pump

287) What is meant by performance characteristic curves? * Axial pump

A turbine is designed to work at one particular set of conditions * Radial pump

regarding head (H), discharge (Q), speed (N) and efficiency (). 290) How are centrifugal pumps classified?

However, sometimes the turbines may be required to run at a) according to casing design

conditions different from those for which these have been volute pump and diffuse or turbine pump

designed. The behaviour of turbines under varying conditions of b) according to number of impellers

H, Q, P N and may be studied by carrying out tests on the single (impeller) stage and multistage (impeller) pump

actual turbines or their models. c) according to number of entrances to impeller

The results of the tests are plotted in the form of curves. These single suction pump and double suction pump

curves are known as characteristic curves. The characteristic d) according to liquid handled

curves are usually plotted in terms of unit quantities. shrouded impeller, semi-open impeller pump, open

288) What are the commonly plotted curves for stuying the impeller pump both crown and base shrouds are absent

performance of turbine? e) according to disposition of shaft

(i) Variable speed curves or main characteristics vertical shaft pump and horizontal shaft pump

(ii) Constant speed curves or operating characteristics f) according to specific speed

(iii) Constant efficiency curves or Muschel characteristics low specific speed or radial flow impeller pump

289) Give a complete classification of pumps medium specific speed or mixed flow impeller pump

# Rotodynamic or turbo-pumps high specific speed or axial flow type or propeller

- radial flow or centrifugal pumps pump

* volute pump 291) List out all the losses that occur in a centrifugal pump

* turbine pump i) Mechanical losses

^ single stage (a) disc friction loss

^ multi stage (b) loss due to mechanical friction in glands and bearings

- axial flow or propeller pumps ii) Hydraulic losses

- semi-axial flow or mixed flow pumps (a) pipeline losses (friction loss + minor losses) and

# Postive displacement pumps (b) pump losses

The following four are the pump losses 297) Distinguish between rotodynamic, turbo, and centrifugal

(a) shock loss due to turbulence at entry and exit of vanes at pumps

flows other than the discharge Turbo-pump is another name of rotodynamic pump. A turbo-

(b) surface friction loss in impeller passages pump in which the flow through the impeller is completely

(c) friction and eddy losses in diffusers and casing radial is called a centrifugal pump.

(d) pressure loss due to leakage from outer periphery to eye of 298) What is a positive displacement pump? How does it differ

impeller from a turbo-pump in its basic principle of operation?

In a positive displacement pump, the moving element of the

292) Define manometric efficiency pump pushes the fluid from one side to another by a rotary or

It is the ratio of the water power to the impeller power is known reciprocating action. In a turbo-pump, energy transfer from the

as the manometric efficiency machine to the fluid takes place by forcing the fluid through the

Hm curved passages of the rotor. There is no pushing action.

mano 299) What is the difference between a rotodynamic and a rotary

Vw1u1

g pump?

A rotodynamic pump is a turbo-machine. It increases the energy

293) Define mechanical efficiency of the pump

of fluid as the latter flows through its rotating element. A rotary

The ratio of the impeller power to the shaft power is called the

pump is a positive displacement pump. There is a rotating

mechanical efficiency

element in this machine too, but it pushes the fluid instead of

Vw1u1

W transferring the torque.

g 300) What are the functions of (i) strainer and (ii) foot valve in

m

P any pump installation?

294) Define volumetric efficiency of the pump (i) Strainer: to ward off suspended matter and floating debris

It is the ratio of the discharge from the pump (Q) to the from entering the pump system.

discharge flowing through the impeller (Q+Q). The difference (ii) Foot Valve: to allow entry of liquid into the suction pipe but

between the two discharges is because of leakage. Thus prevents its outflow back into the sump. This facilitates the

Q suction pipe and pump to be full of liquid even when the pump

v

Q Q is not in operation. Consequently, the pump can be restarted

295) Define overall efficiency of the pump whenever required without priming or filling up process, a

It is the ratio of the water power to shaft power necessary initial step in starting all turbo-pumps.

WH m 301) Identify the two important functions of the volute casing of a

o

P centrifugal pump

296) Write a short note on the priming of centrifugal pumps (i) to collect the fluid thrown out of the periphery of impeller

The centrifugal head generated in a centrifugal pump is and guide it to the delivery pipe and (ii) to convert a part of the

proportional to the specific weight of the fluid which fills the high kinetic energy of fluid at the impeller outlet into pressure

passage, obviously, an impeller running in air, would produce as the fluid flows through its progressively increasing cross-

only a small head. The first step in the operation of a centrifugal sectional area.

pump is to fill the pump with the liquid to be pumped. This 302) Why centrifugal pump impeller vanes are backward

process is called priming of the pump. curved?

The impeller vanes are backward curved in order to reduce its flow impeller has components in both radial and axial

exit velocity of fluid so that its kinetic energy is small and directions. The geometry of the three impellers is also different

pressure is high. Kinetic energy is necessary to the fluid on the from one to another. A radial flow impeller has a narrow width

delivery side only to facilitate its build-up to the maximum at outlet to pass low discharges. A mixed flow impeller has a

possible extent while delivering the required capacity should be larger outlet width. In an axial flow impeller, the entire area

the chief objective of any pump design. barring the hub area is available to pass the relatively large

303) What is a pump turbine? Is it same as a turbine pump? flows.

A pump turbine is essentially a Francis turbine with a specially 306) What type of turbo-pump impeller is suitable if Ns = 4000?

designed mixed flow type runner which normally runs as a Mixed flow type

turbine. It is used in pumped storage type of hydro-power 307) Define specific speed of the pump

plants. During off-peak periods of power generation, the The specific speed is defined as the speed in rpm of a pump

machine when given a rotation in the opposite direction can geometrically similar to the actual pump, but of such a size that

pump the water up from the low level storage pond to the high under corresponding conditions, it delivers 1 m3 of liquid per

level reservoir. The later, as a consequence, can supply more second against a head of 1 m.

high pressure water during the peak periods. A turbine pump is a N Q

pump provided with diffusers resemble the guide vanes of a Ns 3

304) Distinguish between pumps connected in (i) series and (ii) 308) What are the dimensions and units of the specific speed of a

parallel pump?

(i) Series pumps discharge is the same is that of a single pump. Dimensions: L3/4T-3/2, units: m3/4s-3/2

The head is increased. 309) The difference between the water levels in the sump and

(ii) Parallel pumps: head remains constant, but discharge overhead tank is H. What additional head should a pump

multiplication is obtained. generate?

305) What is the difference between radial flow type, mixed flow The additional head hf, the total head loss due to friction in the

type and axial flow type turbo-pumps? suction and delivery pipes.

Radial flow type impellers are suitable for discharging low rates 310) What is NPSH of a centrifugal pump? How is it related to

of flow against high heads. Axial flow type impellers which are the cavitation index of the pump?

really propeller blades attached to a hub are suitable for NPSH is the net head that is required to make the liquid flow

handling large discharges against relatively low heads. Mixed through the suction pipe from the sump to the impeller of the

flow type impellers are used for medium discharges and centrifugal pump. It is calculated from the equation

medium heads. Fluid enters all the three impellers in an axial Patm Pvap v2

direction (parallel to the axis of shaft). It undergoes directional NPSH hs h f s s . Cavitation index and

w w 2g

changes as it moves outwards through the impeller. At the

runner exit, there is considerable whirl in all the impellers. In NPSH are related by NPSH = Hm.

the case of a radial flow impeller, the exit velocity has a radial 311) What is meant by normal head and normal capacity of

component but no axial component whatsoever. The exit a centrifugal pump?

velocity in an axial flow impeller has an axial component but When a centrifugal pump is operated at design speed, the

zero radial components. The exit velocity in case of a mixed manometric head and discharge corresponding to maximum

overall efficiency are respectively called the normal head and valve open earlier than what it normally should. Qa in such cases

normal capacity. is more than Qth and the slip is negative.

312) What are operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump? 317) Why acceleration head is zero at the middle of every stroke

Curves showing the variation of manometric head Vs discharge of a reciprocating pump?

and output power Vs discharge of a centrifugal pump when it is Near the middle of every stroke, the piston velocity is uniform

being operated at the design speed are called operating and its acceleration is zero.

characteristics of the pump. 318) Acceleration head of a reciprocating pump is considered

313) What is optimum specific speed? What are the values of while computing the cylinder pressures but is ignored in

optimum specific speeds of radial, mixed and axial flow type power computations. Why?

turbo-pumps? Acceleration of piston causes the fluid in the cylinder and the

The optimum Ns of a pump is the N s that corresponds to the pipes to accelerate and generates acceleration pressures and

maximum overall efficiency. Optimum values of Ns are 2500 for heads in the fluid. In works and power computations,

radial flow pumps, 4000 for mixed flow pumps and 8000 for acceleration heads are not considered because the positive half

axial flow pumps. of every stoke is cancelled by the negative acceleration head

314) The rate of flow fluid delivered by a centrifugal pump must generated during the second half or then retarding part of the

be reduced in order to obtain more head. Is this true? stroke.

True 319) What is meant by indicator diagram?

315) If a centrifugal pump is delivering less quantity than the The indicator diagram is a diagram which shoes the pressure of

design capacity, what are the possible reasons? liquid in the cylinder of the pump corresponding to any position

a) leakage of air into the suction system through a leaky of the piston during the suction and delivery stroke. The

joint in the suction pipe or through a loose gland ordinate of the diagram represents the pressure head and

packing on the suction side, abscissa represents the length of the stroke. The work done on

b) Damaged parts of the pump the piston may be obtained directly from the indicator diagram.

c) Clogging of impeller passages 320) What is an air vessel? And explain its purpose

316) What is slip of a reciprocating pump? Why does it occur? An air vessel is a closed chamber having an opening at the base.

Under what circumstance is the slip negative? One air vessel is connected to the suction pipe and another to

Slip = Qth-Qa the delivery pipe. The vessels are connected to the pump as

Where Qth = theoretical discharge which is ALN/60 for a single close to it as possible. The lower part of each vessel contains the

acting pump and 2ALN/60 for a double acting pump. Q a = liquid being pumped and the upper part contains the compressed

actual discharge. If the suction and delivery valves open and air.

close precisely at the beginning and end of the respective The air vessels have the following purposes:

strokes, slip is zero. In majority of installations, the suction pipe (i) in a single acting reciprocating pump, the liquid is delivered

is shorter than the delivery pipe. The relatively small inertia of only in the delivery stroke and during the suction stroke, no

water on the suction side closes the suction valve before the liquid is delivered. The air vessels smooth out the flow in the

delivery valve opens. The latter opens a little sluggishly on suction and delivery pipes and the flow is continuous beyond

account of greater inertia. Consequently, the actual quantity the air vessels. Whatever fluctuations take place, they occur

delivered Qa is less than Qth. In rare cases where the delivery between the air vessels and the pump.

pipe is rather short, the smaller inertia of fluid pulls the delivery

(ii) By fitting the air vessel as close to the pump as possible, the

length of pipe in which acceleration takes place is reduced. This

reduces the acceleration head and the pump can run at a much

higher speed without any danger of separation.

(iii) As the acceleration and frictional head are considerably

reduced, the work done is also reduced. Hence the power

required to drive the pump is saved by fitting the air vessel.

321) What is meant by Type Number?

The type number of a fluid machine is defined by a non-

dimensional combination of its speed or rotation, head across

the machine and the discharge or power for the machine under

the optimum operating conditions.

322) What is Euler head?

The head with the velocities across a rotodynamic machine of

any type

Vw1u1 Vwu

H

g

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